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CASE 1

Qi) What are the activities that are critical to the companys environmental management
certification?
Ans-INTRODUCTION
With increased environmental awareness in society and industry today, more pressure is
being applied to reduce impacts on the environment from everyday activities. This
pressure has encouraged industries to implement an Environmental Management System
(EMS) and be certified to a standard to demonstrate their efforts for managing impacts on
the environment. In recent times the EMSs have been based on the international
standard AS/NZS ISO 14001:1996 Environmental management systems Specification
with guidance for Use (ISO 14001).
Today it quite common for companies of any size to implement an EMS, where possible,
alongside or integrated with existing management systems such as quality and health and
safety.
It is also becoming apparent that unless you have an EMS certified to the ISO 14001
standard, that providing products and services within and outside Australia is more difficult,
especially when competitor companies are certified.
One factor contributing to an increased number of companies being certified to ISO14001
in recent times is the directive from larger industries for their supplier companies to have a
system certified to ISO 14001 to remain in the supplier chain. This factor has enabled us to take a
number of organisations from scratch to certification
to the ISO 14001 standard. During our time working alongside companies to implement a
certifiable system important lessons have been learnt. Experience has revealed that
organisations, regardless of their size and operations, should progress along a Seven (7)
Step framework to ensure certification requirements are met in a timely and sustainable
manner. The Seven (7) Steps are explained below.

Step 1: Highly Visible Top Level Commitment


The successful implementation of an EMS requires commitment from Management to put
into effect a new work culture and allocating capital to upgrade any facilities to meet

environmental objectives.
There will be a need for renewed environmental focus within the organisation. It is
therefore important that Senior Managers be seen to be involved with, and supportive of,
employee actions and initiatives. Managers must walk the talk.
Step 2: A Comprehensive Initial Review
Conducting an initial environmental review is critical to identify any gaps in a companys
current environmental management performance.
It is interesting to note that many companies with existing management systems expect
that meeting ISO 14001 will be as simple as pasting the word environment into existing
quality or health and safety documentation. This is not the case as the main feature of ISO
14001 is the identification and control of significant environmental impacts, an element not
considered in other standards.
Step 3: Site Based Champions at Functional Levels to Lead Program
A sustainable Environmental Management System requires more than making a few
amendments to some Quality Control procedures. An EMS requires people to identify and solve
problems. We title these problem solvers or task achievers Champions. Such
people are invaluable for implementing successful EMSs and should be sought from the
outset. Site based Champions are critical as they initiate and fulfil projects to improve
environmental performance. It is much easier to influence cultural change (if required)
in an organisation when there are key people involved up-front with the issues.
Step 4: Detailed Compliance and Conformance Review
As pointed out in Step 2, the importance of environmental performance is not usually
considered until the potential fines and penalties associated with breaches and noncompliance is
pointed out.
A major commitment made in the Environmental Policy is to comply with relevant
environmental legislation and regulations, and with other requirements to which the
organization subscribes (Joint Technical Committee QR/11 Environmental Management,
1996). This statement requires a company to actually have some understanding of what
the rules are and how to abide by them
Step 5:

Integration of Systems Documentation Where existing documentation relevant to the EMS is


available, we recommend making some amendments rather than reinventing the wheel. It is
more worthwhile continuing to use documentation that works and that people are already familiar
with, instead of implementing large scale change.
Step 6: Education and Awareness
Environmental education and awareness is vital for an EMS. Without an understanding of
what an environmental impact is, employees cannot be expected to improve their
performance. It needs to be emphasized that the work place and home is part of one
environment sharing air, water and soil. After understanding the basics, such as waste
costs money, people see the advantages of having an EMS that controls environmental
impacts.
Step 7: Final Status Check Audit
At the start of the EMS implementation process we recommend that any gaps be identified
in the existing management system. We also recommend that this same review be
conducted a couple of weeks prior to the certification audit.
After a majority of the EMS has been established and awareness training commenced, a
final status review is necessary to ensure that all the essential elements of the EMS are
completed. This review checks that any recommendations made in the initial review have
been included in the objectives and targets program and that all necessary procedures are
available for review.
ii) List the activities which have potential environmental impacts in a pint industry
Ans-Environmental Aspect

Environmental Impact(s)

Emissions of volatile organic -

Air pollution, smog

compounds (VOCs)
Discharges to stream
Spills and leaks
Electricity use
Use of recycled paper

Degradation of aquatic habitat and drinking water supply


-

Soil and groundwater contamination

Air pollution, global warming


-

Conservation of natural resources

iii) List the legal requirements.


Ans

Air Pollution Regulations

Hazardous Waste Management Regulations

Hazardous Materials Management

Water Pollution Control Requirements

Drinking Water Regulations

Solid Waste Management

Toxic Substances

Pesticide Regulations

Environmental Clean-up, Restoration, Corrective Action


iv) Is there a trade related issue involved in this case
Ans-

Following a period of economic boom, a financial bubble global in scope burst,


even causing some of the worlds largest financial institutions have collapsed. With the resulting
recession, many governments of the wealthiest nations in the world have resorted to extensive
bail-out and rescue packages for the remaining large banks and financial institutions while
imposing harsh austerity measures on themselves.

Some of the bail-outs have also led to charges of hypocrisy due to the
apparentsocializing of the costs while privatizing the profits. Furthermore, the institutions being
rescued are typically the ones got the world into this trouble in the first place. For smaller
businesses and poorer people, such options for bail out and rescue are rarely available when
they find themselves in crisis.

Plummeting stock markets at one point wiped out 33% of the value of companies,
$14.5 trillion. Taxpayers bailed out their banks and financial institutions with large amounts of
money. US taxpayers alone have spent some $9.7 trillion in bailout packages and plans. The UK

and other European countries have also spent some $2 trillion on rescues and bailout packages.
More is expected. Much more.

Such numbers, made quickly available, are enough to wipe many individuals
mortgages, or clear out third world debt many times over. Even the high military spending figures
are dwarfed by the bailout plans to date.
v) Explain, how your company can prepare itself towards certification
Ans-

A step in the right direction


Benefits of Certification
Getting Started
What to Expect in the Standard
Conducting a Gap Analysis
Closing the Gaps
What to Expect in Your Audit
Maintaining the Standard

Case-2
Q-2)
Ans-1. Is it fine to privatize profits and nationalize losses, is it right for organisational
development?
As the United States Of America had to suffer sub-prime crisis during 2007-2008. Many homeowners defaulted in their payments causing Freddie and Fannie to suffer multi-billion dollar
losses. The share prices tumbled by more than 90% and the investors around the world felt that
these two firms might not be able to live upto the guarantees which they have to provide to the
public.
It is somehow justified to Privatize profits and nationalize losses as the major
companies(Freddie and Fannie) which required bailouts were US federal government entities and
their guarantee was backed up by the federal government and in case of crisis the US
government backed it with a gurarantee. Therefore the mortgage was a very safe option for the
public.
It is somehow argued that to privatize profits and nationalize losses is not good for the
Organisational Development of the companies as this might set up a bad example for the future.
It encourages weak leadership and poor management. The organisations should access the risk
associated with their functioning and should adopt a proactive approach to counter such
problems. The assured government bailout would affect the organisational working which would
otherwise
have
been
different.
2.
Was
this
a
result
of
failure
of
leadership
of
these
firms
?
The downfall of such huge companies is not just a failure of the financial system, but also a huge
leadership failure. Excessive interest in personal financial goals as against the larger interest of

the organization is one of the root cause of this meltdown. These days some managers are not
that efficient and rely on reward and incentives. They believe that if they hire smart people, give
huge incentives for personal results, the management of the firm would take care of itself. Under
such circumstances, taking risks to achieve personal goals even if that puts others or...

CASE-3
From Bhopal Tragedy, what an industrial manager learns? What safety procedures are to
befollowed. Study the case deeply and state what were the defects of MIL unit. In view of this
case, prepare a disaster management plan, which could cover be useful to a chemical company.
Ans
THE BHOPAL DISASTER
first day, the government counted 400 dead and unofficial sources said
500. The second day, the gap widened. The government figures rose to
550 while unofficial figures jumped to 1,200. The third day saw another 400 deaths at city
hospitals. The unofficial figures, thus, rose to 1,600
but the government gave out only 620 583 dead in Bhopal and 37
in other cities. On the fourth day, as unofficial figures went up to 1,700,
the government doubled its earlier death estimates to 1,327. The chief
minister, Arjun Singh, claimed there Exactly how many died in the Bhopal disaster remains
a mystery. On the
was no effort to hush-up the number of deaths. Information was yet to arrive from affected
villages.
But from the fifth day, the gap between official and unofficial deaths
increased again. By the end of January 1985, the government was
counting 1,430 dead while newspapers all over the world and in India
were quoting the unofficial figure of about 2,500. The Indian Council of
Medical Research has since claimed that most of the deaths occurred in
the first 48-72 hours, about 1,200 died in hospital wards and the total
death figure was probably 2,000. In its petition in the US courts, the government has
claimed 1,700 dead.
But there are many who believe that even the unofficial estimates
are not anywhere near the truth. Members of the Zahreeli Gas Kand
Sangharsh Morcha have claimed that corpses were picked up by the
army in hundreds and trucked away to be buried and cremated en
masse. In those first two horrendous days, few were interested in counting bodies. The
Morcha has claimed that the number of dead must have
been over 5,000.
A UNICEF official who returned to New Delhi after a week-long visit
to Bhopal pointed out in his confidential report in December that the
death toll may have been as high as 10,000 and that many government
officials and doctors privately believed this figure to be true. The local
Cloth Merchants Association had claimed that retailers had sold or distributed cloth for
over 10,000 corpses. UNICEF estimated that affected people were about 200,000 of
which 80 per cent were Muslims, 75 per cent
slum dwellers, 40 per cent children below one year of age, 20 per cent
women in the reproductive age group, and 10 per cent elderly women.

The result of the door-to-door survey conducted by the Bombaybased Tata Institute of
Social Studies and other schools of social work
have failed to gain any credibility. The survey was commissioned with
great fanfare by the state government and its results were to become the
basis for relief, compensation and long-term treatment. But its total tally
of 1,021 dead, even less than the officially counted bodies, has been a
subject of much derision.
The survey failed to cover 600 families in which multiple deaths
could have occurred. It could not enumerate 315 families in the worst
affected areas who had migrated to other cities after the disaster, and
another 286 families whose houses were locked. The survey also failed
to cover over 3,000 people who were shelterless in the city. Many beggars and pavement
dwellers who lived around the railway station had
died in the gas tragedy. The government does not as yet have an authentic list of the
victims.
The Centre for Social Medicine and Community Health of the
Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi has also conducted a survey
in which one out of every 15 households living in the most adversely
and moderately affected 29 bastis, with a total population of about
68,000, were enumerated. The survey actually found 82 dead and five
missing people in 65 households one death each in 49 households,
two deaths each in 11 households, three deaths each in four households
and four deaths in one household which gives a total death rate of
1,305 in the 29 bastis surveyed.
The study found that those who died were the poorest. More than
half the affected people belonged to an income group about Rs 150
per head per month which cannot afford two full meals a day around
the year. Those who died were even more disadvantaged than the overall affected
population. The patched up planks, pieces of tin, plastic
sheets and thatch which formed the walls and roofs of their hutments,
left gaping holes for the gas to come into their grossly overcrowded single rooms.
Seventy-four per cent ran on foot after hearing of the poisonous gas, six per cent on a
vehicle (motorised or bicycle), and 21 per
cent decided to stay. None of those who went on a vehicle died. Three
quarters of the deaths were amongst those who ran on foot and one
quarter amongst those who stayed. The relatively affluent got better protection in their
better built houses
-DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Disaster can be defined as a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a
society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed
the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. (Source:
Reducing Disaster Risk, UNDP 2004). Some recent regional disasters include the Indian
Ocean Tsunami in 2004 that affected parts of Asia and Africa and the South Asian
Earthquake in 2005 which affected Pakistan and India. Some recent disasters in India were
the flash floods in Rajasthan in 2006, Mumbai (Maharashtra) and Vadodara (Gujarat) in
2005, the earthquake in Gujarat in 2001, the super cyclone in Orissa in 1999, the Uphaar
Cinema Fire in Delhi in 1997, the recurrent droughts in parts of Rajasthan (1980s

onwards), and the Bhopal Gas Disaster in 1984. Disasters result from the combination of
hazards, conditions of vulnerability and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the
potential negative consequences of risk. (Source: Living with Risk, UN ISDR 2002)
Hazard is a potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may
cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or
environmental degradation. (Source: Living with Risk, UN ISDR 2002) For example:
Earthquakes, flood and, industrial gas leakages are some examples of hazards. Hazards can
be single, sequential or combined in their origin and effects. Hazardous events can vary in
magnitude or intensity, frequency, duration, area of extent, speed of on set, spatial
dispersion and temporal spacing. Based on their causes, hazards are categorized into two
broad types Natural hazards and Human/ industry induced hazards.
Vulnerability is the condition determined by physical, social, economic and environmental
factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of
hazards. (Source: Living with Risk, UN ISDR 2002) The scale of damage to a community from
the impact of a given hazard does not only depend upon the communitys physical
exposure to that hazard, but also on its vulnerability. Here, physical exposure refers to the
elements at risk. These elements may include people, artefacts, infrastructure etc. (Source:
Reducing Disaster Risk, UNDP 2004). Vulnerability, on the other hand, is determined by
aspects in the physical environment, such as nature of housing, available open space etc, as
well as aspects in the socio-economic domain such as level of income, nutritional status,
marginalization, etc.
Capacity is the combination of all the strengths and resources available within a
community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a
disaster. Capacity may include physical, institutional, social or economic means as well as
skilled personal or collective attributes such as leadership and management. Capacity
may also be described as capability. (Source: Living with Risk, UN ISDR 2002) Example: After
the floods in Vadodara district (Gujarat) in 2005, it was seen that villages with existing [8]
Disaster Management Teams (DMTs) and Disaster Management Committees (DMCs)

responded to the floods well in time, by rescuing people to pre-identified safe areas.
Two concepts within the framework of capacity that are often used in Disaster
Management are:
Coping capacity: The manner in which people and organizations use existing resources to
achieve various benefits during unusual, abnormal and adverse conditions of a disaster
phenomenon or process. (Source: Reducing Disaster Risk, UNDP 2004).
An example of coping capacity is the community kitchen set up by local village groups in
community areas like temples and schools of Orissa after the 1999 cyclone.
Resilience: The capacity of a system, community or society to resist or to change in order
that it may obtain an acceptable level in functioning and structure. This is determined by
the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself, and the ability to
increase its capacity for learning and adaptation, including the capacity to recover from a
disaster. (Source: Reducing Disaster Risk, UNDP 2004) For example; after the 2001 Gujarat
earthquake, local communities began clearing the debris, retrieving materials and
reconstructing their houses/work place, even before external help came from the government
or other organizations. This was an example of resilience of the community.
Risk is the probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses (deaths, injuries,
property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from
interactions between natural or human-induced hazards and vulnerable conditions.
Risk is conventionally expressed by the equation:Risk = Hazard x Vulnerability
Now we use the notation: Risk = Hazards x Vulnerability minus (-) Capacity. (Source:
Reducing Disaster Risk, UNDP 2004)
Disaster Management covers a broad range of interventions undertaken before, during
and/or after a disaster to
prevent or minimize loss of life and property,
minimize human suffering and
Accelerate recovery.
The management of a disaster can be viewed as a series of phases including Prevention,

Mitigation, Preparedness, Response, Relief, and Recovery (Rehabilitation and


Reconstruction). [9]
i) Prevention: Activities to provide outright avoidance of the adverse impact of hazards
and means to minimize related environmental, technological and biological disasters.
Depending on social and technical feasibility and cost/benefit considerations, investing in
preventive measures is justified in areas frequently affected by disasters.
For example, public awareness and education related to fire safety in public buildings could
lead to prevention of fire-related disasters. Disaster risk reduction professionals express that
changing attitudes and behaviour contribute to promoting a "culture of prevention".
ii) Mitigation: Any action taken to minimize the extent of a disaster or potential disaster.
Mitigation can take place before, during or after a disaster, but the term is most often used
to refer to actions against potential disasters. Mitigation measures are both physical and
structural, such as flood defences or strengthening buildings as well as non-structural, such
as training in disaster management, regulating land-use and public education, among
others.
iii) Preparedness: Activities and measures taken before a hazard event to ensure effective
response to the impact of hazards. It involves measures that enable governments,
community and individuals to respond rapidly to disaster situations and cope with them
effectively.
Preparedness includes
making of viable emergency plans
development of warning systems
maintenance of inventories
training of personnel
search and rescue measures
Evacuation plans for areas that may be at riskfor a recurring disaster.
iv) Response/ Relief: The provision of assistance or intervention during or immediately
after a disaster to meet the basic subsistence needs of the people affected. It can be of an

immediate, short-term, or protracted duration. For example, search and rescue of affected
people and provision of food, temporary shelter and medical care to the persons affected by
the disaster are some common areas of intervention after a disaster.
v) Rehabilitation: The operations and decisions taken after a disaster with a view to
restore an affected community to its former living conditions, while encouraging and
facilitating the necessary adjustments to the changes caused by the disaster.
An example is counselling by professionals or community leaders to help reduce the
psychological trauma of affected groups of children, women and others after a disaster.[10]
vi) Reconstruction: The action taken to re-establish a community following rehabilitation
after a disaster. These actions would include construction of permanent housing, complete
restoration of all services and physical infrastructure to the pre-disaster state etc.
vii) Recovery: The term refers to decisions and actions related to rehabilitation and
reconstruction taken after a disaster with a view to restoring or improving the pre-disaster
living conditions of the affected community, while encouraging and facilitating necessary
adjustments to reduce disaster risk. It is important to note that recovery (includes both
rehabilitation and reconstruction) affords an opportunity to develop and apply
disaster risk reduction measures.
Generally India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its
unique geo-climatic conditions. Floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes and landslides
have been recurrent phenomena. About 60% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of
various intensities; over 40 million hectares is prone to floods; about 8% of the total area is
prone to cyclones and 68% of the area is susceptible to drought. In the decade 1990-2000,
an average of about 4344 people lost their lives and about 30 million people were affected
by disasters every year. The loss in terms of private, community and public assets has been
astronomical.
At the global level, there has been considerable concern over natural disasters. Even as
substantial scientific and material progress is made, the loss of lives and property due to
disasters has not decreased. In fact, the human toll and economic losses have mounted. It

was in this background that the United Nations General Assembly, in 1989, declared the
decade 1990-2000 as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction with the
FIGURE 1: DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE[11]
objective to reduce loss of lives and property and restrict socio-economic damage through
concerted international action, especially in developing countries.
The super cyclone in Orissa in October, 1999 and the Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat in January,
2001 underscored the need to adopt a multi dimensional endeavour involving diverse
scientific, engineering, financial and social processes; the need to adopt multi disciplinary
and multi sectoral approach and incorporation of risk reduction in the developmental plans
and strategies.

VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT AND RISK ANALYSIS


Some indicators of vulnerability are:
CHAPTER
2[24]
poverty
population explosion
demographic imbalances
unemployment
growth of large informal economies in unplanned cities
increasing migrant flows,
socio-political tensions and uncertainty
illiteracy
women and child development concerns
absence of sound institutional and legislative/ regulatory practices, and
Unsustainable environmental practices.

i)

Q 4)
List the methods of waste management in the order of preference

Ans-Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and


monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity,
and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health,
the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is a distinct practice from resource
recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural resources. All wastes
materials, whether they are solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive fall within the remit of waste
management
Waste
management
practices
can
differ
for developed and developing
nations,
for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management of nonhazardous waste residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the
responsibility of local governmentauthorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial
and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator subject to local, national or
international controls.
Methods of disposal
Landfill

Landfill operation in Hawaii.

Disposal of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice in
most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voids

or borrow pits. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively
inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly designed or poorly managed
landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter,
attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leachate. Another common product of landfills is gas
(mostly composed ofmethane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks
down anaerobically. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation, and is
a greenhouse gas.
Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or
plastic lining material. Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability,
and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats). Many landfills also have landfill
gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using
perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity.
Incineration
Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so
as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. This method is useful for disposal of
residue of both solid waste management and solid residue from waste water management.This
process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume.
Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as
"thermal treatment". Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam and ash.
Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It
is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of
disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is
a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.
Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as these facilities
generally do not require as much area as landfills.Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste
(EfW) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam
or electricity. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns
about pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks. Particular concern has focused on
some very persistent organics such as dioxins, furans, PAHs which may be created which may
have serious environmental consequences.

Recycling

Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of waste
materials such as empty beverage containers. The materials from which the items are made can
be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from
general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles are sorted directly from mixed waste
streams and are known as kerb-side recycling, it requires the owner of the waste to separate it
into various different bins (typically wheelie bins) prior to its collection.
The most common consumer products recycled include aluminium such as beverage
cans, copper such as wire, steel food and aerosol cans, old steel furnishings or
equipment, polyethylene and PET bottles, glass bottles
and
jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers,
magazines
and
light
paper,
andcorrugated
fiberboard boxes.
PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS (see resin identification code) are also recyclable. These items are
usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new
products. The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is
more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required.
The type of material accepted for recycling varies by city and country. Each city and country have
different recycling programs in place that can handle the various types of recyclable materials.
However, certain variation in acceptance is reflected in the resale value of the material once it is
reprocessed.
Sustainability
The management of waste is a key component in a business' ability to maintaining ISO14001
accreditation. Companies are encouraged to improve their environmental efficiencies each year
by eliminating waste through resource recovery practices, which are sustainability-related
activities. One way to do this is by shifting away from waste management to resource
recovery practices like recycling materials such as glass, food scraps, paper and cardboard,
plastic bottles and metal.

Biological reprocessing

Recoverable materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper
products, can be recovered through composting and digestion processes to decompose the
organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for
agricultural or landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane)
can be captured and used for generating electricity and heat (CHP/cogeneration) maximising
efficiencies. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and
accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter.
Energy recovery

The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct
combustion fuel, or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel. Thermal treatment
ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating and the use of the gas fuel (see
above),
to
fuel
for boilers to
generate
steam
and
electricity
in
a turbine. Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste
materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability. The process usually
occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure. Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into
solid, liquid and gas products. The liquid and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into
other chemical products (chemical refinery). The solid residue (char) can be further refined into
products such as activated carbon. Gasification and advanced Plasma arc gasification are used
to convert organic materials directly into a synthetic gas (syngas) composed of carbon
monoxide and hydrogen. The gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam. An alternative to

pyrolisis is high temperature and pressure supercritical water decomposition (hydrothermal


monophasic oxidation).
Resource recovery
Resource recovery (as opposed to waste management) uses LCA (life cycle analysis) attempts to
offer alternatives to waste management. For mixed MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) a number of
broad studies have indicated that administration, source separation and collection followed by
reuse and recycling of the non-organic fraction and energy and compost/fertilizer production of
the organic material via anaerobic digestion to be the favoured path.
Avoidance and reduction methods
An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created,
also known as waste reduction. Methods of avoidance include reuse of second-hand products,
repairing broken items instead of buying new, designing products to be refillable or reusable
(such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags), encouraging consumers to avoid using
disposable products (such as disposable cutlery), removing any food/liquid remains from cans,
packaging, ...[1] and designing products that use less material to achieve the same purpose (for
example, lightweighting of beverage cans).[2]
Waste handling and transport

Waste collection methods vary widely among different countries and regions. Domestic waste
collection services are often provided by local government authorities, or by private companies in
the industry. Some areas, especially those in less developed countries, do not have a formal
waste-collection system. Examples of waste handling systems include:

In Europe and a few other places around the world, a few communities use a
proprietary collection system known as Envac, which conveys refuse via underground conduits
using a vacuum system. Other vacuum-based solutions include the MetroTaifun [3] single-line

and ring-line automatic waste collection system, where the waste is automatically collected
through relatively small diameter flexable pipes from waste collection points spread out up to a
distance of four kilometres from the waste collections stations.

In Canadian urban centres curbside collection is the most common method of disposal,
whereby the city collects waste and/or recyclables and/or organics on a scheduled basis. In rural
areas people often dispose of their waste by hauling it to a transfer station. Waste collected is
then transported to a regional landfill.

In China, Plastic pyrolysis or Tire pyrolysis is: the process of converting waste
plastic/tires into industrial fuels like pyrolysis oil, carbon black and hydrocarbon gas.End products
are used as industrial fuels for producing heat, steam or electricity. Pyrolysis plant is also known
as: pyrolysis unit, plastic to fuel industry, tire to fuel industry, plastic and tire recycling unit etc.The
system is used in USA, California, Australia, Greece, Mexico, the United Kingdom and in
Israel.For example, RESEM pyrolysis plant that has been operational at the Texas USA since
December 2011 , and processes up to 60 tons per day.[4]

In Taipei, the city government charges its households and industries for the volume of
rubbish they produce. Waste will only be collected by the city council if waste is disposed in
government issued rubbish bags. This policy has successfully reduced the amount of waste the
city produces and increased the recycling rate.

In Israel, the Arrow Ecology company has developed the ArrowBio system, which takes
trash directly from collection trucks and separates organic and inorganic materials through
gravitational settling, screening, and hydro-mechanical shredding. The system is capable of
sorting huge volumes of solid waste, salvaging recyclables, and turning the rest into biogas and
rich agricultural compost. The system is used in California, Australia, Greece, Mexico, the United
Kingdom and in Israel. For example, an ArrowBio plant that has been operational at
theHiriya landfill site since December 2003 serves the Tel Aviv area, and processes up to 150
tons of garbage a day.[5]

In Saudi Arabia there is the worlds largest AWCS now being built in the vicinity of
Islams holiest mosque (Mecca). During the Ramadan and Hajj 600,000 kilos, or 4,500 cubic
meters, of waste is generated each day, which puts a heavy demand on those responsible for
collecting the waste and litter. In the [3]MetroTaifun Automatic Waste Collection System, the waste
is automatically collected from 74 waste feeding points spread out across the area and then
transferred via a 20-kilometre pipe network to a central collection point, keeping all the waste
collecting activities out of sight and below ground with the central collection point well away from
the public areas.
While waste transport within a given country falls under national regulations, trans-boundary
movement of waste is often subject to international treaties. A major concern to many countries in
the world has been hazardous waste. The Basel Convention, ratified by 172 countries,

deprecates movement of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries. The
provisions of the Basel convention have been integrated into the EU waste shipment regulation.
Nuclear waste, although considered hazardous, does not fall under the jurisdiction of the Basel
Convention.
Waste management concepts

There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between
countries or regions. Some of the most general, widely used concepts include:

ii)

What are the advantages of solid waste incernaton? (5 Marks)


Ans1.

Solid waste incinerators are used to combust organic substances contained in


waste. Incineration converts solid waste into ash, flue gas and heat. Incineration is the
main alternative to landfills, which hold solid waste in a contained area. Modern solid
waste incinerators separate most dangerous gases and particulates from the flue gas
produced
during
incineration
Reduces Volume of Solid Waste

Incinerators reduce waste volume by approximately 95 percent and reduce the


solid mass of the original waste by 80 percent to 85 percent. (The exact percentage depends on
the constituent materials of the solid waste). Therefore, while incineration does not eliminate the
need for dumping ground completely, it certainly reduces the amount of land needed. For small
countries, this is significant as landfills take up large amounts of space that could be used more
productively.
Power and Heat Generation

As energy costs went up in the 1950s, numerous countries sought to incorporate


the energy and heat generated from garbage incinerators for the production of electricity through
steam turbines. Furthermore, Europe and Japan have

incorporated incinerators into urban central heating systems. Sweden, for instance,
produces 8 percent of its heating needs from 50 percent of the waste incinerated.

Reduces Pollution
o

Studies have shown that solid waste incinerators produce less pollution than
landfills. One study in particular, conducted during a 1994 lawsuit in the United States, showed
that a waste incinerator site was more environmentally friendly than an equivalent landfill. (Both
were 1,500-ton-per-day facilities.) The study found that the landfill released higher amounts of
greenhouse gases, hydrocarbons, nonmethane organic compounds, hazardous air pollutants,
nitrogen oxides and dioxin than an incinerator. Landfills further leach dangerous chemical into the
underlying groundwater, which can contaminate underground water systems.
Filters Trap Pollutants

A major concern associated with incinerating solid waste was the release of
dangerous compounds, dioxin in particular. Nevertheless, modern incineration plants use filters to
trap dangerous gases and particulate matter like dioxin. The release of dioxin by most modern
incineration plants is well within the recommended limits prescribed by the Environmental
Protection Agency and international protocols.

2.

Minimum of land is needed compared to the dimensions of waste disposal sites.

3.

The weight of the waste is reduced to 25% of the initial value.

4.

The waste volume is reduced to almost 10% of the initial value.

5.

The flue gas, which is containing heavy metals and other harmful substances after

the incineration process, is cleaned and emitted through the stack in environmentally friendly
form. If waste is dumped in untreated form, underground water can be poisoned and different
gases are developing which can harm our environment very badly as they support the
greenhouse effect.
6.

Incineration plants can be located close to residential areas, which are the centres

of the production of waste, and this helps to reduce the volume of traffic, pollution, noise and of
course the costs for the waste transportation.
7.

By using the ashes for environmentally appropriate construction, low costs are

provided and furthermore the need for landfill capacity is reduced.


8.

9.

First of all district heating can be produced with the help of hot water.

10.

Secondly current can be generated by means of steam turbines.

11.

The incineration of waste provides two possibilities of using the produced energy:

By using district heating single heating systems in houses can be replaced which

helps to reduce the pollution of the environment and greenhouse gas emissions are diminished.
12.

The produced residues, ash and slag as well as the developed flue gases, are

odour-free compared to the partly offensive smells caused by dumps.

13.

As the raw material needed for waste incineration, which is municipal waste, is

said to be kind of renewable it helps to reduce the use of fossil fuels or non renewable
resources.
iii)

Define hazardous waste (5 Marks)


AnsDefinition-A Hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public
health or the environment. In the United States, the treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous
waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Hazardous
wastes are defined under RCRA in 40 CFR 261 where they are divided into two major categories:
characteristic wastes and listed wastes.[1]

Characteristic hazardous wastes are materials that are known or tested to exhibit one
or more of the following four hazardous traits:

ignitability (i.e., flammable)

reactivity

corrosivity

toxicity

Listed hazardous wastes are materials specifically listed by regulatory authorities as a


hazardous waste which are from non-specific sources, specific sources, or discarded chemical
products.
The requirements of RCRA apply to all the companies that generate hazardous waste as well as
those companies that store or dispose of hazardous waste in the United States. Many types of
businesses generate hazardous waste. For example, dry cleaners, automobile repair shops,
hospitals,exterminators, and photo processing centers may all generate hazardous waste. Some
hazardous
waste
generators
are
larger
companies
such
as
chemical manufacturers, electroplating companies, and oil refineries.
These wastes may be found in different physical states such as gaseous, liquids, or solids. A
hazardous waste is a special type of waste because it cannot be disposed of by common means
like other by-products of our everyday lives. Depending on the physical state of the waste,
treatment and solidification processes might be required.
Worldwide, The United Nations Environmental Programme(UNEP) estimated that more than 400
million tons of hazardous wastes are produced universally each year, mostly by industrialized

countries (schmit, 1999). About 1- percent of this total is shipped across international boundaries,
with the majority of the transfers occurring between countries in the Organization for the
Economic Cooperation and Development(OECD) (Krueger, 1999). Some of the reasons for
industrialized countries to ship the hazardous waste to industrializing countries for disposal are
the rising cost of disposing hazardous waste in the home country

iv)

List the legal provisions in the Environment Protection Act pertaining to hazardous waste
Ans-Introduction
Over the years, together with a spreading of environmental consciousness, there has been a
change in the traditionally-held perception that there is a trade-off between environmental quality
and economic growth as people have come to believe that the two are necessarily
complementary. The current focus on environment is not newenvironmental considerations
have been an integral part of the Indian culture. The need for conservation and sustainable use of
natural resources has been expressed in Indian scriptures, more than three thousand years old
and is reflected in the constitutional, legislative and policy framework as also in the international
commitments of the country.
Even before Indias independence in 1947, several environmental legislation existed but the
real impetus for bringing about a well-developed framework came only after the UN Conference
on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972). Under the influence of this declaration, the
National Council for Environmental Policy and Planning within the Department of Science and
Technology was set up in 1972. This Council later evolved into a full-fledged Ministry of
Environment and Forests (MoEF) in 1985 which today is the apex administrative body in the
country for regulating and ensuring environmental protection. After the Stockholm Conference, in
1976, constitutional sanction was given to environmental concerns through the 42 nd Amendment,
which incorporated them into the Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Rights and
Duties.
Since the 1970s an extensive network of environmental legislation has grown in the country. The
MoEF and the pollution control boards (CPCB i.e. Central Pollution Control Board and SPCBs i.e.
State Pollution Control Boards) together form the regulatory and administrative core of the sector.
A policy framework has also been developed to complement the legislative provisions. The Policy
Statement for Abatement of Pollution and the National Conservation Strategy and Policy
Statement on Environment and Development were brought out by the MoEF in 1992, to develop
and promote initiatives for the protection and improvement of the environment. The EAP
(Environmental Action Programme) was formulated in 1993 with the objective of improving
environmental services and integrating environmental considerations in to development
programmes.
Other measures have also been taken by the government to protect and preserve the
environment. Several sector-specific policies have evolved, which are discussed at length in the
concerned chapters.
This chapter attempts to highlight only legislative initiatives towards the protection of the
environment.

Legislation for environmental protection in India


Water
Water quality standards especially those for drinking water are set by the Indian Council of
Medical Research. These bear close resemblance to WHO standards. The discharge of industrial
effluents is regulated by the Indian Standard Codes and recently, water quality standards for
coastal water marine outfalls have also been specified. In addition to the general standards,
certain specific standards have been developed for effluent discharges from industries such as,
iron and steel, aluminium, pulp and paper, oil refineries, petrochemicals and thermal power
plants. Legislation to control water pollution are listed below.

Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974


This Act represented Indias first attempts to comprehensively deal with environmental issues.
The Act prohibits the discharge of pollutants into water bodies beyond a given standard, and lays
down penalties for non-compliance. The Act was amended in 1988 to conform closely to the
provisions of the EPA, 1986. It set up the CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) which lays
down standards for the prevention and control of water pollution. At the State level, the SPCBs
(State Pollution Control Board) function under the direction of the CPCB and the state
government.

Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977


This Act provides for a levy and collection of a cess on water consumed by industries and local
authorities. It aims at augmenting the resources of the central and state boards for prevention
and control of water pollution. Following this Act, The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution)
Cess Rules were formulated in 1978 for defining standards and indications for the kind of and
location of meters that every consumer of water is required to install.

Air
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
To counter the problems associated with air pollution, ambient air quality standards were
established, under the 1981 Act. The Act provides means for the control and abatement of air
pollution. The Act seeks to combat air pollution by prohibiting the use of polluting fuels and
substances, as well as by regulating appliances that give rise to air pollution. Under the Act
establishing or operating of any industrial plant in the pollution control area requires consent from
state boards. The boards are also expected to test the air in air pollution control areas, inspect
pollution control equipment, and manufacturing processes.
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for major pollutants were notified by the CPCB
in April 1994. These are deemed to be levels of air quality necessary with an adequate margin of
safety, to protect public health, vegetation and property (CPCB 1995 cited in Gupta, 1999). The
NAAQS prescribe specific standards for industrial, residential, rural and other sensitive areas.
Industry-specific emission standards have also been developed for iron and steel plants, cement

plants, fertilizer plants, oil refineries and the aluminium industry. The ambient quality standards
prescribed in India are similar to those prevailing in many developed and developing countries.
To empower the central and state pollution boards to meet grave emergencies, the Air
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Amendment Act, 1987, was enacted. The boards were
authorized to take immediate measures to tackle such emergencies and recover the expenses
incurred from the offenders. The power to cancel consent for non-fulfilment of the conditions
prescribed has also been emphasized in the Air Act Amendment.
The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules formulated in 1982, defined the procedures
for conducting meetings of the boards, the powers of the presiding officers, decision-making, the
quorum; manner in which the records of the meeting were to be set etc. They also prescribed the
manner and the purpose of seeking assistance from specialists and the fee to be paid to them.
Complementing the above Acts is the Atomic Energy Act of 1982, which was introduced to deal
with radioactive waste. In 1988, the Motor Vehicles Act, was enacted to regulate vehicular traffic,
besides ensuring proper packaging, labelling and transportation of the hazardous wastes. Various
aspects of vehicular pollution have also been notified under the EPA of 1986. Mass emission
standards were notified in 1990, which were made more stringent in 1996. In 2000 these
standards were revised yet again and for the first time separate obligations for vehicle owners,
manufacturers and enforcing agencies were stipulated. In addition, fairly stringent Euro I and II
emission norms were notified by the Supreme Court on April 29, 1999 for the city of Delhi. The
notification made it mandatory for car manufacturers to conform to the Euro I and Euro II norms
by May 1999 and April 2000, respectively, for new non-commercial vehicle sold in Delhi.

Forests and wildlife


The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, Amendment 1991
The WPA (Wildlife Protection Act), 1972, provides for protection to listed species of flora and
fauna and establishes a network of ecologically-important protected areas. The WPA empowers
the central and state governments to declare any area a wildlife sanctuary, national park or
closed area. There is a blanket ban on carrying out any industrial activity inside these protected
areas. It provides for authorities to administer and implement the Act; regulate the hunting of wild
animals; protect specified plants, sanctuaries, national parks and closed areas; restrict trade or
commerce in wild animals or animal articles; and miscellaneous matters. The Act prohibits
hunting of animals except with permission of authorized officer when an animal has become
dangerous to human life or property or so disabled or diseased as to be beyond recovery (WWFIndia, 1999). The near-total prohibition on hunting was made more effective by the Amendment
Act of 1991.

The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980


This Act was adopted to protect and conserve forests. The Act restricts the powers of the state in
respect of de-reservation of forests and use of forestland for non-forest purposes (the term
non-forest purpose includes clearing any forestland for cultivation of cash crops, plantation
crops, horticulture or any purpose other than re-afforestation).

General
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (EPA)
This Act is an umbrella legislation designed to provide a framework for the co-ordination of central
and state authorities established under the Water (Prevention and Control) Act, 1974 and Air
(Prevention and Control) Act, 1981. Under this Act, the central government is empowered to take
measures necessary to protect and improve the quality of the environment by setting standards
for emissions and discharges; regulating the location of industries; management of hazardous
wastes, and protection of public health and welfare.
From time to time the central government issues notifications under the EPA for the protection of
ecologically-sensitive areas or issues guidelines for matters under the EPA.
Some notifications issued under this Act are:

Doon Valley Notification (1989), which prohibits the setting up of an industry in which
the daily consumption of coal/fuel is more than 24 MT (million tonnes) per day in the Doon Valley.

Coastal Regulation Zone Notification (1991), which regulates activities along coastal
stretches. As per this notification, dumping ash or any other waste in the CRZ is prohibited. The
thermal power plants (only foreshore facilities for transport of raw materials, facilities for intake of
cooling water and outfall for discharge of treated waste water/cooling water) require clearance
from the MoEF.

Dhanu Taluka Notification (1991), under which the district of Dhanu Taluka has been
declared an ecologically fragile region and setting up power plants in its vicinity is prohibited.

Revdanda Creek Notification (1989), which prohibits setting up industries in the belt
around the Revdanda Creek as per the rules laid down in the notification.

The Environmental Impact Assessment of Development Projects Notification, (1994


and as amended in 1997). As per this notification:

All projects listed under Schedule I require environmental clearance from the MoEF.

Projects under the delicenced category of the New Industrial Policy also require
clearance from the MoEF.

All developmental projects whether or not under the Schedule I, if located in fragile
regions must obtain MoEF clearance.

Industrial projects with investments above Rs 500 million must obtain MoEF clearance
and are further required to obtain a LOI (Letter Of Intent) from the Ministry of Industry, and an
NOC (No Objection Certificate) from the SPCB and the State Forest Department if the location
involves forestland. Once the NOC is obtained, the LOI is converted into an industrial licence by
the state authority.

The notification also stipulated procedural requirements for the establishment and
operation of new power plants. As per this notification, two-stage clearance for site-specific
projects such as pithead thermal power plants and valley projects is required. Site clearance is
given in the first stage and final environmental clearance in the second. A public hearing has

been made mandatory for projects covered by this notification. This is an important step in
providing transparency and a greater role to local communities.

Ash Content Notification (1997), required the use of beneficiated coal with ash content
not exceeding 34% with effect from June 2001, (the date later was extended to June 2002). This
applies to all thermal plants located beyond one thousand kilometres from the pithead and any
thermal plant located in an urban area or, sensitive area irrespective of the distance from the
pithead except any pithead power plant.

Taj Trapezium Notification (1998), provided that no power plant could be set up within
the geographical limit of the Taj Trapezium assigned by the Taj Trapezium Zone Pollution
(Prevention and Control) Authority.

Disposal of Fly Ash Notification (1999) the main objective of which is to conserve the
topsoil, protect the environment and prevent the dumping and disposal of fly ash discharged from
lignite-based power plants. The salient feature of this notification is that no person within a radius
of 50 km from a coal-or lignite-based power plant shall manufacture clay bricks or tiles without
mixing at least 25% of ash with soil on a weight-to-weight basis. For the thermal power plants the
utilisation of the flyash would be as follows:

Every coal-or lignite-based power plant shall make available ash for at least ten years
from the date of publication of the above notification without any payment or any other
consideration, for the purpose of manufacturing ash-based products such as cement, concrete
blocks, bricks, panels or any other material or for construction of roads, embankments, dams,
dykes or for any other construction activity.

Every coal or lignite based thermal power plant commissioned subject to environmental
clearance conditions stipulating the submission of an action plan for full utilisation of fly ash shall,
within a period of nine years from the publication of this notification, phase out the dumping and
disposal of fly ash on land in accordance with the plan.[1]

Rules for the Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous Microorganisms/Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cell were introduced in 1989 with the view to
protect the environment, nature and health in connection with gene technology and microorganisms, under the Environmental Protection Act, 1986. The government in 1991, further
decided to institute a national label scheme for environmentally-friendly products called the
ECOMARK. The scheme attempts to provide incentives to manufactures and importers to
reduce adverse environmental impacts, reward genuine initiatives by companies, and improve
the quality of the environment and sustainability of available resources. Besides the above
attempts, notifications pertaining to Recycled Plastics Manufacture and Usage Rules, 1999 were
also incorporated under the Environment (Protection) Act of 1986.

The Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986


These rules lay down the procedures for setting standards of emission or discharge of
environmental pollutants. The Rules prescribe the parameters for the Central Government, under
which it can issue orders of prohibition and restrictions on the location and operation of industries
in different areas. The Rules lay down the procedure for taking samples, serving notice,

submitting samples for analysis and laboratory reports. The functions of the laboratories are also
described under the Rules along with the qualifications of the concerned analysts.

The National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997


This Act provided for the establishment of a National Environment Appellate Authority to hear
appeals with respect to restriction of areas in which any industry operation or process or class of
industries, operations or processes could not carry out or would be allowed to carry out subject to
certain safeguards under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

In addition to these, various Acts specific to the coal sector have been enacted. The first attempts
in this direction can be traced back to the Mines Act, 1952, which promoted health and safety
standards in coal mines. Later the Coal Mines (Conservation and Development) Act (1974) came
up for conservation of coal during mining operations. For conservation and development of oil
and natural gas resources a similar legislation was enacted in 1959.

Hazardous wastes
There are several legislation that directly or indirectly deal with hazardous waste. The relevant
legislation are the Factories Act, 1948, the Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991, the National
Environment Tribunal Act, 1995 and some notifications under the Environmental Protection Act of
1986. A brief description of each of these is given below.
Under the EPA 1986, the MoEF has issued several notifications to tackle the problem of
hazardous waste management. These include:

i)

Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989, which brought out a
guide for manufacture, storage and import of hazardous chemicals and for management of
hazardous wastes.

Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998, were formulated along
parallel lines, for proper disposal, segregation, transport etc. of infectious wastes.

Municipal Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000, whose aim was to enable
municipalities to dispose municipal solid waste in a scientific manner.

Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Amendment Rules, 2000, a recent


notification issued with the view to providing guidelines for the import and export of hazardous
waste in the country.

Discuss the role of CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) in the pollution control activities in
India.
AnsFunctions of the Central Board at the National Level

Advise the Central Government on any matter concerning prevention and control of water and air
pollution and improvement of the quality of air.
Plan and cause to be executed a nation-wide programm for the prevention, control or abatement
of water and air pollution;
Co-ordinate the activities of the State Board and resolve disputes among them;
Provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards, carry out and sponsor
investigation and research relating to problems of water and air pollution, and for their prevention,
control or abatement;
Plan and organise training of persons engaged in programme on the prevention, control or
abatement of water and air pollution;
Organise through mass media, a comprehensive mass awareness programme on the prevention,
control or abatement of water and air pollution;
Collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to water and air pollution and
the measures devised for their effective prevention, control or abatement;
Prepare manuals, codes and guidelines relating to treatment and disposal of sewage and trade
effluents as well as for stack gas cleaning devices, stacks and ducts;
Disseminate information in respect of matters relating to water and air pollution and their
prevention and control;
Lay down, modify or annul, in consultation with the State Governments concerned, the standards
for stream or well, and lay down standards for the quality of air; and
Perform such other function as may be prescribed by the Government of india.
Functions of the Central Board as State Boards for the Union Territories
Advise the Governments of Union Territories with respect to the suitability of any
premises or location for carrying on any industry which is likely to pollute a stream or well or
cause air pollutions; Lay down standards for treatment of sewage and trade effluents and for
emissions from automobiles, industrial plants, and any other polluting source; Evolve efficient
methods for disposal of sewage and trade effluents on land; develop reliable and economically
viable methods of treatment of sewage, trade effluent and air pollution control equipment; Identify
any area or areas within Union Territories as air pollution control area or areas to be notified
under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981; Assess the quality of ambient water
and air, and inspect wastewater treatment installations, air pollution control equipment, industrial
plants or manufacturing process to evaluate their performance and to take steps for the
prevention, control and abatement of air and water pollution.
ii) Mention the salient points of the 3 Acts : (2 Marks)
The Air (prevention and control of pollution) Act 1981
The Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act 1974
The Environment (Protection) Act 1986

Ans-1)
Air
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
To counter the problems associated with air pollution, ambient air quality standards were
established, under the 1981 Act. The Act provides means for the control and abatement of air
pollution. The Act seeks to combat air pollution by prohibiting the use of polluting fuels and
substances, as well as by regulating appliances that give rise to air pollution. Under the Act
establishing or operating of any industrial plant in the pollution control area requires consent from
state boards. The boards are also expected to test the air in air pollution control areas, inspect
pollution control equipment, and manufacturing processes.
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for major pollutants were notified by the CPCB
in April 1994. These are deemed to be levels of air quality necessary with an adequate margin of
safety, to protect public health, vegetation and property (CPCB 1995 cited in Gupta, 1999). The
NAAQS prescribe specific standards for industrial, residential, rural and other sensitive areas.
Industry-specific emission standards have also been developed for iron and steel plants, cement
plants, fertilizer plants, oil refineries and the aluminium industry. The ambient quality standards
prescribed in India are similar to those prevailing in many developed and developing countries.
To empower the central and state pollution boards to meet grave emergencies, the Air
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Amendment Act, 1987, was enacted. The boards were
authorized to take immediate measures to tackle such emergencies and recover the expenses
incurred from the offenders. The power to cancel consent for non-fulfilment of the conditions
prescribed has also been emphasized in the Air Act Amendment.

2)
Ans-Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
This Act represented Indias first attempts to comprehensively deal with environmental issues.
The Act prohibits the discharge of pollutants into water bodies beyond a given standard, and lays
down penalties for non-compliance. The Act was amended in 1988 to conform closely to the
provisions of the EPA, 1986. It set up the CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) which lays
down standards for the prevention and control of water pollution. At the State level, the SPCBs
(State Pollution Control Board) function under the direction of the CPCB and the state
government
3)
Ans- Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (EPA)
This Act is an umbrella legislation designed to provide a framework for the co-ordination of central
and state authorities established under the Water (Prevention and Control) Act, 1974 and Air
(Prevention and Control) Act, 1981. Under this Act, the central government is empowered to take
measures necessary to protect and improve the quality of the environment by setting standards
for emissions and discharges; regulating the location of industries; management of hazardous
wastes, and protection of public health and welfare.

From time to time the central government issues notifications under the EPA for the protection of
ecologically-sensitive areas or issues guidelines for matters under the EPA.
Some notifications issued under this Act are:

Doon Valley Notification (1989), which prohibits the setting up of an industry in which
the daily consumption of coal/fuel is more than 24 MT (million tonnes) per day in the Doon Valley.

Coastal Regulation Zone Notification (1991), which regulates activities along coastal
stretches. As per this notification, dumping ash or any other waste in the CRZ is prohibited. The
thermal power plants (only foreshore facilities for transport of raw materials, facilities for intake of
cooling water and outfall for discharge of treated waste water/cooling water) require clearance
from the MoEF.

Dhanu Taluka Notification (1991), under which the district of Dhanu Taluka has been
declared an ecologically fragile region and setting up power plants in its vicinity is prohibited.

Revdanda Creek Notification (1989), which prohibits setting up industries in the belt
around the Revdanda Creek as per the rules laid down in the notification.

The Environmental Impact Assessment of Development Projects Notification, (1994


and as amended in 1997). As per this notification:

All projects listed under Schedule I require environmental clearance from the MoEF.

Projects under the delicenced category of the New Industrial Policy also require
clearance from the MoEF.

All developmental projects whether or not under the Schedule I, if located in fragile
regions must obtain MoEF clearance.

Industrial projects with investments above Rs 500 million must obtain MoEF clearance
and are further required to obtain a LOI (Letter Of Intent) from the Ministry of Industry, and an
NOC (No Objection Certificate) from the SPCB and the State Forest Department if the location
involves forestland. Once the NOC is obtained, the LOI is converted into an industrial licence by
the state authority.

The notification also stipulated procedural requirements for the establishment and
operation of new power plants. As per this notification, two-stage clearance for site-specific
projects such as pithead thermal power plants and valley projects is required. Site clearance is
given in the first stage and final environmental clearance in the second. A public hearing has
been made mandatory for projects covered by this notification. This is an important step in
providing transparency and a greater role to local communities.

Ash Content Notification (1997), required the use of beneficiated coal with ash content
not exceeding 34% with effect from June 2001, (the date later was extended to June 2002). This
applies to all thermal plants located beyond one thousand kilometres from the pithead and any
thermal plant located in an urban area or, sensitive area irrespective of the distance from the
pithead except any pithead power plant.

Taj Trapezium Notification (1998), provided that no power plant could be set up within
the geographical limit of the Taj Trapezium assigned by the Taj Trapezium Zone Pollution
(Prevention and Control) Authority.

Disposal of Fly Ash Notification (1999) the main objective of which is to conserve the
topsoil, protect the environment and prevent the dumping and disposal of fly ash discharged from
lignite-based power plants. The salient feature of this notification is that no person within a radius
of 50 km from a coal-or lignite-based power plant shall manufacture clay bricks or tiles without
mixing at least 25% of ash with soil on a weight-to-weight basis. For the thermal power plants the
utilisation of the flyash would be as follows:

Every coal-or lignite-based power plant shall make available ash for at least ten years
from the date of publication of the above notification without any payment or any other
consideration, for the purpose of manufacturing ash-based products such as cement, concrete
blocks, bricks, panels or any other material or for construction of roads, embankments, dams,
dykes or for any other construction activity.

Every coal or lignite based thermal power plant commissioned subject to environmental
clearance conditions stipulating the submission of an action plan for full utilisation of fly ash shall,
within a period of nine years from the publication of this notification, phase out the dumping and
disposal of fly ash on land in accordance with the plan.[1]

iii) Explain the very elements of EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) different types of
Impact Assessments the benefits of EIA The EIA process, key points to remember while
conducting an effective EIA.+Structure of these EIA learning materialsIn this module, the EIA process is discussed in 11
Sections. Following this introductory section,

Background (Section 1), are the following 10 Sections in order, with a brief description of the
purpose of each stage in the EIA process:Law, Policy and Institutional Arrangements
(Section 2): To provide regulatory and legislative governance structures and requirements of EIA
processes for project proponents, EIA practitioners and stakeholders
.Public involvement (Section 3): To inform the public about the proposal and to gain the inputs of
those directly affected by or interested in the proposal. Public involvement in some form may
occur throughout the EIA process, although it tends to be focused on scoping and review phases
of EIA.
Screening (Section 4): To decide whether or not a proposal should be subject to the EIA process
and, if so, at what level of detail.
Scoping (Section 5): To identify the key issues and impacts that are likely to require further
investigation, and to prepare the terms of reference for the EIA study.

Impact analysis (Section 6): To identify and predict the likely environmental and social effects of
the proposal and evaluate their significance.
Mitigation and impact management (Section 7): To develop measures to avoid, reduce or
compensate for impacts, making good any environmental damage.
Reporting (Section 8 ): To describe the results of the EIA for decision-makers and other interested
parties.
Review of EIA quality (Section 9): To examine the adequacy of the EIA report to see if it meets the
terms of reference and provides the information necessary for decision-making.
Decision-making (Section 10): To approve or reject the proposal and set the terms and conditions
under which it can proceed. The decision-maker also has the option to defer approval (e.g. until
certain conditions are met or to require a proponent to redesign the project so that the
environmental effects are minimised).
Implementation and follow up (Section 11): To check on the implementation of the terms and
conditions of approval during the construction and operation phases; to monitor the impacts of
the project and the effectiveness of mitigation measures; to take any actions necessary to
ameliorate problems; and, as required, to undertake audit and evaluation to strengthen future EIA
applications.
In this module you will be looking only at EIA. However, it is important to recognise that there is a
general principle of assessment that applies to EIA, and to other assessment processes. There
are several other processes that relate closely to the review of environmental impacts that may
result from a proposed project. The following are well recognised processes:

Social Impact Assessment


Risk Assessment
Life Cycle Analysis
Energy Analysis
Health Impact Assessment
Regulatory Impact Assessment
Species Impact Assessment
Technology Assessment
Economic Assessment
Cumulative Impact Assessment
Strategic Environmental Assessment
Integrated Impact Assessment

Some, like Energy Analysis, focus on a particular part of the environment. Others, like Life Cycle
Analysis, enable the consideration of all those parts of the environment that are relevant to the
assessment. Also, depending on how the terms, like health, are defined for the study you may
find that it is covering most of the issues that would be found in an EIA. For example a
Technology Assessment could include review of the impacts on ecosystems, air quality and the
like. Similarly, if the definition of environment is taken broadly for an EIA, then the EIA
may cover the issues of the other assessment processes; for example:

social aspects (such as impacts on employment, community interaction);


risks (such as threats to native animals, water supplies);
life cycle (such as the impacts at each stage of the project design through to operation and
closure); and
energy (such as use of non-renewable energy sources, Greenhouse gas emissions), etc
So there is the potential for a lot of connections between the different forms of assessment. The
essential difference between them is how the terms, or scope of assessment, are defined
narrowly, or broadly. Otherwise they all follow the same general principle.

Principle of Assessment

With all the assessment approaches noted above, they are designed to identify potential impacts
of a development, action or project. To do this the assessor needs to use personal experience
and the experiences of others (including available knowledge) to think broadly about the changes
that are possible, and whether those impacts will be positive or negative.

Particular approaches emphasis specific types of impacts (i.e. on health, on social groups). All
have basically the same approach, although each may have its own individual language and
detailed techniques.

Most of the assessment processes also include a second step. After identifying the impacts, they
also consider what may be needed to avoid or reduce adverse impacts.

Informal Assessments

In this module you will be looking at the EIA processes that are required by governments, or by
organisations that provides funds for projects (such as the Work Bank). An EIA conducted under

these processes can be thought of as a formal EIA, as it is required by formal legislation


or other agreement.

However, in addition there are many possibilities of conducting informal EIAs. This is
especially the case where assessment is incorporated in internal processes of corporations.
Informal EIA, such as the environment assessment associated with an Environmental
Management Systems, requires identification and documentation of potential impacts, plus the
reporting of how those impacts would be managed. No matter whether the assessment process
is formal or informal, or what terms are used, the same principle (above) is involved.

Social and political nature of EIA

While EIA has been viewed as a technical process, it is inherently a political process. EIA evolved
from the politics surrounding the impacts that development projects were having on the
environment. Once established it became dominated by technocratic approaches, which may
lead to people ignoring social, political and economic conditions. However, EIA is political in terms
of the way in which governments legislate for EIA, and the ways in which value judgments and
political decisions, at the level of the individual, permeate virtually every element of EIA. A
significant political issue is the choice of proposals to which EIA is applied (this is at the
screening stage; Section 4). This can be a value judgement where one type of project
requires an EIA, while others do not. Other value judgements come into decisions about what
environmental issues should be covered in the EIA (scoping; Section 5), which pieces of
information are included in the EIA Report (Section 8), and how the information is presented to
the decision-makers.

There are checks and balances in the EIA process to moderate some of these influences,
especially where the public has the chance to be involved (see Section 3). However, there are
few opportunities through the stages in the EIA process for the public to be involved. Even when
they have the opportunity, the publics ability to be involved in the EIA process has been limited
by the resources available (especially time and expertise).

Overview of issues

This module provides you with an introduction to the way in which EIA operates. As a result the
module focuses on the technical aspects of EIA to help you understand how to conduct an EIA.

The module spends only very limited time discussing other assessment types, or the political
nature of EIA. However, when you are engaged in the technical side of EIA you are encouraged

to remember these issues as they may have an effect on the way your EIA is undertaken, and its
outcomes.
iv) Compare and contrast polluter pays principle with beneficiary pays principle.
Introduction

According to the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, unless global
collective action on climate change can be achieved, the major threats posed by a rapidly
changing climate are likely to have catastrophic effects for all life on Earth (IPCC 2007). Despite
the fact all major governments have acknowledged the causal role of anthropogenic emissions in
producing rapid global warming,[1] little action has yet been taken to reduce such emissions.

The best hope for reaching an effective international agreement on climate change is to base it
on the widely agreed upon principle of common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR),
Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. This principle captures the
international consensus that the ongoing responsibility to protect the global commons is to be
shared, though not necessarily evenly. In particular, the principle of CBDR notes that developed
states bear a greater responsibility to address climate change because of the pressure they have
put on the global environment and their financial and technological ability to take action (Rio
Declaration on Environment and Development 1992).[2] Unfortunately, serious disagreements
remain about how the principle of CBDR is to be interpreted. At bottom, these interpretive
disagreements are about justice: what is the most just way to decide what should be done about
rapid climate change and who should do it? Insofar as this question hinges on matters of justice,
philosophers have an important role to play in answering this important question. This chapter is
a contribution to the ongoing philosophical debate about how the principle of CBDR can be
interpreted in a way that is both fair and amenable to the formation of policy.

Within the existing literature on how to fairly divide the responsibilities of dealing with climate
change, several principles of justice have emerged as the main contenders.[3] As it turns out, the
only current agreement on these principles of justice is that, considered individually, none
distributes responsibilities in a way that is fair to all relevant parties (Page 2008). This has
encouraged recent attempts to solve this problem by combining the main principles of justice into
a hybrid account. The goal is to create a hybrid account that considers all of the main morally
relevant considerations and distributes the responsibilities of dealing with climate change in a
way that is fair to all parties and amenable to translation into policy.

In this chapter we follow the general approach just described. We first discuss the main principles
of justice and note the standard objections to them, which we believe necessitate a hybrid
approach. The hybrid account we defend is primarily based on the distributive principle of
sufficientarianism, which we interpret as the idea that each country should have the means to
provide a minimally decent quality of life for each of its citizens. We argue that sufficientarian
considerations give good reason to think that what we call the ability to pay objection should be
taken much more seriously in this debate. Following this, our account emphasises what we
believe are the two most important moral desiderata in any attempt to distribute responsibility for
dealing with climate change: the ability to mitigate the problem and the making of culpable

contributions to the problem. After noting that our proposal includes enough detail to be a useful
start for policy makers, we defend our account against some potential objections.

Polluter pays principle

The polluter pays principle (PPP) identifies the parties who caused the pollution and apportions
responsibility for paying the costs of dealing with climate change among those parties. Arguably,
the PPP is the most intuitive way of thinking about the ethics of climate change. It is based on the
widely shared idea that those who cause harm to others should be morally responsible for
remedying that harm. As such, the PPP has the ability to provide the appropriate incentive to
prevent polluting by directly linking moral responsibility, and the resulting accountability, to the
kinds of actions that should be discouraged.

The polluting to which the PPP refers should be taken to mean the emitting of greenhouse gases
above some agreed upon quota. The quotas agreed upon in the Kyoto Protocol are all selfimposed and based on a reduction of their absolute per capita or per gross national product
emissions relative to some past point in time.[4] These arbitrary quotas are patently unfair
because they fail to acknowledge that there is no good moral reason for any distribution of a
common global good, like the atmosphere, other than an equal share for everyone (Singer 2008,
p. 671). There is a much fairer method of creating a quota (and one that would do more to reduce
the likely catastrophic effects of climate change). This method would see the annual amount of
total emissions considered safe by current United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC) estimates to be distributed to states based on their near-future population
trajectory as compiled by the United Nations.[5] If this approach were adopted, then the per
capita aspect of this method would plausibly result in current and future people receiving their fair
share of the atmosphere. The use of near-future population trajectories instead of actual
populations is meant to eliminate perverse incentives for population control.

The PPP fares well when applied to current and future polluting. However, when the PPP is
applied to historical emitting a problem arises from the fact past polluters, for the most part, were
not aware that their actions would have harmful consequences. This fact suggests two versions
of the PPP. One version is an exacting version: the full liability PPP assigns moral responsibility to
agents to redress all of the relevant harms they cause even when they are unaware their actions
would lead to such harm. The other version is a weaker version: the conditional liability PPP
(CPPP) assigns moral responsibility only to those who knowingly pollute or who should have
known that their greenhouse gas emitting was likely to cause harm. We refer to such polluting as
culpable polluting. Culpable polluting is to be distinguished from non-culpable polluting on the
basis of whether the polluter can reasonably be held to have known that their polluting was likely
to cause harm. We believe this distinction is morally significant, so adopt a version of the CPPP in
our hybrid account.

Applying the CPPP to the current climate change debate requires a method to discern who can
reasonably be held to have known that their polluting was likely to cause harm. We conservatively
recommend taking 1992 (when the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development was

signed) as the date past which all states should be deemed as knowing that greenhouse gas
emissions over a certain level are likely to cause harm. By using 1992 as the starting date for
culpable polluting, the CPPP can satisfyingly deal with the problem of non-culpable polluting.
However, Page (2008, p. 570) has criticised the use of this fairly recent date as the relevant
starting date because he thinks it results in harsh treatment for the newly industrialised
populations and lax treatment of those residing in countries of transition. To move the starting
date further back would decrease Pages fairness concerns but would exacerbate the unfairness
to polluters who truly were not aware of the consequences of their actions. The combination of
these two concerns makes it difficult to specify a fair date after which states should be deemed as
knowing that greenhouse gas emissions over a certain level are likely to cause harm. And this
difficulty, in turn, creates a problem for the PPP that it cannot easily solve by itself.

The main problem for the CPPP is that it fails to designate sufficient moral responsibility to
address the problem given that a large portion of the polluting was caused before 1992 (Caney
2005). A common response to this sufficiency problem has been to argue that individuals
currently residing in states that are primarily responsible for climate change should be held
morally responsible for polluting that was caused by the previous generations of those states.[6]
Closer inspection reveals that this response is unfair. Why should the mere fact someone lives in
a country, whose previous citizens polluted, make them responsible for the polluting? A possible
response to this intergenerational problem is to agree that current generations should have to pay
only for their own polluting and not for the polluting of past generations. Although this would be a
fair and consistent application of the PPP, it suffers from the same problem as the CPPP: it fails
to designate enough moral responsibility to ensure adequate mitigation of and adaptation to the
potentially catastrophic effects of rapid climate change.

It could be argued that the above intergenerational problem presupposes that the relevant moral
agents are individuals as opposed to states. Against this, a collectivist approach to the PPP would
view states as the relevant moral agents for the current climate change debate. Such an
approach has initial intuitive plausibility given that any future agreement the UNFCCC reaches
will distribute the responsibilities for dealing with climate change among states in the first
instance. Applying this collectivist version of the PPP reveals that, because of their relatively long
history of greenhouse gas emitting, the developed nations have the primary responsibility for
mitigating and adapting to rapid climate change. These states should pay, on this collectivist
version of the PPP, because they have caused, and are likely to continue to cause, harms
because of the high concentrations of greenhouse gases they have released through their
historic polluting. Caney (2005) has argued against a collectivist approach to the PPP on the
grounds that it would be unfair to the current citizens of an historically polluting state to have to
pay for damages done by their forebears. He asks, individuals cannot inherit debts from parents
or grandparents, so why should this be any different? (Caney 2005, p. 760). Although we agree
with the intuition that innocent individuals should not have a moral responsibility to remedy harms
caused by others, we do not think Caney adequately engages with the rationale of collectivist
views.

As a part of a collective, an individual is usually entitled to some benefits, but those benefits come
at the cost of certain responsibilities. New citizens of New Zealand, by birth or grant, are entitled
to, among other things, the benefits of social welfare, a public health system, and the freedom to
live in a naturally beautiful country. However, these citizens also accrue several responsibilities,
including abiding by the law and paying taxes. As a rule, the responsibilities of being a part of a

collective come ineluctably hand in hand with the benefits. Therefore, individuals who did not vote
for the creation of the benefits that they are now enjoying, as a part of a collective, should
understand that with those benefits come responsibilities and that acceptance of the benefits
entails acceptance of the whole package. Therefore, while citizens of industrialised countries are
innocent of historic polluting, the collective of which they are a part is not. One may decide to opt
out of the collective (of both the benefits and the responsibilities), but no one is entitled to opt out
of the responsibilities only. In short, one can respond to Caneys worries about the unfairness of
collective versions of PPP as follows. If individuals born into rich countries can make the case
that it is unfair to require them to pay for harms they did not cause, then individuals born into
poor, non-polluting countries can make an even stronger case that it is unfair that they lack so
many benefits enjoyed by individuals of rich countries solely because of accidents of birth.

Therefore, a collectivist PPP, which views the relevant moral agents as states, can be defended
against Caneys objections. However, as we argue later, both individual and collective versions of
the PPP are susceptible to a different objection, which we call the ability to pay objection.

v)

What are the tenets of Risk management explain the steps involved through a chart.
through a chart. RISK COMMUNICATION TASKS IN THE RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS
RISK COMMUNICATION TASKS IN THE RISK MANAGEMENTPROCESs RISK
MANAGEMENT STEP RISK COMMUNICATION TASK
Initiation
Identify stakeholders
Consult with stakeholders in defining scopeissuePreliminary Analysis
Develop stakeholder analysis for ongoing verification and refinement Risk Estimation
Discussion of source, exposure issues
Communication of results with stakeholders
Assess changes in knowledge/perception in light of new information
Risk Evaluation
Elicit stakeholder perceptions of the risks and benefits, and the reasons for these, if possible
Assess stakeholder acceptability of the risk
Risk Control
Consult with stakeholders to gain input into identifying and evaluating control options
Inform stakeholders of chosen risk control and financing strategies;
Inform stakeholders of benefits, costs, and any new risks associated with proposed control
options;

Evaluate acceptance of control options and residual risks;


Determine if risk trade-offs might be possible

Implementation (Action)
Communication of risk control decision and implementation
Monitoring
Ensure implementation of communication strategies
Monitor changes in needs, issues, concerns of existing or new stakeholders