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# TRANSFORMER

THEORY

## Ideal and Practical Transformer

Comparison of practical and ideal transformers:
Practical transformer
1. There are copper and
eddy current losses.
2. There is leakage of flux.
3. Its windings contain ohmic
resistance.

Ideal transformer
1. There is no loss.

## 2. There is no leakage of flux.

3. Its windings consists of purely
inductive coils, wound on lossless
core.
4. Voltage regulation is never 4. Voltage regulation is 0% (see
0%
Section 4.14).
5. Efficiency is 93 97%.
5. Efficiency is 100%.
6.
all
constructed 6. It is impossible to construct an
transformers are practical ideal transformer.
transformers.
In an ideal transformer consider that an alternating voltage
V1 applied produces an alternate current called magnetizing
current I in the primary. Since primary coil is purely inductive
Ilags V1 by 90. I magnetized the core. I is at all times
proportional to flux and hence in phase.
Now E1 at every instant is in opposition to V1 by Lenz law
hence known as back emf. Similarly in secondary emf E2 is
produced which is antiphase with V1 and magnitude proportional
to secondary number of turns.
Phasor Steps for ideal transformer at no-load.
I2 = 0
V 2 I2 = 0
1

TRANSFORMER

V1 I cos = 0,
= 90

THEORY

## Fig. Ideal transformer and phasor diagram (on no load)

By using the following steps, phasor diagram can be drawn :
Step I : Take magnetizing current I as reference phasor.
Step II : In same phase, draw alternating flux phasor (). The
alternating current I produces the alternating flux ,
and both quantities are in phase.
Step III : Draw phasor E1, lagging behind flux phasor () by 90.
Step IV : Draw phasor V1, equal and antiphase to E1. [For ideal
winding (coil), by Lenzs law, applied voltage (V1) is
equal and opposite to self-induced emf (E1)].
Step V : Draw phasor E2, in phase with E1. Depending upon the
type of transformer, i.e. step up step down, E2 may be
greater than or less than E1.
Step VI : Draw phasor V2 in phase with E2. V2 is equal in
magnitude E2.

TRANSFORMER

## TRANSFORMER TYPES & PARAMETERS

THEORY

TRANSFORMER PARAMETERS
In this section, we will discuss parameters of a transformer,
namely winding resistance, leakage reactance, and impedance.
1) Winding Resistance :
An ideal transformer is supposed
to possess no resistance, but in actual
transformer, there is always some
resistance of primary and secondary
windings. In Fig. 1, a transformer is
shown whose primary and secondary
Fig. 1 Winding Resistance
windings have resistances of R1 and
R2 ohm respectively. The resistances
have been shown external to the windings.
The resistances of the two windings can be transferred to
either of the two windings. The advantage of concentrating both
the resistances in one winding is that it makes calculations very
simple and easy because one has then to work in one winding
only.
It can be proved that a resistance of R2 in secondary is
equivalent to R2/K2 in primary3. The value R2/K2 will be denoted
by R'2 - the equivalent secondary resistance as referred to
primary. In Fig. 2(a), secondary resistance has been transferred
to primary side leaving secondary circuit without resistance. The
resistance R1 + R'2 = R1 + (R2/K2) is known as the equivalent
resistance of the transformer as referred to primary and may be
denoted by R01.
Thus,
R01 = R1 + R'2 = R1 + (R2/K2)
Similarly, it can be proved that a resistance of R1 in primary
is equivalent to K2R1 in secondary. The value K2R1 will be denoted
by R'1 - the equivalent primary resistance as referred to secondary.
In Fig. 2(b), primary resistance has been transferred to secondary
3

TRANSFORMER

THEORY

## side leaving primary circuit without resistance. The resistance R2+

2
R'1 = R2+K R1 is known as the equivalent resistance of the
transformer s referred to secondary and may be denoted by R02.
Thus,
R02 = R2 + R'1 = R1 + K2R1

## Fig. Shifting of winding resistance

Note :
1) When shifting any primary resistance to secondary winding,
multiply by K2.
2) When shifting secondary resistance to primary divide by K2.
3) If resistance concentrated on primary side then
cu = I12 R01 watt
4) If resistances concentrated on secondary side then
cu = I22 R02 watt
2) Leakage Reactance :
In an ideal transformer, it is assumed that all the flux
produced by the primary winding links both the primary and
secondary windings. But in practice, it is impossible to realize this
condition. However, it is found that all the flux linked with primary
does not link with secondary. As shown in Fig.3(a), some part of
primary flux, L1, completes its path by passing through air rather
than around the core. The flux L1 is called primary leakage flux,
winding. Similarly, L2 is called secondary leakage flux, which link
4

TRANSFORMER

THEORY

## to secondary winding and does not link to primary winding. The

flux L1 is in time phase with I1 and induces an emf EL1 in primary
but not in secondary. Similarly, the flux L2 is in time phase with I2
and induces an emf L2 in secondary but not in primary.

## Magnetic leakage and reactance

Thus, each leakage flux links one winding only and it is
caused by the current in that winding alone. The flux which
passes completely through the core and links both windings is
called main or mutual flux and is shown by .
It should be noted that the induced voltages EL1 and EL2 due
to leakage fluxes L1 and L2 are different from induced voltages
E1 and E2 caused by the main flux . The leakage flux linking with
each winding produces a self induced emf in that winding.
Hence, in effect, it is equivalent to a small inductive coil in series
with each winding such that voltage drop in each series coil is
equal to that produced by leakage flux [refer to Fig. 4.8(b)]. Thus,
EL1 = I1X1
and EL2 = I2X2
The terms X1 and X2 are fictitious quantities introduced as a
convenience in representing the effects of primary and secondary
leakage fluxes.
3) Impedance :
In a practical transformer,
windings are not ideal and every
5
Fig. Impedance

TRANSFORMER

THEORY

## winding has some resistance. A practical transformer is shown

with primary and secondary windings whose resistance is shown
external to the windings. Also we consider primary and secondary
leanage flux represented by reactances X1 and X2 respectively
shown below
Primary Impedance is given by
Z1 R12 X12

Z2 R22 X22

## Considering secondary resistance and reactance transferred

to primary we have.

## Shifting of parameters to primary side

The equivalent resistance of the transformer as referred to
primary is given by

R01 R1 R2 R1 R2 K 2

## Similarly, the equivalent reactance of the transformer as

referred to primary is given by

X01 X1 X2 X1 X2 K 2

## The equivalent impedance of the transformer as referred to

primary is given by
Z01 R201 X201
6

TRANSFORMER

THEORY

## Similarly, if primary resistance and reactance have been

transformed to secondary side then the equivalent resistance of
transformer as referred to secondary is
R02 = R2 + R11 = R2 + K2R1
Similarly, X02 = X2 + X11 = X2 + K2X1
Equivalent impedance of transformer referred to secondary
is given by
Z02 R202 X202