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TRANSFORMER

NO-LOAD & ON-LOAD TRANSFORMER

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Example 1. A 30 kVA, 2400/120 V, 50 Hz, transformer has a high


= voltage winding resistance of 0.1 and a leakage reactance of
0.22 . The low-voltage winding resistance is 0.035 and the
leakage reactance is 0.012 . Calculate for the transformer (i)
equivalent resistance as referred to both primary and secondary,
(iii) equivalent impedance as referred to both primary secondary,
(iv) copper loss at full load, (v) copper loss at half load, and
(vi) copper loss at 75% full load.
Solution:
E2

120

Given :

K=

R1 = 0.1 , X1 = 0.22
R2 = 0.035 , X2 = 0.012

E1

2400

= 0.05

(i) Equivalent resistance as referred to both primary and


secondary,
R01 = R1 + R2
= R1 R22
K

= 0.1 +

0. 035

a0.05f

= 14.1
R02 = R2 + R1
= R2 + K2R1
= 0.035 + (0.05)2 0.1
= 0.03525
(ii) Equivalent reactance as referred to both primary and
secondary,
X01 = X1 + R2
=

X1

X2
K

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NO-LOAD & ON-LOAD TRANSFORMER

= 0.22 +

SOLVED

0. 012
2

(0. 05)

= 5.02
X02 = X2 + X1
= X 2 + K 2X 1
= 0.012 + (0.05)2 0.22
= 0.01255
(iii) Equivalent impedance as referred to both primary and
secondary,
2
2
Z01 = R01
X01
= 14.12 5. 022
= 15
2
2
and Z02 = R02
X02
= 0. 035252 0. 012552
= 0.0374
(iv) For calculation of copper loss, full-load currents are required.
So,

bI g
bI g

1 FL

and

2 FL

30 1000
12. 5 A
2400
30 1000

250 A
120

Full-load copper loss,


Wcu

FL

bg

I1

2
FL

b g

R1 I2

2
R
FL 2

= (12.5)2 0.1 + (250)2 0.035


= 2203.13 W
Alternative method :
Wcu

FL

bg

I1

2
FL

R01

or

Wcu

FL

b g

I2

2
R
FL 02

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NO-LOAD & ON-LOAD TRANSFORMER

= (12.5)2 14.1
= 2203.13 W
(v)

SOLVED

= (250)2 0.03525
= 2203.13 W

Copper loss at half load,


Wcu

75%FL

b g

I2

2
R
75%FL 01

= (0.75 12.5)2 14.1


= 1239.26 W
From the above example, it is clear that copper loss at half
load is one fourth of that at full load. Thus, copper loss is a
variable loss and it varies with square of the current or load. If we
know the cu loss at full load, we can calculate the cu loss at any
load by using the following relation:
Wcu

at given load

bg

Wcu

FL

where x = ratio of (actual) given load to full load


Example 2.
A resistance connected across the secondary of
an ideal transformer has a value of 800 ohm as referred to the
primary. The same resistance when connected across the primary
has a value of 3.125 ohm as referred to the secondary. Find the
turns ratio of the transformer.
Solution :
Let the value of resistance is R .
Case (i) When the resistance is connected to secondary
When the resistance is transferred to primary, its value is
given as 800 , i.e.,
R
(i)
800
2
K

Case (ii) When the same resistance is connected to primary


When the resistance is transferred to secondary, its value is
given as 3.0125 i.e.,
K2R = 3.125
3

TRANSFORMER

NO-LOAD & ON-LOAD TRANSFORMER

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From wqs (i) and (ii),


K = 0.25

Example 3.
A kVA, single-phase transformer has full-load
copper loss equal to 2500 W. Determine (i) copper loss at 60%
full-load condition and (ii) copper loss at half-load condition.
Solution:
(i) Copper loss at 60% full load condition,
Wcu

60%FL

0. 60

Wcu

FL

= (0.60) 2500
= 900 W

(ii)

Wcu

HL

b g

0. 5

Wcu

FL

= (0.5) 2500
= 625 W
Example 4. For a transformer, copper loss at 75% full-load
condition is equal to 1200W. What is the half load?
Solution:
Wcu 75%FL 1200 W
Given :
Wcu HL
Required :
First we will calculate the copper loss at full load.
We have, Wcu 75%FL b0.75g2 Wcu FL

or

1200 =

Hence,

Wcu

Now,

FL

b0.75g

Wcu

FL

= 2133.33 W

Wcu

HL

b g

0. 5

Wcu

FL

= (0.5) 2133.33
= 533.33 W

TRANSFORMER

NO-LOAD & ON-LOAD TRANSFORMER

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Example 5. A 230/110 V, 1 transformer takes an input of 350


VA at noload and at rated voltage. The core loss is 110 W. Find
(i) the iron component of noload current. (ii) magnetizing
component of noload current, and (iii) noload pf.
Solution:
Transformer input at no load is 350 VA.
So,
V1 I0 = 350
or
230 I0 = 350
Hence,
I0 = 1.52 A
At noload,
Input power = Core loss
or V1 I0 cos 0 = 110
or 350 cos 0 = 110
or cos 0 = 0.314
Iron loss component of no-load current,
IW = I0 cos 0
= 1.52 0.314
= 0.477 A
Magnetizing component of noload current,
I = I02 I2W
= 1. 522 0. 4772
= 1.44 A
Alternative method for calculation of I :
As cos 0 = 0.314,
sin 0 = 0.9493
So, I = I0 sin 0
= 1.52 0.9493
= 1.44 A
5

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