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Crafting Innovation Together

THEORY OF INVENTIVE
PROBLEM SOLVING - TRIZ
Practitioners Work Book

Inventive Thinking YOU ARE


STUCK!!

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IS YOUR PROBLEM
INVENTIVE?

No known means for solution


High psychological inertia
Contains one or more contradictions
A contradiction is a situation where an attempt
to improve one feature of the system leads to
the degradation of another feature.
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August 28, 2012

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IDEAS
IDEAS are those thoughts that bring in the genesis of change many times
fundamental. These are thoughts that one doesnt get in regular run-of-the-mill
thinking.
IDEAS can happen serendipitously in human mind. They can happen at any time.
They can be fleeting glimpses of problem solutions, can be dreams of possible
new opportunities, can be new design structures or simply new experiences.
IDEAS doesnt happen just like that. They come to prepared minds. Only
prepared minds can transform these thoughts into change. It requires an ability
to generate and execute at the same time.
IDEAS need to be crafted through orchestrated immersion. Contrary to popular
belief of organization having lots of ideas and it is all about execution, our
experiences show ideas need to be crafted through orchestrated immersion of
minds that work inside and with the enterprises.

IDEAS - Sources
IDEAS need to be crafted through orchestrated immersion. Contrary to popular
belief of organization having lots of ideas and it is all about execution, our
experiences show ideas need to be crafted through orchestrated immersion of
minds that work inside and with the enterprises.

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Imagination

IDEAS
Problems/Crisis

Existing Solutions/ Patents


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MODEL OF IDEA GERMINATION


SEARCHING FOR A SOLUTION OR IMAGINING NEW
Human thoughts move from
Facts (F) that describe/image the initial problem/system
To determine something Special (S) about F
Thoughts move in a specific direction (Alpha) until they
encounter a Psychological Barrier (B) Either necessary
knowledge or the necessary psychological state is not there

B ?

Alpha

*B.M. Kedrov: Theory of Scientific Inventions, 1969


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MODEL OF IDEA GERMINATION


Thoughts move in a specific direction (Alpha) until they encounter a Psychological
Barrier (B) Either necessary knowledge or the necessary psychological state is
not there

B ?

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Alpha

A NEW PATH is needed to Jump the Barrier B, a Gamma

Path

Gamma Paths NON Obvious Ideas


F

S
Alpha

IDEA

GAMMA
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HOW TO GET NON-OBVIOUS IDEAS


1. Perseverance, Patience, Burning your hands
sometimes burning yourself as well
1. Systematically search for ways of
overcoming barriers by getting relevant
knowledge and getting the mind to relevant
psychological state
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SYSTEM AND FUNCTION

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When we talk about defining a System - from


fundamental principles point of view
set of elements working together to achieve an
objective or perform a function.
set of elements (Energy-matter organized in space-time) working together
(exchanging energy and information) to achieve an objective or perform a function
(Create Change - in Matter, Energy and Information in Spacetime).

When the system is achieved by thought and consciousness we make systems


artificial A TECHNICAL SYSTEM

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August 28, 2012

What is a Technical System?


Anything that performs a function is a Technical System
Model of a Function

A function is an intended direct


(physical) action of the tool on the
object

Object

Tool
function

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Formulation of Functions

Correct (If not, Correct it)

Fan cools the Body


Lens magnifies the Object
Hot air dries hair
Incandescent bulb illuminates the room
Air Conditioner improves our comfort
Lightning Rod attracts lightning
Microwave Oven cooks Food
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Problem, Invention, Patent?

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INVENTION MEANS SUCCESSFUL TECHNICAL SOLUTION TO A PROBLEM.


SECTION 2(1)j of Patent Act
Invention means any
(i) New product of process
(ii) Involving an inventive step
(iii) Capable of industrial application

WHAT IS A PATENT?
Patent is an exclusive right
granted by the Government
To the Applicant
for an INVENTION
for a limited period of time
In lieu of Disclosure of his invention.

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Analyzing a Patent The TRIZ Way

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APPLE Filed
this patent
in 2005

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Question:
Can you
Understand what
the patent
abstract says?

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Question: Can you


Understand what the patent
abstract says?

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1. Unintentional activation of functions due to


unintentional touch
2. Locking and Unlocking mechanism
implemented
3. Problems with locking/unlocking ease of
use of the device in general is a problem
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What is an Inventive Problem?


In TRIZ parlance .. .It starts with a
contradiction

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We try to improve one system


parameter but some other parameter
gets affected
Our Traditional
Method to resolve such
problems is to
Optimize a
Compromise!!!

TRIZ

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Eliminate the
contradiction or
resolve the
contradiction

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Problem Described in the Patent

1.

2.

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3.

Unintentional activation of
functions due to unintentional
touch
Locking and Unlocking
mechanism implemented
Problems with locking/unlocking
ease of use of the device in
general is a problem

Inventive
Problem

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When we tried to
improve/eliminate
Unintentional activation of
functions due to
unintentional touch

By Locking and Unlocking


mechanism

ease of use of the device in


general became a problem
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Can you Map to the problem to the parameters?


When we tried to improve/eliminate
Unintentional activation of functions due to
unintentional touch

By Locking and Unlocking mechanism

ease of use of the device in general became a


problem

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What system parameter(s) you are trying to improve?

What system parameter(s) degrade?

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Elements and Principles in the TRIZ Contradiction


Matrix

Parameter to
improve

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Recommended principles

40 Principles

Parameter that gets worse

TRIZ - Contradiction Matrix Elements


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Weight of moving object


Weight of stationary object
Length of moving object
Length of stationary object
Area of moving object
Area of stationary object
Volume of moving object
Volume of stationary object
Speed
Force
Tension, pressure
Shape
Stability of object

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

Strength
Duration of action - moving object
Duration of action - stationary object
Temperature
Brightness
Use of energy by moving object
Use of energy by stationary object
Power
Waste of energy
Waste of substance
Loss of information
Waste of time
Amount of substance

1. Segmentation
2. Extraction
3. Local Quality
4. Asymmetry
5. Combination
6. Universality
7. Nested Doll
8. Counterweight
9. Prior Counter-Action
10. Prior Action
11. Prior Cushioning
12. Equi-potentiality
13. The Other Way Round
14. Spheroidality
15. Dynamics
16. Partial or Excessive Action
17. Another Dimension
18. Mechanical Vibration
19. Periodic Action
20. Continuity of Useful Action

27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

Skipping
Blessing in Disguise
Feedback
Intermediary
Self-Service
Copying
Cheap/Short Living
Mechanics Substitution
Pneumatics and Hydraulics
Flexible Shells/Thin Films
Porous Materials
Colour Changes
Homogeneity
Discarding and Recovering
Parameter Changes
Phase Transitions
Thermal Expansion
Strong Oxidants
Inert Atmosphere
Composite Materials

Reliability
Accuracy of measurement
Accuracy of manufacturing
Object affected harmful effects
Object generated side effects
Manufacturability
Convenience of use
Repairability
Adaptability
Complexity of device
Complexity of control
Level of automation
Productivity

World has solved

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39 x 39 = 1521 39 = 1482
Contradictions
Using 40 Inventive Principles

Technical

39 Physical Contradictions Using Separation


Principles

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Principle 27. Cheap short-living objects


A. Replace an expensive object with a multiple of inexpensive
objects, comprising certain qualities (such as service life, for
instance).
Use disposable paper objects to avoid the cost of cleaning and storing durable objects.
Plastic cups in motels, disposable diapers, many kinds of medical supplies.

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Write YOUR Ideas

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Principle 17. Another dimension


A. To move an object in two- or three-dimensional space.
Infrared computer mouse moves in space, instead of on a surface, for
presentations.

B. Use a multi-story arrangement of objects instead of a single-story


arrangement.
Cassette with 6 CD's to increase music time and variety
Electronic chips on both sides of a printed circuit board

C. Tilt or re-orient the object, lay it on its side.


Dump truck

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D. Use 'another side' of a given area.


Stack microelectronic hybrid circuits to improve density.

Write YOUR Ideas

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Principle 40. Composite materials


A. Change from uniform to composite (multiple) materials.

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Composite epoxy resin/carbon fiber golf club shafts are


lighter, stronger, and more flexible than metal. Same for
airplane parts.
Fiberglass surfboards are lighter and more controllable and
easier to form into a variety of shapes than wooden ones.
Write YOUR Ideas

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August 28, 2012

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Contradictions

Weight of moving object


Weight of stationary object
Length of moving object
Length of stationary object
Area of moving object
Area of stationary object
Volume of moving object
Volume of stationary object
Speed

Stress or pressure
Shape
Stability of the object's composition
Strength
Duration of action of moving object
Duration of action by stationary object
Temperature
Illumination intensity
Use of energy by moving object

Power
Loss of Energy
Loss of substance
Loss of Information
Loss of Time
Quantity of substance/the matter
Reliability
Measurement accuracy
Manufacturing precision

Force (Intensity)

Use of energy by stationary object

Object-affected harmful factors

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Object-generated harmful factors


Ease of manufacture
Ease of operation
Ease of repair
Adaptability or versatility
Device complexity
Difficulty of detecting and measuring
Extent of automation
Productivity

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WHAT IS THE REAL PROBLEM


(Now)

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30 words
problem

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Understand System in Time and


Space
Nine Windows (or the
System Operator Tool)
helps you sketch or
place your problem in
a broader space time
context. Solutions to
problems are often
found in the areas
adjoining the system
in question.

SUPERSYSTEM

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SYSTEM

SUB-SYSTEM

PAST

PRESENT

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FUTURE

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Why-What Prevents?
Why?
The Why-What Prevents
Hierarchy is a rigorous way
of logically reasoning out
the problem into breadth
and depth. It is a precursor
to in-depth functional
analysis.

Broader Core Problem

What prevents?
Why do you want to solve this
problem?

Other problems

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The Core Problem

Other problems
What prevents me from solving
this problem?

Why?
Deeper Core Problem
What prevents?

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The System
Function Map

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Sore Point

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Ideal Final Result


Ideality Quotient =

Benefits
(Cost + Harmful Effects)

What would be the


ideal final result?

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Point of End of
Feasibility

Now

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Collect

System
Contradictions

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Sub System
Contradictions

Problems

IDEALITY

Super System
Contradictions

Functions - Harmful

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Inventive Thinking

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Searching for novel


solutions

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!
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Inventive Principles - TRIZ


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

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10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Segmentation
Taking Out
Local Quality
Asymmetry
Merging
Universality
Nested Doll
Anti-weight
Preliminary antiaction
Beforehand
Cushioning
Equipotentiality
The other way
round
Spheroidality
Dynamics
Partial or
Excessive Actions
Another
dimension
Mechanical
Vibration
Periodic Action
Continuity of
useful action

20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.

Skipping
Blessing in disguise
Feedback
Intermediary
Self-service
Copying
Cheap short-living
objects
Mechanics
substitution
Pneumatics and
hydraulics
Flexible shells and
thin films
Porous materials
Colour changes
Homogeneity
Discarding and
recovering
Parameter changes
Phase transitions
Thermal Expansion
Strong Oxidants
Inert atmosphere
Composite Materials

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August 28, 2012

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Ideal Final Result


Ideality Quotient =

Benefits
(Cost + Harmful Effects)

The ideal final


result?

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Ideas beyond the


point of feasibility

Now

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The System
Function Map
1.

Trimming

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2.

Add

3.

Eliminate harmful interaction


Eliminate incomplete
interaction
Eliminate a field
Eliminate a substance
New substance
New Field

Modify

Substance
Field
Incomplete interaction

Sore Point

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TRIZ Busted 4 Key Myths in 1985 However since TRIZ came out
recently the Myths continue

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How to Invent?
(a) Look out for problems and
solutions across domains if you
search only in your field and
domain you will continue to be
repeating the same!

Problems and Solutions are same in different


industries (Myth: My field is Unique )
Evolution paths for all technical systems can be
deciphered (Myth: Evolution is Completely Random)
Strong Inventions in a domain used outside ideas
(Myth: Innovation happens through Deeper
Knowledge)
Strong Inventions uncover and eliminate conflicts
(Myth: Optimization is the Focus)

(b) Orchestrate
Technological
Evolution - using
known laws of system
evolution

(c) Apply Knowledge


from other fields by
focusing on key
functions that system
needs to deliver

(d) Identify System Conflicts and provide outside knowledge to


domain experts to invent solutions
beyond optimization
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MAPPING YOUR SYSTEM TO LINES


OF EVOLUTION

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PROPOSING a NEW LAW

Very clearly visible in the software


based Era of technical systems that we
are in!

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Law of Increasing Intelligence of


Technical Systems

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?
BRILLIANT GENIUS
SMART SYSTEMS SYSTEMS
GUIDED SYSTEMS
DUMB SYSTEMS

SYSTEMS

Transhuman
Systems

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Technical Systems are evolving into


higher and Higher intelligence

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Most of the commercial software systems are trying


to move towards Brilliant systems today
Making systems Brilliant any/all technical system brilliant using software is
the method for next 10-15 years
Brilliant
Refrigerator
Television
Vehicle
User Interfaces to physical systems

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From 2025 Onwards we get into


the age of Genius systems

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By 2050-2060 Transhuman systems will start emerging


(Singularity is near ~ Ray Kurzweil)

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Law of Increasing Intelligence of Technical Systems

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TRIZ WORKBOOK

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Crafitti Consulting
Crafting innovation together . . .
www.crafitti.com
Navneet Bhushan (navneet.bhushan@crafitti.com)

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August 28, 2012

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