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BSOSM AND BSTOURISM

TRACER STUDY: ACADEMIC YEAR 2010-2014

______________

A Thesis
Presented to the
College of Business, Arts, and Sciences
BOHOL ISLAND STATE UNIVERSITY
Main Campus, Tagbilaran City

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In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Office Systems Management

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Mark Sedrick Sarong
Mary Angelie C. Barrete
Jenne Calape
Ana Mae JeslieS.Torion

March 2015
Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE


INTRODUCTION
Rationale

Education has long been regarded as one of the primary components for
poverty reduction and socio-economic upliftment. Education is tasked to train the
nations manpower in the skills required for national development, and to instill
and foster the appropriate and relevant, knowledge, skills, and attitudes to enable
each individual to become a useful, productive and gainfully employed member
of society. Investments in education would be considered wasted if people do
not move into productive jobs that enable them to pay taxes and support public
services.
Recognizing

the

reality

in

todays

academic world, the

role

of

higher education institutions cant only be limited to impart knowledge, but also to
contribute to maintain a competitive economy and most important of all, to secure
the dream of graduates to get jobs and become socially recognized and
successful in their respective fields of endeavor. On the other hand, one of the
major factors for underemployment and the difficulty in finding jobs is the inability
of graduates to meet the necessary skills and competencies required by the
industry.

In an increasingly globalized world, there is an increasing pressure for


fresh graduates to compete for jobs which are not growing at the same pace with
the growth in population of young people seeking gainful employment. According
to the International Labor Organization Youth Employment Networks (YEN),
young people are actively seeking to participate in the world of work and are two
to three times more likely than the older generations to find themselves
unemployed (ILO, 2006).
As the Bohol Island State University-Main Campus mission states BISU is
committed to provide quality higher education in the arts and sciences, as well as
in

the

professional

and

technological

fields;

undertake

research

and

development, and extension services for the sustainable development of Bohol


and the country. Therefore the BISU and other schools and universities which
produced thousands of graduates every year should have an updates and get
enough information about the status of the graduates from their own
institution.Their employment status is one of the most important matters that they
should know not only to identify if they had achieved and attained their Vision,
Mission and Goals, but also it helps them know what future strategies they are
going to improve or establish.The tracer study is a great help and plays a big role
in tracing and evaluating the employment status of the graduates in a certain
school or in a university.
Tracing the graduates of Bachelor of Science in Office Systems
Management, and Bachelor of Science in Tourism, thetwo courses of the College
of Business, Arts, and Sciences of Bohol Island State University- Main Campus

will give information as to whether they have a job, their job relates to their
chosen course or as if they are already satisfied with the job they are currently
holding. It will also testify whether the education and training of BISU-MC is good
enough to make successful graduates.
With that, the researchers come up in their study for a goal which is not
only to locate them but more importantly to find out how adequate is the training
provided by Bohol Island State University Main Campus in the overall
performance of their career life, the extent by which the proficiency and
competency skills were developed, the employment status of the graduates as
well as their achievements in their field.

Literature Background
The purpose of education is to enable the society to have a command of
knowledge, skills and values for achieving the countrys vision of attaining the
status of fully developed nation in terms of economic development, social justice
and spiritual, moral and ethical strength towards creating a society that is united,
democratic, liberal and dynamic (Abu Bakar et.al. 2009). In that regard, Bohol
Island State University Main Campus seeks among other things to deliver
training that meets the requirements of the industry, thus making people
employable; and to provide initial training to school leaves to enhance their
opportunities for employment and self-employment. When rising demand for
skills is not met by supply, the result is persistent shortage of skilled labour and

constrained growth. The root of the shortage of skilled labour can be traced to
persistence of the antiquated and unresponsive training mechanisms.
One of the most serious problems in the Philippines concerned the large
number of students who completed college but when could not find a job
commensurate with their educational skills. If properly utilized, these trained
personnel could conciliated economic development, but when left idle or forced
to take jobs beneath their qualifications, their group could be a major source of
discontentment. The country had witnessed this huge mismatch between
available jobs and available manpower which can lead to unnecessary
employment which in return will affect economic status of the country (Gapuz,
2009).
According to the article released by the Statistics Office recently, the total
numbers of unemployed sector are under the age bracket of 15-24 years old. A
study conducted by Business, Industry and Higher Education Collaboration
Council on Graduates Employability Skills (August 2007) emphasized that the
higher education sector is characterized by diversity, course and student profiles
are different approaches in the manner in which they develop graduate
employability skills.
However, it is widely believed that the training system in BISU-MC is of
sync with the economy and the labour market. To ascertain the importance of
training to the economy and the labour market, tracer study is necessary. Tracer
studies are generally defined as surveys of graduates from institutions of higher

education and are often seen as an important tool of institutional development


especially when the world of work is changing rapidly. From information provided
by tracer studies, the higher education institutions can get a systematic feedback
from their former students.
The institutions can row the whereabouts of their graduates; their working
conditions and their retrospective assessment of their course of study might
stimulate the curricular debate and could be also very interesting for the current
or later students (Schumburg, 2003). Effective and responsive career guidance
and counselling are much helpful to prevent the course and job mismatch.
Filipino educators have to open their eyes and expand their awareness ofd the
present scenario of our graduates job placement and employment to better
recognize the issue of career guidance.
This study focused on tracing the graduates employment status of
Bachelor of Science in Office Systems Management, and Bachelor of Science in
Tourism from batch 2010-2014, whether they are employed, underemployed, or
unemployed. This study will also get the level of their job satisfaction.
According to John F. Kennedy, the ideal career combines the dream of
what a person wants to be with the reality of finding and working at a job that
leads to that aim.Picking a career is the most important decision the average
student makes. John Hollands theory of career choice (RIASEC) maintains that
in choosing a career, people prefer jobs where they can be around others who
are like them.

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Theories:

Legal Bases:

Herzbergs Motivation
Hygiene Theory

Section 1 of
Implementing
Rules and
Regulations of
Wage Order No.
ROVII 16

Certain characteristics of
a job. (Herzberg 1968)
John Hollands Theory
of
career
Choice
(RIASEC)

The daily minimum


wage rates of all
minimum wage.....

In choosing a career,
people prefer jobs where
they...

Labor Code of the


Philippines Article
no. 3

BSOSM AND BSTOUSRISM


(2010-2014)

Educational Profile
Employment Profile

Level of Job Satisfaction of


Employed and Unemployed
Respondents

Action Plan

Figure 1. Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

They search for an environment that will let them use their skills and
abilities and express their attitudes and values while taking enjoyable problems
and roles (Jones, 2008). Skills and abilities can be taught by consultant practice
especially to those who have great interest and willingness to know.
According to Herzbergs Motivation Theory, an individuals attitudes his or
her work can very well determine either success or failure. In connection with
this, human resources must layout their attitude or willingness to give their share
in production.And, whether the company is big or small, they must maintain a
balanced process of work inside the office of an organization (Riley, 2012). This
theory also explains the relationship between the job satisfaction and job
performance of the employees. The theory points out that work performance
varies among

workers in an

organizational

setting. Accordingly, work

performance is determined by certain factors which could lead to either work


satisfaction or dissatisfaction (Daug, 2005).
Moreover, during their journey as an employee of an organization, the
employees faces problems especially for those newly hired employees with
regards to their implementation of minimum wage.
Section I Implementing Rules and Regulations of Wage
Order No. ROVII-16 that the daily minimum wage rates of all
minimum wage private sector workers and employees in the
Region whether agricultural or non-agricultural regardless of
their position, designation, or status and irrespective of the
method by which their wages are paid

In addition, the graduates are very eager to get a job after graduation so
that they can help their family or support the schooling of another member in the
family. It means that one of the factors that could affect the satisfaction of the
employees towards their employment status is the salary. So these following
graduates were seeking for job that could make them satisfied with the salary,
workplace and the people that surrounds them.
Each year, there are thousands of graduates from different colleges and
universities. But the question is, do the government could guarantee that all of
them could get job after graduation? We cant deny the fact that there are still
many graduates who are not yet employed until now. Many graduates end up
being unemployed. Unemployment stems from plenty of factors. It might be the
economic condition of a country or an individuals decision to remain
unemployed.
The Labor code of the Philippines, Article 3 states that
The state shall afford protection to labor, promote full
employment, and ensure equal work opportunities regardless of
sex, race, or creed and regulate the relations between workers
and employers. The state shall assure the rights of workers to
self-organization collective bargaining, security of tenure, and
just and humane conditions of work.

The state is concerned with the employment of its people that is why
foreign investors are welcomed by the government to establish their businesses
not only to improve economic status of the Philippines but also to provide
employment for the people who are not yet employed.

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In the modern era, the chosen career of a person is usually irrelevant to


thecourse he had taken. The discrepancy of the course and the present career
isquestionable, which is why tracing each persons activity is being done in
mostuniversities and colleges.It has been observed that a personwould learn his
capability to do certain things after the experiences that he had gonethrough. On
the other hand, there are still some who pursued their job despite
thedisadvantages of doing so.
The International Labour Organization (ILO)Thesaurus 2005 defines a
tracer study as an impact assessment tool where the impact on target groups is
traced back to specific elements of a project or programme so that effective and
ineffective project components may be identified. In educational research the
tracer study is sometimes referred to as a graduate or alumni survey since its
target group is former students. Schomburg(2003, p.36) notes that graduate
surveys are popular for analysis of the relationship between higher education
and work. They provide quantitative-structural data on employment and career,
the character of work and related competencies, and information on the
professional orientation and experiences of their graduates.
Although the usual end of the course evaluation can ask for the student to
assesswhether they have gained the knowledge and skills necessary for fulfilling
their personalobjectives, there is really little proof of this until the student has
completed the entire course of study and has entered the workforce. By
surveying a cohort of graduates from: a specific institution; profession; discipline;
graduation date; level of education; or a combination of these for comparative

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analysis, Schomburg presents examples of issues which can be addressed in


tracer studies. Biographical data on Where are our graduates now may supply
information on income, job title, nature of employment, and years of employment.
He also believes that surveys should also include information about the kind of
work task the relationship between study and work, and professional values and
job satisfaction.
Moreover, Millington (2006) states that they provide quantitative structural
data on employment and career, the character of work and related competencies,
and information in the professional orientation, and experiences of their
graduates. Additionally, the collected data is an important indicator of the quality
of higher education. In the Philippines, the Commission on Higher Education
requires all Universities to conduct a tracer study and is equally reflected as one
of the required documents by any higher education accrediting body such as the
Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges and Universities in the Philippines
(AACCUP), Inc.
Tracer studies, surveys of graduates from institutions of higher learning,
are concerned with assessing the quality of higher education and its relevance
and usefulness to the career achievement of graduates (Jamil, 2004). Fletcher
(1996) asserts that a tracer study is generally an account of what has happened
and is happening to a cohort of students.
Furthermore, the overall objective of this study is to establish the
employment opportunities and performance of the graduates of Bachelor of

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Science in Office Systems Management,and Bachelor of Science in Tourism from


year 2010-2014.This study largely focused on tracing the employment status of
the graduates and the strategies to be implemented by the institution. The study
also covered unemployed and self-employed graduates.

THE PROBLEM

Statement of the Problem

The study determined the factors associated with the job placement of the
graduates of Bachelor of Science in Office Systems Management, Bachelor of
Science in Tourism of BISU-MC from year 2010-2014.

Specifically, it seeks to answer the following sub-problems:


1. What is the demographic profile of the BSOSM and BSTOURISM graduates in
terms of:
1.1 age;
1.2 gender;
1.3
civil status;
1.4
educational background; and
1.5
employment status?
2. What is the level of job satisfaction of the employed and underemployed
respondents?
3. Is there a significant difference between the level of job satisfaction of the
employed and underemployed BSOSM and BSTOURISM graduates?
4. What is the relationship between the demographic profile and the job satisfaction
of the graduates?

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5. What plans of action may be proposed to enhance the employment of


BSOSM and BSTOURISM graduates?
Null Hypothesis
There is no significant difference between the level of job satisfaction of
the employed and underemployed BSOSM and BSTOURISM graduates.
Significance of the Study
The researchers believe that the result of the study will be beneficial to the
following:
Graduates.The findings of the study will help the graduates to find jobs
which are inclined with their field of specialization.
School Administration.This study will give the school administration
ideas on how to determine the employment status of BSOSM and BSTOURISM
graduates that will be the basis to improve and practice the curriculum to achieve
the goals of the institution..It also assess whether the knowledge and skills
imparted

to

graduates

in

the

specified

disciplines,

trainings,

and

programmesprovided by the BISU-MC were adequate to prepare them for the


jobs they are holding.
Guidance Personnel.The findings of the study will give information to the
status of employment of BSOSM and BSTOURISM graduates that would guide
them in creating new ideas on career guidance programs that will be beneficial to
the graduates.

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Instructors.The result of the study would give the instructors the


motivation to develop and enhance their teaching strategies and tactics in
instructing their students. This will also give a lift to teachers to impart new
strategies and techniques on how to handle a class
Students.The result of this study would give ideas the students and let
them empathize the status and situation of the graduates and can give them
inspiration and encouragement to study hard to get a better job after graduation.
Future Researchers. This study would be a great help and benefit the
future researchers and make it as a reference in conducting tracer studies in the
future. The researchers hope that the knowledge would further contribute to the
body of knowledge and be a useful source of information including for future
research regarding this subject matter.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Design
The researchers will use two methods in acquiring profile of the BSOSM
and BSTOURISM graduates. The researchers will use the descriptivedocumentary method in gathering the profile of the graduates from the registrars
office of the school. The researchers will also use the descriptive-survey method
through a questionnaire in collecting the employment profile of the graduates.
Environment and Participants
The locale of the study will be at Bohol Island State University-Main
Campus which is located along Carlos P. Garcia, North Avenue, Tagbilaran City,
Bohol. It is the first and only state university of Bohol under R.A. 9722. One of the
colleges of this institution is the College of Business, Arts, and Sciences which
offers Bachelor of Science in Office Systems Management, and Bachelor of
Science in Tourism.
The respondents of the study are the BSOSM and BSTOURISM
graduates from the year 2010-2014. The respondents will be 50 graduates each
courses and a total of 100 graduates from the said academic years.

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Instrument
The researchers will be using a revised questionnaire provided by the
Guidance Office of Bohol Island State University-Main Campus.
The questionnaire has four parts. The first part is all about the personal
information of the graduates, the second is the educational background, third is
the employment profile of the graduates and the fourth one is the job satisfaction
level.
The questionnaire will be referred to the adviser and it will be pilot-tested
before it will be administered to the respondents. The questionnaire is the main
tool in determining the employment profile of the BSOSM and BSTOURISM
graduates.
Procedure
The researchers will ask permission from the Campus Director of BISUMC and the Dean of the College of Business, Arts, and Sciences for the conduct
of the study. Upon approval, the researchers will ask the registrar the complete
list of the BSOSM and BSTOURISM graduates academic year 2010-2014 with
the corresponding addresses.
The researchers will personally administered the questionnaire to the
respondents and let them answer. The respondents could ask the researchers if
they have some clarifications about the questions. For the graduates who are
employed outside the province and the country, the gathered data will be

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obtained from them through social networking sites and phone calls. After the
data will be gathered, the questionnaires will be retrieved and tabulated for
statistical treatment, analysis and interpretations.

Statistical Treatment
The researchers will interpret the result using the following scale.

Scale

Description

3.26-4.00

Very Satisfied

2.51-3.25

Satisfied

1.76-2.50

Dissatisfied

1.00-1.75

Very Dissatisfied

To test the difference in the level of job satisfaction between the employed
and underemployed graduates, the z-test formula will be used.
Formula:
1 X 2
X
Z=

S D 1 2 S D2 2
+
N1
N2

Where:
Z

= the computed value


x1

= mean of the employed respondents

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x2

= mean of the underemployed respondents

SD21= variance of the employed respondents


SD22 = variance of the underemployed respondents
N1= no. of employed respondents
N2= no. of underemployed respondents

DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terms are used of the study and each of them is defined
operationally:
BSOSM and BSTOURISM graduates.Refers to the Bachelor of Sciences
in Office Systems Management and Bachelor of Sciences in Tourism graduates
of Bohol Island State University-Main Campus batches 2010-2014.
Employment status.The category of employment of BSOSM and
BSTOURISM graduates from academic year 2010-2014 whether employed,
underemployed, self-employed, and unemployed.
Employed.The gainful work wherein a worker is employed according to
what he is endowed with and is being paid a salaryon daily or monthly basis.
Job satisfaction.The condition of being satisfied of the fulfillment of a
goal in a desired manner.

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Tracer study.The study on the occupational status of the BSOSM and


BSTOURISM from academic year 2010-2014.
Underemployed.The graduates employed on a certain job which are not
related to their courses.
Unemployed.The graduates who are not employed.