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SEMICONDUCTOR

DIODE THEORY

SOLVED

Q.) Write a note on p-n junction diode.


Ans: The P-N junction diode is appeared in the year 1950. It is the
most essential and the basic building block of the electronic
device. The PN junction diode is a two terminal device, which is
formed when one side of the PN junction diode is made with ptype and doped with the N-type material. The PN-junction is the
root for semiconductor diodes. The various electronic
components like
BJTs,
JFETs, MOSFETs
(metaloxide
semiconductor FET), LEDs and analog or digital ICs all supports
semiconductor technology. The main function of the
semiconductor diode is, it facilitates the electrons to flow totally in
one direction across it. Finally, it acts as a rectifier. This article
gives a brief information about the PN junction diode, PN junction
diode in forward bias and reverse bias and the VI characteristics
of PN junction diode
When p-type and n-type semiconductor are joined together it
forms a p-n junction diode. The term diode means the two
electrodes.

Q.) Explain the formation of depletion region.


Ans: The border where p-region and n-region meets is called as
junction.
n-type has large no .of electrons which tries to move on n-side
and combine with holes of p-side. Similarly, hole of n-side tries to
cross the junction and combine with electrons of p-side. This is
known As diffusion. When electron leaves p side it creates +ve
ion and on recombining with holes create ve in p-region.The free
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SEMICONDUCTOR

DIODE THEORY

SOLVED

charges (electrons and holes) disappears from the junction. The


region near the junction is depleted of free charges hence called
depletion layer. It is also known as space charge region. In the
state of equilibrium, the depletion region gets widened to such
extent that further crossing of electrons and holes are not
possible. The width of the depletion region is extremely small
about 0.5 to 1 micro meter. The wall of ions gets created due to
this whose p.d prevents further diffusion. This potential is known
as barrier potential. For silicon it is 0.7V.

Q.) Write a note on zener diode.


Ans: When a diode is reverse biased, potential barrier becomes
high , which cannot be overcome by external voltage. If we do so
diode may damage. The width of the depletion region depends
upon the level of doping. If the diode is highly doped the width of
the depletion region is low and vice-versa. Hence, when an
ordinary diode is properly doped, we can apply reverse biased
current ,so that it should have sharp breakdown voltage is called
as zener diode. Thus, a zener diode is a reverse biased properly
doped(heavily doped) silicon diode. Which is always reverse
biased and operates in breakdown region where current is limited
only by both external resistance and power dissipation of diode.