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Basic Automobile

Technology

Table of Content
Chapt
ers

Titles

Pages

1.

CHASSIS

2.

ENGINE

22

3.

TRANSMISSION

44

4.

STEERING

54

5.

SUSPENSION

59

6.

SAFETY

68

7.

COMFORT & CONVENIENCE

88

SELLING BENEFITS

96
2

CHASSIS

CHASSIS
TYPES OF FRAMES
TYPES
OF FRAMES
CLASSIFICATION BY BODY
CLASSIFICATION
BY BODY
STYLES
STYLES
MEASURES
MEASURES
AERODYNAMICS
AERODYNAMICS

What it is?

The ladder frame is absent, the body itself is


the frame

What it
does?

It supports all the systems in a car such as


the Engine, Transmission system, Steering
system, Suspension system, etc. Eg. Linea ,
Punto

MONOCOQUE

CLASSIFICATION BY BODY
STYLES

Broad classification of cars present in the


Indian market:

HATCHBACK

MULTI-PURPOSE
VEHICLE
MULTI-UTILITY
VEHICLE

ESTATE/STATION
WAGON

SEDAN/NOTCHB
ACK

SPORTS UTILITY
VEHICLE

PICK-UP TRUCK

CROSSOVER

VAN

HATCHBACK

Hatchbacks are vehicles with a separate engine area, and


passenger area (or two boxes), the luggage area is enclosed with
the passenger area behind the rear seats

E.g. Punto, Palio


7

SEDAN/NOTCHBACK

Saloons are basically vehicles with an engine area, passenger


area, and boot area (i.e. three box), all separate.

E.g. Linea
8

It is the total length of the car measured


from its front end to the rear end

What it is?

Overall
Length

MEASURES

10

It is the total width of the car measured from


its left end to the right end excluding
ORVMs

What it is?

Overall
Width

MEASURES

11

It is the total height of the car measured


from the ground to its highest point

What it is?

Overall
Height

MEASURES

12

It is the total height from the ground to the


lowest point on the car excluding the wheels

What it is?

Ground
clearance

MEASURES

13

It is the distance between the centerline of


the two front or two rear wheels. Rear Track
and Front Track may or may not be the same
width

What it is?

Track/Tread

MEASURES

14

It is the distance between the centers of the


front & rear wheels

What it is?

Wheelbase

MEASURES

15

Turning radius is the radius of the smallest


circle in which car can turn

What it is?

Turning
Radius

MEASURES

MEASURES

Rim
diameter

H
W
Tyre Width
(W)

Reading a Tyre

195 / 55
R16

AR = H (Section Height) x
100 (%)
Aspect RatioRadialDiameter of W (Tyre Width)
(AR)
wheel in
inches
16

17

The inner tube is integral within the tyre. The


valve is permanently fixed to the wheel.
The assembly is airtight

What it is?

TUBELESS TYRES

18

Kerb weight is the total weight of the car


with all standard equipments i.e.
consumables (Engine oil, fuel, etc.) but not
loaded with passengers & cargo

What it is?

MEASURES KERB WEIGHT

19

Boot Space is the volume of luggage


compartment mentioned in litres and
indicates how much luggage can be carried

What it is?

MEASURES BOOT SPACE

20

Fuel tank capacity is the volume of fuel tank


mentioned in litres and indicates how much
fuel the tank can hold

What it is?

MEASURES FUEL TANK


CAPACITY

CAR BODY TERMINOLOGY


BONNE
T

GRIL
LE

WINDSHIE
LD

APILLAR

BPILLAR

ROO
F

CPILLAR
BOOT

BUMPE
R

FENDE
R

DOOR

GLASS
21

REAR
QUARTERPANEL

ENGINE

22

ENGINE

WORKING OF AN ENGINE
WORKING
OF AN ENGINE

PETROL & DIESEL


PETROL & DIESEL

PARTS OF AN ENGINE
PARTS OF AN ENGINE
ENGINE TERMINOLOGY
ENGINE TERMINOLOGY
POWER
POWER
TORQUE
TORQUE
POWER-TO-WEIGHT RATIO
POWER-TO-WEIGHT RATIO
ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE
ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
DRIVE BY WIRE
DRIVE BY WIRE
TURBOCHARGER
TURBOCHARGER
INTERCOOLER
INTERCOOLER

23

24

It burns the Air-Fuel mixture to produce


power which drives the wheels

It basically is a device that produces Power

What it
does?
What it is?

ENGINE

WORKING OF AN ENGINE
The working of an Engine can by simply explained by the
following steps;
1. Air-Fuel mixture is taken inside the cylinder, (INTAKE
STROKE)
2. The mixture is compressed, (COMPRESSION STROKE)
3. Due to compression, the mixture is Ignited or burnt to
produce Power, (EXPANSION OR POWER STROKE)
4. The Waste gases are thrown out or expelled in the form of
Exhaust gases. (EXHAUST STROKE)
25

26

Burnt gases are expelled from the


engine

Spark plug then burns the


mixture
The mixture is then compressed
Air & fuel mixture enter cylinder

Stroke 4
(Exhaust)

Stroke 3
(Power)

Stroke 2
(Compressi
on)

Stroke 1
(Intake)

PETROL ENGINE OPERATION

27

Burnt gases are expelled from the


engine

Diesel is then injected which


then ignites due to high
temperature
The air is then compressed to
high extent, raising temperature
Only air enters cylinder

Stroke 4
(Exhaust)

Stroke 3
(Power)

Stroke 2
(Compressi
on)

Stroke 1
(Intake)

DIESEL ENGINE OPERATION

PARTS OF AN ENGINE
E

Exhaust valve

Intake valve

Spark plug

Valves

Water Jackets

Piston

Connecting rod

Crankshaft
28

29

Displacement is the total size of the


engine. i.e. Volume x No. of cylinders.
Usually mentioned in cc

What it is?
Volume

ENGINE TERMINOLOGY

30

It improves engine breathing. More the


number of valves, better engine
performance
Minimum of 2 valves are requires (Intake &
Exhaust each). Newer Tata engines have 4
valves per cylinder

What it
does?
What it is?

NO. OF VALVES

31

What it is?

Max. Power is the measure of how quickly


work can be done
Power is usually measured in PS or BHP
(1PS = 0.986 BHP)

What it
does?

It gives the vehicle its acceleration & top


speed

POWER

32

What it is?

It is a tendency of a force to rotate an object


about an axis
It is measured in Kg-m or Nm (1 Kg-m = 9.8
Nm)

What it
does?

It gives the vehicle its pulling power . Higher


torque means greater pulling power

TORQUE

33

What it is?

It is a ratio of power (bhp/ps) to the weight of


the vehicle

BENEFIT

A higher power to weight ratio results in


greater acceleration & higher fuel efciency

Power-to-Weight =

Power
Kerb Weight

x1

POWER-TO-WEIGHT RATIO

34

It controls all the vital functions of the engine


like fuel injection, ignition timing, etc.
Electronic control module is the computer
controlling the car.

What it
does?
What it is?

ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE


(ECM)

35

It delivers fuel to the intake manifold or


combustion chamber through injectors which
are controlled by the ECM
Fuel injection is a system for injecting fuel
into the combustion chamber of an internal
combustion engine.

What it
does?
What it is?

FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

36

It injects fuel at high pressure & more accurately


It results in better throttle response, cleaner
combustion
It is a diesel injection system wherein the fuel is
injected in the combustion chamber directly
through high pressure injectors at over 1400
bar!!

What it
does?
What it
is?

DIESEL

COMMON RAIL INJECTION

COMMON RAIL INJECTION

37

COMMON RAIL INJECTION

38

39

For accurate and quick inputs to the engine


for a responsive and thrilling drive and
increased reliability.
Electronic accelerator control, no cable.

What it
does?
What it is?

DRIVE BY WIRE

40

What it
is?

It is basically a compressor. It increases the density


of air entering the engine to create more power

What it
does?

This helps supply more air into the engine at all


speeds for better responsiveness and a thrilling
drive experience

TURBOCHARGER

41

This helps supply more air into the engine at


all speeds for better responsiveness and a
thrilling drive experience.
Vanes of the turbocharger adjust according to
engine speed

What it
does?
What it is?

VARIABLE GEOMETRY
TURBOCHARGER

VARIABLE GEOMETRY
TURBOCHARGER

42

43

Intercooler decreases air intake temperature &


provides a more dense intake charge to the engine
and allows more air and fuel to be combusted per
engine cycle, increasing the output of the engine.
It is a Heat exchanger similar to radiator, only
diference being, it cools the air from the
turbocharger

What it
does?
What it is?

INTERCOOLER

TRANSMISSION

44

TRANSMISSION

TYPES OF TRANSMISSIONS
TYPES OF TRANSMISSIONS
MANUAL & AUTOMATIC
MANUAL & AUTOMATIC
DIFFERENCES
DIFFERENCES

CLUTCH
CLUTCH
DRIVE LAYOUTS
DRIVE LAYOUTS

45

46

Transmission varies the torque produced by


the engine and transfer it to the wheels

What it is?

TRANSMISSION

TYPES OF TRANSMISSIONS

MANUAL

AUTOMATIC

47

48

Gears are shifted through linkages or cable


mechanism.
Manual gearboxes are economical on fuel, easy to
maintain and cheaper to manufacturer than
automatic gearboxes
Gears are shifted manually by the driver

What it
does?
What it is?

MANUAL TRANSMISSION

49

What it is?

Automatic gearboxes have no clutch pedal &


gears shift automatically

What it
does?

Ofers a smoother drive , and is less tiring to


the driver especially in congested city
driving conditions

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

50

When the driver presses the clutch paddle,


the clutch disconnects the drive from the
engine to the transmission so that gears can
be shifted smoothly
A clutch is a mechanism for transmitting
rotation, which can be engaged and
disengaged

What it
does?
What it is?

CLUTCH

51

What it is?

Front wheel drive (FWD) is a transmission


layout wherein the engine powers the front
wheels only

What it
does?

It delivers the power from the engine to the


front wheels via driveshaft's

FRONT WHEEL DRIVE

52

It delivers the power from the engine to the


rear wheels from the gearbox through a
propeller shaft, to the diferential.
Rear Wheel Drive(RWD) is a transmission
layout wherein the engine powers the rear
wheels only

What it
does?
What it is?

REAR WHEEL DRIVE

53

Allows the driver to manually switch (sometimes with


an automatic option) between two-wheel drive mode
(if available) for streets and four-wheel drive mode for
low traction conditions such as ice, mud, snow,
slippery surfaces, or loose gravel
Four-wheel drive, 4x4 or AWD is a four-wheeled
vehicle with a drive train that allows all four wheels
to receive torque from the engine simultaneously

What it
does?
What it is?

FOUR WHEEL DRIVE (4X4)

STEERING

54

STEERING

TYPES OF STEERING SYSTEMS


TYPES OF STEERING SYSTEMS

RACK & PINION, RE-CIRCULATING BALL


RACK & PINION, RE-CIRCULATING BALL
& NUT
& NUT

POWER STEERING
POWER STEERING

HYDRAULIC & ELECTRIC SYSTEM


HYDRAULIC & ELECTRIC SYSTEM

55

56

Gives the driver directional control of the


vehicle
Consists of a Steering wheel which is
connected to a steering mechanism

What it
does?
What it is?

STEERING SYSTEM

57

What it is?

A Rack & pinion is a pair of gears which


converts the rotational motion of steering
wheel into linear motion for the wheels

What it
does?

Gives the driver directional control of the


vehicle. It is used mainly in cars, lighter
vehicles

RACK & PINION SYSTEM

58

What it is?

A pump or motor is used to provide for extra


assistance while steering

What it
does?

Helps reduce the efort applied by the driver


while turning the car

POWER STEERING

SUSPENSION

59

SUSPENSION

MAIN COMPONENTS OF A
MAIN COMPONENTS OF A
SUSPENSION
SUSPENSION
SPRINGS
SPRINGS
DAMPER
DAMPER
TYPES OF SUSPENSION
TYPES OF SUSPENSION

INDEPENDENT SUSPENSION
INDEPENDENT SUSPENSION
SEMI-INDEPENDENT SUSPENSION
SEMI-INDEPENDENT SUSPENSION

60

61

What it is?

Mechanical components that connect the


vehicles chassis to the wheels

What it
does?

Absorbs the road bumps and provides the


vehicle with a good ride and handling

SUSPENSION

MAIN COMPONENTS OF A
SUSPENSION
SPRING
DAMPER

62

63

Coil springs provide good ride quality and


are used in front & rear of most cars, but
they are not ideal for carrying heavy load
Steel spring in shape of a coil

What it
does?
What it is?
Coil
Springs

COIL SPRINGS

64

What it is?

The function of a damper is to dampen the


vibration/bouncing of the spring, as without it the
spring would go on bouncing

What it
does?

They are long black tubular devices filled with oil,


gas or a combination of both. This provides the
resistance to the springs motion

DAMPER

65

Ofers better better ride and handling


The left and right wheels are not connected
together by a solid link & can move independently
of each other. Example Mcpherson Strut
suspension

What it
does?
What it is?

McPherson
Strut

INDEPENDENT SUSPENSION

66

Semi- Independent suspensions have good load


carrying capability good ride and handling too
Left and right wheels are connected together with
the help of a fexible link between them. One wheel
movement slightly afects the other. Example Torsion beam suspension

What it
does?
What it is?

SEMI-INDEPENDENT
SUSPENSION

67

Torsion beam is a component of a semiindependent suspension which acts as the


damping element as well as the frame of
the suspension

What it is?
Torsion bar

TORSION BAR

SAFETY

68

SAFETY

BRAKES
BRAKES

DISC BRAKES, DRUM BRAKES


DISC BRAKES, DRUM BRAKES

PRETENSIONERS & LOAD LIMITERS


PRETENSIONERS & LOAD LIMITERS

ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM


ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM
ELECTRONIC BRAKE FORCE DISTRIBUTION
ELECTRONIC BRAKE FORCE DISTRIBUTION
ILLUMINATION SYSTEM
ILLUMINATION SYSTEM
WIPERS
WIPERS
DAY & NIGHT REAR VIEW MIRROR
DAY & NIGHT REAR VIEW MIRROR
REAR DEFOGGER
REAR DEFOGGER
SEATBELTS
SEATBELTS

AIRBAGS
AIRBAGS

CRUMPLE ZONES

CRUMPLE ZONES

SIDE IMPACT BEAMS

SIDE IMPACT BEAMS

ENGINE IMMOBILIZER

ENGINE IMMOBILIZER

69

70

Helps reduce injury to occupants

Features of vehicle design or devices that


minimize the chances and
consequences/injuries of an impact

What it
does?
What it is?

SAFETY SYSTEMS

TYPES OF SAFETY

ACTIVE SAFETY

Safety systems that help prevent accidents

PASSIVE SAFETY

Safety systems that help prevent injury during the


event of an accident
71

72

Brakes reduce a vehicles speed and brings


it to a stop, thus helping avoid accidents.

What it is?

BRAKES

73

The pads press on the disc and reduces the


speed of the vehicle which helps in
preventing accidents
Consists of brake pads & a disc.

What it
does?
What it is?

DISC BRAKES

74

What it is?

Drum brakes have a round shape of revolving


drum attached to the wheels and two brake
shoes that expand within the round drum when
you apply the brakes

What it
does?

The friction between shoes and the drum causes


the vehicle to stop

DRUM BRAKES

75

ABS prevents individual wheel lock up, vehicle


skidding and maintains steering control during
hard braking
ABS is a safety device that electronically
controls the braking force at each wheel

What it
does?
What it is?

ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM

76

This ensures efective braking resulting in shorter


stopping distances
Electronically (EBD) distributes brake force between
front and rear wheels as per load diferences

What it
does?
What it is?

ELECTRONIC BRAKE FORCE


DISTRIBUTION

77

What it is?

A wiper consists of an arm, pivoted at one end


and a long rubber blade attached to the other

What it
does?

The wiper swings back and forth over the glass,


pushing water from its surface, thus improving
visibility

WIPERS

78

Depressing the switch in the mirror helps reduce


headlight glare from rear following trafc for
improved safety
Inside rear view mirror that has a dual mode
function for day & night time driving

What it
does?
What it is?

DAY & NIGHT REAR VIEW


MIRROR

79

Clears moisture for greater rear visibility

Heating elements on rear wind shield

What it
does?
What it is?

REAR DEFOGGER

80

It helps prevent whiplash injuries.


A Head restraint acts as a safety device that
limits the backward motion of head in case of
rear impacts.

What it
does?
What it is?

HEAD RESTRAINTS

81

What it is?

Safety belt that can be fastened & holds


the occupant in place incase of an impact

What it
does?

Greatly reduces risk of fatal injuries incase


of an impact

SEATBELTS

82

What it is?

A Safety device that tighten the seat belts


during an impact

What it
does?

Tightening of seatbelt reduces the chances


of forward movement of occupant due to
slack in seat belt

SEATBELT PRE -TENSIONERS

83

A load limiter helps reduce injury caused due to


severe tightening of the belt
A Safety device that helps reduce the tension
in the seat belt in case it becomes too tight
during an impact

What it
does?
What it is?

SEATBELT LOAD LIMITER

84

Limits injuries to occupants from striking


hard surfaces
Balloons of air that infate rapidly incase of
severe impact

What it
does?
What it is?

AIRBAGS

85

Limits injuries to occupants incase of front or


rear impact
Sections of vehicle body shell that deform
in order to absorb impact energy

What it
does?
What it is?

CRUMPLE ZONES

86

What it is?

Rigid beams provided in the door of a car

What it
does?

Limits intrusion into passenger cabin &


helps prevent injury during a side impact

SIDE IMPACT BEAMS

87

Helps prevent duplicate key usage.


Vehicle engine starts only when the security
chip in the ignition key is recognized by the
ECM

What it
does?
What it is?

ENGINE IMMOBILIZER

COMFORT &
CONVENIENCE

88

COMFORT &
CONVENIENCE

LEGROOM, HEADROOM & SHOULDER


LEGROOM, HEADROOM & SHOULDER
ROOM
ROOM
DRIVER SEAT ADJUSTABILITY
DRIVER SEAT ADJUSTABILITY
TILT ADJUSTABLE STEERING
TILT ADJUSTABLE STEERING
HVAC
HVAC
STEERING MOUNTED CONTROLS
STEERING MOUNTED CONTROLS
POWER WINDOWS
POWER WINDOWS
ELECTRIC ORVMs
ELECTRIC ORVMs
SPEEDOMETER
SPEEDOMETER
TACHOMETER
TACHOMETER
89

90

Features that add to your overall level of


comfort & well being in the car

What it is?

COMFORT & CONVENIENCE

91

Large legroom, headroom


means a more spacious &

& shoulder room


comfortable cabin

The parameters that define the interior


comfort levels in a car

What it
does?
What it is?

Legroo
m
Should
er
room

Head
room

LEGROOM, HEADROOM & SHOULDER


ROOM

92

Driver is easily able to attain a comfortable


driving position
Steering wheel can be adjusted for tilt
/height

What it
does?
What it is?

TILT ADJUSTABLE STEERING

93

Various temperature settings for heating,


cooling & ventilation to suit occupant
requirements
HVAC or Heating, ventilation & air
conditioning system controls the in car
temperature

What it
does?
What it is?

HVAC

94

What it is?

Major audio system, phone functions etc.


Can be controlled from switches on steering
wheel

What it
does?

No eyes of the road or hands of the wheel


while driving

STEERING MOUNTED CONTROLS

95

Adds to overall comfort


Electrically raises or lowers the windows at
the touch of a button

What it
does?
What it is?

POWER WINDOWS

SELLING BENEFITS

96

SELLING BENEFITS
SOME EXAMPLES

97

98

BENEFIT
Driver is easily able to attain
a comfortable driving
position
Steering wheel can be
adjusted for tilt /height

What it
does?
What it is?

TILT ADJUSTABLE STEERING

99

BENEFIT
Clears moisture
for greater rear
visibility
Heating elements
on rear wind
shield

What it
does?
What it is?

REAR DEFOGGER

Fiat Technologies

8 cars

35 + cars

1.3 L SDE
101

Specialises in the research, development,


production and sale of engines and
transmissions.
With 12 plants and 5 research centres, it is one
of the largest players in this field globally.
Develops, produces and sells engines ranging
in output from 60 hp to 235 hp and
102
transmissions with torque from 143 to 400 Nm

103

High Power , Torque & Fuel Efciency. Low on


NVH.
Most successful diesel engine in India.

Common Rail diesel engine

What it
does?
What it is?

104

More power & torque from the cylinder


Amazing Drive experience
Works on the principle of turbo charging
Turbocharger crams more air into a cylinder
of a given size

What it
does?
What it is?

105

Achieves quieter combustion


Reduced emissions
Increased Performance
Uses electronic control to divide the main
injection into several smaller ones

What it
does?
What it is?

Injection split into five parts. (Two pre, one main and two
post.)

5 Stage Injection

106

Absence of cables make it maintenance free &


very responsive
Programmed quantity of fuel is supplied into
cylinder depending on foot pressure
No cable for the accelerator

What it
does?
What it is?

Drive By Wire (Electronic


Throttle)

107

Avoids the leakage of fuel from causing further


damage to the car and occupants

Fuel supply to the Engine is cut-of in case of


an impact or a roll.

What it
does?
What it is?

Fire Prevention System (FPS)

108

Crucial engine parts like starter motor and


fywheel are safe guarded.

Does not allow a second crank, when the


engine is already on

What it
does?
What it is?

Fire Prevention System (FPS)

109

What it is?

The control unit recognizes the key and


allows ignition.
The Rolling Code System ensures that the
codes are reset every time there is a
communication

What it
does?

Enhanced Security, which increases protection


from attempted theft of the car

Fiat Code System

110

Ensures safety for everyone.

A reminder light comes on in the instrument


cluster when seat belt is not worn.

What it
does?
What it is?

Seat Belt Warning System

111

Added Convenience

Guides your way in the dark


Goes of automatically after a fixed duration

What it
does?
What it is?

Follow Me Home Head Lamps

112

Added Convenience

Prevents the occupant from slipping forward


during a collision or hard braking

What it
does?
What it is?

Anti Submarine Seats

113

Added Convenience

It is an intelligent system with an electronic


display, which helps the driver communicate
with the car.

What it
does?
What it is?

My Car

My Car
MyCar Basic
Buzzer Setting for Speed limit

MyCar Advanced
Buzzer Setting for Speed limit

Clock Setting

Trip B Activation

Buzzer volume setting

Clock setting

Distance unit setting

Date Setting
Radio Display
Automatic Door Lock
Setting Units for Distance, Range &
Temperature
Button Beep Volume Adjustment
Check Service Reminder
Front Passenger Airbag Activation

114

Blue & Me is an innovative


system built by Fiat along
with Microsoft. It allows you to
use Bluetooth mobile phone
in the car and to listen to
music in digital format

Blue & Me can be controlled


either by buttons on the
steering wheel or by voice, so
that your attention is not
distracted from driving and
the road
115

Uses of Blue&Me

Make and receive phone


calls

Read Text messages

Listen & control music

116

Automatic ON/OFF Light


System

Great convenience, especially


at night or when entering a
117

Rain Sensing Wipers

No need to fumble for the


wiper stalk while driving.
Added Convenience & Safety!
118