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TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

THEORY

Efficiency of a Transformer
Due to the losses in a transformer, the output power of a
transformer is less than the input power supplied. The efficiency
of any device is defined as the ratio of the output power to the
input power. So, for a transformer, the efficiency can be
expressed as
Outp ut p ower
= Inp ut p ower

Output power
Output power Total losses

Output power

= Output power W W
i
cu
where Wi = iron loss and Wcu = copper loss
Thus, in general, the efficiency at any load is given by
%=

(x full - load kVA pf)


(x full - load kVA pf) Wi x 2 [Wcu ]FL

Culoss is I22 R02.But at any load its

= (xI2)2R02

= x2 I2 R02
2

= x2[Wcu]FL
where

Wi

= iron loss in kW

[Wcu]FL = copper loss at full load in kW


x = ratio of given load (actual) to full load
The explanation of the above expression of efficiency is given
below
= V2I2 cosW

For transformer, output power

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

=
But cos = pf and
So, output power

V1 I2
1000

THEORY

V1 I2
coskW
1000

= kVA

= (kVA pf)kW

The output power at any given load can be calculated as follows :


Output power at the given load = (kVA at given load pf) kW
Output power at the given load = (x full-load kVA pf) kW
Since kVA at the given load

= x full-load kVA

where x is the ratio of given load (actual) to full load


Similarly, copper loss at any given load is given by
[Wcu]at given load
So,

= x2 [Wcu]FL
=

(x full - load kVA pf)


100
(x full - load kVA pf) Wi x 2 [Wcu ]FL

Condition for Maximum Efficiency


When a transformer works on a constant input voltage and
frequency, efficiency varies with load. As load increase, the
efficiency varies with load. As load increases, the efficiency also
increases. At a certain load current, it achieves a maximum
value. If the transformer is loaded further, the efficiency starts
decreasing. The graph of efficiency versus load current I2 is
shown in Fig. 4.30. The load current at which the efficiency
attains the maximum value is denoted by I2max and the maximum
efficiency is denoted by max.

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

THEORY

max

I2 max

I2

Fig. 4.30 : Efficiency vs load current


We know that
=
or

Outp ut p ower
Inp ut p ower

Input power Losses


Output
Inp ut p ower

power=Input power Losses

Let Wcu = I12 R01 or Wcu = I22 R02


from (core) loss = Wi
Input power = V1I1 cos
V1 I1 cos I 21 R01 Wi
So, =
V1 I1 cos

=1

I1R01
Wi

V 1cos V 1I1cos

The current I1 varies according to the load. Therefore, in the


above expression the efficiency is a function of current I1
assuming cos as a constant. The applied voltage V1 is also
assumed as a constant.
d

For max, dI = 0
1
So,

d
R01
Wi

=0
=0
2
dI1
V1 cos V1 I1 cos

or

Wi
R01

V1 I12 cos V1 cos


3

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

or

2
Wi = I1 R01

or

2
Wi = I2 R02 ( I12 R01 = I22 R02)

THEORY

Thus, the condition to achieve maximum efficiency is


Iron loss = Copper loss
Load current at max
For max,
So,

I22 max

or

I2max

I22 R02

= Wi but I2 = I2max

R02 = Wi
=

Wi
R 02

This is value of the load current at max.


Dividing both sides by (I2)FL,
I2 max
(I2 )FL

1
= (I )
2 FL

Wi
R 02

For a transformer, iron loss is constant. So, when the copper loss
becomes equal to the iron loss, the maximum efficiency occurs.
or

I2 max
(I2 )FL

or

I2max

= (I2)FL

Wi
2

(I2 )FL R02

Wi
[Wcu ]FL

This is the load current at max in terms of the full-load current.


kVA at max
kVA at max

V2 I2 max
1000
4

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

THEORY

Substituting the value of I2 max in the above expression, we get


kVA at max

V2 (I2 )FL

1000

= (full-load kVA)

Wi
[Wcu ]FL

Wi
[Wcu ]FL

This is the kVA at max.


Now, the maximum efficiency max can be calculated as
follows :
%max

Output power at max


Output power at max total losses

(kVA at max pf)


(kVA at max pf) 2Wi

100

100

[ Wi = Wcu]

Load at max
Let at x times full load, the efficiency is maximum.
So, copper loss at max = x2 [Wcu]FL
But at max, iron (or core) loss = copper, loss
Wi
or x =

= x2 [Wcu]FL
Wi
[Wcu ]FL

We get the expression for max as


%max =
where

x=

(x full - load kVA pf)


100 [ at max, Wi = Wcu]
(x full - load kVA pf) 2Wi

Wi
[Wcu ]FL

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

THEORY

All-Day Efficiency
The primary winding of a distribution transformer is connected to
the line for all the 24 hours of the day. Thus, the core (iron)
losses occur for the whole 24 hours, whereas copper losses occur
only when transformer is on load. Distribution transformers
operate well below the rated power output for most of the time.
These transformers normally operate on a varying load during 24
hours of the day. So, copper losses are different during different
periods of the day. The performance of a distribution transformer
is more appropriately represented by all-day or energy efficiency.
Energy efficiency of a transformer is defined as the ratio of total
energy output for a certain period to the total energy input for the
same period. The energy efficiency car : be calculated for any
specific period. When the energy efficiency is calculated for a day
of 24 hours, it is called the all day efficiency. All day efficiency is
defined as the ratio of the energy output to the energy input taken
over a 24 hour period.
Consequently, all-day efficiency of the transformer is given by
%all-day efficiency =

Output energy in kWh over 24 hours


100
Input energy in kWh over 34 hours

Outp ut energy in kWh over 24 hours


or %allday= Outp ut energy Energy sp ent Energy sp ent



in kWh over in iron loss in cop p er loss

for 24 hours for 24 hours


24 hours

100

For a given kVA loading, the all-day efficiency of a transformer is


less than its commercial efficiency.