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Hackathon

D. Scanning for information


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

A hackathon: an event in which hackers meet to work on - individually or in a team - a certain


project that involves using computer programming.
Mainly for hackers and programmers, but it has also attracted some artists and other creative
people.
An art exhibition at which the results of the hackathon are presented.
About two weeks: the writer describes the hackathon and, ten days later, the exhibition of the
projects.
The hackathon takes place in the London Mozilla headquarters; the exhibition takes place close
to those headquarters, at the Whitechapel gallery in east London.

E. Structuring the text


[diagram 11b]

F. Organising information
[diagram 12b]

G. Vocabulary
a.
1f. to
2c.to
3a.to
4d.
5b.
6e.to
7g.

flourish (line 37) - to do very well; to develop successfully


assemble (line 43) - to gather
tend (line 70) - to be inclined
to allow (line 76) - to make it possible for someone to do something
to recruit (line 90) - to find people to work or do something for you
witness (line 136) - to see something happening
to simulate (line 170) - to do something which looks real but isnt real

b.
1. instance
2. content
3. destination
4. generous
5. significant
6. cheer
7. access
8. hackathon
9. thirst
10.
vast
11.
witness
12.
codefestive
[diagram 13b]
c.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

13.45 = 1.45pm
One in the afternoon = 1pm
quarter past two in the morning = 2.15am
20.00 = 8pm
3.30 in the morning = 3.30am
quarter to midnight = 11.45pm
7 in the evening = 7pm
8.21 = 8.21am

H. In depth
1.

True You can read that hackathons are indeed about using programming knowledge to create
new things, but the idea to combine this with making art during a hackathon is indeed
new: You can read this in line 71-77.

2.

False He thinks people have a slightly limited view on hackers; he says that there are indeed
two groups of bad hackers, but that there are also good hackers who dont damage
peoples computers or websites, but who use their knowledge to good ends.

3.

False In line 34 you can read that the hackathons attract only the good hackers.

4.

True This hackathon is indeed a Digital Sizzle: Digital Sizzle no.6. In addition, its also true that
the Three Beards organise other hacker gatherings too such as Dragons Den type
meetings and social meetings for drinks.

5.

False The goldfish are apparently used to create data. The word some in line 80 refers to
data in that same line.

6.

True The TED talk showed how someone made a film that also enabled you to add google
Streetview images; it was one example of how to include internet images in film.

7.

True He says in lines 119-121 that at the very least it can give them a thirst to be more
productive in their day-to-day life. In other words, it can make them more productive.

8.

False The writer seems genuinely surprised by the cleanliness of the participants. He had
apparently expected a whole bunch of smelly computer nerds but it seems that two days
of programming hasnt made them very dirty or sweaty.
True Rachels project involves tweets and pictures turned into fashion, and Stefs project
consists of jewellery made out of tweets.

9.

10. True Stef says that this makes this sixth hackathon different from the others - its what makes
the Digital Sizzle hackathon unique: normally only fellow hackers get to see the results
of the projects, now everybody can see them.
11. True You can read in line 69-74 that usually, London hackathons are about setting up
businesses and creating a commercial success, but that the Digital Sizzle is different: it is
more about creating art, making something artistic that doesnt necessarily have to
make profit.
12. False Blazwick may be impressed by the artistic value of the projects, but she doesnt mention
this part; she just refers to the entrepreneurial spirit (their commercial insight and their
willingness to turn their ideas into business plans) and the speed at which they work (line

174-175). She doesnt mention the artistic quality of the work provided.

Meet Emma! Saviour of the


world
D. Organising information
a.

[diagram 14b]

b.

[diagram 15b]

E. Organising information
[diagram 16b]

F. Connections
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

For instance:
Thorium and uranium can both be used as fuel for nuclear power plants, though uranium is
highly toxic and difficult to control, and thorium isnt.
The development of Pamela would be the first step to creating a NS-FFAG accelerator that
could be used to set up a thorium nuclear reactor.
The LHC and the NS-FFAG accelerator are both powerful particle accelerators, though the LHC
has already been created and the NS-FFAG still needs to be developed.
Fossil fuels and thorium are both fuels, but were running out of fossil fuels and theres still
plenty of thorium.
Alternative sources of energy in the near future could be thorium-powered nuclear plants as
well as wind energy, but were already investing in wind energy and generating (a bit of)
energy through it and we still need to invest if we want it in thorium research, which could
generate a lot of energy.
Belgium is already investing in the development of particle accelerators that could power
thorium-fuelled plants, but the UK is still reluctant to invest.
Traditionally, developments in the military have led to investments in nuclear energy: because
people thought nuclear weapons were needed, research into uranium was started, which led to
the development of uranium-based nuclear power plants.
During the Cold War politics opted for uranium instead of thorium because thorium cant be
used for nuclear weapons.

G. Vocabulary
a.
1a.virtually (line 25) - almost

2c.conventional (line 29) - ordinary


3c.mature (line 81) - long-developed
4a.thus (line 99) - in that way
5b.
hence (line 114) - therefore
6c.notoriously (line 161) - famous as being
b.
1. Lets hope the new nuclear power plant (fabriek; centrale) wont be monitored by Mr
Burns.
2. My successor (opvolger) took one look at my notes before shredding them and starting up
a totally new organising system of his own.
3. A beam (straal) of sunlight fell through the skylight and highlighted thousands of dust
particles.
4. You cant just make fossil fuels (fossiele brandstoffen) -they literally take ages to be
made by nature!
5. Another useful application (toepassing) of the beer crate is that you can use it to open the
bottles.
6. She said she never had the opportunity (gelegenheid) to tell him, but I think she was
mainly just scared of what hed say.
7. He claimed one of his predecessors (voorouders) had actually worn that harness that
stands in their mansions hallway.
8. Beware when biting into that chocolate - its core (kern) is filled with some very liquid
cherry cream.
9. Its mainly fat tissue (weefsel) that can be shifted by some exercise.
c.
1. My little brother loved hearing that birds descended from dinosaurs.
2. You can easily attach these hooks to the wall as they are self-adhesive (zelfklevend).
3. If I put the solar cells in the sun for a few hours, they can generate enough energy to keep
my phone going for a day.
4. If you want to stop, you can just let go of the gas or apply your brakes if you need to stop
fast.
5. We will have to adapt our proposal - apparently people dont think its a good plan to fill a
playpen with golf balls for a joke.
6. Who will succeed him as the new director of the ballet company?
7. He has always pursued a career in the film industry, and now he finally has a small role in a
soap series.

H. In depth
1.

b.
Emma is a particle accelerator. Admittedly, the first 36 lines of the article dont discuss a
particle accelerator but a nuclear reactor, but after line 37 the writer discusses Emma, and
explains, in line 45, that its a particle accelerator.
Not a.
Emma is clearly a machine, or some kind of a device, that has many possibilities even though the first part of the text doesnt properly explain yet what it does exactly.
Not c.
It can be used to power a thorium nuclear power plant, and the development of
Emma is called the first, critical step to developing such a power plant. However, Emma
is not the power plant in itself.
Not d.
It can be used to power a thorium nuclear power plant, and the development of
Emma is called the first, critical step to developing such a power plant. However, Emma
is not the power plant in itself.

2.

b.

You can read in line 61-62 that they can be built and used in practical, everyday settings.
Because accelerators like EMMA are relatively small and cheap, they can be adapted for one
specific purpose and used to carry out that task. That is something that you wouldnt be able
to do with, say, a Large Hadron Collider, as, with 17 miles circumference, its simply too big.
Not a.
The article suggests that EMMA is similar to the Large Hadron Collider that can be
found at CERN, but that its much smaller and cheaper - and closer, from a British
perspective at least. It is described as a pocket-sized (line 57) machine that will be
smaller and cheaper (line 59) than other accelerators. However, even though the
machine is smaller, that doesnt mean that it is any less effective; it is described as a
particle accelerator just like the others, but smaller and cheaper.
Not c.
The article suggests that it can be used in several practical, everyday settings so it
can be adapted to fit one specific purpose. They cant just be used for one purpose: they
can have several uses, depending on how you modify them.
Not d.
The article suggests that it is just as effective as the large particle accelerators; not
that its any better or worse.
3.

a.
People considered the fact that thorium couldnt be used for nuclear weapons a disadvantage
initially: these were the days of the Cold War and governments seemed to be primarily
interested in making weapons to threaten the enemy. Thorium couldnt be used in nuclear
weapons; it just wasnt effective enough, so they didnt want to use it for other purposes
either.
Not b.
The article suggests that thorium is much more stable than uranium; it is much
safer - so theres no or much less danger involved in handling it.
Not c.
It has been around for quite some time: you can read this in lines 67-68.
Not d.
People knew that thorium was a good alternative; it just wasnt used because they
preferred uranium, as it could be used to create nuclear weapons too, which was
important during the Cold War.

4.

a.
In this part of the text the writer describes how hard it actually is to get a thorium atom to
divide; that you need to bombard them with neutrons first before anything happens. Theres
no such thing as a critical mass that uranium has; you wont easily get a chain reaction that
cant be controlled anymore.
Not b.
This is just an explanation of how a thorium reaction is triggered; for many other
materials such as uranium, you need much less stimulation.
Not c.
The important part about thorium is that it is much less volatile than uranium. It is
not a matter of finding the right way to handle it to keep it from causing a chain reaction;
it simply wont set any chain reaction in motion. Unlike uranium, which is highly unstable,
you have to make quite an effort to make it undergo fissile nuclear reactions.
Not d.
Its just thorium reactions that are much more controlled than other nuclear
reactions.

5.
1.

2.
3.

6.

lines 84-91 - The advantage that thorium cant be used in nuclear weapons, so that
thorium plants based on EMMA could be safely sold to countries the UK wouldnt sell
uranium-based plants to.
lines 92-96 - The advantage that its safe - thorium plants wont have a meltdown and
spread radioactivity all around the surroundings if something goes wrong.
lines 109-114 - The advantage that Emma is cheap: much cheaper than the synchotron
used at CERN.

d.
You can read in line 123 that Britain faces a shortfall in energy because of rising prices of
conventional fuel and because conventional power plants using fossil fuels are breaking down.
So theres a need to invest in new sources of energy, and thorium could be a great investment

because thorium plants could generate huge amounts of energy.


Not a.
The writer doesnt comment on the dangers of conventional nuclear power plants
that use uranium; he just mentions that were running out of fossil fuels and that we
need to start looking for alternatives, and that wind energy, in which the government
currently invests, doesnt generate enough energy.
Not b.
The writer doesnt say that we will need more energy; just that our current sources
of energy probably will be too expensive or unavailable soon.
Not c.
The writer doesnt say that fossil fuels are dangerous for the environment, just that
they are becoming too expensive and that the power plants we use them for are falling
apart and need to be replaced soon.
7.

b.
Pamela is an accelerator that is extremely powerful: Itd fire protons at 400 MeV instead of 62
MeV, the maximum capacity of the old accelerator currently in use. It can therefore be used to
treat more complicated diseases much more effectively.
Not a.
Theres no evidence that its cheaper - just that its more versatile (line 154).
Not c.
It can be used for treatment of cancers, not just for research.
Not d.
The article doesnt discuss the harm done by X rays or proton beams; just that both
are used in the treatment of certain cancers.

8.

c.
The writer suggests that there might still be a powerful vested interest in the old uranium
nuclear industry. He thinks this may be the reason why the government is reluctant to invest
in alternatives for uranium such as thorium.
Not a.
The writer warns that other countries such as Belgium will invest in thorium power
plants, but he doesnt say that the British government is deliberately waiting to see how
they do before investing in it.
Not b.
The article doesnt suggest that a country needs large thorium deposits before itll
invest in the accelerators.
Not d.
The article doesnt suggest that the costs of such an investment keep the
government from getting involved; just that the interests of the uranium-fuelled nuclear
energy industry might be harmed and that they will therefore try to stop any investments
in alternative energy sources.

Can Twitter predict the


future?
D. Organising information
[diagram 17b]

E. References
6

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

the author (line 8) - an anonymous Twitter user (line 5)


all (line 11) - the tweet, along with plenty of others sent that day (line 10-11)
they (line 16) - he and his team (line 15)
their (line 21) - users (line 20)
he (line 23) - Hal Varian (line 23)
this (line 42) - the fact that share prices drop three days after anxiety levels on Twitter have
risen.
it (line 52) - Dr Bollens algorithm (line 49)
its (line 57) - WiseWindow (line 55)
its (line 74) - Jeopardy (line 73)
it (line 85) - a forecast (line 84)
it (line 97) - a film (line 95)
its (line 105) - the game (line 104)
of this sort (line 110) - the fact that sales increase if a game or CD is mentioned more often on
social media
they (line 111) - simple search-volume forecasts (line 109)
their (line 118) - users of social media (line 114)
they (line 124) - the feelings and intentions of hundreds of millions of people (line 119-120)

F. Vocabulary
a.
1. Apparently, the price of a Big Mac is a good measure of the peoples purchasing power in a
certain country.
2. Dont forget to keep the receipt and give it to us so you can get your money back.
3. The relaxed music perfectly captured the quiet mood of the film.
4. I dont have the intention to stay that long - I just came here for a cup of coffee and Ill be
off before dinner time.
5. These strawberries have the tendency to rot really quickly after being picked so well have
to finish them fast.
6. His prediction turned out to be correct; they got into an argument before the evening had
properly started.
7. His confidence was shattered when she rejected him.
8. The upcoming exams caused a lot of anxiety among the students.
b.
1a.to precede (line 25) - to come before
2c.to process (line 76) - to deal with
3b curious (line 30) - remarkable
4b.
laden (line 74) - riddled with
5c.accurate (line 106) - precise
6a.scarce (line 108) - limited
7b.
by contrast (line 113) - on the other hand
8a.grow accustomed (line 115) - become used

G. In depth
1.

c.
This Twitter message in itself is not very important, it is only mentioned because it represents
a trend of tweets that day that were all very positive. Apparently, people on that given day
were all confident and happy, and the text suggests that this can indicate a change in peoples

behaviour with regard to sales of certain products, or share prices.


Not a.
The part of this message that is important is its general mood: it radiates
confidence and satisfaction, and thats important in this case, according to line 12-13.
Not b.
The article doesnt suggest this remark is meant sarcastically: it is listed as one of
many that have a chirpy (line 12) content.
Not d.
Its not about who sent the tweet: its about the tweets content. The person who
wrote it is not mentioned really - hes just an anonymous Twitter user. Whats important
is that this user seems very confident and happy in his tweet, and that, apparently, lots
of people that day seemed confident and happy.
2.

b.
In lines 19-29 you can read that Bollens research isnt really new in itself: earlier research had
already indicated that there was a correlation between sales of certain products and the
number of times they were mentioned in comments or tweets, or searched for in google.
Not a.
In this paragraph you can read that Bollens conclusions arent new: that previous
research and observations confirm his statements.
Not c.
The research mentioned in this article isnt new - it is older than Bollens research.
Not d.
The research mentioned here applies to different fields - sales figures, presidential
elections - but this isnt Bollens research.

3.

The article suggests that when anxiety levels in tweets rise, the price of shares drop because
more people start to sell any risky investments.

4.

a.
WiseWindows is a company that uses social media-generated data to make predictions about
the sales of certain new products for the companies they work for. Derwent Capital Market
uses social-media generated data to make predictions about what they should invest in. So
both use it to get indications on how to act in the near future.
Not b. The article doesnt mention whether the predictions made based on the algorithms were
correct or not.
Not c.
Derwent Capital Market does, but it seems WiseWindows has developed its own
method of acquiring information.
Not d.
WiseWindows uses algorithms to make predictions about how successful a product
will be, but Derwent Capital Market just uses the algorithm developed by Dr Bollen for
their own use.

5.

In line 60-77 you can read that most tweets and comments are read and analysed by
computers, presumably to save time and money because they work much faster than humans.
However, computers have the big disadvantage that they are not very good at interpreting
humour and sarcasm in human tweets, so they cant see whether someone really means what
they write down or whether its meant mockingly.

6.

c.
This example shows that you may be able to gather certain information through social media
comments, but that its also important that this information actually tells you something you
didnt already know through other channels. The article suggests that tweets may hint that the
weather in Santa Fe is (always) sunny, but most people living there will already know that - its
not useful to gather that kind of information.
Not a.
Its not about the content of the social media comments, but about the way you use
them to gather information. The text suggests that you first need to think about which
information youd like to have before you randomly start drawing conclusions from the
content of tweets.
Not b.
The algorithm works, but it just doesnt deliver any useful information.
Not d.
Its not about the effectiveness of certain algorithms, but about their usefulness:
some just deliver information that you arent interested in, or which you actually already

know.
7.

The word rumoured. This word also suggests that Hedge funds tend to keep mum about how
successful (or not) particular algorithms are (line 91-92).

8.
1. No

2. Yes

3. Yes

9.

You can read this in line 95-100: the text here suggests that adding search data
doesnt change much about the outcome of attempts to create a prediction based on
reviews and budget and on how many screens it opens.
In lines 101-107: forecasting models which added search data into the mix were
much more accurate than those that did not. (line 106-107).
The success of newly released games;
You can read this in lines 107-108: the same applies to music, in which the same
refers to the forecasting models made for games.

d.
You can read in lines 90-108 that Watts mainly makes use of the number of mentions of a film,
game or piece of music: its about search-volume forecasts (line 109). However, Bollen goes
further than that: you can read in lines 123-125 that he actively works on computer
programmes that dont just count tweets, but actually reads and interprets them so it can work
out what is meant.
Not a.
The main difference is the way they look at tweets. Watts just looks at them
quantitatively (how many are there?), whereas Bollen actually uses the tweets content.
Not b.
Watt doesnt look at the tweets content really - it just registers how often a certain
film, or piece of music, is mentioned. it doesnt look at the context in which it is
mentioned.
Not c.
The article mentions that people are becoming increasingly used to their private
information being read by machines or people that host the websites they use. It seems
that people have stopped caring about who use their information and that privacy is a
thing of the past. The article doesnt suggest the researchers ever used information that
the user had wanted to keep private - just that people these days are willing to spend a
lot of information (information that would previously have been seen as private) online.

H. Creative writing
This is entirely up to you, as long as youve written five interesting updates in correct English
that are each no longer than 140 characters (including spaces). If possible, get classmates to
vote on which tweets theyd retweet or favourite if they came across it in their twitter stream.
Do this anonymously so people will indeed vote for the tweet, and not for the person writing it.

I. Social media research


This depends on which social media youve chosen, and how big your group is. Compare with
other groups results if possible

The new Industrial Revolution


C. Scanning for information
1.
2.
3.
4.

Its about Chris Anderson, a writer who mainly writes about internet and technology, and how
it will change our lives. Hes also the editor-in-chief of Wired, a technology magazine.
He has written a new book.
Its about 3D printing and how it will affect our lives.
Because the book has only just been released and it is expected to shape our future.

D. Structuring the article


[diagram 19b]

E. Vocabulary
a.
1e.
2a.
3b/c.
4g.
5h.
6f.
7b/c.
8d.

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

predict (line 2) - to say what is going to happen in the future


seize on (line 11) - to use something quickly and enthusiastically
spark (line 66) - to set off
surround (line 68) - to be everywhere around you
abandon (line 81) - to leave
manufacture (line 85) - to produce
launch (line 33) - to set off
progress (line 77) - to develop

1a.
2a.
3b.
4c.
5b.
6a.
7a.

bewildered (line 5) - very surprised


dimly (line 21) - only slightly
insofar as (line 48) - to the degree that
fluid (line 24) - liquid
equivalent (line 30) - same
effort (line 69) - attempt
lethal (line 44) deadly

b.

F. Reference words
1.
2.
3.

Silicon Valleys prime prophet (line 3) - Chris Anderson


it (line 18) - something you may have been aware of in the background of your browsing
this (line 30) - 3D printing (line 21-22)

10

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

it (line 38) - the 3D printer (line 37)


this (line 39) - 3D printing (line 21-22)
they (line 52) - physical objects (line 49)
this (line 65) - 3D printing (line 58)
he (line 70) - Chris Anderson (line 4)
this (line 75) - making dolls house furniture (line 71) and trying out all sorts of things as
described in lines 68-70 about the hacker culture.
they (line 83) - members of the beleaguered middle-classes (line 80)
they (line 84) - their products (line 82)
this (line 100) - (The fact that) there are no economies of scale (line 93-94)
him (line 107) - God (line 106)
this (line 108) - 3D printing (line 58)

G. Mixed up words
1. They have built their house on a piece of ground near the sea.
2. All students except (line 38) Dave and Jennifer will join the tour.
3. Thats an abject lie! I never said that!
4. I dont think youre being reasonable - its not that far to walk.
5. He seized (line 11) the opportunity to ask him mum for permission to stay out late.
6. Jonathan is his main ally - he wouldnt do anything to make him angry.
7. One of those bags is hers, but Im not sure which.
8. Ill just lie down for an hour or so, I really need to get a bit of rest.
9. I havent been there that often, just once or twice.
10.
These colorants dont affect the taste of the food, just the colour.
b.

For instance:
1. I will build myself a house in the woods.
2. He couldnt accept that he had lost.
3. Its a small round white object - a bit like a golf ball, but not as heavy.
4. Get your coat, were leaving soon.
5. He ceased to smile when he saw that she hadnt come alone.
6. If you take that alley youll get to the square much faster.
7. She had dressed up as a witch with a long black dress and a broom.
8. I will lay the keys on the table where you can find them.
9. I hadnt seen their son in months and I was surprised by how much hed grown.
10.
He has that effect on people - everybody seems to love him.

H. In depth
1.

The statement we must all become factories is explained in the remainder of the text.
Anderson doesnt mean we need to turn into robots or anything, just that we could, basically,
all start producing our own products without any intervention from the major industries. If you
have an idea of what something youd like to make should look like, you can design it on your
computer and then print it - in 3D.
So the main meaning of the statement is that this new technology enables us to produce just
about everything we want, without the help of the big factories youd normally need to
produce your designs.

2.

The spinning jenny revolutionised producing yarn and set off the industrial revolution by
making the production of yarn cheaper and easier than it had ever been. Anderson suspects
that 3D printing could do the same for our current technological revolution. It enables anyone
with some designing and programming skills to produce whatever theyd like to make.

3.

The wiki weapon project is just one example of how people use 3D printing. The writer
mentions it to show that many people have adopted the new technology and have started up
their own projects, working on it with more people and spreading it so others can use it too. In

11

this way, 3D printing quickly reaches a large audience, both through serious projects and with
whimsical or lethal projects.
4.
a. Because it enables anyone to produce whatever it is they can design on their computers; it
makes producing things available for everyone; so far, the digital revolution had focused on
making digital versions of real things, but this is the first time that we use digital
technology to produce real things that you can touch and hold.
b. The most important disadvantages of our current level of 3D printing are that:
a) you can only print from one material (line 57-62) and
b) it is expensive: making fifty prints of one design costs 50 times as much as producing
one, so its not very cost effective.
5.

3D printers are good to produce specially made and designed products for one specific
purpose; theyre not very suitable for mass production. Making 5,000 prints just costs 5,000
times as much as one print, whereas with normal factory manufacturing, things tend to get
cheaper when you produce more of them. So the 3D printer is mainly a good idea if you just
want one or two specifically designed products.

6.

Woody Allens quotation is mentioned as a kind of warning, to let us know that we may think
that 3D printing will be big in the near future, but that this doesnt mean that this will actually
be the case as its very hard to predict the future.

12

A new golden era


D. Reading activity Finding
facts
Questions and answers will vary. Make sure the questions are only who, what where
and when questions.
Have some students read out the questions and answers in class.

E. Vocabulary Use of adjectives indicating


materials.
Lets try out if you get it.

After years of digging he finally struck gold1.


All that glitters is not gold.2
Do you possess a gold3 watch?
Do you remeber the golden4 girl of tennis?
How did Rumpelstiltskin golden5 the golden6 straw into shiny gold7 threads?
She combed and arranged her golden8 hair.
She could sing with a golden9 voice.
They will celebrate their golden10 wedding anniversary next month.
This old man has a heart of gold.11
This bracelet is made of gold.12
You can gold13 or burn food until the colour begins to change to a golden14 light brown, but it
should not become as dark as in browning.
Put the words above into the correct box in the table.

Noun

Adjective

Verb

gold1

golden4

golden5

13

gold.2

golden6

gold3

golden8

gold7

golden9

gold.11

golden10

gold.12

golden14

golden13

Adjectives indicating materials


Below are examples of adjectives which indicate materials.
First look up the meanings of the ones you do not know and then use them in a sentence.
Then write at least 5 sentences using 5 different adjectives of the ones you know, explaining
what the material is.

leather

polyester

aluminum

plastic

satin

brass

brick

flannel

copper

rock

corduroy

gold

paper

wool

iron

concrete

denim

lead

wooden

cotton

metal

stone

velvet

silver

cardboard

silk

steel

glass

nylon

tin

He was a member of a brass band.


Denim has always been the material used in blue denim jeans.
Does this green leather belt fit my purple shoes?
Wooden bridges are gradually being replaced by concrete ones.
In the old days bullets just used to be lead balls.
Many women prefer silk stockings to nylon tights.

F. Vocabulary Keywords in Context


You have studied Keywords in Context.
Have a quick check here. Have you studied them well?
Fill in the gaps; write the answer in the tabel.
1

soar

cased in

14

incentives

diminution

crafted

ample

residual

copious

sluice out

10

rinse

G. Vocabulary
You have have had a close look at A. Vocabulary.
Do you still know the meaning of all the words in English.
Check out diagram.
[diagram 20b]

H. Writing Assignment Guided Essay


Gold mining is a dangerous and environmentally dubious practice for several reasons. Mining
is destructive to the natural environment around mines, creates waste rock disposal problems,
and uses harsh chemicals which can be significant sources of waste and harm to workers and
nature.
You will be writing a guided essay on the hazards of gold mining.
Instructions are mentioned in the assignment diagram.
You will be assessed on the correct use of English. You will also be checked on having stuck to
the assignment the way you have been instructed. There is no room for personal opinions since
your level of English is assessed and not what yu think. In this way everybody gets a fair
chance of showing what their English is like, since you are all made to avoid the same sorts of
possible mistakes.
[diagram 21b 1+2]

Suggested Assessment Instruction


De kandidaat begint met een aantal van:
40 punten.
Van dit aantal worden de fouten in mindering gebracht.
Zie hieronder.
Layoutfouten
Totaal aantal woorden vergeten te vermelden
Nummering alineas vergeten

Regels overslaan vergeten

Alineas niet volgeschreven

Doorhalingen en of typex
per woord... max. 2 foutpunten
Afkortingen (dont)
per keer max. 2 foutpunten
Opdrachtvolgorde binnen alinea
1
Layoutfout / Kantlijn verschillen
1
Te weinig woorden
per 5 woorden te weinig 1 foutpunt
Te veel woorden
eigen risico
Schrijfopdrachtfouten
Soort fout:
aantal punten in mindering:
Alinea vergeten

15

Onderdeel alinea vergeten


2
Volgorde in opdracht verkeerd
1
Werkwoordsfout
1
Woordvolgorde fout
1
Andere grammaticale fouten bw / bn
1
Woord moet vervangen
(verkeerde entree gekozen in Dictionary) 1
Idioom / uitdrukkingsfout
1
Voorzetselfout

Spelfout (anders dan van werkwoord)

Leestekenfouten / hoofdletterfout

Bonuspunten (voor stijl)


1 ....max 10 totaal
Maluspunten (voor stijl)
1 ....max 10 totaal
Totaal aantal fouten per alinea
8 behalve bij overschrijding van het advies van het
totaal aantal woorden
NB: Bij clustering van fouten in een alinea, bijv binnen een zin, max. 2 foutpunten tellen voor
het gehele fouten cluster.
NB: Herhalingsfouten slechts n maal tellen.
4 - 4,5 ft / pt is een voorgestelde streefwaarde
320 words

Gold: costly priced!


Gold has been an essential part of everyday life for centuries. It is being used in jewellery,
medicine and electronics, however searching for gold has been causing a lot of problems for
the environment. The production of one single gold ring e.g. leaves behind 20 tons of waste,
and both the mining process and waste pose significant hazards for the water, soil and air, in
fact for the earths total ecosystem.
Mining has always been destructive to the natural environment around mines. Ever since
industrial mining began to grow it has been known to have had enormously big problems
getting rid of the waste. Also the use of harsh chemicals in the dig for the precious metal,
produce a significant harm to nature.
Waste rock is piled high around the mining area, as it is too costly to move far. Gold is typically
contained in sulfur rich rock, which, when brought to the surface may contribute to acid rain.
These acids leach through rock piles and liberate other hard metals, such as cadmium, lead,
arsenic and mercury which then also find their way into the water table.
To really separate the gold from the rock piles it is sprayed with enormously big quantaties of
cyanide.The gold and cyanide solution is collected, which is then pumped to a facility where
the two are once again chemically separated. This process cannot possibly be done without
contamination.
Once gold has been mined, it is transported to a smelter. Besides huge amounts of lead these
smelters also release lots of other extremely toxic pollutants, which are returned to the earth
in the form of acid rain. Finally the air has also got its share. So since, for instance, last year it
took about 20 tons of waste to just create one single gold wedding ring, one should consider
whether it has been worth scarring the earths ecosystem so terribly.

16