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Title

Definition

Sources

Activity data

Data on the magnitude of a human activity resulting in emissions or removals taking place
during a given period of time. Data on energy use, metal production, land areas, management
systems, lime and fertilizer use and waste arisings are examples of activity data.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Age group share in total


population

Proportion of population in age groups to total population (total and by sex).

- FAO Statistics Division - UN Population Division

Agricultural area

Agricultural area, this category is the sum of areas under a) arable land - land under temporary
agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for
mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens and land temporarily fallow (less
than five years). The abandoned land resulting from shifting cultivation is not included in this
category. Data for Arable land are not meant to indicate the amount of land that is potentially
cultivable; (b) permanent crops - land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be
replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and shrubs producing
flowers, such as roses and jasmine; and nurseries (except those for forest trees, which should be
classified under "forest"); and (c) permanent meadows and pastures - land used permanently
(five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild
prairie or grazing land). Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Agricultural area certified


organic

Land area exclusively dedicated to organic agriculture and managed by applying organic
agriculture methods. It refers to the land area fully converted to organic agriculture. It is the
portion of land area (including arable lands, pastures or wild areas) managed (cultivated) or wild
harvested in accordance with specific organic standards or technical regulations and that has
been inspected and approved by a certification body.

FAO Statistics Division

Agricultural area in
conversion to organic

Land area which is going through the organic conversion process, usually two years period of
conversion to organic land.

FAO Statistics Division

Agricultural area irrigated

The total agricultural area that is irrigated in a given year. Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Agricultural area organic,


total

Sum of areas under Agricultural area certified organic and "Agricultural area in conversion to
organic.

FAO Statistics Division

Agricultural census

Agricultural census or census of agriculture can be defined as a large-scale, periodic, statistical


FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.
operation for the collection of quantitative information on the structure of agriculture. The word
"census" implies a complete enumeration of all agricultural holdings. However, by extension it
can be conducted by a sample enumeration, provided the sample is large enough to generate subnational data.

Agricultural export quantity


index

Quantity indices for the aggregate agricultural and aggregate food products represent the
changes in the price-weighted sum of quantities of products traded between countries. The
weights are the unit value averages of 1989-1991. The formulas used are of the Laspeyres type.
Indices for food products include commodities that are considered edible and contain nutrients,
except for animal feed products and alcoholic beverages. Coffee and tea are also excluded
because, although edible, they have practically no nutritive value.

Agricultural export unit value Unit value indices for the aggregate agricultural and aggregate food products represent the
changes in the quantity-weighted unit values of products traded between countries. The weights
index
are the quantity averages of 1989-1991. The formulas used are of the Laspeyres type. Indices for
food products include commodities that are considered edible and contain nutrients, except for
animal feed products and alcoholic beverages. Coffee and tea are also excluded because,
although edible, they have practically no nutritive value.

FAO Statistics Division

FAO Statistics Division

Agricultural export value


index

Value indices represent the change in the current values of Export f.o.b (free on board) all
expressed in US dollars.

FAO Statistics Division

Agricultural holding

Agricultural holding or holding is an economic unit of agricultural production under single


management comprising all livestock kept and all land used wholly or partly for agricultural
production purposes, without regard to title, legal form, or size. Single management may be
exercised by an individual or household, jointly by two or more individuals or households, by a
clan or tribe, or by a juridical person such as a corporation, cooperative or government agency.
The holding's land may consist of one or more parcels, located in one or more separate areas or
in one or more territorial or administrative divisions, providing the parcels share the same
production means utilized by the holding, such as labour, farm buildings, machinery or draught
animals. The requirement of sharing the same production means utilized by the holding, such as
labour, farm buildings, machinery or draught animals should be fulfilled to a degree to justify
the consideration of various parcels as components of one economic unit.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Agricultural import quantity


index

Quantity indices for the aggregate agricultural and aggregate food products represent the
changes in the price-weighted sum of quantities of products traded between countries. The
weights are the unit value averages of 1989-1991. The formulas used are of the Laspeyres type.
Indices for food products include commodities that are considered edible and contain nutrients,
except for animal feed products and alcoholic beverages. Coffee and tea are also excluded
because, although edible, they have practically no nutritive value.

FAO Statistics Division

Agricultural import unit


value index

Unit value indices represent the changes in the quantity-weighted unit values of products traded
between countries. The weights are the quantity averages of 1989-1991. The formulas used are
of the Laspeyres type.

FAO Statistics Division

Agricultural import value


index

Value indices represent the change in the current values of Import c.i.f. (cost, insurance and
freight) all expressed in US dollars. For countries which report import values on an f.o.b. (free
on board) basis, these are adjusted to approximate c.i.f. values (by a standard factor of 112
percent).

FAO Statistics Division

Agricultural machinery n.e.s.


(trade)

Agricultural machinery not else specified (n.e.s.) refer to total Agricultural machines as
described by the Harmonised Coding System (HS) codes 8435-8436. Data refer to the value of
the trade expressed in 1000 USD

FAO Statistics Division

Agricultural production index Cf. Agricultural production indices under Methodologies.

FAO. 2003. FAO Production Yearbook. Vol. 56. Rome.

Agricultural requisites

Data refer to trade values of the agricultural inputs: fertilizers, pesticides and agricultural
machinery.

FAO Statistics Division

Agricultural tractors

Agricultural tractors generally refer to wheel and crawler or track-laying type tractors (excluding
garden tractors) used in agriculture. Data are expressed in numbers in use in the agricultural
sector.

FAO Statistics Division, http://www.fao.org/es/ess/compendium_2004/concepts.asp

Agricultural tractors, total

Agricultural tractors, total generally refer to total wheel, crawler or track-laying type tractors and FAO Statistics Division
pedestrian tractors used in agriculture. Data are available for numbers in use in the agricultural
sector as of 2000. Data on import and export in value and number are also available as of 1961.

Agricultural trade

Refers to imports and exports of food and agriculture products, excluding fishery and forestry
products. The aggregated item Agriculture products, Total (FAOSTAT item code 1882)
includes only the food and agriculture products.

FAO Statistics Division

Agriculture producer price


index (APPI)

The FAO indices of agricultural producer prices measure the average annual change over time in
the selling prices received by farmers (prices at the farm-gate or at the first point of sale). The
indices are constructed using the Laspeyres formula with price data in Standardised Local

FAO Statistics Division

Currency (SLC). This is an aggregate index for primary crops and livestock products. For a
country, the aggregate would include primary crops and livestock products that are produced in
that country, and for which both production and producer price data are available.
Agriculture, value added

Agriculture corresponds to the divisions 1-5 of the International Standard Industrial


World Bank, World Development Indicators
Classification (ISIC, revision 3) and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation
of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all
outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for
depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of
value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision
3. Data are in current or constant US dollars.

Agri-environment:
Agricultural area

Indicator still not presented in official EUROSTAT or OECD documents. This indicator focuses
on the importance of agriculture compared to other land uses and is strictly connected with the
indicator on agricultural land area change.

EUROSTAT

Agri-environment:
Agricultural area use change

In most countries agriculture is the main user of land resources, and changes in agricultural land
use is one of the major driving forces in global as well as local environmental change.
Conversion of agricultural land to artificial surfaces (soil sealing) can have several
environmental impacts on soil, water and biodiversity resources.
A general decrease in agricultural areas has been observed in the last decades in industrialized
countries as a consequence of growing demand for nature conservation areas, urban, industrial
and infrastructural areas, amenity areas, and also as a consequence of land abandonment.
Many land development activities result in land use change from agricultural land to artificial
surfaces: transport infrastructure (motorways, railways, etc.), urban sprawl (housing and
industrial developments), tourism and recreation facilities. Increased land development often
results in higher prices for land and has an important impact on the environment and on
agricultural landscapes. The impact is obviously very diversified in the case of a change to urban
land compared to the case of land abandonment.

EUROSTAT

Agri-environment: Ammonia
emissions

Ammonia (NH3) emissions are strongly related with animal farms and are associated, as a
driving force, with acidification and eutrophication. Agriculture is the main source of ammonia
emissions, with shares ranging on average between 80% to 99%. Ammonia with sulphur dioxide
(SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) contribute to acidification of soil and water when it combines
with water in the atmosphere or after deposition. Deposition of ammonia can also raise nitrogen
levels in soil and water, which may contribute to eutrophication in receiving aquatic ecosystems.
Deposited ammonia can also contribute to the emissions of nitrous oxide, which is a GHG.
Ammonia in the atmosphere can also combine with industrial and transport pollution generating
secondary particulate pollution.

EUROSTAT

Agri-environment: Area
equipped for irrigation

The agricultural sector uses a considerable share of the available water resources. An increase of
irrigated area in a country or region could imply an increase of water use for agriculture.
Knowing that a certain area is equipped to be irrigated does not mean that it has been irrigated in
a specific year. The indicator Agricultural Water Withdrawal assesses the total amount of water
used for irrigation.

EUROSTAT

Agri-environment: Bioenergy
production

Bioenergy refers to energy derived from the biological carbon fixation of plants or from
biological tissues. Examples are biodiesel, derived from vegetable oils and animal fats, and
bioethanol, produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates of crops like corn.
The production of biomass for energy production has important effects on rural development,
international policy and economy, and on the environment: it supports the rural economy
creating jobs and gives farmers a source of income complementary to food production. Biofuels
have also an impact on economy and trade, since they reduce the dependence on oil-producing
countries. Being derived from plants, their production contributes to carbon sequestration.

EUROSTAT

Biofuels production presents also some issues, such as the increased pressure on water resources,
deforestation (to clear land to cultivate fuel crops), and the change in use of land originally
intended for food production.
Agri-environment: Carbon in
topsoil

Soil quality can be defined as the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function, within natural
or managed ecosystem boundaries, to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance
water and air quality, and support human health and habitation" (Karlen et al., 1997).
Soil quality is defined according to the soil functions (e.g. bearing function, production function,
habitat function, resources function, reactor function) and cannot be measured by a single
parameter. However, soil organic carbon has been defined by EUROSTAT as the more
appropriate indicator for soil quality. High organic carbon content corresponds to good
conditions from an agro-environmental point of view. Soils with organic carbon content less
than 1% in weight are generally affected by soil degradation processes and erosion. On the other
hand, soils with 1-10% organic carbon content have high agricultural value.
The data used for the production of this indicator are geo-spatial raster data contained in the
Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) released by FAO, IIASA, ISRIC, ISSCAS, and JRC
in 2008 with a spatial resolution of 30 by 30 arc seconds (approximately 1 Km). Spatial data
were extracted through appropriate queries from the geo-database and then spatial statistics were
calculated at the country level.

Agri-environment:
Conservation agriculture

Conservation Agriculture (CA) is a concept for resource-saving agricultural crop production that EUROSTAT
strives to achieve acceptable profits together with high and sustained production levels while
concurrently conserving the environment. Conservation Agriculture follows three key principles:
practicing minimum mechanical soil disturbance (essential to maintaining minerals within the
soil, stopping erosion, and preventing water loss), managing the top soil to create a permanent
organic soil cover (allowing the growth of organisms within the soil structure), and practicing
crop rotation with more than two crop species. Tillage practice is an important indicator because
any disturbance of soils may enhance turnover of nutrients and thereby increase the potential risk
of loss of, for example, nitrogenous compounds and phosphorus through surface runoff and soil
erosion.

Agri-environment: Cropping
patterns

Cropping patterns provide insight into the trends in farming in terms of cultivated crops and land
use intensity, with the related differentiated impacts and the positive as well as negative
influences on the environment and on habitat diversity. Permanent grassland is generally
considered the most important from a landscape and nature conservation perspective.
This indicator does not take account of the rotation systems that are often used for arable crops.

Agri-environment: Energy
use in Agriculture and
Forestry

Agriculture consumes energy directly for crop and livestock production (machinery, etc) but also EUROSTAT
indirectly through fertilizers and pesticides. Agriculture also produces energy as biofuels and
biomass production. As an energy user, Agriculture contributes to global warming (mainly
through CO2 emissions, but also CH4 and N2O emissions), air pollution (mainly through NOx
and SO2 emissions) and to the depletion of fossil energy resources. Important energy users are
glasshouse horticulture, floriculture and dairy production. Agriculture can make a contribution to
the mitigation of climate change and air pollution effects through more efficient energy use and
through the production of renewable energy (bio-energy production).

Agri-environment: Fertilizers
consumption

Mineral fertilizers made their appearance with the Industrial revolution and had an important
role in sustaining the growing population of earth: half the population of earth are now estimated
to be fed with crops grown using synthetic fertilizers (Erisman et al. 2008).
Fertilizers can have a negative impact on the environment, leading to eutrophication and
poisoning of water, and pollution of soil (e.g. heavy metals, soil acidification, POP-Persistent
Organic Pollutants). Also, the production of fertilizers is energy intensive and mineable
phosphorus reserves are finite.

EUROSTAT

EUROSTAT

EUROSTAT

Agri-environment: Livestock
Density

Livestock density is important mainly because it gives an indication of manure excretion (and
the subsequent emission of nutrients to the atmosphere and aquatic environment), of greenhouse
gases emissions from digestion, and of the pressure on the agricultural land available.
The type of livestock determines the impact on the environment, according to the animal fodder,
water requirements, and farming practices (e.g. grazing), with different effects on water
consumptions, GHG emissions, soil consumption, etc.).

EUROSTAT

Agri-environment: Organic
agricultural area

According to the definition developed in 2008 by the International Federation of Organic


EUROSTAT
Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), the worldwide umbrella organization for the organic
agriculture movement, Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of
soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to
local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines
tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair
relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. Organic farming excludes or strictly
limits the use of artificial pesticides, fertilizers, plant growth regulators, antibiotics, genetic
modified organisms (GMO) and other artificial additives, and relies on farming techniques (e.g.
crop rotation, mechanical weed control such as plough), nitrogen fixation from leguminous
crops, green manure crops, compost or manure fertilization, and biological pest control. High
emphasis is put on environmental and wildlife protection, and animal welfare considerations.
Although no unique standards have yet been defined for Organic Agriculture, IFOAM developed
basic standards since 1980, and FAO/WHO defined standards in the Codex Alimentarius.

Agri-environment: Pesticides
use

Pesticides include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides and others (such as growth regulators).
The active ingredient is the chemical element or the micro-organism that kills or eliminates the
pest, fungus or weed. Values of this indicator are reported in terms of active ingredient and they
do not include the other components of the final preparation. Application rates are expressed per
hectare of agricultural land.
Pesticides reduce the adverse effects of weeds, diseases and pests on crop yield and quality, and
therefore play an important role in agricultural production. However their use can have negative
impacts on groundwater and surface water quality, terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity
(persistence and toxic effects on non-target species, Persistent Organic Pollutants-POP, etc.),
while pesticide residues in food are a risk for human health. The risk vary from one pesticide to
another according to the pesticides active principle (which may have different persistence and
toxicity), management (applied volumes, application methods), and environmental conditions
(soil and crop type, etc.).

EUROSTAT

Agri-environment: Protected
land area

Terrestrial protected areas are defined by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) as a clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through
legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation nature with associated
ecosystem services and cultural values (Dudley, 2008). Protected areas are monitored as
indicator 7.6 in the U.N. Millennium Indicators Frameworks (Proportion of terrestrial and
marine areas protected). The extent of the protected areas is an indicator of Governments will to
protect biodiversity, however, it does not furnish information on how well the areas are managed
or that protection measures are effectively enforced. The indicator does not provide information
on non-designated or internationally designated protected areas that may also be important for
conserving biodiversity.

EUROSTAT

Agri-environment: Soil
erosion/degradation

Erosion is the process by which soil is removed from a certain region due to the action of natural
factors (wind, water, ice), of living organisms, and of gravity. Erosion is a natural process, but
human activities can greatly influence its rate, especially through agriculture and deforestation.
According to the U.N. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, approximately 40% of the world's
agricultural land is seriously degraded. In natural conditions, only very severe meteorological
events will cause erosion, as the vegetation cover, the leaf litter and the organic matter will
protect the soil absorbing rain impacts and preventing soil removal. Removal of the natural

EUROSTAT

vegetation cover due to practices such as: deforestation; overgrazing; or industrial farming
practices (e.g. tillage), leaves the soil exposed to the action of climatic factors, such as rain and
wind.
The global survey on human-induced soil degradation is the GLASOD (Global Assessment of
Human-Induced Soil Degradation), prepared jointly by ISRIC and UNEP during the 1980s.
The GLASOD database is the only global dataset available on soil degradation. However, there
are issues related to its quality, which is not homogeneous, and therefore statistics obtained from
these maps are not always reliable (Sonneveld and Dent 2007). Better statistics on soil
degradation will be possible with the new version of the FAO GLADIS dataset which should be
released shortly.
Agri-environment: Water use
in agriculture

Irrigation represents the main use of water in agriculture and one of the main uses of water
resources in general. Trends in water abstraction may depend on several factors, such as crop
type, irrigation technology, water prices, and climatic conditions.
Agricultural water withdrawal is a serious concern especially in arid and semi-arid areas, where
water is scarce and highly variable from year to year. In dry regions it is necessary to irrigate
certain crops to obtain reasonable yields. In addition to lower income for the farmer, low yields
will also mean that less fertilizer nitrogen is removed from the fields with harvested crops, and
thereby leaving excess nitrogen (N) in the soil resulting in potentially higher risk for leaching
during the following period. Furthermore, increased water abstraction may also cause
salinisation and contamination of water with other pollutants.

EUROSTAT

Ammonia, anhydrous

(NH3) is a material mostly produced by the synthetic process and at standard temperature and
pressure is a gas. Fertilizer grade anhydrous ammonia contains about 82% of nitrogen.

FAO Statistics Division

Ammonium nitrate

(NH4NO3), is produced by neutralizing nitric acid (HNO3) with ammonia (NH3). Ammonium
FAO Statistics Division
nitrate may be in white or off-white granular or prilled form and coated with a suitable material
to prevent absorption of moisture and caking in storage. Pure ammonium nitrate may have a total
nitrogen content of about 35%, of which one-half is present as ammoniac nitrogen and the other
half as nitrate nitrogen.

Ammonium sulphate

(NH4)2SO4, is produced by reacting ammonia with sulphuric acid (H2SO4). It is produced as fine
white granules or crystals and contains not less than 20.6% nitrogen in ammoniac form.

FAO Statistics Division

Arable and Permanent Crops

Arable land and Permanent crops, this land category is the sum of areas under Arable land and
"Permanent crops. Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Arable land

Arable land is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted
only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens
and land temporarily fallow (less than five years). The abandoned land resulting from shifting
cultivation is not included in this category. Data for Arable land are not meant to indicate the
amount of land that is potentially cultivable. Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Arable land area certified


organic

Part of the area of the "Arable land" exclusively dedicated to organic agriculture and managed
by applying organic agriculture methods. It is the portion of land area managed (cultivated) or
wild harvested in accordance with specific organic standards or technical regulations and that
has been inspected and approved by a certification body.

FAO Statistics Division

Arable land area in


conversion to organic

Part of the area of the "Arable land" which is going through the organic conversion process,
usually two years period of conversion to organic land.

FAO Statistics Division

Arable land organic, total

Sum of areas under Agricultural area certified organic and "Arable land area in conversion to
organic.

FAO Statistics Division

Area frame

A sampling frame wherein the sampling units are portions of land, called segments.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Area harvested

Data refer to the area from which a crop is gathered. Area harvested, therefore, excludes the area
from which, although sown or planted, there was no harvest due to damage, failure, etc. It is
usually net for temporary crops and some times gross for permanent crops. Net area differs from
gross area insofar as the latter includes uncultivated patches, footpaths, ditches, headlands,
shoulders, shelterbelts, etc. If the crop under consideration is harvested more than once during
the year as a consequence of successive cropping (i.e. the same crop is sown or planted more
than once in the same field during the year), the area is counted as many times as harvested. On
the contrary, area harvested will be recorded only once in the case of successive gathering of the
crop during the year from the same standing crops. With regard to mixed and associated crops,
the area sown relating to each crop should be reported separately. When the mixture refers to
particular crops, generally grains, it is recommended to treat the mixture as if it were a single
crop; therefore, area sown is recorded only for the crop reported.

FAO Statistics Division

Area measurement

Refers to the operation of measuring the size of fields (i) on the ground, using measuring tapes
and other instruments such as compass, clinometer, etc. or (ii) using remote sensing (aerial or
satellite) images.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Area sown

Refers to the area on which sowing or planting has been carried out, for the crop under
consideration, on the soil prepared for that purpose. The area is usually reported net of
uncultivated patches, footpaths, ditches, headlands, shoulders, shelterbelts, etc. For tree crops,
the gross concept may be applied. With regard to mixed and associated crops, countries are
requested to report the area sown for each crop separately. When the mixture refers to particular
crops, generally grains, it is recommended to treat the mixture as if it were a single crop. Data
are recorded in hectares (ha). The information on area sown allows for a particular application of
the SUA system where the quantity allotted for next years sowing, which enters the account of
this year, is calculated as a seeding rate times the area sown of the next year.

FAO Statistics Division

Associated or mixed cropping

Associated crops are those sown interplanted with other temporary or permanent crops, for
example, beans and maize. This way of cultivation is widely used in many African countries,
particularly for food crops.

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Balers

Balers (including pickup balers) are machines that collect grass, hay or straw after it has been
cut. They form a round or square bale by compressing the material or tying it with twine wire, or
a plastic wrap. Data are expressed in numbers in use in the agricultural sector.

FAO Statistics Division

Base year

The starting year for the inventory. Currently this is typically 1990.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Biological production

Biological production is production still on the plants. It is one of the three main concepts of
production (and yield) used by countries when reporting to FAO.

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Body mass index (BMI)

The indicator of weight adequacy in relation to height of older children, adolescents and adults.
It is calculated as weight (kilograms) divided by height (metres), squared. The acceptable range
for adults is 18.5 to 24.9 , and for children it varies with age.

Human energy requirement (Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation), 2001

Budgetary Central
Government

The budgetary central government is often a single unit of the central government that
encompasses the fundamental activities of the national executive, legislative, and judiciary
powers. This component of general government is usually covered by the main (or general)
budget. This budgetary central governments revenue, as well as its expense, are normally
regulated and controlled by a Ministry of Finance, or its functional equivalent, by means of a
budget approved by the legislature.

Calcium ammonium nitrate

NH4NO3+CaCO3, is produced from ammonium nitrate and finely pulverized calcium carbonate
(CACO3). It contains not less than 20.5% and up to 28% of nitrogen, half of which is in the form

FAO Statistics Division

of ammoniac nitrogen and the other half in the form of nitrate nitrogen. It is produced as white,
off-white or grey granules or prills.
Capital stock in agriculture
and investment in agriculture

The estimate of capital stock in agriculture refers to a value that is attached to the total physical
capital capacity available for repeated use in the production of other goods, in existence at
specific point in time in the economy of agriculture sector. The estimates of investment in
agriculture have indirectly been derived by the FAO Statistics Division using physical data on
livestock, tractors, irrigated land and land under permanent crops etc., and the average prices for
the year 1995. These data enabled the derivation of the capital stock in agriculture which is the
gross, and the annual change in the latter is taken to reflect investment in agriculture.

FAO Statistics Division

Carbon dioxide equivalent

A measure used to compare different greenhouse gases based on their contribution to radiative
forcing. The UNFCCC currently (2005) uses global warming potentials (GWPs) as factors to
calculate carbon dioxide equivalent (see below).

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Census committee

An inter-ministerial or inter-agency committee consisting of high-level personnel with main


responsibilities consisting of the overall planning and direction of the census, in cooperation
with and/or subject to the review of the census coordinator.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Census pre-tests

Usually small-scale exercises for evaluating specific aspects of the census during the preparatory
phase.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Central Government
Subsector

The central government subsector consists of the institutional unit(s) of the central
government plus those nonmarket NPIs that are controlled by the central government. The
political authority of central government extends over the entire territory of the country. It is
generally composed of a budgetary central government, extrabudgetary units, and social security
funds (unless a separate subsector is used for social security funds).

Cereal food aid shipments

Food aid shipments represent a transfer of food commodities from donor to recipient countries
on a total-grant basis. Processed and blended cereals are converted into their grain equivalent by
applying the conversion factors included in the Rule of Procedures under the 1999 Food Aid
Convention to facilitate comparisons between deliveries of different commodities.

From 1970/71 to 1990/91, data on food aid shipments was compiled by FAO from the information provided by donor countries, and complemented by
data provided by the FAO Consultative Sub-Committee on Surplus Disposal, the World Food Programme (WFP), the International Wheat Council,
OECD, and other international organizations. From 1990/91 to date, the information on food aid shipments has been provided to FAO exclusively by
WFP.

Child mortality rate (infant


mortality rate)

The infant mortality rate is the probability (expressed as a rate per 1 000 live births) of a child
born in a specified year dying before reaching the age of one if subject to current age-specific
mortality rates.

World Development Indicators

Child mortality rate (underfive mortality rate)

The under-five mortality rate is the probability (expressed as a rate per 1 000 live births) of a
child born in a specified year dying before reaching the age of five if subject to current agespecific mortality rates.

World Development Indicators

CIF

Cost-Insurance-Freight. CIF-trade values include the transaction value of the goods, the value of
services performed to deliver goods to the border of the exporting country and the value of the
services performed to deliver the goods from the border of the exporting country to the border of
the importing country. Import values are mostly reported as CIF.

UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York.

Combine harvesters
threshers

Combine harvesters - threshers are self-propelled machines that collect and thresh in one
operation. Data are expressed in numbers in use in the agricultural sector.

FAO Statistics Division

Commodity code

Trade statistics are usually reported according to the Harmonized Commodity Description and
Coding System (HS), which is an international commodity classification developed under the
auspices of the Customs Cooperation Council. The standard HS codes contain six digits, but can
be extended to eight, ten or twelve digits according to national tariff and statistical needs. The
conversion of the HS codes into FAOSTAT codes is based on a specific conversion table used
during trade data processing.

- UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York. - FAO Statistics Division

Confidentiality

Refers to the legal obligation of the census staff not to reveal the individual holding data to
anyone, neither in the form of raw data nor in the form of tables which may permit disclosure of
data for individual holdings. Obligation to respond is often linked to and legitimized by
confidentiality as a guarantee for the respondent.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Consumer price index (CPI)

The CPI measures changes over time in the general level of prices of consumer goods and
services that households acquire, use or pay for consumption. This is done by measuring the cost
of purchasing a fixed basket of consumer goods and services of constant quality and similar
characteristics, with the products in the basket being selected to be representative of households
expenditure during a specified period.

International Labour Organization (ILO)

Continuous harvesting

Refers to crops which are harvested continuously throughout the season, such as carrots
radishes, sweet potatoes, etc., or crops which are standing in the field more than a year, like
sugar cane. The estimation of their production has to include all the harvest during the year.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Country area

Country area, area of the country including area under inland water bodies, but excluding
offshore territorial waters. Possible variations in the data may be due to updating and revisions
of the country data and not necessarily to any change of area. Data are expressed in 1000
hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Coverage

Describes the universe of units to be enumerated; it can include rural and urban areas. Under
predefined thresholds, in physical terms or in value, very small holdings may be excluded from
the census.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Crop area

Crop area is a surface of land on which a crop is grown. In general, the area measured for
cadastral purposes includes, in addition to the area cultivated, headlands, ditches and other noncultivated areas. Such an area can be called gross area as against the net area which includes
only the portion of the gross area actually cultivated. For various reasons, e.g. natural calamities
or economic considerations, certain areas planted or sown with a given crop are not harvested or
are harvested before the crop reaches maturity. Hence the need for the concept of area to be subdivided into sown or planted area and harvested area. Sown area data are necessary to estimate
quantities used for seeding purposes; harvested area, to provide reliable and accurate yield and
production data. A peculiarity of permanent crops is that number of trees or plants is reported in
addition to or, instead of, the area planted. This is particularly so as regards plants growing
outside of compact plantations, which are either interplanted with other crops or are scattered.
Both area and number of trees are also divided into productive or bearing and non-productive or
non-bearing areas or trees. In most cases, non-bearing refers to young plants that are not yet
bearing.

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Crop production

Crop production data refer to the actual harvested production from the field or orchard and
gardens, excluding harvesting and threshing losses and that part of crop not harvested for any
reason. Production therefore includes the quantities of the commodity sold in the market
(marketed production) and the quantities consumed or used by the producers (autoconsumption). When the production data available refers to a production period falling into two
successive calendar years and it is not possible to allocate the relative production to each of
them, it is usual to refer production data to that year into which the bulk of the production falls.
Crop production data are recorded in tonnes (t). In many countries, crop production data are
obtained as a function of the estimated yield and the total area. If such a compilation method of
production statistics is enforced by the country, it must be ensured that the total area does not
refer to sown or planted area, which would give then the biological production, but to the
actually harvested area during the year.

FAO Statistics Division

Crop yield

Harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. In most of the cases yield data
are not recorded but obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. Data

FAO Statistics Division

on yields of permanent crops are not as reliable as those for temporary crops either because most
of the area information may correspond to planted area, as for grapes, or because of the scarcity
and unreliability of the area figures reported by the countries, as for example for cocoa and
coffee.
Crops cultivated
simultaneously

Refers to the practice of cultivating two or more different crops simultaneously on the same field
or plot. If crops grown simultaneously are temporary and permanent crops together, they are
called crops grown in association. Otherwise they are referred to as mixed crops.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Customs value

The definition of the customs value of goods normally covers the transaction value plus the
value of the services performed to deliver goods to the border of the importing/exporting
country. Whenever this is the case, the customs value should be accepted as the statistical value;
in all other cases the compiler should make the necessary adjustments to available customs
values or independently estimate statistical value.

UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York.

Data coding

Refers to the operation where original information from the questionnaire, as recorded by
enumerators, is replaced by a numeric code required for processing. Typical examples are when
names of crops, livestock, farm machinery, activities etc. are replaced by a unique number
(code) or when data expressed in local units are converted to a standard unit. The modern trend
is either to enter the complete answer or to use precoded questionnaires and leave the problem of
local units to enumerators who are expected to enter in the questionnaires data ready for
processing.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Data editing

Refers to checking (manually or by computer) the general credibility of the data with respect to
(i) missing data, (ii) range tests, and (iii) logical and/or numerical consistency. Examples could
be: (i) non-response (e.g. age of the holder not reported); (ii) improbable or impossible entries
(e.g. yield is hundred times higher than normal, etc.).

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Diammonium phosphate
(DAP)

(NH4)2HPO4, is produced by evaporating a solution of phosphoric acid with excess of ammonia.

FAO Statistics Division

Dietary energy consumption


per person

Dietary energy consumption per person refers to the amount of food, expressed in kilocalories
(kcal) per day, available for each individual in the total population during the reference period.
Caloric content is derived by applying the appropriate food composition factors to the quantities
of the commodities. Per person supplies are derived from the total amount of food available for
human consumption by dividing total calories by total population actually partaking of the food
supplies during the reference period. However, per person figures represent only the average
supply available for the population as a whole and do not necessarily indicate what is actually
consumed by individuals. The actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as
food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household,
e.g. during storage, in preparation and cooking, as plate-waste or quantities fed to domestic
animals and pets, thrown or given away.

FAO Statistics Division

Dietary energy deficit

The difference between the average daily dietary energy intake of an undernourished population
and its average minimum energy requirement.

FAO 1996 - The Sixth World Food Survey

Dietary energy excess

The difference between the average daily dietary energy intake of an overnourished population
and its average maximum energy requirement.

FAO 1996 - The Sixth World Food Survey

Dietary energy requirement

Energy requirement is the amount of food energy needed to balance energy expenditure in order
to maintain body size, body composition and to allow optimal growth and development of
children, deposition of tissues during pregnancy and secretion of milk during lactation,
consistent with long-term good health.

Human energy requirement (Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation), 2001

Dietary fat consumption per

Dietary fat consumption per person refers to the amount of fat in food, expressed in grams per

FAO Statistics Division

person

day, available for each individual in the total population during the reference period. Fat content
is derived by applying the appropriate food composition factors to the quantities of the
commodities. Per person consumption is derived from the total amount of food available for
human consumption by dividing total fat by total population actually partaking of the food
supplies during the reference period. However, per person figures represent only the average
supply available for the population as a whole and do not necessarily indicate what is actually
consumed by individuals. The actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as
food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household,
e.g. during storage, in preparation and cooking, as plate-waste or quantities fed to domestic
animals and pets, thrown or given away.

Dietary protein consumption


per person

Dietary protein consumption per person refers to the amount of protein in food, expressed in
grams per day, available for each individual in the total population during the reference period.
Protein content is derived by applying the appropriate food composition factors to the quantities
of the commodities. Per person consumption is derived from the total amount of food available
for human consumption by dividing total protein by total population actually partaking of the
food supplies during the reference period. However, per person figures represent only the
average supply available for the population as a whole and do not necessarily indicate what is
actually consumed by individuals. The actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity
shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the
household, e.g. during storage, in preparation and cooking, as plate-waste or quantities fed to
domestic animals and pets, thrown or given away.

FAO Statistics Division

Domestic goods

Domestic goods are goods originating in the economic territory of a country, while foreign
goods are goods which originate from the rest of the world. Determination of the origin of goods
in each compiling country is made in accordance with national rules. It is recognized that these
rules may lead to different attributions of origin and to incompatibilities in partner statistics. The
harmonization of rules of origin is, therefore, one of the important challenges to customs and
statistical authorities.

UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York.

Domestic supply

Production + imports - exports + changes in stocks (decrease or increase) = supply for domestic
utilization. There are various ways of defining supply and, in fact, various concepts are in use.
The elements involved are production, imports, exports and changes in stocks (increase or
decrease). There is no doubt that production, imports and stock changes (either decrease or
increase in stocks) are genuine supply elements.

FAO Statistics Division

Economic territory

Economic territory of a country consists of the geographic territory administered by a


government within which persons, goods and capital circulate freely and includes: (a) airspace,
territorial waters, and continental shelf lying in international waters over which the country
enjoys exclusive rights or over which it has, or claims to have, jurisdiction in respect of the right
to fish or to exploit fuels or minerals below the seabed; (b) territorial enclaves in the rest of the
world (clearly demarcated areas of land which are located in other countries and which are used
by the government which owns or rents them for diplomatic, military, scientific or other
purposes - embassies, consulates, military bases, scientific stations, information or immigration
offices, aid agencies, etc. - with the formal political agreement of the government of the country
in which they are physically located). Goods or persons may move freely between a country and
its territorial enclaves abroad, but become subject to control by the government of the country in
which they are located if they move out of the enclave; (c) any free zones, or bonded warehouses
or factories operated by offshore enterprises under customs control (these form part of the
economic territory of the country in which they are physically located). In the case of maritime
countries, their economic territory includes any islands belonging to that country which are
subject to exactly the same fiscal and monetary authorities as the mainland, so that goods and
persons may move freely to and from such islands without any kind of customs or immigration
formalities. The economic territory of a country does not include the territorial enclaves used by

- UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York. - 1993 System of National Accounts, paragraph 14.9.

foreign governments or international organizations that are physically located within the
geographical boundaries of that country.
Economically active female
population

This refers to the number of all employed and unemployed female persons (including those
seeking work for the first time). It covers female employers; self-employed workers; salaried
employees; wage earners; unpaid workers assisting in a family, farm or business operation;
members of producers' cooperatives; and members of the armed forces. The economically active
female population is also called the female labour force.

International Labour Organisation (ILO)

Economically active female


population in agriculture

Economically active female population in agriculture is that part of the economically active
female population engaged in or seeking work in agriculture, hunting, fishing or forestry.

FAO Statistics Division

Economically active male


population

This refers to the number of all employed and unemployed male persons (including those
seeking work for the first time). It covers male employers; self-employed workers; salaried
employees; wage earners; unpaid workers assisting in a family, farm or business operation;
members of producers' cooperatives; and members of the armed forces. The economically active
male population is also called the male labour force.

International Labour Organisation (ILO)

Economically active male


population in agriculture

Economically active male population in agriculture is that part of the economically active male
population engaged in or seeking work in agriculture, hunting, fishing or forestry.

FAO Statistics Division

Economically active
population

This refers to the number of all employed and unemployed persons (including those seeking
work for the first time). It covers employers; self-employed workers; salaried employees; wage
earners; unpaid workers assisting in a family, farm or business operation; members of producers'
cooperatives; and members of the armed forces. The economically active population is also
called the labour force.

International Labour Organisation (ILO)

Economically active
population in agriculture

Economically active population in agriculture (agricultural labour force) is that part of the
economically active population engaged in or seeking work in agriculture, hunting, fishing or
forestry.

FAO Statistics Division

Edible offal

These are edible parts or organs of the animals, other than fats, which are usually separated in
the course of the preparation of the carcass at the slaughterhouses.

Egg production

Covers all domestic birds which have contributed to egg production during the year, wherever
they lay and the corresponding total production, including eggs intended to be used for hatching
but excluding waste on farms.

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Emission factor

A coefficient that quantifies the emissions or removals of a gas per unit activity. Emission
factors are often based on a sample of measurement data, averaged to develop a representative
rate of emission for a given activity level under a given set of operating conditions.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Emissions

The release of greenhouse gases and/or their precursors into the atmosphere over a specified area
and period of time.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Emissions - Agriculture:
Agriculture Total

Agriculture Total contains all the emissions produced in the different agricultural emissions subdomains, providing a picture of the contribution to the total amount of GHG emissions from
agriculture. GHG emissions from agriculture consist of non-CO2 gases, namely methane (CH4)
and nitrous oxide (N2O), produced by crop and livestock production and management activities.
Computed at Tier 1 following IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories; available by
country, with global coverage and relative to the period 1990- present, with annual updates, and
projections for 2030 and 2050.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Emissions - Agriculture:
Burning - crop residues

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from burning crop residues consist of methane and nitrous
oxide gases produced by the combustion of a percentage of the crop residues burnt on-site.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Computed at Tier 1 following the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories (IPCC,
2006); available by country, with global coverage and relative to the period 1961-present, with
annual updates, and projections for 2030 and 2050.
Emissions - Agriculture:
Burning - Savanna

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from burning of savanna consist of methane and nitrous
oxide gases from biomass combustion. Emissions are computed at Tier 1 following the 2006
IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories (IPCC, 2006); they are available by country,
with global coverage and relative to the period 1990-present, with annual updates, and
projections for 2030 and 2050.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Emissions - Agriculture: Crop Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from crop residues consist of nitrous oxide gas from
decomposition of nitrogen in crop residues left on managed soils. Computed at Tier 1 following
residues
the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories (IPCC, 2006); available by country,
with global coverage and relative to the period 1961 to present, with annual updates, and
projections for 2030 and 2050.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Emissions - Agriculture:
Cultivation of Organic soils

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data from cultivation of organic soils are those associated
with nitrous oxide gas emissions from drained histosols under cropland and grassland. Data is
computed at Tier 1 and complemented by geo-spatial data, following the 2006 IPCC Guidelines
for National GHG Inventories (IPCC, 2006). Available by country, with global coverage and
relative to the period 1990-present and projections for 2030 and 2050.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Emissions - Agriculture:
Energy Use

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from direct energy use consist of carbon dioxide, methane and
nitrous oxide gases associated with fuel burning and electricity generation in agriculture
(including fisheries). Data is computed at Tier 1 following the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for
National GHG Inventories (IPCC, 2006). Available by country, with global coverage and
relative to the period 1970-present, with annual updates.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Emissions - Agriculture:
Enteric Fermentation

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from enteric fermentation consist of methane gas produced in
digestive systems of ruminants and to a lesser extent of non-ruminants. Computed at Tier 1
following the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories (IPCC, 2006); available by
country, with global coverage and relative to the period 1961 to present, with annual updates,
and projections for 2030 and 2050.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Emissions - Agriculture:
Manure applied to soils

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure applied to soils consist of nitrous oxide gas from
nitrogen additions to managed soils from treated manure. Computed at Tier 1 following the 2006
IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC,2006); available by country,
with global coverage and relative to the period 1961 to present, with annual updates, and
projections for 2030 and 2050.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Emissions - Agriculture:
Manure left on pastures

Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions data from manure left on pasture consist of nitrous oxide
IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
gas from nitrogen additions to managed soils from grazing livestock. Computed at Tier 1
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.
following the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories, Vol. 4 (IPCC, 2006);
available by country, with global coverage and relative to the period 1961 to present, with annual
updates, and projections for 2030 and 2050.

Emissions - Agriculture:
Manure management

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure management consist of methane and nitrous
oxide gases from aerobic and anaerobic manure decomposition processes. Computed at Tier 1
following the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories (IPCC, 2006); available by
country, with global coverage and relative to the period 1961 to present, with annual updates,
and projections for 2030 and 2050.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Emissions - Agriculture: Rice


cultivation

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from rice cultivation consist of methane gas from the
anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in paddy fields. Computed at Tier 1 following the

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories (IPCC, 1997) and the IPCC 2000
Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National GHG Inventories (IPCC,
2000); available by country, with global coverage and relative to the period 1961-present, with
annual updates, and projections for 2030 and 2050.
Emissions - Agriculture:
Synthetic Fertilizers

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from synthetic fertilizers consist of nitrous oxide gas from
synthetic nitrogen additions to managed soils. Computed at Tier 1 following the 2006 IPCC
Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC, 2006); available by country, with
global coverage and relative to the period 1961-present, with annual updates, and projections for
2030 and 2050.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Emissions - Land Use:


Burning - Biomass

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from burning of biomass consist of methane and nitrous
oxide gases from biomass combustion of forest land cover classes 'Humid and Tropical Forest'
and 'Other Forests', and of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide gases from combustion of
organic soils. Emissions are computed at Tier 1 following the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for
National GHG Inventories (IPCC, 2006); they are available by country, with global coverage
and relative to the period 1990-present, with annual updates.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Emissions - Land Use:


Cropland

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data from cropland are currently limited to emissions from
cropland organic soils. They are those associated with carbon losses from drained histosols
under cropland. Data is computed at Tier 1 and complemented by use of geo-spatial data,
following the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories (IPCC, 2006). Available by
country, with global coverage and relative to the period 1990 to present.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Emissions - Land Use: Forest


land

Annual net CO2 emission/removal from Forest Land consist of net carbon stock gain/loss in the
living biomass pool (aboveground and belowground biomass) associated with Forest and Net
Forest Conversion. Computed at Tier 1 and Approach 1, with the stock difference method,
following the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories (IPCC, 2006) and using area
and carbon stocks data compiled by countries in the FAO Global Forest Resource Assessment of
2010 (FRA, 2010); available by country, with global coverage and relative to the period 1990present, with periodic updates in line with FRA.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Emissions - Land Use: Land


Use Total

Land Use Total contains all GHG emissions and removals produced in the different Land Use
IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
sub-domains, representing the six IPCC Land Use categories: cropland, forest land, grassland,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.
wetlands, settlements, and other land, also collectively referred to as emissions/removals from
the Forestry and Other Land Use (FOLU) sector. FOLU emissions consist of CO 2 (carbon
dioxide), CH4(methane) and N2O (nitrous oxide) associated with land management activities.
CO2 emissions/removals are derived from estimated net carbon stock changes in above and
below-ground biomass pools of forest land, including forest land converted to other land uses.
CH4 and N2O, and additional CO2 emissions are estimated for fires and drainage of organic soils.
Based on FAOSTAT and FRA activity data as well as on geospatial information analysis, they
are computed at Tier 1 and Approach 1 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG
Inventories. Estimates are available by country, with global coverage and relative to the period
1990-present, with annual updates.

Fallow land

Fallow land (temporary) is the cultivated land that is not seeded for one or more growing
seasons. The maximum idle period is usually less than five years. Land remaining fallow for two
long may acquire characteristics requiring to be reclassified, such as "permanent meadows and
pastures" (if used for grazing), "forest or wooded land" (if overgrown with trees), or "other land"
(if it becomes wasteland). Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Feed

Data refer to the quantity of the commodity in question available for feeding to the livestock and
poultry during the reference period, whether domestically produced or imported.

FAO. 1986. The ICS users' manual. Interlinked computer strorage and processing system of food and agricultural commodity data. Rome.

Female population

Refers to the present-in-area (de facto) population which includes all female persons physically
present within the present geographical boundaries of countries at the mid-point of the reference
period.

United Nations, World Population Prospects

Fertilizer prices

Price of fertilizers expressed in local currency per metric tonne (t) of plant nutrient.

FAO Statistics Division

FOB

Free-On-Board. FOB-trade values include the transaction value of the goods and the value of
services performed to deliver goods to the border of the exporting country. Export values are
mostly reported as FOB.

UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York.

Food

Data refer to the total amount of the commodity available as human food during the reference
period. Data include the commodity in question, as well as any commodity derived therefrom as
a result of further processing. Food from maize, for example, comprises the amount of maize,
maize meal and any other products derived therefrom available for human consumption. Food
from milk relates to the amounts of milk as such, as well as the fresh milk equivalent of dairy
products.

FAO. 1986. The ICS users' manual. Interlinked computer strorage and processing system of food and agricultural commodity data. Rome.

Food aid

Food aid represent a transfer of food commodities from donor to recipient countries on a totalgrant basis or on highly concessional terms.

From 1970/71 to 1990/91, data on food aid shipments was compiled by FAO from the information provided by donor countries, and complemented by
data provided by the FAO Consultative Sub-Committee on Surplus Disposal, the World Food Programme (WFP), the International Wheat Council,
OECD, and other international organizations. From 1990/91 to date, the information on food aid shipments has been provided to FAO exclusively by
WFP.

Food aid received

Refers to food aid shipments which represent a transfer of food commodities from donor to
recipient countries on a total-grant basis or on highly concessional terms. A food aid shipment
record contains information on the year of shipment, donor, recipient, commodity and quantity
in terms of thousand tonnes (t). Cereal food aid shipments are reported on a global trade year
basis (July/June). The series starts from 1970/71. Processed and blended cereals are converted
into their grain equivalent by applying the conversion factors included in the Rule of Procedures
under the 1999 Food Aid Convention to facilitate comparisons between deliveries of different
commodities.

From 1970/71 to 1990/91, data on food aid shipments were compiled by FAO from the information provided by donor countries and complemented by
data provided by the FAO Consultative Sub-Committee on Surplus Disposal, the World Food Programme (WFP), the International Wheat Council,
OECD and other international organizations. From 1990/91 to date, the information on food aid shipments has been provided to FAO exclusively by
WFP.

Food Balance Sheets

Food Balance Sheets (FBS) are compiled every year by FAO, mainly with country-level data on FAO Statistics Division, http://www.fao.org/es/ess/compendium_2004/technotes.asp
the production and trade of food commodities. Using these data and the available information on
seed rates, waste coefficients, stock changes and types of utilization (feed, food, processing and
other utilization), a supply/utilization account is prepared for each commodity in weight terms.
The food component of the commodity account, which is usually derived as a balancing item,
refers to the total amount of the commodity available for human consumption during the year.
Besides commodity-by-commodity information, the FAO FBS also provide total food
availability estimates by aggregating the food component of all commodities including fishery
products. From these values and the available population estimates, the per person dietary energy
and protein and fat supplies are derived and expressed on a daily basis. In the FBS production
data refer only to primary products while data for all other elements also include processed
products derived there from, expressed in primary commodity equivalent.

Food Consumer Price Index


(Food CPI)

The Food CPI measures the change over time in the general level of prices of food and nonalcoholic beverage items that households acquire, use or pay for consumption. This is done by
measuring the cost of purchasing a fixed basket of consumer food and beverage of constant
quality and similar characteristics, with the products in the basket being selected to be
representative of households expenditure during a specified period.

International Labour Organization (ILO)

Food consumption per person


by food group

Food consumption per person is the amount of food, in terms of quantity, of each commodity
and it's derived products for each individual in the total population. Figures are shown for food
groups.

FAO Statistics Division, http://www.fao.org/faostat/foodsecurity/FSSDMetadata_en.htm

Food consumption per person


by food item

Food consumption per person is the amount of food, in terms of quantity, of each commodity
and it's derived products for each individual in the total population. Figures are shown for food
items.

FAO Statistics Division, http://www.fao.org/faostat/foodsecurity/FSSDMetadata_en.htm

Food insecurity

A situation that exists when people lack secure access to sufficient amounts of safe and
FAO. 2000. The state of food insecurity in the world - SOFI 2000. Rome.
nutritious food for normal growth and development and an active and healthy life. It may be
caused by the unavailability of food, insufficient purchasing power, inappropriate distribution, or
inadequate use of food at the household level. Food insecurity, poor conditions of health and
sanitation, and inappropriate care and feeding practices are the major causes of poor nutritional
status. Food insecurity may be chronic, seasonal or transitory.

Food production

For primary commodities, production relates to the total domestic production whether inside or
FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.
outside the agricultural sector, i.e. including non-commercial production and production in
kitchen gardens. Unless otherwise indicated, production is reported at the farm level for primary
crops (i.e. excluding harvesting losses for crops) and livestock items and in terms of live weight
(i.e. the actual ex-water weight of the catch at the time of capture) for primary fish items.
Production of processed commodities relates to the total output of the commodity at the
manufacture level (i.e. it comprises output from domestic and imported raw materials of
originating products). Reporting units are chosen accordingly, e.g. cereals are reported in terms
of grains and paddy rice. As a general rule, all data on meat are expressed in terms of carcass
weight. Usually the data on production relate to that which takes place during the reference
period. However, production of certain crops may relate to the harvest of the year preceding the
utilization period if harvesting takes place late in the year. In such instances, the production of a
given year largely moves into consumption in the subsequent year. In the Food Balance Sheets a
distinction is made between "output" and "input". The production of primary as well as of
derived products is reported under "output". For derived commodities, the amounts of the
originating commodity that are required for obtaining the output of the derived product are
indicated under "input", and are expressed in terms of the originating commodity. The various
factors used, i.e. milling rates, extraction rates, conversion or processing factors, carcass weights,
milk yield, egg weights etc., should indicate the average national rate at which these
commodities are generally converted.

Food production index

Cf. Agricultural production indices under Methodologies

FAO Statistics Division

Food security

A situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to
sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an
active and healthy life.

FAO. 2000. The state of food insecurity in the world - SOFI 2000

Food: total calories

Refers to the total amount of food available for human consumption expressed in kilocalories
(kcal). Caloric content is derived by applying the appropriate food composition factors to the
quantities of the commodities and shown in million units.

FAO Statistics Division

Food: total fats

Refers to the total amount of fat available for human consumption resulting from the
multiplication of the quantity of food available. Fat content is derived by applying the
appropriate food composition factors to the quantities of the commodities and are expressed in
grams.

FAO Statistics Division

Food: total protein

Refers to the total amount of protein available for human consumption resulting from the
multiplication of the quantity of food available. Protein content is derived by applying the
appropriate food composition factors to the quantities of the commodities and are expressed in
grams.

FAO Statistics Division

Forest area

Forest area is the land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 metres and a
canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not

Forest Resource Assessment (FRA)

include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use. Forest is determined
both by the presence of trees and the absence of other predominant land uses. The trees should
be able to reach a minimum height of 5 metres (m) in situ. Areas under reforestation that have
not yet reached but are expected to reach a canopy cover of 10 percent and a tree height of 5 m
are included, as are temporarily unstocked areas, resulting from human intervention or natural
causes, which are expected to regenerate. Includes: areas with bamboo and palms provided that
height and canopy cover criteria are met; forest roads, firebreaks and other small open areas;
forest in national parks, nature reserves and other protected areas such as those of specific
scientific, historical, cultural or spiritual interest; windbreaks, shelterbelts and corridors of trees
with an area of more than 0.5 ha and width of more than 20 m; plantations primarily used for
forestry or protective purposes, such as: rubber-wood plantations and cork, oak stands. Excludes:
tree stands in agricultural production systems, for example in fruit plantations and agroforestry
systems. The term also excludes trees in urban parks and gardens. Data are expressed in 1000
hectares.
Frame

The universe, or a list, of all units or elements for which data are to be collected. For the purpose
of agricultural censuses and surveys the frame may be defined as a list of all agricultural
holdings.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

GDP

Gross domestic product

General Government Sector

The general government sector consists of resident institutional units that fulfill the functions
of government as their primary activity. This sector includes all government units and all
nonmarket NPIs that are controlled by government units. For analytic purposes, it is often
necessary or desirable to disaggregate the general government sector into subsectors, including:
Central Government Subsector and Budgetary Central Government

General trade

The general trade system is in use when statistical territory of a country coincides with its
economic territory. Consequently, under the general trade system, imports include all goods
entering the economic territory of a compiling country and exports include all goods leaving the
economic territory of a compiling country, including re-exports and imports into and exports
from customs warehouses and free zones or ports.

UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York.

Gini index

Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases,
consumption expenditure, food dietary energy consumption) among individuals or households
within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the
cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients,
starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the
Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the
maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index
of 100 implies perfect inequality.

WDI 2004

Global warming potential

Global Warming Potentials (GWP) are calculated as the ratio of the radiative forcing of one
kilogramme greenhouse gas emitted to the atmosphere to that from one kilogramme CO2 over a
period of time (e.g., 100 years).

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

GNP

Gross National Product

Good Practice

Good Practice is a set of procedures intended to ensure that greenhouse gas inventories are
accurate in the sense that they are systematically neither over- nor underestimates so far as can
be judged, and that uncertainties are reduced so far as possible. Good Practice covers choice of
estimation methods appropriate to national circumstances, quality assurance and quality control
at the national level, quantification of uncertainties and data archiving and reporting to promote
transparency.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Government expenditure
allocated to agricultural and
rural development

Data on government expenditure on agriculture refers to all non-repayable payments, whether


capital or current, requited or not by government for the agricultural and rural development
sector.

FAO Statistics Division

Government Expenditure:
Cash basis

In the cash basis of recording, flows are recorded when cash is received or disbursed.

Government Expenditure:
Noncash (accrual) basis

In the accrual basis of recording, flows are recorded at the time economic value is created,
transformed, exchanged, transferred, or extinguished. In other words, the effects of economic
events are recorded in the period in which they occur, irrespective of whether cash was received
or paid or was due to be received or paid.

Gross production index


number

Cf. Agricultural production indices under Methodologies

FAO Statistics Division

Gross production index


number per capita

Cf. Agricultural production indices under Methodologies. Per caput index obtained by dividing
Production Index numbers by index of population, or directly from per caput production.

FAO Statistics Division

Gross production value

Cf. Agricultural production indices under Methodologies

FAO Statistics Division

Gross weight

The gross weight of shipments in kilograms, including the weight of moisture content, packings
and containers (other than containers such as cargo vans and similar substantial outer containers
used for containerized cargo).

UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York.

Hardware

In respect to computers refers to the machinery such as central processing unit, disk storage,
printers etc., as opposed to the programs (software) that are written for its use.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Harvested production

Excludes harvesting losses and production not harvested for various reasons. Harvested
production is one of the three main concepts of production (and yield) used by countries when
reporting to FAO.

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Harvester and threshers


(trade)

Harvester and threshers refer to total harvesting and threshing machines as described by the
Harmonised Coding System (HS) codes 8433 and 8437.10. Data refer to the value of the trade
expressed in 1000 USD

FAO Statistics Division

Hired manager

A civil or juridical person who takes technical and administrative responsibility to manage a
holding on a holder's behalf. Responsibilities are limited to making day-to-day decisions to
operate the holding, including managing and supervising hired labour. Wages may be paid in
cash and/or kind. A hired manager who shares economic and financial responsibilities, in
addition to managing the holding, should be considered a holder or a joint holder.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Holder

A civil or juridical person who makes major decisions regarding resource use and exercises
management control over the agricultural operation. The holder has technical and economic
responsibility for the holding and may undertake all responsibilities directly or delegate
responsibilities related to day-to-day work management to a hired manager.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Holding

See agricultural holding.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Household

A household may be either: (a) a one-person household, i.e. a person who makes provision for
his own food and other essentials of living without combining with any other person, or (b)a
multi-person household, i.e. a group of two or more persons who make some common provision
for food or other essentials of living. The persons in the group may pool their incomes and have
a common budget to a greater or lesser extent; they may be related or unrelated persons or a
combination of both. The general criterion to be used in identifying the members of a multiperson household relates to the existence of common housekeeping arrangements.

International Labour Organisation (ILO), Thirteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians

Household consumption
expenditure

Household consumption expenditure refers to all money expenditure by the household and
individual members on goods intended for consumption and expenditure on services, plus the
value of goods and services received as income in kind and consumed by the household or
individual members of the household. Thus the value of items produced by the household and
utilised in its own consumption, the net rental value of owner-occupied housing and the gross
rental value of free housing occupied by the household represent part of household consumption
expenditure.

International Labour Organization (ILO), Thirteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians

Import dependency ratio

Import dependency ratio (IDR) is defined as: IDR = imports*100/(production + imports exports). The complement of this ratio to 100 would represent that part of the domestic food
supply that has been produced in the country itself. However, there is a caveat to be kept in
mind: these ratios hold only if imports are mainly used for domestic utilization and are not reexported.

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Imputation

A term used in data processing indicating replacement of individual data which are either not
consistent or missing.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Inequality of dietary energy


consumption distribution

Gini index, an aggregate numerical measure, is used to measure the extent to which distribution
FAO Statistics Division
of food dietary energy consumption distribution among individuals or households within an
economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. Gini index ranges from 0 (perfect equality)
to 100 (perfect inequality).

Inequality of income
distribution

Gini index, an aggregate numerical measure, is used to measure the extent to which distribution
of income among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal
distribution. Gini index ranges from 0 (perfect equality) to 100 (perfect inequality).

Inequality of land distribution Gini index, an aggregate numerical measure, is used to measure the extent to which distribution
of land among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal
distribution. Gini index ranges from 0 (perfect equality) to 100 (perfect inequality).

FAO Statistics Division

- FAO Statistics Division. - World Bank. 2000. World Development Indicators. - UNDP. 2004. Human Development Report.

Inland water

Inland water is the area occupied by major rivers, lakes and reservoirs. Data are expressed in
1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

International Dollar prices

International Dollar prices are international prices expressed in a common currency (usually the
US Dollar, hence their name) that were developed within the framework of GDP international
comparisons.

FAO Statistics Division

International prices are useful in computing comparable value aggregates for different
commodities groups. They also form a basic input to the computation of FAOs Laspeyres-type
production index numbers which use the concept of constant price comparisons. Inter-country
comparison of aggregates and resulting index numbers hinges largely on the choice of an
appropriate methodology for determining international prices. Details on theory, methodology
and interpretation of international comparisons and international prices are discussed at length in
many articles and ICP reports. Reported below are the main steps in the calculation of
international prices.
International prices are a function of production of the different commodities in different
countries, of their national prices and of the exchange rates between national currencies. These
functions must satisfy some (mathematical) feasibility requirements and some criteria that ensure
the economic significance of the results. The main methods that satisfy most requirements
(Geary-Khamis, Gerardi, EKS, etc.) can be divided into two main categories: those methods that
derive international prices and exchange rates directly from price and quantity data and methods
that construct price index numbers directly from which, in turn, implicit exchange rates can be
calculated.

The Geary-Khamis approach that has been chosen by the UN to define the international prices
and exchange rates derived from the data through a system of interdependent equations. In the
equation system international prices of commodities are weighted averages of national prices
converted into a common currency and weighted by national outputs. Exchange rates are equal
to the ratio of the value of production of a given country at international prices divided by the
value of production of the same country in national currency. When one currency is chosen as
the numeraire, the system can be solved and has a unique solution. Exchange rates of the other
currencies and international prices can be expressed in terms of the currency chosen as the
reference. The set of international prices and exchange rates thus obtained can enter directly the
computation of price and quantity index numbers.
International dollars

In aggregating production of commodities that cannot be added up with their physical weight,
for example cereals and cotton, and also to make regional totals without using official exchange
rates to US dollars, or to any other currency, which are often misleading, particularly for
developing countries, the aggregation of production has been made on the basis of the value of
commodities by using ''international commodity prices''.

FAO Statistics Division

Those prices result from the iterative comparison, through mathematical methods, of the
production value of all commodities in all countries, obtained from the producer prices of each
commodity/country, with the corresponding value of production in the United States obtained in
a similiar manner.
With the operation, both special exchange rates to US dollars for each country and thereby
special commodity prices for each commodity are obtained: The so called ''International
dollars''.
Thus, the method assigns a single price to each commodity and country. For example, 1 ton of
maize has the same price in whichever country it is produced.
As both production and producer prices entering in the game are those of the average 2004-2006,
it can be said that those prices are the average of prices in different countries, around 2005, after
converting them into a common currency unit. Therefore the Indices indicate fairly well
production trends as prices are not based on official exchange rates to US dollars but on special
exchange rates derived from the Geary-Khamis formula. While official exchange rates are much
influenced by sectors (industry, services, finance, etc) which have nothing to do with the
agricultural sector, the Geary-Khamis formula takes into account only the agricultural sector.
Killed weight

Killed weight is the gross weight of the carcass including the hide or skin, head, feet and internal
organs, but excluding the part of the blood which is not collected in the course of slaughter.

Kilocalorie (kcal)

Unit of measurement of dietary energy. It should be noted that in accordance to International


System of Units, energy is measured in joules, J, but the customary usage of thermochemical
energy units of kilocalories (kcal) is mostly used. 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ.

Human energy requirement (Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation), 2001

Labour force

All those employed (including people above a specified age who, during the reference period,
were in paid employment, at work, sel-employed or with a job but not at work) and unemployed
(including people above a specified age who, during the reference period, were without work,
currently available for work and seeking work).

International Labour Organisation (ILO). 1996. Economically Active Population 1950-2010: Fourth edition. Geneva.

Land area

Land area is the total area of the country excluding area under inland water bodies. Possible
variations in the data may be due to updating and revisions of the country data and not
necessarily to any change of area. Data are expressed in 1 000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Land use

In agricultural statistics refers to land classification according to the agricultural holders'


concepts of use, i.e. arable land, pastures etc.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Land use

The type of activity being carried out on a unit of land. It is recognized that these categories are a IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
mixture of land cover (e.g., Forest, Grassland, Wetlands) and land use (e.g., Cropland,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.
Settlements) classes.

Laspeyres formula

The index is calculated by summing the Standardised Local Currency (SLC) price for a given
year multiplied by production quantity in base year for all items in the aggregate and dividing by
the sum of the SLC price in the base year multiplied by production quantity for the base year for
the same items. The single item indices are calculated by dividing the SLC price in a given year
by the SLC price in the base year.

FAO Statistics Division

Life expectancy at birth


(years)

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing
patterns of mortality at the time of birth were to stay the same during the lifespan.

World Bank. 2004. World Development Indicators.

List frame

In agricultural statistics consists of a list of villages or enumeration blocks and a list of names of
agricultural holders with information required for locating them for the purpose of enumeration.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Live weight of animals


intended for slaughter

Live weight of animals intended for slaughter is the weight taken immediately before slaughter.
It is assumed that animals intended for slaughter are kept in the slaughterhouse premises for 12
hours and are not fed or watered during this time.

Livestock

Animals such as cattle and sheep which are kept on the holding or otherwise for agricultural
production.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Male population

Refers to the present-in-area (de facto) population which includes all male persons physically
present within the present geographical boundaries of countries at the mid-point of the reference
period.

United Nations, World Population Prospects

Manure

Waste materials produced by domestic livestock which can be managed for agricultural
purposes. When manure is managed in a way that involves anaerobic decomposition, significant
emissions of methane can result.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Manure spreaders and


Fertiliser distributors

Manure spreaders and Fertiliser distributors are implements for spreading solid or liquid manure
and distributing powder or granular fertilizers. Data are expressed in numbers in use in the
agricultural sector.

FAO Statistics Division

Marketed production

Production for sale. Excludes own consumption by farmers and perhaps some post-harvest
losses. Marketed production is one of the three main concepts of production (and yield) used by
countries when reporting to FAO.

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Maximum dietary energy


requirement

In a specified age and sex group, the amount of dietary energy per person that is considered
adequate to meet the energy needs for heavy activity and good health. In an entire population,
the maximum energy requirement is the weighted average of the maximum energy requirements
of the different age and sex groups in the population. This is expressed in kilocalories per person
per day.

FAO Statistics Division

Milk production

Production data of milk indicates the quantity of milk produced during the year from the animals
of the species to which the Supply Utilization Accounts refer. Milk production data is reported
according to the concept of net milk production: total production of whole fresh milk, excluding
the milk sucked by young animals but including amounts fed to livestock.

FAO Statistics Division

Milking machines

Milking machines are used for milking cows, sheep, goats, etc. Data are expressed in numbers in
use in the agricultural sector.

FAO Statistics Division

Milking, dairy machinery


(trade)

Milking, dairy machinery refer to total milking and dairy machines as described by the
Harmonised Coding System (HS) code 8434. Data refer to the value of the trade expressed in
1000 USD.

FAO Statistics Division

Minimum dietary energy


requirement

In a specified age and sex group, the amount of dietary energy per person is that considered
adequate to meet the energy needs for minimum acceptable weight for attained-height
maintaining a healthy life and carrying out a light physical activity. In the entire population, the
minimum energy requirement is the weighted average of the minimum energy requirements of
the different age and sex groups in the population.

FAO Statistics Division

Monoammonium phosphate
(MAP)

NH4H2PO4, is formed when a solution of phosphoric acid is added to ammonia until the solution
is distinctly acid.

FAO Statistics Division

National poverty headcount


(% of population)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line.
National estimates are based on population-weighted sub-group estimates from household
surveys.

World Bank. 2004. World Development Indicators.

Natural deaths

Number of animals which died during the year due to natural causes (disease, floods etc.).

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Net production index number

Cf. Agricultural production indices under Methodologies

FAO Statistics Division

Net production index number


per capita

Cf. Agricultural production indices under Methodologies.Per caput index obtained by dividing
Production Index numbers by index of population.

FAO Statistics Division

Net production value

Cf. Agricultural production indices under Methodologies

FAO Statistics Division

Net weight

The net shipping weight in kilograms excluding the weight of packages or containers.

UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York.

Nomadic animals

Nomadic animals are those without any fixed installation which continually or periodically shift
from place to place. The phenomenon of nomadism exists in Africa and in the Near East. In
areas where nomadism is practised, livestock may be enumerated twice, or may not be
enumerated at all if enumerators fail to pay sufficient attention to this livestock-rearing practice.

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Nomadic livestock

Refers to animals kept by households with no permanent place of residence who are forced by
natural circumstances, such as scarcity of water and pastures, or because of climatic conditions
to move from place to place. The enumeration of such holdings presents special problems.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Non-cereal food aid


shipments

Non-cereal commodities or commodity groups include skimmed milk powder, vegetable oil,
butter oil, other dairy products, meat, fish, pulses, sugar, dried fruit and other foodstuffs. From
1977 to 1986, because of the non-availability of data, non-cereal food aid is composed of four
commodities only: skimmed milk powder, vegetable oil, butter oil and other dairy products.

From 1970/71 to 1990/91, data on food aid shipments was compiled by FAO from the information provided by donor countries, and complemented by
data provided by the FAO Consultative Sub-Committee on Surplus Disposal, the World Food Programme (WFP), the International Wheat Council,
OECD, and other international organizations. From 1990/91 to date, the information on food aid shipments has been provided to FAO exclusively by
WFP.

Non-starchy foods

All food sources for dietary energy supply, except cereals and roots and tubers.

FAO. 2003. The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI - 2003). Rome.

NPK complex <=10kg

Can be produced as the result of a chemical reaction of nitric acid on phosphate rock the
nitrophosphate route, with or without added ammonia and/or phosphoric and/or sulfuric acid or
between sulfuric acid and ammonia the ammoniation route.

FAO Statistics Division

NPK complex >10kg

Can be produced as the result of a chemical reaction of nitric acid on phosphate rock the
nitrophosphate route, with or without added ammonia and/or phosphoric and/or sulfuric acid or
between sulfuric acid and ammonia the ammoniation route.

FAO Statistics Division

Number of live animals

This variable indicates the number of animals of the species present in the country at the time of
enumeration. It includes animals raised either for draft purposes or for meat, eggs and dairy
production or kept for breeding. Live animals in captivity for fur or skin such as foxes, minks

FAO Statistics Division

etc. are not included in the system although furskin trade is reported. The enumeration to be
chosen, when more than one survey is taken, is the closest to the beginning of the calendar year.
Livestock data are reported in number of heads (units) except for poultry, rabbits and other
rodents which are reported in thousand units.
Number of overnourished
people

Number of persons with food intake that is in excess of maximum dietary energy requirements
continuously.

FAO Statistics Division

Number of undernourished
people

Number of people in a condition of undernourishment. The number of persons undernourished is


obtained by multiplying estimates of the proportion of undernourished for each country by
estimates of the total population. Undernourishment refers to the condition of people whose
dietary energy consumption is continuously below a minimum dietary energy requirement for
maintaining a healthy life and carrying out a light physical activity.

FAO Statistics Division

Nutritional status

The physiological state of an individual that results from the relationship between nutrient intake
and requirements and from the bodys ability to digest, absorb and use these nutrients.

FAO. 2000. The state of food insecurity in the world (SOFI -2000). Rome.

Opening stocks

Data refer to the quantities in stocks available at the beginning of the reference period
irrespective of its origin, i.e. domestic production or imports. In principle, this should include
stocks held at various levels between the farm and the level at which "final consumption" of the
commodity is measured. In this sense, government stocks, stocks with manufacturers, importers,
exporters and other wholesale merchants, transport and storage enterprises and stock on farms
are included. A basic element of an account concerns volumes of the product under
consideration at a specific point in time, most often expressed in terms of weight, in tonnes (1
000 kilograms). In practice, comprehensive and reliable data are rarely available, therefore the
Supply Utilization Accounts make use of the stock variation rather than levels.

FAO Statistics Division

Other Agricultural tractors

Other agricultural tractors include all other agricultural tractors that are not pedestrian controlled
or track-lying, e.g. 4-wheel, 6-wheel, etc. Data are expressed in numbers in use in the
agricultural sector.

FAO Statistics Division

Other land

Other land is the land not classified as Agricultural land and Forest area. It includes built-up and
related land, barren land, other wooded land, etc. Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Other nitrogen & phosphates


compounds

Can be produced as the result of a chemical reaction of nitric acid on phosphate rock, with or
without added ammonia and/or phosphoric and/or sulfuric acid or between sulfuric acid and
ammonia. or by simple mechanical mixing or blending. Other NP compound may also include
some AN grades with small amounts of phosphates.

FAO Statistics Division

Other nitrogen & phosphorus


compounds

Can be produced as the result of a chemical reaction of nitric acid on phosphate rock, with or
without added ammonia and/or phosphoric and/or sulfuric acid or between sulfuric acid and
ammonia. or by simple mechanical mixing or blending. Other NP compound may also include
some AN grades with small amounts of phosphates.

FAO Statistics Division

Other utilization

Data refer to quantities of commodities used for non-food purposes, e.g. oil for soap. In order not FAO. 1986. The ICS users' manual. Interlinked computer strorage and processing system of food and agricultural commodity data. Rome.
to distort the picture of the national food pattern quantities of the commodity in question
consumed mainly by tourists are included here (see also "Per capita supply"). In addition, this
variable covers pet food.

Overnourished population

Share of population with food intake that is in excess of maximum dietary energy requirements
continuously.

FAO. 2003. Proceedings Measurement and assessment of food deprivation and undernutrition. International Scientific Symposium Rome, 26-28 June
2002. An Inter-agency Initiative to Promote Information and Mapping Systems on Food Insecurity and Vulnerability (FIVIMS). Rome.

Overnourishment

Food intake that is in excess of dietary energy requirements continuously.

FAO. 2000. The state of food insecurity in the world 2000. Rome.

Pedestrian controlled tractors

Pedestrian controlled tractors are small tractors equipped with a single driving axle carried on

FAO Statistics Division

one or two wheels. They are not usually fitted with a seat and the steering is effected by means
of two handles. Some types, however, have a one- or two-wheeled rear carriage with a seat for
the driver. Data are expressed in numbers in use in the agricultural sector.
Per capita supply

Estimates of per capita food supplies available for human consumption during the reference
FAO Statistics Division
period in terms of quantity, caloric value, protein and fat content. Calorie supplies are reported in
kilocalories (1 calorie = 4.19 kilojoules). Per capita supplies in terms of product weight are
derived from the total supplies available for human consumption (i.e. Food) by dividing the
quantities of Food by the total population actually partaking of the food supplies during the
reference period, i.e. the present in-area (de facto) population within the present geographical
boundaries of the country. In other words, nationals living abroad during the reference period are
excluded, but foreigners living in the country are included. Adjustments are made wherever
possible for part-time presence or absence, such as temporary migrants, tourists and refugees
supported by special schemes (if it has not been possible to allow for the amounts provided by
such schemes under imports). In almost all cases, the population figures used are the mid-year
estimates published by the United Nations Population Division. Per capita supply figures shown
in the commodity balances therefore represent only the average supply available for the
population as a whole and do not necessarily indicate what is actually consumed by individuals.
Even if they are taken as approximation to per capita consumption, it is important to note that the
amount of food actually consumed may be lower than the quantity shown here, depending on the
degree of losses of edible food and nutrients in the household, e.g. during storage, in preparation
and cooking etc. In many cases commodities are not consumed in the primary form in which
they are presented in the commodity balance, e.g. cereals enter the household mainly in
processed form like flour, meal, husked or milled rice. To take this fact into account, the caloric
value, the protein and fat content shown against primary commodities in the commodity
balances have been derived by applying the appropriate food composition factors to the
quantities of the processed commodities and not by multiplying the quantities shown in the
commodity balance with the food composition factors relating to primary commodities.

Permanent crops

Crops are divided into temporary and permanent crops. Permanent crops are sown or planted
once, and then occupy the land for some years and need not be replanted after each annual
harvest, such as cocoa, coffee and rubber. This category includes flowering shrubs, fruit trees,
nut trees and vines, but excludes trees grown for wood or timber.

Permanent crops (land use


database)

Permanent crops is the land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted
FAO Statistics Division
for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such
as roses and jasmine; and nurseries (except those for forest trees, which should be classified
under "forest"). Permanent meadows and pastures are excluded from land under permanent
crops. Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

Permanent crops area


certified organic

Part of the area of the "Permanent crops" exclusively dedicated to organic agriculture and
managed by applying organic agriculture methods. It is the portion of land area managed
(cultivated) or wild harvested in accordance with specific organic standards or technical
regulations and that has been inspected and approved by a certification body.

FAO Statistics Division

Permanent crops area in


conversion to organic

Part of the area of the "Permanent crops" which is going through the organic conversion process,
usually two years period of conversion to organic land.

FAO Statistics Division

Permanent crops irrigated

Permanent crops irrigated, area of the "Permanent crops" which is actually irrigated in a given
year. Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Permanent crops nonirrigated

Permanent crops non - irrigated, area of the "Permanent crops" which production relies on
rainfed irrigation in a given year. Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Permanent crops organic,


total

Sum of areas under Permanent crops area certified organic and "Permanent crops area in
conversion to organic.

FAO Statistics Division

Permanent meadows &


pastures - Cultivated

Cultivated is the land under permanent meadows and pastures that is managed and cultivated. A
period of more than five years is used to differentiate between temporary and permanent
meadows. Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Permanent meadows &


pastures - Naturally grown

Permanent meadows and pastures - Naturally grown is the land not being controlled under
permanent meadows and pastures such as wild prairie or grazing land. Data are expressed in
1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Permanent meadows &


pastures Cultivated &
irrigated

Permanent meadows and pastures - Cultivated and irrigated, area of the "Cultivated Permanent
meadows and pastures" which is actually irrigated in a given year. Data are expressed in 1000
hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Permanent meadows &


pastures Cultivated nonirrigated

Permanent meadows and pastures - Cultivated and non- irrigated, area of the "Cultivated
Permanent meadows and pastures" which development relies on rainfed irrigation in a given
year. Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Permanent meadows and


pastures

Permanent meadows and pastures is the land used permanently (five years or more) to grow
herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land). Data
are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Permanent meadows and


pastures area certified
organic

Part of the area of the "Permanent meadows and pastures" exclusively dedicated to organic
agriculture and managed by applying organic agriculture methods. It is the portion of land area
managed (cultivated) or wild harvested in accordance with specific organic standards or
technical regulations and that has been inspected and approved by a certification body.

FAO Statistics Division

Permanent meadows and


pastures area in conversion to
organic

Part of the area of the "Permanent meadows and pastures" which is going through the organic
conversion process, usually two years period of conversion to organic land.

FAO Statistics Division

Permanent meadows and


pastures organic, total

Sum of areas under Permanent meadows and pastures area certified organic and "Permanent
meadows and pastures area in conversion to organic.

FAO Statistics Division

Pesticide consumption

Data refer to quantities of pesticides applied to crops and seeds in the agriculture sector. Figures FAO Statistics Division
are generally expressed in terms of active ingredients. Data are expressed in tonnes (t). However,
due to some country reporting practices, the data may be reported by: consumption in formulated
product (including diluents and adjuvants); sales; distribution or imports for use in the
agricultural sector. In these cases it is specified in the country notes.

Pesticide trade

Value of trade covering insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, disinfectants and others, as


described by the Harmonised Coding System (HS) code 3808. Differences between figures
given for total exports and total imports at the world level may be due to several factors, e.g. the
time lag between the dispatch of goods from exporting country and their arrival in the importing
country; the use of different classification of the same product by different countries; or the fact
that some countries supply data on general trade while others give data on special trade. Data
refer to the value of the trade expressed in 1000 USD.

Pesticides

Pesticides refer to insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, disinfectants and any substance or mixture FAO 2005, Summary of world food and agricultural statistics
of substances intended for preventing, destroying or controlling any pest, including vectors of
human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants or animals causing harm during or
otherwise interfering with the production, processing, storage, transport or marketing of food,
agricultural commodities, wood and wood products or animal feedstuffs, or substances which
may be administered to animals for the control of insects, arachnids or other pests in or on their

FAO Statistics Division

bodies. The term includes substances intended for use as a plant growth regulator, defoliant,
desiccant or agent for thinning fruit or preventing the premature fall of fruit, and substances
applied to crops either before or after harvest to protect the commodity from deterioration during
storage and transport.
Phosphate rock

Is a natural rock containing one or more calcium phosphate minerals of sufficient purity and
quantity as to permit its use directly after grinding or after chemical processing in the
manufacture of commercial phosphate fertilizers.

FAO Statistics Division

Pilot census

A "dry run" for the main census but on a limited scale. It is aimed to evaluate all aspects of the
census operation. It usually takes place some months before the census.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

PK compounds

These comprise mixtures of superphosphate or basic slag or ground phosphate rock with straight
potash products. PK compounds produced as a result of a chemical reaction are not produced for
fertilizer usage.

FAO Statistics Division

Ploughs

Ploughs are implements designed to lift and turn soil. Data are expressed in numbers in use in
the agricultural sector.

FAO Statistics Division

Population density

Number of persons in the total population for a given year per square kilometre of total surface
area.

UN Demographic Yearbook

Post-enumeration survey

A small-scale survey aimed at evaluating the accuracy of the data collected during the census. It
provides valuable information for dissemination.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Potassium chloride (Muriate


of potash)

Is refined from mined, low-grade naturally occurring ores as the mineral sylvite and in
combination with sodium chloride as sylvinite. Potassium chloride contains from about 48 to 62
% K20.

FAO Statistics Division

Potassium nitrate

KNONH3H2PO4 can be produced from naturally occurring sodium nitrate and potassium
chloride and typically contains 13%N and 45% K2O.

FAO Statistics Division

Potassium sulphate

Is a white crystalline salt and contains 48 to 52 per cent potash (K20). Potassium sulfate can be
extracted from naturally occurring brines or by the decomposition of potassium chloride with
sulfuric acid.

FAO Statistics Division

PPP

A purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factor is the number of units of a countrys
currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S.
dollar would buy in the United States.
Source: World Bank, International Comparison Programme database.

FAO Statistics Division

The international comparability of prices converted into US Dollars may not be entirely justified
because the exchange rates applied may, in practice, only be used for the conversion of a limited
number of external transactions and may not be relevant for the much larger portion of GDP
covering domestic transactions. The exchange rate simply converts the GDPs into the same
currency units. Also, exchange rates are based on short-term factors and are subject to
substantial distortions even when averaged over a period of time.
PPPs were introduced to compare GDP aggregates not only in a common currency but at the
same price level. PPPs as published by the World Bank in World Development Indicators are
applied.
Prevalence of overnourished
in total population

Proportion of the population in a condition of overnourishment.

FAO. 2003. Proceedings Measurement and assessment of food deprivation and undernutrition. International Scientific Symposium Rome, 26-28 June
2002. An Inter-agency Initiative to Promote Information and Mapping Systems on Food Insecurity and Vulnerability (FIVIMS). Rome.

Prevalence of
undernourishment

Proportion of the population in a condition of undernourishment. Undernourishment refers to the FAO Statistics Division
condition of people whose dietary energy consumption is continuously below a minimum dietary
energy requirement for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out a light physical activity.

Prices in Agricultural PPP

Prices in Agricultural Purchasing Power Parities (AgPPP) are calculated by converting prices in
local currencies into prices in Dollars using Agricultural PPPs instead of exchange rates.

FAO Statistics Division

Agriculture Purchasing Power Parities have been calculated to equalise purchasing power across
countries based on countries agricultural output by applying the Geary-Khamis equation system
to agriculture output and prices (FAOSTAT datasets of prices in local currency and production
in physical terms).
The equations generate to sets of parameters: a set of international prices expressed in a common
currency and a set of (agriculture) purchasing power parities which equalise countries value of
production in local currency to their value of production in a reference currency. By setting a
countrys AgPPP as equal to 1 the system provides a unique set of solutions.
It has been customary to set the USAs AgPPP as equal to 1 and to express PPPs in relation to
the US Dollar.
Prices in local currency

Prices in local currency are nominal producer prices expressed in the local currency prevailing in FAO Statistics Division
the current year. Thus currency changes can be observed as breaks in the series.

Prices in Standard Local


Currency (SLC)

Prices in SLC are equal to producer prices in local currency multiplied by currency conversion
factors. Currency conversion factors (CCF) are a special kind of exchange rates that convert the
new currency of a given country into the old currency of the same country. These series are
consistent over time and do not breaks when a currency change occurs.

FAO Statistics Division

Prices in US Dollars (US $)

Prices in US Dollars are equal to producer prices in local currency times the exchange rate of the
selected year. The main exchange rates source used is the IMF. Where official and commercial
exchange rates differ significantly, the commercial exchange rate may be applied.

FAO Statistics Division

Primary crops

Primary crops are those which come directly from the land and without having undergone any
FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.
real processing, apart from cleaning. They maintain all the biological qualities they had when
they were still on the plants. Certain primary crops can be aggregated, with their actual weight,
into totals offering meaningful figures on area, yield, production and utilization; for example,
cereals, roots and tubers, nuts, vegetables and fruits. Other primary crops can be aggregated only
in terms of one or the other component common to all of them. For example, primary crops of
the oil-bearing group can be aggregated in terms of oil or oil cake equivalent. Primary crops are
divided into temporary and permanent crops. Temporary crops are those which are both sown
and harvested during the same agricultural year, sometimes more than once; permanent crops are
sown or planted once and not replanted after each annual harvest.

Primary livestock products


from live animals

Primary livestock products from live animals include milk, eggs, honey, beeswax and fibres of
animal origin.

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Primary livestock products


from slaughtered animals

Primary livestock products come directly from slaughtered animals and include meat,edible
offal, slaughtered fats, fresh hides and skins.

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Primary sampling unit

First level of sub-division of the population, created by selection of a part of the population for
further sub-sampling. These may be villages or area blocks which may be sub-divided into
segments.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Processed livestock products

These are derived from primary livestock products from live animals, particularly dairy

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

from live animals

products, such as butter,cheese,and dried eggs. Production data refer only to primary products
while data for all other elements also include processed products derived there from, expressed
in primary commodity equivalent.

Processed livestock products


from slaughtered animals

Derived from the processing of primary livestock products from slaughtered animals and include
bacon, ham, sausages, canned meat, lard and tallow. Production data refer only to primary
products while data for all other elements also include processed products derived there from,
expressed in primary commodity equivalent.

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Producer price index (PPI)

The PPI measures the average change over time in the selling prices received by domestic
producers for their output of a commodity.

FAO Statistics Division

Producer prices

Producer prices are prices received by farmers for primary agricultural products as defined in the
SNA 93.

FAO Statistics Division

The producer's price is the amount receivable by the producer from the purchaser for a unit of a
good or service produced as output minus any VAT, or similar deductible tax, invoiced to the
purchaser. It excludes any transport charges invoiced separately by theproducer.
Time series refer to the national average prices of individual commodities comprising all grades,
kinds and varieties, received by farmers when they participate in their capacity as sellers of their
own products at the farm gate or first-point-of-sale.
Production

Figures relate to the total domestic production whether inside or outside the agricultural sector,
i.e. it includes non-commercial production and production from kitchen gardens. Unless
otherwise indicated, production is reported at the farm level for crop and livestock products (i.e.
in the case of crops, excluding harvesting losses) and in terms of live weight for fish items (i.e.
the actual ex-water weight at the time of the catch). All data shown relate to total meat
production from both commercial and farm slaughter. Data are expressed in terms of dressed
carcass weight, excluding offal and slaughter fats. Production of beef and buffalo meat includes
veal; mutton and goat meat includes meat from lambs and kids; pig meat includes bacon and
ham in fresh equivalent. Poultry meat includes meat from all domestic birds and refers, wherever
possible, to ready-to-cook weight.

FAO Statistics Division

Production - Livestock
primary

Livestock primary products include products from live and slaughtered animals. Products from
slaughtered animals include meat, offals, raw fats, fresh hides and skins. Products from live
animals include milk, eggs, honey, beeswax and fibres of animal origin. All data shown relate to
total meat production from both commercial and farm slaughter. Data are given in terms of
dressed carcass weight, i.e. excluding offals and slaughter fats. Production of beef and buffalo
meat includes veal; mutton and goat meat includes meat from lambs and kids, respectively; pig
meat includes bacon and ham in fresh equivalent. Poultry meat includes meat from all domestic
birds and refers, wherever possible, to ready-to-cook weight. Cow milk production relates to
total production of whole fresh milk, excluding the milk sucked by young animals but including
amounts fed to livestock. The concept of production of buffalo, sheep and goat milk is the same
as for cow milk; however, the coverage is probably less adequate. Egg production covers all
domestic birds which have contributed to egg production during the year, wherever they lay and
the corresponding total production, including eggs intended to be used for hatching but
excluding waste on farms.

FAO Statistics Division

Production of derived vegetal


products

Processed products of vegetal origin. Their parent products are found in the group 'Primary
crops'. Production corresponds to the total output obtained from the processing of the input
commodity in question (primary crops) during the calendar year. The quantity includes the
output of home processing and of manufacturing industries and traditional processing. Data refer
to total net production excluding processing losses, i.e. ex-factory or ex-establishment weight.

FAO Statistics Division

As with the production of primary crops, it may occur that most of the output is obtained at the
end of the calendar year and will be utilized during the following year. Olives picked towards the
end of the year are immediately crushed after to avoid spoilage. Olive oil output therefore cannot
enter the consumption during the same year. In these cases allocations to and from stocks (in the
subsequent years) are made.Production data refer only to primary products while data for all
other elements also include processed products derived there from, expressed in primary
commodity equivalent.
Publicity

The means of informing the public of the purpose of the census and ensuring cooperation of the
holders during the enumeration process. All kinds of media may be used for the publicity
campaign.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Quantity of food and


agricultural exports

According to FAO methodology the quantity of food and agricultural exports included in the
FAOSTAT database is expressed in terms of weight (tonnes) for all commodities except for live
animals which are expressed in units (heads); poultry, rabbits, pigeons and other birds are
expressed in thousand units. As a general rule, trade quantity refer to net weight, excluding any
sort of container.

FAO Statistics Division

Quantity of food and


agricultural imports

According to FAO methodology the quantity of food and agricultural imports included in the
FAOSTAT database is expressed in terms of weight (tonnes) for all commodities except for live
animals which are expressed in units (heads); poultry, rabbits, pigeons and other birds are
expressed in thousand units. As a general rule, trade quantity refer to net weight, excluding any
sort of container.

FAO Statistics Division

Questionnaire

The document used by the enumerators for recording the data. Its design is one of the most
important operations of the census process.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Raw data

Data on the questionnaire provided by the respondent or measured by the enumerator; such data
are not yet reviewed or processed or ready for use. They are normally treated as confidential.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Re-exports

Re-exports refer to foreign goods exported from any part of the economic territory of a country
in the same state as previously imported. The term in the same state is applicable to foreign
goods even if they underwent minor processing which did not change their origin. The scope of
re-exports is not restricted to goods flows identified as re-exports in customs records. It includes,
for instance, foreign goods which are withdrawn, in the same state, from the free circulation
area. Sometimes the latter category of goods is given a special name (e.g. nationalized goods)
and is included in the outright exportation, not in re-exports. Such practice is not recommended
however, since it does not correctly reflect the structure of a compiling country's total exports.
Foreign goods which enter a country for temporary storage (e.g. in customs warehouses) and
leave the country shortly afterwards are to be excluded from trade statistics (i.e. they are not to
be treated as re-exports). In FAOSTAT the export data includes re-export data reported by
country.

- UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York. - FAO Statistics Division

Removals

Removal of greenhouse gases and/or their precursors from the atmosphere by a sink.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Reporting

The process of providing results of the national GHG inventory.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Root or tuber harvesting


machines

Root or tuber harvesting machines are implements used to harvest root and tubers. Data are
expressed in numbers in use in the agricultural sector.

FAO Statistics Division

Rural population

Residual population after subtracting urban population from total population.

Rural poverty headcount (%

Rural poverty rate or headcount index is the percentage of the rural population living below the

World Bank. 2004. World Development Indicators.

of population)

rural poverty line.

Sampling frame

Can be defined as a list of sample units that: (a) includes all (100%) of the population of interest
without duplication, (b) provides a clear cut means of identifying each sample unit, and (c)
arranges these characteristics so that probability sampling can be done efficiently.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Sampling unit

Represents elements or groups of elements of the universe under study, which can be selected in
the sample. There may be sampling units of different levels (see: primary and secondary
sampling units), the lowest level being the element under study, i.e. agricultural holding.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Satellite imagery

Describes the images provided by satellites (SPOT, LANDSAT etc.) and sometimes used for the
cartographic preparation.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Scope

Refers to the list of items for which data is to be collected.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Secondary sampling unit

A second level sub-division of the population (ultimate level in the case of two-stage sampling)
which may be agricultural holdings or area segments, intended for sub-sampling.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Seed

Data include the amounts of the commodity in question set aside for sowing or planting (or
generally for reproduction purposes, e.g. sugar cane planted, potatoes for seed, eggs for hatching
and fish for bait, whether domestically produced or imported) during the reference period.
Account is taken of double or successive sowing or planting whenever it occurs. The data of
seed include also, when it is the case, the quantities necessary for sowing or planting the area
relating to crops harvested green for fodder or for food.(e.g. green peas, green beans, maize for
forage) Data for seed element are stored in tonnes (t). Whenever official data were not available,
seed figures have been estimated either as a percentage of supply (e.g. eggs for hatching) or by
multiplying a seed rate with the area under the crop of the subsequent year.

FAO. 1986. The ICS users' manual. Interlinked computer strorage and processing system of food and agricultural commodity data. Rome.

Seeders

Seeders are implements for sowing seeds or grain evenly in well-spaced rows at specific depths.
Data are expressed in numbers in use in the agricultural sector.

FAO Statistics Division

Self-sufficiency ratio

The self-sufficiency ratio (SSR) is defined as: SSR = production*100/(production + imports


exports). The SSR can be calculated for individual commodities, groups of commodities of
similar nutritional values and, after appropriate conversion of the commodity equations, also for
the aggregate of all commodities. In the context of food security, the SSR is often taken to
indicate the extent to which a country relies on its own production resources, i.e. the higher the
ratio the greater the self-sufficiency. While the SSR can be the appropriate tool when assessing
the supply situation for individual commodities, a certain degree of caution should be observed
when looking at the overall food situation. In the case, however, where a large part of a country's
production of one commodity, e.g. other cereals, is exported, the SSR may be very high but the
country may still have to rely heavily on imports of food commodities to feed the population.
The self-sufficiency rate (as defined above) cannot be the complement to 100 of the import
dependency rate, or vice-versa.

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Sequestration

The process of storing carbon in a carbon pool.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Share of agricultural exports


in domestic supply

Contribution of agricultural exports to total domestic supply.

FAO Statistics Division

Share of agricultural exports


in total merchandise exports

Contribution of agricultural exports to total merchandise exports.

FAO Statistics Division

Share of agricultural imports


in domestic supply

Contribution of agricultural imports to total domestic supply.

FAO Statistics Division

Share of agricultural imports


in total merchandise imports

Contribution of agricultural imports to total merchandise imports.

FAO Statistics Division

Shifting cultivation

A land utilization method; a particular piece of land is cultivated for some years and then
abandoned for a period required to restore its fertility by natural vegetative growth; it is then
cultivated again. The distinguishing feature of shifting cultivation is that neither organic
fertilizers nor manure are used to retain soil fertility.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Shifting cultivation

This is a peculiar land utilization method practised generally in remote and not easily accessible
areas in certain African countries. A particular piece of land is cultivated for some years and
then, when productivity decreases, it becomes more convenient to open up a new piece of land
and abandon the exhausted one. Naturally, the crops grown in this sort of itinerant agriculture,
are most probably excluded from the regular agricultural surveys.

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Sink

Any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol, or a precursor
of a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere. Notation in the final stages of reporting is the negative
(-) sign.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Slaughter fats

Edible and inedible unrendered fats which fall in the course of dressing the carcasses and are
recovered from the discarded and fallen animals; guts, sweepings, hide trimmings etc.

FAO Statistics Division

Software

Consists of programs that control a computer and its peripherals as opposed to actual machinery.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Soil machinery (trade)

Soil machinery refers to total machines described by the Harmonised Coding System (HS) code
8432. Data refer to the value of the trade expressed in 1000 USD.

FAO Statistics Division

Source

Any process or activity which releases a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a


greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. Notation in the final stages of reporting is the positive (+)
sign.

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

Special trade

The special trade system is in use when the statistical territory comprises only a particular part of UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York.
the economic territory, the free circulation area, which is the part within which goods may be
disposed of without customs restriction. Consequently, special imports include all goods
entering the free circulation area of a compiling country, which means cleared through customs
for domestic consumption or for inward processing, including withdrawals from bonded
warehouses or industrial free zones. Special exports include all goods leaving the free circulation
area of a compiling country, including goods that leave a country after inward processing
(wholly or partly produced or manufactured in the country) and goods that leave an industrial
free zone.

Standard Local Currency


(SLC)

The Standard Local Currency of a country is set as the local currency prevailing in the current
year.

FAO Statistics Division

Statistical discrepancies

Statistical discrepancies indicate the level of imbalance in the equation and help in detecting the
type of mistake in the Supply Utilization Account. In cases of marginal errors and when the
figures show a negative balance, the data is suppressed and the account is left blank with the
code SD to identify this statistical discrepancy.

FAO Statistics Division

Statistical trade value

Statistical trade value is the sum of the transaction value of goods (or its substitute), and the
value of the services performed in delivering the goods to the border of the exporting (or
importing) country, and not included in their transaction value.

UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York.

Stock variation

Comprises changes in stocks occurring during the reference period at all levels between the
production and the retail levels, i.e. it comprises changes in government stocks, in stocks with
manufacturers, importers, exporters, other wholesale and retail merchants, transport and storage

FAO Statistics Division

enterprises and in stocks on farms. In actual fact, however, the information available often
relates only to stocks held by governments and even these are not available for a number of
countries and important commodities. In the absence of information on opening and closing
stocks changes in stocks are also used for shifting production from the calendar year in which it
is harvested to the year in which it is consumed. Net increases in stocks (add to stock) are
generally indicated by the sign "-". No sign denotes net decreases (from stock).
Stratification

Refers to a subdivision of the universe under study into homogeneous areas for sampling
purposes, called strata. In each stratum separate samples are taken and separate estimates are
made.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Stunting (low height for age)

Proportion of under-five falling below minus 2 and minus 3 standard deviations from the median
height-for-age of reference population recognized by World Health Organization (WHO).

UNICEF

Successive cropping

Successive crops or catch crops are those which are sown and harvested on the same piece of
FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.
land previously occupied by another crop, or even by the same crop, during the same agricultural
year.

Superphosphate

Superphosphate is a fertilizer produced by the action of concentrated sulfuric acid on powdered


phosphate rock.

FAO Statistics Division

Superphosphate above 35%

Is produced by the action of sulphuric and phosphoric acids on ground phosphate rock.

FAO Statistics Division

Superphosphate other

Is produced by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on ground phosphate rock.

FAO Statistics Division

Temporary crops

Crops are divided into temporary and permanent crops. Temporary crops are those which are
both sown and harvested during the same agricultural year, sometimes more than once.

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Temporary crops (land use


database)

Temporary crops is all land used for crops with a less than one-year growing cycle and which
must be newly sown or planted for further production after the harvest. Data are expressed in
1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Temporary crops irrigated

Temporary crops irrigated, area of the "Temporary crops" which is actually irrigated in a given
year. Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Temporary crops nonirrigated

Temporary crops non irrigated, area of the "Temporary crops" which production relies on
rainfed irrigation in a given year. Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Temporary meadows &


pastures irrigated

Temporary meadows and pastures irrigated, area of the "Temporary meadows and pastures"
which is actually irrigated in a given year. Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Temporary meadows &


pastures non-irrigated

Temporary meadows and pastures non- irrigated, area of the "Temporary meadows and pastures" FAO Statistics Division
which development relies on rainfed irrigation in a given year. Data are expressed in 1000
hectares.

Temporary meadows and


pastures

Temporary meadows and pastures is the land temporarily cultivated with herbaceous forage
crops for mowing or pasture. A period of less than five years is used to differentiate between
temporary and permanent meadows. Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division

Threshing machines
(staking,forage harv.)

Threshing machines (staking, forage harvesting) are machines that separate grain from straw.
Data are expressed in numbers in use in the agricultural sector.

FAO Statistics Division

Tier

A tier represents a level of methodological complexity. Usually three tiers are provided. Tier 1 is
the basic method, Tier 2 intermediate and Tier 3 most demanding in terms of complexity and
data requirements. Tiers 2 and 3 are sometimes referred to as higher tier methods and are

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme,
Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (Eds), IGES, Hayama, Japan.

generally considered to be more accurate.


Time reference

A point in time or a period of time to which the data collected refer. A point of time may be
either a specific date or day of enumeration. A period is used for reporting the activities, such as
employment or production, and refers usually to an agricultural year.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Total agricultural exports

Total agricultural exports are expressed in terms of value. They cover all movements out of the
country of the commodity in question during the reference period. They include commercial
trade, donated quantities and estimates of unrecorded trade.

FAO Statistics Division

Total agricultural imports

Total agricultural imports are expressed in terms of value. They cover all movements into the
country of the commodity in question during the reference period. They include commercial
trade, food aid granted on specific terms, donated quantities and estimates of unrecorded trade.

FAO Statistics Division

Total area equipped for


irrigation

Area equipped to provide water (via irrigation) to the crops. It includes areas equipped for full
and partial control irrigation, equipped lowland areas, pastures, and areas equipped for spate
irrigation. Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

FAO Statistics Division & AQUASTAT

Total merchandise trade

According to the International Merchandise Trade Statistics Compilers Manual, by UNSD, it is


UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York.
recommended that international merchandise trade statistics record all goods which add to or
subtract from the stock of material resources of a country by entering (imports) or leaving
(exports) its economic territory. Goods simply being transported through a country (goods in
transit) or temporarily admitted or withdrawn (except for goods for inward or outward
processing) do not add to or subtract from the stock of material resources of a country and are
not included in the international merchandise trade statistics. Customs records are the main
source of the data; use of additional sources where customs sources are not available is also
recommended. Goods are to be included in statistics at the time when they enter or leave the
economic territory of a country; in the case of customs-based data collection systems, the time of
recording should be the date of lodgement of the customs declaration. Lists of goods to be
included, to be included and recorded separately, and to be excluded are provided. Specific
goods are to be excluded from detailed international merchandise trade statistics but recorded
separately in order to derive totals of international merchandise trade for national accounts and
balance of payments purposes.

Total population

The total population usually refers to the present-in-area (de facto) population which includes all
persons physically present within the present geographical boundaries of countries at the midpoint of the reference period.

United Nations. 2003. World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision. New York.

Total unrendered fat

Includes slaughter fats and butchering fats (edible and inedible).

FAO Statistics Division

Track-laying tractors

Track-laying tractors are tractors which travel on steel or rubber or treads. Data are expressed in
numbers in use in the agricultural sector.

FAO Statistics Division

Tract

A portion or a sub-division of land which is under single management. It is either a whole


holding, an agricultural or non-agricultural part of a holding. Tract is determined, therefore, by
definition of a holding and by boundaries of a segment. A holding is composed of one or more
tracts.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.

Transaction value

The concept of transaction value adopted for the purposes of international merchandise trade
statistics is based on the provisions of Article VII of the GATT and on the Agreement on
Implementation of Article VII of GATT (the WTO Valuation Agreement). Transaction value is
defined as the price actually paid or payable for goods when sold for export to the country of
importation. This price is to be calculated as the total payment made or to be made by the buyer
to or for the benefit of the seller for the imported goods. Payments can be monetary or in the
form of specified goods or services.

UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York.

Transhumance

The seasonal migration of livestock from pastures on plains and lowlands (autumn-winter) to
pastures on mountain-sides (in spring and summer) and vice versa is known as transhumance. In
areas where transhumance is practised, livestock may be enumerated twice, or may not be
enumerated at all if enumerators fail to pay sufficient attention to this livestock-rearing practice.

FAO. 2001. Food balance sheets. A handbook. Rome.

Undernourishment

Undernourishment refers to the condition of people whose dietary energy consumption is


continuously below a minimum dietary energy requirement for maintaining a healthy life and
carrying out a light physical activity. The number of undernourished people refers to those in
this condition.

FAO Statistics Division

Underweight (low weight for


age)

Proportion of under-five falling below minus 2 standard deviations (moderate underweight) and
minus 3 standard deviations (severe underweight) from the median weight-for-age of reference
population recognized by World Health Organization (WHO).

UNICEF

Unit value of agricultural


exports

Unit value of the exported commodity is the amount actually paid for one unit (by quantity unit)
of the given commodity when sold for exportation to the compiling country or the cost of one
unit of the commodity if not sold; the unit value is calculated as the report between the trade
value and the trade quantity. In FAOSTAT database the unit value is expressed in US dollars per
tonne, US dollars per live animal or US dollars per 1 000 heads in the case of poultry, rabbits,
pigeons and other birds.

- UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York. - FAO Statistics Division

Unit value of agricultural


imports

Unit value of the imported commodity is the amount actually paid for one unit (by quantity unit)
of the given commodity when purchased for importation from the compiling country, or the cost
of one unit of the commodity if not purchased; the unit value is calculated as the report between
the trade value and the trade quantity. In FAOSTAT database the unit value is expressed in US
dollars per tonne, US dollars per live animal or US dollars per 1 000 heads in the case of poultry,
rabbits, pigeons and other birds.

- UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York. - FAO Statistics Division

Urban population

Refers to the population residing in urban areas. Usually the urban areas and hence the urban
population are defined according to national census definitions which can be roughly divided
into three major groups: classification of localities of a certain size as urban; classification of
administrative centres of minor civil divisions as urban; and classification of centres of minor
civil divisions on a chosen criterion which may include type of local government, number of
inhabitants or proportion of population engaged in agriculture, as urban.

UN Demographic Yearbook

Urban poverty headcount (%


of population)

Urban poverty rate is the percentage of the urban population living below the national urban
poverty line.

World Bank. 2004. World Development Indicators.

Urea

CO(NH2)2, is produced from synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide (CO2) and contains 46%
nitrogen in ammoniac form. Urea may be in granular, prilled or crystalline form.

FAO Statistics Division

Urea and ammonium nitrate


solutions

Are produced from concentrated solutions of urea and ammonium nitrate by chemical or
blending processes.

FAO Statistics Division

Value of agricultural exports

Value of agricultural exports should be reported in national currency, US dollars or other


currency. Export values are mostly reported as FOB. In the FAOSTAT database export values
are expressed in thousand US dollars.

- UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York. - FAO Statistics Division

Value of agricultural imports

Value of agricultural imports should be reported in national currency, US dollars or other


- UNSD. 2004. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual. New York. - FAO Statistics Division
currency. Import values are mostly reported as CIF. In the FAOSTAT database import values are
expressed in thousand US dollars.

Value of fertilizer exports

Value of fertilizers exported by a country. Data are reported in thousand US dollars. Data
received by countries in national currencies are converted by using the average annual exchange
rate provided by the International Monetary Fund.

FAO Statistics Division

Value of fertilizer imports

Value of fertilizers imported by a country. Data are reported in thousand US dollars. Data
received by countries in national currencies are converted by using the average annual exchange
rate provided by the International Monetary Fund.

FAO Statistics Division

Waste

Amount of the commodity in question lost through wastage (waste) during the year at all stages
FAO. 1986. The ICS users' manual. Interlinked computer strorage and processing system of food and agricultural commodity data. Rome.
between the level at which production is recorded and the household, i.e. storage and
transportation. Losses occurring before and during harvest are excluded. Waste from both edible
and inedible parts of the commodity occurring in the household is also excluded. Quantities lost
during the transformation of primary commodities into processed products are taken into account
in the assessment of respective extraction/conversion rates. Distribution wastes tend to be
considerable in countries with hot humid climate, difficult transportation and inadequate storage
or processing facilities. This applies to the more perishable foodstuffs, and especially to those
which have to be transported or stored for a long time in a tropical climate. Waste is often
estimated as a fixed percentage of availability, the latter being defined as production plus
imports plus stock withdrawals.

Wasting (low weight for


height)

Proportion of under-five falling below minus 2 and minus 3 standard deviations from the median
weight-for-height of reference population recognized by World Health Organization (WHO).

UNICEF

Workplan

A chart identifying all specific activities of the census in a time frame.

FAO. 1996. Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6. Rome.