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"Faliure is Success if we learn from it"

Volume - 5 Issue - 4
October, 2009 (Monthly Magazine)
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Editor : Pramod Maheshwari


XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Dear Students,
Find a mentor who can be your role model and your friend !
A mentor is someone you admire and under whom you can study. Throughout
history, the mentor-protege relationship has proven quite fruituful. Socrates
was one of the early mentors. Plato and Aristotle studied under him and later
emerged as great philosophers in their own right.
Some basic rules to know mentors :

The best mentors are successful people in their own field. Their behaviors
are directly translatable to your life and will have more meaning to you.

Be suspicious of any mentors who seek to make you dependent on them.


It is better to have them teach you how to fish than to have them catch
the fish for you. That way, you will remain in control.

Turn your mentors into role models by examining their positive traits.
Write down their virtues. without identifying to whom they belong.
When you are with these mentors, look for even more behavior that
reflect their success. Use these virtues as guidelines for achieving
excellence in your field.
Be cautious while searching for a mentor :

Select people to be your mentors who have the highest ethical standards
and a genuine willingness to help others.

Choose mentors who have and will share superb personal development
habits with you and will encourage you to follow suit.

Incorporate activities into your mentor relationship that will enable your
mentor to introduce you to people of influence or helpfulness.

Insist that your mentor be diligent about monitoring your progress with
accountability functions.

Encourage your mentor to make you an independent, competent, fully


functioning, productive individual. (In other words, give them full
permission to be brutally honest about what you need to change.)
Getting benefited from a role-mode :
Acquiring good habits from others will accelerate you towards achieving your
goals. Ask yourself these questions to get the most out of your role
model/mentors :

What would they do in my situation?

What do they do every day to encourage growth and to move closer to a


goal ?

How do they think in general ? in specific situations ?

Do they have other facts of life in balance ? What effect does that have on
their well-being ?

How do their traits apply to me ?

Which traits are worth working on first ? Later ?


A final word : Under the right circumstances mentors make excellent role
models. The one-to-one setting is highly conducive to learning as well as to
friendship. But the same cautions hold true here as for any role model. It is
better to adapt their philosophies to your life than to adopt them .
Presenting forever positive ideas to your success.
Yours truly

Pramod Maheshwari,
B.Tech., IIT Delhi

OCTOBER 2009

Volume-5 Issue-4
October, 2009 (Monthly Magazine)

CONTENTS

NEXT MONTHS ATTRACTIONS

INDEX

Regulars ..........

Key Concepts & Problem Solving strategy for IIT-JEE.


Know IIT-JEE With 15 Best Questions of IIT-JEE
Challenging Problems in Physics, Chemistry & Maths

NEWS ARTICLE

IITian ON THE PATH OF SUCCESS

KNOW IIT-JEE

Class 12 marks may become critical for IIT admission


IIT-K postpones launch of its dream satellite

Much more IIT-JEE News.


Xtra Edge Test Series for JEE-2010 & 2011

PAGE

Dr. Rai Mahesh Kumar Sinha

Previous IIT-JEE Question

Study Time........
DYNAMIC PHYSICS
S
Success Tips for the Months
"The way to succeed is to double your
error rate."
"Success is the ability to go from failure to
failure without losing your enthusiasm."

8-Challenging Problems [Set# 6]


Students Forum
Physics Fundamentals
Magnetic Field
Gravitation

CATALYST CHEMISTRY

Along with success comes a reputation for


wisdom.
They can because they think they can.
Nothing can stop the man with the
Nothing can stop the man with the
mental attitude from achieving his
nothing on earth can help the man
the wrong mental attitude.

right
right
goal;
with

Keep steadily before you the fact that all


true success depends at last upon yourself.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

27

Key Concept
Halogen Derivatives
Halogen & Noble Gases Family
Understanding: Organic Chemistry

"Success is the maximum utilization of the


ability that you have."
We are all motivated by a keen desire for
praise, and the better a man is, the more
he is inspired to glory.

14

DICEY MATHS

36

Mathematical Challenges
Students Forum
Key Concept
Limit, Continuity & Differentiability
Parabola, ElLipse & Hyperbola

Test Time ..........


XTRAEDGE TEST SERIES

45

Class XII IIT-JEE 2010 Paper


Class XII IIT-JEE 2011 Paper

OCTOBER 2009

Class 12 marks may


become critical for IIT
admission
CHENNAI: Marks scored in the
Class XII board examinations are
likely
to
become
a
key
determining factor in addition to
the performance in the
nerve-wracking Joint Entrance
Examination (JEE) for admission
into the prestigious Indian
Institutes of Technology (IITs) by
2011.
In a couple of months, a pan-IIT
committee constituted by the
union
human
resources
development (HRD) ministry to
suggest reforms to the JEE is
expected to submit its report
recommending ways and means to
factor in the marks scored by
students in higher secondary
examinations while preparing the
IIT merit list. A meeting of all IIT
directors and JEE representatives
held in Chennai over the weekend
discussed the proposed changes.
The proposal comes amidst
widespread concern among top
academicians over the current IIT
admission system which is entirely
dependant on JEE scores and
ignores academic performances in
board exams. The inherent
weakness of such a system is that
the IITs have been able to largely
attract only students who have
been "conditioned for the JEE" by
high profile coaching centres in
Kota and Hyderabad. Such
students
who
lack
"raw
intelligence", as described by IIT
Madras director M S Ananth in the
past, are sometimes at sea after
entering
the
campus.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

"We
hope
to
devise
a
methodology to compute a
normalised class XII cut-off
eligibility
score
for
each
educational board (CBSE, ICSE,
and State Boards). If it is
approved, only students who have
scored this cut-off mark would
become eligible to appear for the
JEE
and
consecutively
for
admission," IIT Madras deputy
director V G Idichandy, who is
heading the committee, said on
Monday. The present eligibility
norm of an aggregate score of
60% in Class XII determined by
the IIT standing council, as
opposed to 85% recommended by
a JEE review committee four years
ago, is considered too low a
benchmark.
"We are collecting data on Class
XII results of the past four to five
years from different boards in all
states
to
base
our
recommendation on. Much will
depend on how we compute an
acceptable method to normalise
the marks scored in different
boards. You have nearly 40 boards
of education in India," Professor
Idichandy said.
However, the more difficult part
will be to convince authorities of
all the boards to declare Class XII
results
within
a
specified
timeframe every academic year.
"This will be crucial for us as we
have to base the JEE on the Class
XII results. I personally think that
this is where a common school
board, at least at the level of
higher secondary education, which
has been proposed by the HRD
minister Kapil Sibal, will be of help
in determining any all-India merit
list," he contended.

Idichandy acknowledged that the


JEE cannot be abolished "but we
want to give as much importance
as possible, for the performance of
students at the school level" in the
IIT admissions.

Single-digit cutoffs continue


to dog IIT
NEW DELHI: In an unforeseen
effect of RTI, globally respected
IITs have been stuck in a spiral of
low cut-offs in their joint entrance
examinations
(JEE) for the last three years even
for general candidates.
Despite all their efforts to pull out
of the single-digit cut-offs they had
fallen into in 2007 and 2008 (1,4 &
3 and 5,0 & 3 in Maths, Physics
and Chemistry, respectively), IITs
could improve only marginally this
year, as evident from the marks
announced earlier this month.
Out of the maximum possible
marks of 160 in each subject in
2009, the cut-offs in Maths and
Chemistry barely broke into
double digits (11 marks each)
while it remained a single-digit
score in Physics (8 marks).
This is even after IITs abandoned
the cut-off formula they had
adopted in 2007 and 2008 (20
percentile or the best of the
bottom 20 per cent of the
candidates) and tried a new one in
2009 (average or mean of the
marks of all the candidates).
Such ridiculously low cut-offs have
been dogging IITs ever since they
found themselves at a loss to
explain to the Central Information
Commission the basis on which
they had arrived at the respectably
high cut-offs of 37, 48 and 55 in
the 2006 JEE, which was the first
OCTOBER 2009

to be held after RTI came into


force in November 2005.
In their third and latest attempt to
explain the 2006 cut-offs, they set
up a committee last month
consisting of directors of IIT
Guwahati and IIT Bombay,
Gautam Barua and Dewang
Khakhar, to submit a report to the
Calcutta high court showing the
exact calculations.
The calculations contained in the
11-page report reveal that, in a
major departure from the norms
of fair selection, IITs had in the
2006 JEE excluded hundreds of
high-aggregate scoring candidates
even before arriving at the subject
cut-offs, which was meant to be
the first level of screening.
It is because of this serious flaw in
the implementation of the 2006
formula that IITs, in their two
earlier attempts before the CIC
and high court, could not account
for the major mismatch between
the stated cut-offs (37, 48 and 55)
and those yielded by the two
different formulas claimed by them
(while the first formula produced
cut-offs of -8, -3 & -6, the second
resulted in 7,4 and 6).
In a bid to bridge this wide gap,
the Barua-Khakhar committee
took recourse to the "iterative
process", which is used to increase
the cut-offs "with every iteration"
to get the desired number of
candidates. But while determining
the cut-off of one subject through
the
iterative
process,
the
committee
eliminated
the
candidates who had high marks in
the other two subjects.
Thus,
although
they
were
supposed to
be
calculated
separately through the iterative
process, the cut-off of one subject
affected the cut-offs of the other
two subjects. The committee did
not however admit this paradox
anywhere in its report.
Had the IITs implemented their
belatedly-disclosed
iterative
procedure
in
a
fair
and

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

transparent manner, the cut-offs


would have actually been 42, 44
and 51, thereby reducing the
deviation among the three subject
cut-offs to 9 marks instead of 18
marks. This would have very
significantly
changed
the
composition of the merit list in
2006.
And had they applied the iterative
process in the JEE of the past
three years as well, the IITs would
have been able to take their low
cut-offs to a more respectable
level and spared themselves the
embarrassment
of
admitting
general candidates who got, for
instance, 5% in Physics in last
year's JEE.

Now, IIT counselling


system goes online
MUMBAI: If you've made it to an
Indian Institute of Technology, you
no longer need to travel to the
campus to book your seat. The
tech schools have decided to take
the counselling process online,
thus allowing students to submit
their preferences a mix of streams
and
IITs
from
home.
Currently, students from across
the country travel to the closest
IIT after they make their mark in
the Joint Entrance Exam. "Now, all
general category students will be
allowed
to
submit
their
preferences online. However, all
other candidates will have to
travel to the nearest IIT campus
for the same as they have to
submit their certificates to us,''
said
IIT-Guwahati
director
Gautam Barua.
The decision to conduct the
counselling online was taken when
the directors recently met in
Chennai to discuss plans for the
upcoming JEE in April 2010. In
another key decision, the IIT
directors agreed to centrally
conduct two or more rounds of
seat allocation, to ensure that
seats don't go abegging.
While this year, the IITs for the
first time conducted a second
4

round of seat allotments, it was


held at the institute level. Students
who took admission were offered
internal betterment before the
second allotment had taken place.
So, if a student with a ranking of
1,104 in JEE-2009 did not take the
seat allotted to him in IIT-B,
another candidate with a lower
ranking got his place (if he had
opted for that subject and IIT-B in
his
preference
form).
Also, if a candidate signed up at
IIT-Delhi in the first round, s/he
were not allowed to move to say
IIT-Madras or IIT-Bombay even if a
slot opened there and these
institutes were listed in his/her
choices. "Now, we want to
remove that barrier. A student
will be allowed to move out of
one IIT and join another, if he
prefers to do so in the later
rounds of seat allotment,'' added
Barua. In another relief to
students, the IITs have decided to
put out the answer key of the
entrance exam, soon after the
exam ends.

HRD allows IITs to take


non-PhDs as lecturers
NEW DELHI: Close to three
decades ago, the Indian Institutes
of Technology (IITs) upped the bar
for selecting faculty: only PhDs
were allowed to
take classes. Diluting that lofty
standard, the HRD ministry has
now allowed non-PhDs to join as
lecturers. What's more shocking is
that at least 10% jobs have been
reserved at the lecturer's level, an
obsolete term that has been
scrapped from academia around
the world.
Making it tough for IITs to attract
talent at the level of assistant
professor is another clause that
mandates the tech schools to take
only those with three years'
experience. IIT directors fear it
might result in bright students
preferring to take up posts at
foreign universities where a
fresher begins his career as an
OCTOBER 2009

assistant professor and not as a


lecturer. Earlier, the IITs too were
taking fresh, bright PhDs at
assistant professor level.
While the directive on taking nonPhDs as lecturers is optional, the
directors are clueless why it was
inserted. "We don't need it. The
four-tier recruitment concept is
regressive and I don't understand
why the government needs to
disturb something that is in good
equilibrium," asked an IIT director,
who refused to be named.
Currently, none of the IITs has
faculty members who are nonPhDs, barring a few of them who
joined the tech schools in the 70's
when the country did not have
too many PhDs. But the ministry
says the decision to take nonPhDs has not been thrust upon
IITs. "There is no coercion
involved. Faculty crunch is a fact,"
one official said.
"That clause was fine at the
development stage. In the early
years of the IITs, when we
advertised for two posts, we used
to get five applications. Now we
get about 40 to 50, all of who are
PhDs. But even now there are
vacant posts for faculty merely
because we are extremely choosy
about who we pick," said a dean
from IIT-Bombay. But some see
no harm in this optional clause.
"Allowing us to take non-PhDs is
just an enabling clause. But what
worries most of us is the
provision that does not allow us
to take bright PhDs fellows as
assistant professors," said Gautam
Barua, director of IIT-Guwahati.
Several directors are seeing red
over the fact that drawing up a
rule to take 10% faculty as
lecturers puts them in a "peculiar
not-very-good position". Whether
to take a candidate as a lecturer
or as an assistant professor, said
another director, "must be left to
the good judgment of the
selection panel".

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

The same rules apply to other


central technical institutes like
Indian Institutes of Management,
National Institutes of Technology
and the Indian Institutes of Science
Education and Research.

IIT-G ranks 10th among


top tech institutes
The
Indian
Institute
of
Technology,
Guwahati,
an
outcome of the Assam Accord,
has earned the distinction of being
ranked 10th in a list of 67 top
engineering
and
technology
institutes in India. The honour
attests to the relatively young
institutions impeccable academic
and research credentials.
The coveted top spot has been
taken by Bangalore-based Indian
Institute of Science, followed by
IIT Kanpur in the second place and
IIT Mumbai in the third slot.
According to media reports the
ranking has been made taking into
account citations, publications and
research record available between
1999 and 2008 in the Scopus
International
bibliographical
database.
Published in the Current Science
the list has been prepared by G
Pratap and BM Gupta of the
National Institute of Science
Communication and Information
Resources and National Institute
of Science, Technology and
Development Studies, reports
stated.

Central team to study


IIT & IIM sites
A Central team will visit the
desert state next week to study
the sites proposed to set up IITRajasthan and IIM. The final
decision about the location of the
institutes is likely only after the
team's visit to the sites suggested
by the state-constituted Vyas
committee,"
Vipin
Chandra
Sharma, principal secretary, higher
education, told TOI on Tuesday.

The state government had


recently sent the committee
report to the Union HRD
ministry, which decided to see the
proposed sites before taking a final
call. "An HRD expert team would
visit the state next week," Sharma
said. He had gone to Delhi to
discuss the setting up of the
institutes in the state. "The Centre
wants to expedite the site
selection process as the project
has already been delayed," Sharma
pointed out.
The previous BJP government had
proposed Kota as the location for
the IIT. However, the HRD
ministry rejected this on the
ground that Kota is not connected
by air and also cited the presence
of tutorials as another deterrent.
After assuming power, chief
minister Ashok Gehlot constituted
the Vyas committee, which
recommended IIT at Jodhpur and
IIM at Udaipur.
Interestingly, Rajasthan is the only
one among seven states where the
issue of IIT location is still
dragging. This, despite the fact that
the state encompasses 11% of the
country's land and apparently it
possesses the largest land bank.
One of the tiniest, Himachal
Pradesh has, however, identified
the land near Mandi. The other
states such as Andhra Pradesh,
Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat
and Punjab too have sealed land
for the new IITs. IIT-R at present
is functional at IIT-Kanpur, which
is
overburdened
with
the
presence of the two batches of
IIT-R.

Two IIT-K profs part of


Chandrayan-II mission
Banking upon the rich expertise
the IIT-Kanpur has in field of
research and technology, the
Indian
Space
Research
Organisation (ISRO), which plans
to send a lunar rover as a part of
Chandrayan-II mission to the
moon in the year 2012, has
handed over the responsibility of
OCTOBER 2009

development and testing of


computer
vision
based
autonomous 3D map generation
and development and validation of
kinematic traction control models
(a sub-controller which will
correct the path of the rover due
to slip and slide) to the two
professors of this prestigious
institute.
Dr Ashish Dutta, Associate
Professor, Dept of Mechanical
Engineering at IIT-K who is
working on the development and
validation of kinematic traction
control models said, "In 2012
ISRO plans to send a lunar rover
as a part of Chandrayan-II mission
to the moon. The landing module
would carry a mobile robot
(rover) that would emerge out of
the lander to explore the surface
and also perform scientific
experiments."
The IIT-K is involved in the
following two aspects of the
Chandrayan-II mission, first is the
development and testing of
computer
vision
based
autonomous 3D terrain map
generation and obstacle detection
algorithms for path planning and
second is development and
validation of kinematic traction
control models (a sub-controller
which will correct the path of the
rover due to slip and slide) for coordinating the six wheels of the
rover based on wheels and surface
interaction, said Dr Dutta "The
lunar terrain consists of loose
sand, dust, craters, ash etc. It is
expected that due to slip, sinkage
of the wheels the rover may not
function as desired and drift from
its desired path or may even
overturn.
Hence,
terrain
properties
strongly
influence
rover mobility and eventually the
success of the mission", he added.
Dr KS Venkatesh, Associate
Professor,
Department
of
Electrical Engineering, IIT-Kanpur
is working on the visual navigation
of the lunar surface. Dr Dutta
further elucidated that the vision

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

based map generation using a


single stationary camera and
structured light has already been
completed. The system is capable
of functioning in real time with
reasonable computing resources.
This method is now being
extended to mobile platforms
where the cameras would be
mounted on a prototype rover
moving on an uneven terrain.

hope that our project would not


get delayed further," Dhande said.
The satellite weighing around five
kilograms is 34 cm long and 10 cm
broad and has been designed to
collect information regarding flood
and drought situations in the
country.

In order to identify the wheel and


surface interaction parameters, a
one-wheel test set up has been
developed to study the variation
of slip, friction etc for different
types of lunar like terrain
conditions. A kinematic control
model of a six wheel rover with a
rocker-bogey mechanism has also
been developed. Finally, the vision
based system would give us the
3D map of the terrain based on
which the traction control
algorithm would give the safest
path for the rover, said he.

On Sunday students, researchers


and scientists of IIT Kharagpore
(IIT-KGP) had gathered to watch a
game of football. As they rooted
for their teams in the five-a-side
match, all the players have been
built by them and by students
from three other technical
institutes.

He concluded by saying that the


projects are being funded through
two MoUs signed between IITKanpur and VSSC (Vikram
Sarabhai Space Centre). VSSC is a
centre of the Department of
Space, Government of India.

IIT-K postpones launch


of its dream satellite
The launch of IIT-K's ISRO funded
dream project, nano satellite
'Jugnu' has been postponed to
next year, Director IIT-Kanpur
said. "The project designed by the
students and the scientists of the
institution was scheduled to be
launched by the end of this year
but now it has been rescheduled
for some time between Jan-March
next year," Sanjay Govind Dhande,
Director, IIT-Kanpur said today.
Ruling out any link between the
satellite's schedule with ISRO's
Chandrayaan
moon
mission,
Dhande said the institute will
complete the project on time.
"The students engaged in the
project are a bit dejected by the
jolt faced by Chandrayaan but we
6

Robots play soccer at


IIT-KGP

The techies were witness to the


prestigious RoboCup, being held
in India for the first time. The
RoboCup Challenge @ India 2009
was held from August 28 till 30 at
the IIT campus, around 120 km
southwest from Kolkata.
The host of this event, IIT
Kharagpur, has become the first
institute in the country to obtain
an approval from the International
RoboCup Federation.
This is the first time that a
RoboCup Challenge is being held
in South-East Asia. It is adding yet
another
crown
to
IITs
achievements in the field of
robotics, said its coordinator
Mithilesh Gurujala.
Each team spent around Rs 80,000
to built their robots. Although IITKGP
and
Hyderabad-based
institutes International Institute of
Information Technology were
finalists, the match could not be
completed on Sunday due to some
technical snag.
There was also some problem
with the batteries. Were working
on it and hopefully by 1 am on
Monday well be able to hold the
final rounds, said, Gurujala, also
the referee for the matches.

OCTOBER 2009

Success Story
This article contains story of a person who get succeed after graduation from different IIT's

Dr. Rai Mahesh Kumar Sinha


Ph.D. (I.I.T. Kanpur)
M.Tech (I.I.T. Kharagpur)
M.Sc.Tech (Allabhad Univ.)

Dr. Rai Mahesh Kumar Sinha completed his


graduation Allahabad University, and after that he was
awarded by master degree as Master of Technology in
Industrial Electronics from I.I.T., Kharagpur in 1969 then
achieved Ph.D. in Computer Science, Indian Institute of
Technology, Kanpur in 1973. Presently, he is working as
Professor in I.I.T., Kanpur and related to various research
works
Areas of Interest:
Artificial Intelligence
Natural Language Processing, Machine Translation,
Speech to Speech Translation, Indian Language
Technology
Vision, Pattern Recognition, OCR, Document
Processing
Computer Architecture
Research & Projects
R.M.K. Sinha works primarily in the area of Applied
Artificial Intelligence. He applies AI techniques to
document processing, text recognition, computer vision,
speech processing, natural language processing and in
design of knowledge based systems. Intercommunicating
layers of knowledge and their integration is key to his
design approach. R.M.K. Sinha also applies artificial neural
networks and fuzzy computing techniques in pattern
recognition. In natural language processing, one of the
primary aims is to design machine aids for translation
from English to Indian languages & vice-versa and among
Indian languages. R.M.K. Sinha's approach is based on a
new concept of using Pseudo-Interlingua, word expert
model utilizing Karak theory, pattern directed rule base
and hybrid example base. His investigations also include
exploring design and development of special parallel
architectures for computer vision and natural language
processing.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

R.M.K. Sinha has been working on R & D for Indian


Language Technology for the last three decades and his
research has touched and provided direction to almost all
facets of providing technological solution to the problem
of overcoming the language barrier in the country. The
multi-lingual GIST technology and several other packages
for Indian language processing have been developed under
his supervision.
Some of the major projects that have been initiated and
executed / currently being executed under his supervision
are the following:
Machine Translation
Speech to Speech Translation
Optical Character Recognition
Vision Course Projects
Spell-checker design
Honours & Recognition
Associate of UNESCO Chair in Communication:
ORBICOM, Quebec, Canada.
Senior Member Institution of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers (IEEE), USA.
Member Technical Advisory Committee of Centre
for Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC),
India.
Founder President, Society for Machine Aids for
Translation and Communication (SMATAC) India.
Adjudged Best CS Teacher, Asian Institute of
Technology, Bangkok, 1983.
Invited Expert on occasion of release of CD for Hindi
fonts and Web-site by Smt. Sonia Gandhi, Vigyan
Bhavan, June 20, 2005.
Member Selection Committees for IITs, Universities
and Ministries.

OCTOBER 2009

KNOW IIT-JEE
By Previous Exam Questions

Assume the earth to be a sphere of uniform mass


density. Calculate this energy, given the product of
the mass and the radius of the earth to be 2.5 1031
kg-m.
(c) If the same charge of Q as in part (a) above is
given to a spherical conductor of the same radius R,
what will be the energy of the system ? [IIT-1992]
Sol. (a) In this case the electric field exists from centre of
the sphere to infinity. Potential energy is stored in
electric field with energy density
dr

PHYSICS
1.

A wooden log of mass M and length L is hinged by a


frictionless nail at O. A bullet of mass m strikes with
velocity v and sticks to it. Find angular velocity of
the system immediately after the collision about O.
[IIT-2005]
O

M
m
v
Sol.

We know that =

dL

dt = d L
dt

1
0E2 (Energy/Volume)
2
(i) Energy stored within the sphere (U1)
Electric field at a distance r is
1
Q
E=
.
.r
4 0 R 3
u=

When angular impulse ( d t ) is zero, the angular


momentum is constant. In this case for the wooden
log-bullet system, the angular impulse about O is
constant. Therefore,
[angular momentum of the system]initial
= angular momentum of the system]final
...(i)
mv L = I0
where I0 is the moment of inertia of the wooden logbullet system after collision about O
I0 = Iwooden log + Ibullet
1
= ML2 + ML2
...(ii)
3
From (i) and (ii)
mv L
=
1
2
2
3 ML + mL

3mv
mv
=
=
ML
(M + 3m)L
3 + mL

2.

1
1
Q
0E2 = 0
.
r
2
2 4 0 R 3
Volume of element dV = (4r2)dr
Energy stored in this volume dU = U(dr)

1
Q
dU = (4r dr) 0
. 3 r
2 4 0 R

dU =

1
Q2
. 6 .r4dr
40 0 R

U1 =

dU =
Q2

8 0 R 6

Q2
80 R 6

R 4
0

r dr

[r 5 ]0R

1
Q2
.
40 0 R
(ii) Energy stored outside the sphere (U2)
Electric field at a distance r is
1
Q
E=
. 2
4 0 R

(a) A charge of Q is uniformly distributed over a


spherical volume of radius R. Obtain an expression
for the energy of the system.
(b) What will be the corresponding expression for the
energy needed to completely disassemble the planet
earth against the gravitational pull amongst its
constituent particles ?

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

U=

U1 =

...(1)

OCTOBER 2009

1
1
Q
U = 0E2 = 0
. 2
2
2 4 0 R

dU = . dV = (4r2dr) 0
2

dU =

1
Q

4 . R 2
0

...(2)

Q
Q
+
40 0 R 8 0 R

Sol. (a) Magnetic field ( B ) at the origin = magnetic field


due to semicircle KLM + Magnetic field due to other
semicircle KNM

I
I
B = 0 ( i ) + 0 ( j )
4R
4R

0 I 0 I
B =
i +
j
4R
4R
I
= 0 ( i + j )
4R
Magnetic force acting on the particle

1
by G.
4 0

GM 2
R
gR 2

G=
M
3
MgR
U=
5
Therefore, energy needed to completely disassemble
the earth against gravitational pull amongst its
constituent particle will be given by
3
E = |U| = MgR
5
Substituting the values, we get
3
E = (10m/s2) (2.5 1031 kg-m)
5
E = 1.5 1032 J
(c) This is the case of a charged spherical conductor
g=

3.

F = q( v B )

I
= q{(v0 i ) ( i + j )} 0
4R

0 qv 0 I
k
F =
4R

(b) F KLM = F KNM = F KM

And F KM = BI(2R) i = 2BIR i

F1 = F2 = 2BIR i
Total force on the loop,

F = F1 + F2

or
F = 4BIR i
Note : If a current carrying wire ADC (of any shape)

1 Q2
2 C

is placed in a uniform magnetic field B .

Q
1 Q
=
.
8 0 R
2 4 0 R

Then, F ADC = F AC

or | F ADC| = i (AC)B
From this we can conclude that net force on a current
carrying loop in uniform magnetic field is zero. In the
question, segments KLM and KNM also form a loop
and they are also placed in a uniform magnetic field
but in this case net force on the loop will not be zero.
It would had been zero if the current in any of the
segments was in opposite direction.

A circular loop of radius R is bent along a diameter


and given a shape as shown in figure. One of the
semicircles (KNM) lies in the x-z plane and the other
one (KLM) in the y-z plane with their centres at
origin. Current I is flowing through each of the
[IIT-2000]
semicircles as shown in figure.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

net force F on the loop.

3 GM 2
5 R

of radius R, energy of which is given by =

applied determine the force F 1 and F 2 on the


semicircles KLM and KNM due to the field and the

by replacing Q2 by M2 and

or U =

a velocity v = v0 i . Find the instantaneous force F


on the particle. Assume that space is gravity free.
(b) If an external uniform magnetic field B0 j is

3 Q2
or U =
20 0 R
(b) Comparing this with gravitational forces, the
gravitational potential energy of earth will be

U=

x
N

(a) a particle of charge q is released at the origin with

dU =

U = U1 + U2 =

Q 2 dr
8 0 r 2

dr
Q2
Q2
.
=
R
8 0 R r 2 8 0 R
Therefore, total energy of the system is

U2 =

OCTOBER 2009

4.

What will be the minimum angle of incidence such


that the total internal reflection occurs on both the
surfaces?
[IIT-2005]

1 =

1
=
= 0.5
2
2
Now, de broglie wavelength is given be
n = 1, dmin =

2 = 2

K=

3 = 3

=
Sol. For total internal reflection on interface AB

1
2

Assume that the de Broglie wave associated with an


electron can form a standing wave between the atoms
arranged in a one dimensional array with nodes at
each of the atomic sites. It is found that one such
standing wave is formed if the distance d between the
atoms of the array is 2. A similar standing wave is
again formed if d is increased to 2.5 but not for any
intermediate value of d. Find the energy of the
electrons in electron volts and the least value of d for
which the standing wave of the type described above
can form.
[IIT-1997]
Sol. As nodes are formed at each of the atomic sites,
hence

2 = n
...(1)
2

2.5

N
N
(n+1) loops

N
n loops

N
/2

...(2)
2
2.5
n +1 5
n +1
=
,
=
or n = 4

2
n
4
n
Hence, from equation (1),

i.e. = 1
2 = 4
2
d will be minimum, when
and

2.5 = (n + 1)

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

(6.63 10 34 ) 2
(1 10

10 2

) 2 9.1 10 31 1.6 10 19

eV

(6.63) 2
102 eV = 151 eV
8 9.1 1.6

5 22.6
(0.02 M) =
L (0.02 mol L1) = 0.00113 mol.
2
1000


The chemical equations involved during the
treatment of KI and the titration with Na2S2O3 are
2Cu2+ + 4I Cu2I2 + I2
and
I2 + 2S2O32 2I + S4O62
From these equations, we conclude
2 mol Cu2+ 4 mol I 1 mol I2
and
1 mol I2 2 mol S2O32
Now, Amount of S2O32 consumed = (11.3 mL)
11.3
(0.05 M) =
L (0.05 mol L1)
1000

[Q Distance between successive nodes = /2]


Hence from the figure
2
N

2 .2m

A solution of 0.2 g of a compound containing Cu2+


and C2O42 ions on titration with 0.02 M KMnO4 in
presence of H2SO4 consumes 22.6 mL of the oxidant.
The resultant solution is neutralized with Na2CO3,
acidified with dilute acetic acid and treated with
excess KI. The liberated iodine requires 11.3 mL of
0.05 M Na2S2O3 solution for complete reduction.
Find out the mole ratio of Cu2+ to C2O42 in the
compound. Write down the balanced redox reactions
involved in the above titration.
[IIT-1991]
Sol. The chemical equations involved in the titration of
C2O42 with MnO4 are :
MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O] 2
C2O42 2CO2 + 2e] 5
2MnO4 + 5C2O42 + 16H+
2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2O
From this equation, we conclude 2 mol MnO4 5
mol C2O4. Hence,
5
Amount of C2O42 in the solution = (22.6 mL)
2

5.

2mK

h2

6.

i = 60
The minimum angle for total internal reflection
for both the interface is 60.

or K =

CHEMISTRY

1
2
=
=
; i = 45

2
2
2
for total internal reflection on interface CD

3
1
sin i = 3 = 3 =
2
2
2
sin i =

11.3
=
(0.05) mol = 0.000565 mol
1000
Amount of Cu2+ equivalent to the above amount of
S2O32 = 0.000565 mol
Hence,

10

Amount of Cu 2 +
Amount of

C 2 O 24

1
0.000565
=
2
0.00113

OCTOBER 2009

Using the data given below, calculate the bond


enthalpy of CC and CH bonds.
CH(ethane) = 1556.5 kJ mol1
CH (propane) = 2117.5 kJ mol1
C(graphite) C(g); H = 719.7 kJ mol1
Bond enthalpy of HH = 435.1 kJ mol1
fH(H2O, 1) = 284.5 kJ mol1
[IIT-1990]
fH(CO2, g) = 393.3 kJ mol1
Sol. From the enthalpy of combustion of ethane and
propane, we write
7
(1) C2H6(g) + O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(1) :
2
CH = 3fH(H2O, 1) + 2fH(CO2, g) fH(C2H6, g)
Thus,
fH(C2H6,g) = CH + 3fH(H2O, 1)+ 2fH(CO2, g)
= (1556.5 3 284.5 2 393.3) kJ mol1
= 83.6 kJ mol1
(2) C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(1)
CH = 3f H(CO2, g)+ 4fH(H2O), 1) fH(C3H8, g)
Thus
fH(C3H8, g) = CH + 3fH(CO2, g) + 4fH(H2O, 1)
= (2217.5 3 393.5 4 284.5) kJ mol1
= 101.0 kJ mol1
To calculate the CH and CC, we carry out the
following manipulations.
(i) 2C(graphite) + 3H2(g) C2H6(g)
H = 83.6 kJ mol1
2C(g) 2C (graphite)
H = 2 719.7 kJ mol1
6H(g) 3H2(g)
H = 3 435.1 kJ mol1
Add
2C(g) + 6H(g) C2H6(g)
H(i) = (83.6 2 719.7 3 435.1) kJ mol1
= 2828.3 kJ mol1
(ii) 3C(graphite) + 4H2(g) C3H8(g)
H = 101.0 kJ mol1
3C(g) 3C (graphite)
H = 3 719.7 kJ mol1
8H(g) 4H2(g)
H = 4 435.1 kJ mol1
Add
3C(g) + 8H(g) C3H8(g)
H(ii) = ( 101 3 719.7 4 435.1) kJ mol1
= 4000.5 kJ mol1
Now,
H(i) = CC 6CH
= 2828.3 kJ mol1
H(ii) = 2CC 8CH
= 4000.5 kJ mol1
Solving for CC and CH, we get
CH = 414.0 kJ mol1
and
CH = 344.3 kJ mol1

When 3.06 g of solid NH4HS is introduced into a


two-litre evacuated flask at 27C, 30% of the solid
decomposes into gaseous ammonia and hydrogen
sulphide. (i) Calculate Kc and Kp for the reaction at
27C. (ii) What would happen to equilibrium when
more solid NH4HS is introduced into the flask ?
Sol. The reaction along with the given data is
NH4HS(s)
NH3(g) + H2S(g)
t = 0 3.06g (= 0.06mol)
0
0
0.3 0.06 mol 0.3 0.06 mol
teq 0.7 0.06 mol
= 0.018 mol
= 0.018 mol
(i) The equilibrium constant KC is
0.018 mol 0.018 mol
KC = [NH3][H2S] =

2L
2L

= 8.1 105 (mol/L)2


The equilibrium constant Kp is
Kp = Kc(RT)vg
= (8.1 105 mol2/L2)
(0.082 atm L mol1 K1) (300 K)2
= 4.90 102 atm2
(ii) There will not be any effect on the equilibrium by
introducing more of solid NH4HS as the equilibrium
constant is independent of the quantity of solid.
8.

7.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

A basic volatile nitrogen compound gave a foul


smelling gas when treated with choroform and
alcoholic potash. A 0.295 g sample of the substance,
dissolved in aqueous HCl, and treated with NaNO2
solution at 0 C liberated a colourless, odourless gas
whose volume corresponded to 112 mL at STP. After
the evolution of the gas was complete, the aqueous
solution was distilled to give an organic liquid which
did not contain nitrogen and which on warming with
alkali and iodine gave a yellow precipitate. Identify
the original substance. Assume that it contains one N
atom per molecule.
[IIT-1993]
Sol. Since the compound gives a foul smellings gas on
treating with CHCl3 and alcoholic KOH, the
compound must be a primary amine.
RNH2 + CHCl3 + 3KOH
RNC + 3KCl
9.

alkyl isocyanide
(foul smelling gas)

+ 3H2O ...(1)
Since the compound on treating with NaNO2/HCl at
0 C produce a colourless gas, the compound must be
an aliphatic primary amine.
RNH2 + HNO2 ROH + N2 + H2O
Thus, the gas produced is nitrogen.
1
112 mL
=
mol
Amount of gas liberated =
1
22400 mL mol
200
From the above equation, it is obvious that
1
Amount of compound RNH2 =
mol
200
If M is the molar mass of RNH2, then
0.295 g
1
=
mol
M
200
or
M = 0.295 200 g mol1 = 59 g mol1.
11

OCTOBER 2009

Thus, the molar mass of alkyl group R is (59 16)g,


i.e. 43 g mol1. Hence, R must be C3H7.
From Eq. (2), it is obvious that the liquid obtained
after distillation is ROH. Since this gives yellow
precipitates with alkali and iodine (iodoform test), it
must contain CH C group.

Finally, the structure of A would be


[O] CH3
CH3
C = CHCH3
C = O + HOOCCH3
CH3CH2
CH3CH2
(A)

The structure of B is

Hence,
it
is
CH3 CH CH3 .

OH
concluded

that

ROH

CH3CH2CHCH2CH3

CH3

CH3

3-methyl pentane
(B)

Hence, Molecular formula of A is C6H12


Structure of A is CH3CH2C = CHCH3

NH2

Isopropylamine

CH3

3-methyl pent-2-ene

10. A certain hydrocarbon A was found to contain 85.7


per cent carbon and 14.3 per cent hydrogen. This
compound consumes 1 molar equivalent of hydrogen
to give a saturated hydrocarbon B. 1.0 g of
hydrocarbon A just decolourized 38.05 g of a 5
percent solution (by mass) of Br2 in CCl4. Compound
A, on oxidation with concentrated KMnO4, gave
compound C (molecular formula C4H8O) and
compound C could easily be prepared by the action
of acidic aqueous mercuric sulphate on 2-butyne.
Determine the molecular formula of A and deduce
the structures A, B and C.
[IIT-1984]
Sol. The ratio of atoms in the compound A is
85.7 14.3
C:H::
:
: : 7.14 : 14.3 : : 1 : 2
12
1
Thus, Empirical formula of A is CH2.
Since the compound A consumes 1 mol of hydrogen,
the molecule of A contains only one carbon-carbon
double bond. From the data on the absorption of
bromine, we can calculate the molar mass of A as
shown in the following.
Mass of bromine absorbed by 1.0 g of hydrocarbon
5
=
38.05 g
100
Mass of hydrocarbon absorbing 160 g (= 1 mol) of
1.0
160 g = 84.1 g.
Br2 =
(5 38.05 / 100)
Hence, Molar mass of A is 84.1 g mol1
The number of repeating CH2 group in one molecule
of A will be 6(= 84.1/14). Hence, Molecular formula
of A is C6H12. Now, it is given that

Structure of B is CH3CH2CHCH2CH3
CH3

3-methyl pentane

Structure of C is CH3CCH2CH3
O

2-butanone

MATHEMATICS
11. An unbiased die, with faces numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
is thrown n times and the list on n numbers showing
up is noted. What is the probability that among the
numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 only three numbers appear in
this list ?
[IIT-2001]
Sol. Let us define at onto function F from A : [r1, r2 ... rn]
to B : [1, 2, 3] where r1r2 .... rn are the readings of n
throws and 1, 2, 3 are the numbers that appear in the
n throws.
Number of such functions,
M = N [n(1) n(2) + n(3)]
where N = total number of functions and
n(t) = number of function having exactly t elements
in the range.
Now, N = 3n, n(1) = 3.2n, n(2) = 3, n(3) = 0

M = 3n 3.2n + 3
Hence the total number of favourable cases
= (3n 3.2n + 3). 6C3

required probability =

conc. KMnO

4
C 6 H12
C 4 H 8 O + CH3COOH

(3n 3.2 n + 3) 6 C3
6n

(C)

(A )

12. A straight line L through the origin meets the line


x + y = 1 and x + y = 3 at P and Q respectively.
Through P and Q two straight lines L1 and L2 are
drawn, parallel to 2x y = 5 and 3x + y = 5
respectively. Lines L1 and L2 intersect at R, shown
that the locus of R as L varies, is a straight line.
[IIT-2002]

The compound C is obtained by the hydration of


2-butyne. Hence, its structure obtained from the
reaction is
2-butyne

H2

CH3CH2C = CHCH3

is

OH
Thus, the original compound is CH3 CH CH3

CH3C CCH3

3-methylpent-2-ene

(C)

+H2O

HgSO4/H2SO4

CH3C = CHCH3 CH3CCH2CH3


OH

2-butanone
(C)

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

12

OCTOBER 2009

Sol. Let the equation of straight line L be y = mx


m
3m
1
3
,
,
P
; Q

m +1 m +1
m +1 m +1

Thus area of the trapezium


1
BCDE = (BC + DE) (KL)
2
2
1
3a 15a
= (a + 4a) =
2
4
2

m2
...(1)
m +1
3m + 9
equation of L2 : y + 3x =
...(2)
m +1
By eliminating 'm' from equation (1) and (2), we get
locus of R as x 3y + 5 = 0, which represents a
straight line.
Now equation of L1 : y 2x =

14. Let V be the volume of the parallelopiped formed by


the vectors

a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k ;

b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k

13. From a point A common tangents are drawn to the


circle x2 + y2 = a2/2 and parabola y2 = 4ax. Find the
area of the quadrilateral formed by the common
tangents, the chord of contact of the circle and the
chord of contact of the parabola.
[IIT-1996]
Sol. Equation of any tangent to the parabola, y2 = 4ax is
y = mx + a/m.
This line will touch the circle x2 + y2 = a2/2

y
x = a/2

A(a, 0)

c = c1 i + c2 j + c3 k
If ar, br, cr, where r = 1, 2, 3 are non-negative real
3

numbers and

a 12 + a 22 + a 32

b12 + b 22 + b 32

x=a

c12 + c 22 + c 32

...(1)

(a1 + a 2 + a 3 ) + (b1 + b 2 + b 3 ) + (c1 + c 2 + c 3 )


3
[(a1 + a2 + a3) (b1 + b2 + b3) (c1 + c2 + c3)]1/3
L3 [(a1 + a2 + a3)(b1 + b2 + b3)(c1 + c2 + c3)] ..(2)
Now, (a1 + a2 + a3)2
= a12 + a 22 + a 32 + 2a1a2 + 2a1a3 + 2a2a3 a12 + a 22 + a 32
Now, L =

(a1 + a2 + a3)

a
a
(m2 + 1)
=
2
m
1
1

= (m2 + 1) 2 = m4 + m2
2
2
m

m4 + m2 2 = 0

(m2 1)(m2 + 2) = 0

m2 1 = 0, m2 = 2 (which is not possible).

m=1
Therefore, two common tangents are
y = x + a and y = x a
These two intersect at A(a, 0)
The chord of contact of A(a, 0) for the circle
x2 + y2 = a2/2 is
(a)x + 0.y = a2/2
or x = a/2
and chord of contact of A(a, 0) for the parabola
y2 = 4ax is
0.y = 2a(x a) or x = a
Again length of BC = 2BK
If

Similarly,
and

a 12 + a 22 + a 32

(b1 + b2 + b3)

(c1 + c2 + c3)

b12 + b 22 + b 32

c12 + c 22 + c 32

from (1) and (2)


L3 [( a12 + a 22 + a 32 )( b12 + b 22 + b 32 )( c12 + c 22 + c 32 )]1/3 V
15. T is a prallelopiped in which A, B, C and D are
vertices of one face and the just above it has
corresponding vertices A, B, C, D, T is now
compressed to S with face ABCD remaining same
and A, B, C, D shifted to A, B, C, D in S.
The volume of parallelopiped S is reduced to 90% of
T. Prove that locus of A is a plane. [IIT-2004]
Sol. Let the equation of the plane ABCD be
ax + by + cz + d = 0, the point A be (, , ) and
the height of the parallelopiped ABCD be h.
| a + b + c + d |

= 90%. h
a 2 + b2 + c2

= 2 OB2 OK 2

a + b + c + d = 0.9h a 2 + b 2 + c 2

a2 a2
a2
=2
=2
=a

2
4
4
and we know that DE is the latus rectum of the
parabola so its length is 4a.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

+ b r + c r ) = 3L. Show that


[IIT-2002]

Sol. V = | a .( b c ) |

r =1

V L3.

C
2

(a

locus is, ax + by + cz + d = 0.9h a 2 + b 2 + c 2


locus of A is a plane parallel to the plane ABCD

13

OCTOBER 2009

Physics Challenging Problems

Set # 6

This section is designed to give IIT JEE aspirants a thorough grinding & exposure to variety
of possible twists and turns of problems in physics that would be very helpful in facing IIT
JEE. Each and every problem is well thought of in order to strengthen the concepts and we
hope that this section would prove a rich resource for practicing challenging problems and
enhancing the preparation level of IIT JEE aspirants.
By : Dev Sharma
Director Academics, Jodhpur Branch

So l ut i ons wi l l b e pub l i s he d i n ne x t i s s ue

1. Circular path with radius of the circular path

Passage # 1 (Ques. 1 to 4)
The internal energy 'U' v/s PV graph where P is the
pressure and V is the volume of an ideal gas filled up
in a piston cylinder system is shown below
If tan = b then

is r =

m a 2 + b2
q.B 0

2. Helix and the pitch of the Helix is

2m
.a
q.B0

2m
.b
q.B 0
4. Same path as followed by circulating electrons
which is responsible for the unstable Rutherford
atomic model, means spiral path of decreasing
radius.
3. Helix and the pitch of the Helix is

(0, a)

PV
1.

What is the atomocity and the shape of the Gaseous


molecule if b = 3 and a = 2.

2.

Write the relation of adiabatic index of the gas in


terms of a or b or in terms of both a and b.

3.

4.

5.

Passage # 2 (Ques. 6 to 8)
Two conducting wires are sliding in two separate
portions, the details of motion are given along with
the figure. If terminals a and d are grounded then

C/R-1

If 'a' start varying with respect to time as


a(t) = 2(3 + t) and b remains constant then draw the
graph of CV v/s a where CV is the molar specific heat
at constant volume.

2v

Part-2
c
vl

C/R-2

l
C/R-3

If b start varying with respect to time as


b(t) = c0 + c1t2 where c0 and c1 are positive constants
df
v/s t graph where f is the
then find the slope of
dt
degrees of freedom for the gas.

x
C/R Conducting Rail
R = 10
vBl = 30 volts

A particle enters in the given magnetic field

B = B0 k where B0 is a constant with the velocity of

6.

Current passing through resistance R and it's


direction.

7.

P/d across terminals a and c.

8.

Energy of deutron accelerated by potential difference


across b and c.

v = ai + bj where a and b are the positive constants.


The place where the magnetic field exists and the
particle moves is filled with the resistive medium
then path followed by the particle is(Charge on particle q and mass m)

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

B B

Part-1

14

OCTOBER 2009

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Solution

Physics Challenging Problems


Que s t i o ns we r e Publ i sh e d i n Se p t e m be r I s s ue

As energies of light photons falling on metallic


surface because of trichromatic light are 2eV, 2.8eV
and 3eV
The work function of the metal is 2.5eV so light
waves/photons corresponding to frequency 2 and 3
are able to have photo electric effect but not of
frequency 1.
so KEmax. due to light of frequency 2 is
(KEmax.)2 = E2 W = 2.8 2.5 = 0.3eV
KEmax. due to light of frequency 3 is
(KEmax.)3 = E3 W = 3 2.5 = 0.5eV
As (KEmax.)3 > (KEmax.)2 so fastest photo electron is
related with (KEmax.)3 and the stopping potential will
be 0.5 volt.

3.4 eV
n=2
n=1
Nucleus
Accepts energy photon of 1.9eV so the final energy
= 3.4 + 1.9
= 1.5 eV corresponds to n = 3
electron
n=3
1.5 eV
Position of electron
in hydrogen atom
n=2
HA1 and HA2 &
3.4 eV hydrogen spectra

As light waves/photons corresponding to frequency


1 are not able eject the photo electrons so there is no
effect on stopping potential and photo current.

n=1

13.6 eV
n ( n 1) 3(3 1)
=
=3
No. of spectral lines emitted =
2
2

As light waves/photons corresponding to frequency


2 are able to have the photo electric effect but not
ejecting the fastest moving photoelectron so, Photo
current decreases but there is no effect on stopping
potential.

6.

First and second spectral lines of Lymean series and


first spectral line of Balmer series.

7.

Energy of photons from hydrogen spectrum tube are1.9 eV


10.2 eV
12.1 eV

As light corresponding to frequency 3 is able to


have photo electric effect and responsible to eject
fastest photoelectron so,
- Photo current decreases
- As no photo electric effect takes place due to this
light intensity = 0
So stopping potential is not 0.5 volt instead of that it
is 0.3 volt because now the fastest electron is due to
light of frequency 2.

Ist line of
Ist line of
IInd line of
Balmer series
Lymen series
Lymen series
If 2nd line of Lymen series get aabsorbed by
absorption column then
KEmax. of fastest elect. = E W = 10.2 2
= 8.2 eV
(No photo electric emission due to 1st line of Balmer
series)
So stopping potential is 8.2 volt.

As hydrogen atom HA1


Ground state
13.6 eV

8.
n=1
Nucleus
Accepts energy photon of 12.1eV so the final energy
= 13.6 + 12.1
= 1.5 eV corresponds to n = 3
As hydrogen atom HA2
First excited state

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Set # 5

15

If absorption column get removed then photon of


energies 1.9eV, 10.2eV and 12.1eV falls on to metal.
Now, KEmax of fastest elect.
KEmax. = E W = 12.1-2
= 10.1eV and stopping potential = 10.1volt
so stopping potential increases from 8.2 volt to
10.1volt and as no. of photoelectrons ejected will be
more because of simultaneous presence of 10.2eV
and 12.1eV photons so photocurrent also increases.

OCTOBER 2009

Students' Forum
PHYSICS

Experts Solution for Question asked by IIT-JEE Aspirants

Two particles of masses m1 and m2 separated a


distance L from each other are released from their
initial rest state. What will their velocity be when the
distance between them is l ?
Sol. Notice that when the masses were released, the
velocity of the center of mass was
r
0.m1 + 0.m 2
=0
...(1)
v cm =
m1 + m 2
Because both of the initial velocities are zero. Thus,
the total momentum of the system is zero. We denote
the velocities of the masses m1 and m2 as v1 and v2,
respectively. Using the law of conservation of linear
momentum, derived from the absence of external
forces, we obtain :
...(2)
m1v1 = m2v2
The gravitational force between the masses is
conservative. Calculating the potential energy
between the two masses at the moment of release, we
arrive at :
L
L Gm m
Gm1m 2
1 2
...(3)
Ep = F dr =
dr =
2

L
r
When the masses arrive at distance l we have :
Gm1m 2
1
1
Gm1m 2

=
+ m1v12 + m2v22 ..(4)
L
2
2
l
Using this result along with Eq. (2), we obtain
2
2G
1 l
m 22
v1 =
m1 + m 2

l L
..(5)

2
G
1 l

2
2
v 2 =
m1

m1 + m 2
l L

1.

1 1
= 2G (m1 + m2)
l L
and therefore,

...(7)

1 1
..(8)
2 G ( m1 + m 2 )
l L
Another method of finding v12 is to use one of the
masses as the frame of reference;
m2
m1

r
| v12 | =

a0
for example, m1 (fig. 1). The frame of m1 is not
inertial. Its acceleration, a0, is :
F
1 Gm1m 2
Gm 2
=
=
...(9)
a0 =
m1
m1
r2
r2
The force exerted on m2 in this frame, F, is the sum
of the gravity and D'alembert's force,
Gm1m 2
Gm
F =
m2 2 2
2
r
r
1
= Gm2(m1 + m2) 2
r
The difference between the initial and the final
kinetic energies, Ek, must equal the work done by
the force F, Ek = W,
1
where Ek = m2 v 22 .
2
Therefore,
r
r2 r r
l
1
W = r F.d r =
Gm 2 ( m1 + m 2 ) 2 dr
r1
L
r

We are also interested in the relative velocity, which


can be expressed :
r
r
r
v12 = v1 v 2 = (v1 + v2) r
We can solve this equation simply by plugging the
calculated v1 and v2 into it, or as following :
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
| v12 |2 = | v1 v 2 |2 = ( v1 v 2 ). ( v1 v 2 )
r
r
r r
= v12 + v 22 2 v1 . v 2

Hence, v12 =
2.

...(6)
= v12 + v 22 + 2v1v2
Notice that the directions of the velocities are
opposite. Using Eq. (2) and Eq. (5), we have :
m
r
| v12 |2 = v12 + v 22 + 2 1 v12
m2

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

2G
1 1
2
2
( m1 + m 2 + 2m1m2)
m1 + m 2 l L

16

1 1
2G (m1 + m 2 ) as expected
l L

A mass m1 is hung on an ideal (massless) spring.


Another mass m2 is connected to the other end of the
spring (see figure). The whole system is held at rest.
At t = 0, m2 is released and the system falls freely due
to gravity. Assume that the natural length of the
spring is L0, its initial stretched length (before t = 0)
is L and the acceleration due to gravity is g.
(i) Find the position of the centre of mass as a
function of time.
OCTOBER 2009

Now in the current frame of reference, the equations


of motion are defined as:
m1&x&1 = k(x1 x2 L0)
...(7)

(ii) Write the equations of motion for the two masses


in the frame of the laboratory.
(iii) Find the distance between m1 and m2 as a
function of time.
m2
g

m 2 &x&2 = + k(x1 x2 L0)

m1
Sol. (i) Denoting the position of the center of mass at t = 0
1
by x0, we can write: x(t) = x0 + gt2
2
where the downwards direction is defined as positive.
(ii) Let us first find the force constant of the spring
from the force equation of the initial state :
m1g
k=
...(1)
L L0
The equations of motion are :
m2

x1

L0

Using the above six equations we can rewrite Eqs.


(7-8) using only terms of r(t). The two equations will
be identical, since using eq. (5) leaves us with only
one degree of freedom. Therefore,
m1m 2
&r& = &r&
...(11)
m1 + m 2

m1

m1 x1 = m1g k(x1 x2 L0)

where =

...(2)

m1 + m 2
x1(t)
m2

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

m1m 2
is the reduced mass of the
m1 + m 2

system.
Another way to write the equation of motion is by
dividing Eq. (2) by m1, dividing Eq. (3) by m2 and
subtracting Eq. (3) from Eq. (2). The resulting
equation is :

m2 x 2 = m2g + k(x1 x2 L0)


...(3)
Note that (x1 x2 L0) > 0 implies positive
acceleration (downwards) for m2, and negative
acceleration (upwards) for m1.
(iii) An easy way to solve this problem is by
transforming to frame which accelerates with our
system at g. In this frame, D' alernbert's force exists,
balancing gravity so that we are left only with the
force applied by the spring. Also, in this frame, the
center of mass x0 is at rest, so we choose x0 is at
rest, so we choose x0 = 0. Therefore,
m1x1 ( t ) + m 2 x2 ( t )
= x0(t) = x0(0) = 0
...(4)
m1 + m 2
This leads us to:
m
...(5)
xt(t) = 2 x2(t)
m1
The distance between the two masses is given by :
R(t) = R(t) = x1(t) x2(t)
m
= x1(t) + 1 x1(t)
m2
=

...(8)

We define r(t) R(t) L0 as the displacement from


equilibrium. From Eq. (6), we have :

m1 + m 2
x1 ( t ) L 0
r ( t ) =
m2

m1 + m 2
&
...(9)
x& 1 ( t )
r ( t ) =
m2

m1 + m 2
&&
&x&1 ( t )
r ( t ) = m
2

From Eq. (5) we have

m2
x 2 (t )
x1 =
m1

m2

...(10)
x& 2 ( t )
x& 1 =
m1

m2
&&
x1 = m &x& 2 ( t )
1

1
1
(x1 x2 L0)
&x&1 &x& 2 = k
+
m
m
2
1
k
= (x1 x2 L0)
...(12)

The solution to these equation is:


k

...(13)
r(t) = A cos
t +

where A and are determined from the initial


conditions, R(0) = L0, and R(0) = 0. Hence,
R(t) = r(t) + L0
k
= L0 + (L L0) cos
..(14)
t

Note : the transformation to the frame of the centre of


mass used here is quite common in two-body
problems. In general, we replaced:

...(6)

17

OCTOBER 2009

m1, m2 =

v0
5
= v0
...(4)
7/5
7
Note that this problem cannot be solved easily by
using the principle of conservation of energy. The
reason is the existence of the force of friction. When
the mass stops sliding, the friction does not vanish,
but it does not do any work, because the point of
contact between the body and the plane, A, is
temporarily at rest. Therefore,
r r
W = f .d r = 0
r
for d r = 0.
(iii) On a frictionless surface, the linear and angular
momentum are conserved. Therefore, and v are
unchanged, or :
v= v

m1m 2
m1 + m 2

v=

x1, x2 r = x2 r1
This reduces the number of equations and variables.
3.

A cylindrical rigid body of mass M, radius R and


moment of inertia I about its center of mass is thrown
horizontaly onto a plane at a velocity v0. Initially, the
body slides and does not roll. Gradually, it starts to
roll as a result of the friction of the plane, until it
finally rolls at a velocity v without sliding.
(i) Compute the final velocity v.
(ii) Find v for a spherical body.
(iii) Later, the sphere reaches a perfectly smooth area
of the plane. Find the angular velocity and the
velocity of the center of mass on the smooth area.
v0
t=0

A hollow steel sphere, weighing 200 kg is floating on


water. A weight of 10 kg is to be placed on it in order
to submerge when the temperature is 20C. How
much less weight is to be placed when temperature
increases to 25C ?
Given water = 1.5 104 / C, steel = 1 105/ C
Sol. At the instant of submergence,
Total mass of sphere and weight placed on it
= mass of water displaced
mass of water displaced at 20C
= (200 + 10)kg = 210 kg
and
volume of the sphere = volume of water displaced by
it.
210
volume of sphere at 20C is
V0 =
0
4.

t = t0

=0

Sol. (i) We use the principal of conservation of angular


momentum about the point of contact between the
body and the plane A to solve the problem. The
r
torque relative to this point vanishes ( N = 0); so,
r
dJ
= 0.
dt
J initial = Mv 0 R
r r
...(1)

J final = J in ,cm + R + p = I + Mv& R

where 0 is density of water at 20C.


volume of sphere at 25 C becomes equal to V
= V0(1 + 3s)
210
210.0315
[1 + 3 105(25 20)] =
=
0
0
Density of water at 25C becomes equal to
= 0(1 w) = 0.99925 0
Mass of water to be displaced at 25C in order to
submerge the sphere = V. = 209.847 kg
Required difference of weight to be placed on it
= 210 209.87 = 0.126 kg Ans.

We arrive at Eq. (1) by relying upon the fact that the


final angular momentum about the point A equals the
angular momentum in the center of mass frame, I,
plus the angular momentum of the center of mass
point about the point A. At t = 0 the only motion of
the mass is the rolling; therefore, v = R. Hence,
v
+ MvR
...(2)
Jf = I
R
Applying the principle of conservation of
momentum, Ji = Jf, we obtain:
v0
...(3)
v=
I
1+
MR 2
(ii) For a spherical rigid body we know that
2
I = MR2. Therefore,
5

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

5.

Suppose a nucleus X, initially at rest, undergoes decay according to the equation,


225
92 X

Y +

The emitted -particle is found to move along a


helical path in a uniform magnetic field of induction
B = 5T. Radius and pitch of the helix traced by the 18

OCTOBER 2009

particle are R = 5 cm and p = 7.5 cm, respectively.


Calculate binding energy per nucleon of nucleus X.
Given that,
m(Y) = 221.03 u
m() = 4.003 u
m(n) = 1.009 u
m(p) = 1.008 u
2
Mass of -particle = 1026 kg
3
1 u = 931 MeV/c2
Sol. Let velocity of emitted -particle be v at angle with
the direction of magnetic field.
Then radius of helical path traced by the -particle,
mv sin
R=
qB

You Should Know


Nuclear Physics :

Alpha particles are the same as helium nuclei


and have the symbol

RqB
= 1.2 107 ms1
or v sin =
m
where q (charge of -particle) = 3.2 1019 coulomb.
2mv cos
and pitch, p =
qB

The atomic number is equal to the number of


protons (2 for alpha)

Deuterium (

pqB
= 9 106 ms1.
or v cos =
2m
velocity of emitted -particle,

The number of nucleons is equal to protons +


neutrons (4 for alpha)

Only charged particles can be accelerated in a


particle accelerator such as a cyclotron or Van
Der Graaf generator.

Natural radiation is alpha (


), beta (
and gamma (high energy x-rays)

A loss of a beta particle results in an increase in


atomic number.

All nuclei weigh less than their parts. This mass


defect is converted into binding energy.
(E=mc2)

Isotopes have different neutron numbers and


atomic masses but the same number of protons
(atomic numbers).

Geiger counters, photographic plates, cloud and


bubble chambers are all used to detect or
observe radiation.

Rutherford discovered the positive nucleus


using his famous gold-foil experiment.

Fusion requires that hydrogen be combined to


make helium.

Fission requires that a neutron causes uranium


to be split into middle size atoms and produce
extra neutrons.

Radioactive half-lives can not be changed by


heat or pressure.

One AMU of mass is equal to 931 meV of


energy (E = mc2).

v=

or

Regents Physics

( v cos ) 2 + ( v sin ) 2

= 1.5 107 ms1.


When an -particle is emitted with velocity v from a
stationary nucleus X, decay product (nucleus Y)
recoils. According to law of conservation of
momentum, that recoil velocity V of Y is given by
myV = mav
...(1)
where mass of nucleus Y,
221.03 2
my =
1026 kg
4.003
3
V = 2.715 105 ms1
Total energy released during -decay of nucleus X is
E = kinetic energy of nucleus Y
+ kinetic energy of -particle
1
1
E = myV2 + mv2 = 4.77 MeV
2
2
Hence, mass lost during -decay,
E
u = 0.005 u
m =
931
mass of nucleus, X,
mx = my + m + m
= 225.038 u
mass defect in nucleus X,
md = [92mp + (225 92) mn] mx
md = 1.895 u
Binding energy per nucleon in nucleus X
m 931
MeV
= d
225
= 7.84 MeV Ans.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

19

) is an isotope of hydrogen

OCTOBER 2009

P HYSICS F UNDAMENTAL F OR IIT-J EE

Magnetic Field
KEY CONCEPTS & PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY
Magnetic field :
A magnetic field of strength B is said to exist at a
point if a current element or a moving charged
particle passing through the point experiences a
sideways force equal in magnitude to
F = I lB sin or qvB sin

Magnetic field at the centre of a Circular Coil :

0 NI
tesla (T)
2a
where, a = radius of the coil,
N = its number of turns, I = current.
The direction of B is along the axis of the coil.
Magnetic Field a Point on the Axis of a Coil :
B=

B=

q+

where l is the length of the current element, q is the


charge moving with velocity v, and is the angle
between the direction of B and the current element,
or between B and v, 0 < < . The direction of the
force F is always perpendicular to the plane
containing l and B, or v and B. In the figures, this
would mean the plane of the paper. The sense of F
is that in which a screw would move if rotated from
l or v to B through . In this case, this would mean
a clockwise rotation, causing F to be directed into
the paper. In vector notation, this is summarized as
r r
r
r
r
q( v B )
F = I( l B ) or
The unit of B is tesla (T) or newton per ampere metre
or weber per square metre. B is called the magnetic
induction.
Biot-Savart Law : A moving charge or any current
element give rise to a magnetic field. This is given by
(B)p =

0 I
(sin 1 + sin 2)
4 d
where d is the perpendicular distance of the point
from the conductor, 1 and 2 are the angles
subtended by the upper and lower portions of the
conductor at the point.
0 2I
4 d
Magnetic Moment of a Loop : Magnetic moment of
a current loop(m) = IS (current area)
or
m = IS ampere metre2
When the conductor is long

B=

Torque on a current Loop = m B sin where is


the angle between normal to the loop and the
magnetic field.
Energy of a Current Loop in a Magnetic Field
U = U = 0 + mB(1 cos )
Work Done in Turning a Current Loop

W = mB(1 cos )

Problem Solving Strategy : Magnetic Forces :


Step 1 : Identify the relevant concepts : The righthand rule allows you to determine the magnetic force
on a moving charged particle.
Step 2 : Set up the problem using the following steps :
r
r
Draw the velocity vector v and magnetic field B
with their tails together so that you can visualize
the plane in which these two vector lie.

where (B)p is the contribution of l to the magnetic


field at P, while 0 is a universal magnetic constant
with the value 0 = 4 107 weber/ampere metre or
henry per metre. The direction of (B)P is
perpendicular to the plane containing l and r, with
the same sense as the motion of a screw which is
r
r
rotated from l towards r through the smaller
angle.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

tesla (T)

B=

2( a 2 + x 2 ) 3 / 2

where x is the distance of the point from its centre.


Magnetic Field due to a Straight Conductor at a
Point :

0 Il sin
4
r2
I

0 NIa 2

Identify the angle between the two vectors.

20

OCTOBER 2009

Identity the target variables. This may be the


magnitude and direction of the force, or it may be
r
r
the magnitude or direction of v or B .

Problem Solving Strategy :


Magnetic Field Calculations :
Step 1 : Identify the relevant concepts : The law of
Biot and Savart allows you to calculate the magnetic
field due to a current carrying wire of any shape.
The idea is to calculate the field due to a
representative current element in the wire, then
combine the contributions from all such elements to
find the total field.
Step 2 : Setup the problem using the following steps :
Make a diagram showing a representative current
element and the point P at which the field is to be
determined (the field point).
r
Draw the current element d l , being careful to
ensure that it points in the direction of the current.
Draw the unit vector r . Note that it is always
directed from the current element (the source
point) to the field point P.
Identify the target variables. Usually they will be
the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field
r
B.
Step 3 : Execute the solution as follows :
r
r 0 I d l r
0 I dl sin
Use eq. dB =
or dB =
4
4 r 2
r2
r
to express the magnetic field dB at P from the
representative current element.
r
Add up all the dB 's to find the total field at point
r
P. In some situations the dB 's at point P have the
same direction for all the current elements; then
r
the magnitude of the total B field is the sum of
r
r
the magnitudes of the dB 's. But often the dB 's
have different direction for different current
elements. Then you have to set up a coordinate
r
system and represent each dB in terms of its
r
components. The integrals for the total B is then
expressed in terms of an integral for each
component.
Sometimes you can use the symmetry of the
r
situation to prove that one component of B must
vanish. Always be alert for ways to use symmetry
to simplify the problem.
Look for ways to use the principle of
superposition of magnetic fields. Later in this
chapter we'll determine the fields produced by
certain simple conductor shapes; if you encounter
a conductor of a complex shape that can be
represented as a combination of these simple
shapes, you can use superposition to find the field
of the complex shape. Examples include a
rectangular loop and a semicircle with straight
line segments on both sides.

Step 3 : Execute the solution as follows :

r
r r
Express the magnetic force using Eq. F = q v B
The magnitude of the force is given by

Eq. F = qvB sin .


r
Remember that F is perpendicular to the plane of
r
r r
r
the vectors v and B . The direction of v B is
determined by the right-hand rule; keep referring
to until you're sure you understand this rule. If q
r r
is negative, the force is opposite to v B .

Step 4 : Evaluate your answer : Whenever you can,


solve the problem in two ways. Do it directly from
the geometric definition of the vector product. Then
find the components of the vectors in some
convenient axis system and calculate the vector
product algebraically from the components. Verify
that the results agree.
Problem Solving Strategy : Motion in Magnetic Fields :
Step 1 : Identify the relevant concepts : In analyzing
the motion of a charged particle in electric and
magnetic fields, you will apply Newton's second law
r
r
of motion, F = m a , with the net force given by
r r r
r
F = q (E + v B) . Often, other forces such as
gravity can be neglected.
Step 2 : Setup the problem using the following steps :
Determine the target variable(s).
Often the use of components is the most efficient
approach. Choose a coordinate system and then
r r r
express all vector quantities (including E , B , v ,
r
r
F and a ) in terms of their components in this
system.

Step 3 : Execute the solutions as follows :


If the particle moves perpendicular to a uniform
magnetic field, the trajectory is circle with a
radius and angular speed given by Eqs.
mv
R=
and
|q|B

|q|B
v
|q|B
=v
=
R
m
mv

If your calculation involves a more complex


r
r
trajectory, use F = m a in component form:
Fx = max, and so forth. This approach is
particularly useful when both electric and
magnetic fields are present.

Step 4 : Evaluate your answer : Check whether your


results are reasonable.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

21

OCTOBER 2009

Step 4 : Evaluate your answer : Often your answer


r
will be a mathematical expression for B as a
function of the position of the field point. Check the
answer by examining its behavior in as many limits
as you can.

B 2 q 2 r 2 1.2 2 (3.2 10 19 ) 2 0.45 2


=
2m
2 6.64 10 27
12
= 2.25 10 J
(c) E(energy acquired) = Vq
or

E =

or V =

Solved Examples
1.

3.

Two long wires a distance 2d apart carry equal


antiparallel currents i, as shown in the figure.
Calculate the magnetic induction at a point P
equidistant from the wires at a distance D from a
point midway between the wires.
A

E
2.25 10 12
=
V = 7.0 106 V
q
3.2 10 19

Use Biot Savart law to calculate the magnetic field


B at the common centre of the following circuits.
i

D 2 + d 2 from each wire.

2i
magnitude of field due each = 0
2
4 D + d 2

Sol. The point is at a distance

The direction of the field due to A is at right angles to


AP and that due to B is at right angles to BP.
Resolving the field along OP and perpendicular to it,
the normal components cancel out and the
components along OP are added.
B sin
A
B
d
B cos
0 0
D
P B cos
d
B
B
B sin
B (field) at P = 2B cos along OP

0 id
2i
d
=
=2 0
4 D 2 + d 2
( D 2 + d 2 )
D2 + d2

r1

d
dl

i
b

d
0
idl sin 90
Then dB1 = 0
perpendicular into the
4
r12
plane of the paper
i(r d)
dB1 = 0 1 2
(Q dl = r1d)
4 r1

B1 =

2.

An alpha particle travels in a circular path of radius


0.45 m in a magnetic field with B = 1.2 Wb m2.
Calculate (a) its speed, (b) its kinetic energy, and (c)
the potential difference through which if would have
to be associated to achieve this energy. Mass of alpha
particle = 6.64 1027 kg.
Sol. (a) Bqv = mr2/r v = Bqr/m

0 i
4 r1

d =

0 i
4r1

Similarly, B2, field at O due to cd =

0 i
out of the
4r2

plane of the paper.

B, field due to the loop abcd =

Bqr
1.2 3.2 10 19 0.45
=
m
6.64 10 27
7
1
= 2.6 10 ms
(b) Bqv = mv2/r

0 i 1 1

4 r1 r2

perpendicular into the plane.


The second circuit is a special case of the above
when =
1 1 1

B = 0 i
4 r1 r2

or v =

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

0
Sol. The field due to the straight portions da and bc is zero
as the centre O is at end-on position relative to them.
The field due to the curved parts are opposite as can
seen by the screw rule. To find the magnitude due to
either conductor, consider an element of width dl at
angular distance , from the radius Od.
i

Bq = mv/r =

r2

r1

r2

2d

2mE
1
2
Q E = mv
r
2

22

OCTOBER 2009

4.

A wire ring whose radius is 4 cm is at right angles to


the general direction of a radically symmetrical
diverging magnetic field as shown in the figure. The
flux density in the region occupied by the wire itself
is 0.1 Wb m2 and the direction of the field
everywhere is at an angle of 60 with the plane of the
ring. Find the magnitude and direction of the force on
the ring when the current in it is 15.9 A.

WHAT ARE EARTHQUAKES?

Earthquakes like hurricanes are not only super


destructive forces but continue to remain a
mystery in terms of how to predict and anticipate
them. To understand the level of destruction
associated with earthquakes you really need to
look at some examples of the past.

Sol. Let us resolve the field along and perpendicular to the


axis of the ring. The resolved parts are B sin and B
cos . The forces on the elements of the ring due to
the 'Bsin' component are in the plane of the ring and
are distributed symmetrically towards the centre all
along the ring, so they sum up to zero. But the forces
on the elements due to 'Bcos' component are along
the normal to the ring, hence they sum up to a
resultant along that direction.
F = IlB cos
= BIl cos
= BI2R cos
( l = 2R)
or F = 2BIR cos
= 2 0.1 15.9 (4 102) cos 60
= 0.2N
5.

If we go back to the 27th July 1976 in Tangshan,


China, a huge earthquake racked up an official
death toll of 255,000 people. In addition to this an
estimated 690,000 were also injured, whole
families, industries and areas were wiped out in the
blink of a second. The scale of destruction is hard
to imagine but earthquakes of all scales continue to
happen all the time.
So what exactly are they ? Well the earths outer
layer is made up of a thin crust divided into a
number of plates. The edges of these plates are
referred to as boundaries and its at these
boundaries that the plates collide, slide and rub
against each other. Over time when the pressure at
the plate edges gets too much, something has to
give which results in the sudden and often violent
tremblings we know as earthquakes.

A long straight conductor carrying I1, is placed in the


plane of a ribbon carrying current I2 parallel to the
previous one. The width of the ribbon is b and the
straight conductor is at a distance 'a' from the near
edge. Find the force of attraction between the two.
b

I1
a

I2

The strength of an earthquake is measured using a


machine called a seismograph. It records the
trembling of the ground and scientists are able to
measure the exact power of the quake via a scale
known as the richter scale. The numbers range
from 1-10 with 1 being a minor earthquake
(happen multiple times per day and in most case
we dont even feel them) and 7-10 being the
stronger quakes (happen around once every 10-20
years). Theres a lot to learn about earthquakes so
hopefully well release some more cool facts in the
coming months.

Sol. Consider a thin strip at a distance x and of thickness


dx. It is equivalent to a long straight conductor
carrying (I2dx/b) current.
I
I dx
dF (force of attraction) = 0 1 2
2x
b
0 I1I 2 dx
=

2b
x
0 I1I 2 a + b dx
F=
2b x x
0 I1I 2
a+b
=
ln
2b
b

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

23

OCTOBER 2009

P HYSICS F UNDAMENTAL F OR IIT-J EE

Gravitation
KEY CONCEPTS & PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY
Gravitational field (g) and potential (V) due to a
spherical shell and a solid sphere :
M
M

Newton's Law of Gravitation :


Two point masses m1 and m2, separated by' a distance
r, attract each other with a force
F=G

m1m 2

r2
where G = 6.67 1011 Nm2 kg2
= universal constant of gravitation.
m1
m2
F
F

(i) Outside
g=G

This force between two masses acts equally on both


masses, acts though in opposite directions. It does not
depend on the medium present between the two
masses.
Gravitation Field :
This is a region in space where any mass will
experience a force. The gravitational field strength
(g) at a point is the force acting on a unit mass placed
at that point. It is a vector.
m

g=G

r2

M
r
(ii) Inside
g=0

M
r
(ii) Inside
V=G

g=G

r
R3
where R is the radius of
the sphere

M
R
where R is the radius
of the shell

V=G

M
2R 3

(3R2 r2)

Escape Velocity :
The minimum velocity to be imparted to a body on
the surface of a planet, so that it is carried beyond the
gravitational field of that planet, is called the escape
velocity of that planet. Obviously to carry the body
beyond the gravitational field, the amount of energy
needed is that which is required to bring it from
infinity up to the surface of the planet. This is exactly
the potential energy of the body. Potential energy per
unit mass is equal to the potential of the field. So if m
is the mass of the body and vc is the escape velocity,
then

r2
The negative sign indicates that the gravitational field
is always attractive.
Gravitational Potential :
The gravitational potential (V) at a points is the work
that has to be done to bring a unit mass from infinity
to that point. It is a scalar. The gravitational potential
at a distance r from a point mass m is
m
r
The negative sign arises because in bringing the unit
mass from infinity, work is done by the system, so
that its potential energy decreases.
The potential at a point does not depend on the actual
path followed in bringing the unit mass from infinity.
Thus, gravitational force is a conservative force.
V=G

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

r2

r
M
g = G 2 r
r

V=G

Any mass sets up a gravitational field around it. The


gravitational field strength at a distance r from a point
mass m is

r
M
g = G 2 r
r
V=G

(i) Outside

g
r

g = G

M
1
mv e2 = Vm = G m
2
R
where M is the mass of the planet and R is its radius.
or

24

ve =

2GM
R
OCTOBER 2009

2.

If g is the gravitational field intensity, then


mg =

ve =

2GM

A planet of mass m moves along a circle around the


sun of mass ms with velocity v = 34.9 kms1 with
respect to the heliocentric frame of reference, that is,
with the sun at the centre of the frame. Find the
period of revolution of this planet around the sun and
show that Kepler's third law, that is, the cube of the
orbital radius is proportional to the square of the time
revolution of planets, Given that ms = 1.97 1030 kg,
G = 6.67 1011 units.
Sol. From the dynamics of circular motion (assuming
circular orbit)

or GM = gR2

R2
2gR

Satellites and Orbital speed (V0) :


A satellite is a small body revolving around a larger
body under the gravitational attraction of the latter.
The force of gravitational attraction provides the
necessary centripetal force so that the satellite may be
in rotational equilibrium. The speed at which
rotational equilibrium is attained is called the orbital
speed. Let it be v0. Then for rotational equilibrium

Gm s
m
v2
= Gm 2 v2 =
d
d
d
v = d
m

mv 02
r
where r is the radius of the orbit, measured from the
centre of the planet.
Fattraction =

Mm
r2

v2 =
or T =

mv 02

v0 =

and if v0 < v <

2 v0 the path is a bigger ellipse with

point of projection as perigee. If v =


parabolic and if v >

1.

Two masses M1 and M2 at an infinite distance from


each other and initially at rest, start interacting
gravitationally. Find their velocity of approach when
they are a distance s apart.
Sol. Since they move under mutual attraction and no
external force acts on them, their momentum and
energy are conserved.
1
1
GM1M 2
0 = M1v12 + M2v22
2
2
s
(It is zero because in the beginning, both kinetic
energy and potential energy are zero.)
0 = M1v1 + M2v2

mv 2
GM
v=
2
r
r
r
1 GMm
1 GMm
GMm
E=
+
=
r
2
r
2
r
1 GMm
dr
dE =
2 r2
Also dE = power dt = Fv dt = av3dt
GMm

1 GMm
GM
dr = a

2 r2
r
m
r1/2 dr
dt =
2a GM

2GM 22
s ( M1 + M 2 )

2GM 22
s ( M1 + M 2 )
V(velocity of approach) = v1 (v2) = v1 + v2

2G (M1 + M 2 )
s

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

v22 =

v3
2 6.67 10 11 1.97 10 30

An artificial satellite (of mass m) of the earth (radius


R and mass M) moves in an orbit whose radius is n
times the radius of the earth. Assuming resistance to
the motion to be proportional to the square of
velocity, that is F = av2, find how long the satellite
will take to fall on to the earth.
1
GMm
Sol. E (energy of the satellite) =
+ mv2
r
2
By the dynamics of circular motion

Solved Examples

and

2Gm s

3.

2 v0 the path is

2 v0 the path is hyperbolic.

Solving the equations v12 =

v3
Gm s

or

= 225 days
(34.9 10 3 ) 3
Taking the equation in terms of d and
Gmm s
4 2 3
2
2
d
=
m
d

T
=
Gm s
d2
T2 d3 This is Kepler's third law.
=

GM
r
If a satellite is projected with velocity v < v0 the path
is a small ellipse with point of projection as apogee
or

Gm s
v

t=

m
2a GM

Q GM = gR2, t =

25

nR

3/ 2

dt

r 1/ 2 dr =

m
a gR

m R
a GM

( n 1)

( n 1)

OCTOBER 2009

4.

A spaceship approaches the moon (mass = M and


radius = R) along a parabolic path which is almost
tangential to its surface. At the moment of maximum
approach, the brake rocket is fired to convert the
spaceship into a satellite of the moon. Find the
change in speed.
Sol. If v is the velocity at the vertex of the parabola, then
v is also the escape velocity because if it is thrown
with this velocity it will follow the parabolic path
never to return to the moon.

At a Glance

Some Important Practical Units


1.

Par sec : It is the largest practical unit of


distance.
1 par sec = 3.26 light year

2.

X-ray unit : It is the unit of length.


1 X-ray unit = 1013 m

v v orbit

3.

2GM
R
v = vfinal vinitial = vorbit vescape

1 slug = 14.59 kg

Now vescape =

4.

GM
2GM
GM

=
( 2 1)
R
R
R
The negative sign means the speed has to be
decreased.

v =

required change in speed =

5.

R2

rel =

= m r

gR e2
R3

or

rel =

10 6.4 2 1012
23 10 21

gR 2
R3
gR e2
R3

6.

Barn : It is the unit of area.


1 barn = 1028 m2

7.

Cusec : It is the unit of water flow.


1 cusec = 1 cubic foot per second flow

8.

Match No. : This unit is used to express


velocity of supersonic jets.
1 match no. = velocity of sound
= 332 m/sec.

9.

(Q GM= gRe )

Knot : This unit is used to express velocity of


ships in water.
1 knot = 1.852 km/hour

+ e

10. Rutherford : It is the unit of radioactivity.


1 rutherford (rd) = 1 106 disintegrations/sec

+ 7.27 10

11. Dalton : It is the unit of mass.

2
(Q e =
= 7.27 105)
86400
rel = 22.6 105 + 7.27 105
= 30 105 rad s1
2
2
=
=
rel
30 10 5
= 2.09 104s = 5 hr 48 min

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Shake : It is the unit of time.


1 Shake = 106 second

GM
( 2 1)
R

A satellite is revolving in a circular equatorial orbit of


radius R = 2 104 km from east to west. Calculate
the interval after which it will appear at the same
equatorial town. Given that the radius of the
earth = 6400 km and g (acceleration due to gravity) =
10 ms2.
Sol. Let be the actual angular velocity of the satellite
from east to west and c be the angular speed of the
earth (west to east).
Then relative = (e) = + e = rel e
By the dynamics of circular motion
2

Chandra Shekhar limit : It is the largest


practical unit of mass.
1 Chandra Shekhar limit = 1.4 Solar mass

5.

GMm

Slug : It is the unit of mass.

1 dalton =

1
mass of C12 = 931 MeV
12

= 1 a.m.u.

12. Curie : It is the unit of radioactivity.


1 curie = 3.7 1010 disintegration / sec

26

OCTOBER 2009

KEY CONCEPT

HALOGEN
DERIVATIVES

Organic
Chemistry
Fundamentals

(i) Resonance effect : In haloarenes (e.g.,


chlorobenzene), the lone pairs of electrons on the
halogen atom are delocalized on the benzene ring as
shown below :

Nature of the CX Bond :


Due to electronegativity difference between the
carbon and the halogen, the shared pair of electron
lies closer to the halogen atom.
+
C : X

:Cl:

As a result, the halogen carries a small negative


charge, i.e., while the carbon carries a small
positive charge, i.e., +. Consequently CX bond is a
polar covalent bond.
Since the size of halogen atom increases as we move
down the group in the periodic table, fluorine atom is
the smallest and iodine the largest. Consequently, the
carbon-halogen bond length increases and bond
enthalpy decreases from C F to C I.
Further, as we move from F to I, the electronegativity
of the halogen decreases, therefore, the polarity of the
CX bond and hence the dipole moment of the
haloalkane should also decrease accordingly. But the
dipole moment of CH3F is slightly lower than that of
CH3Cl. The reason being that although the magnitude
of ve charge on the F atom is much higher than that
on the Cl atom but due to small size of F as compared
to Cl the C F bond distance is so small that the
product of charge and distance, i.e., dipole moment
of CH3F turns out to be slightly lower than that of
CH3Cl. The bond lengths, bond enthalpies and dipole
moments of halomethanes are given in table.
Some Physical Data of Halomethanes (CH3X)
Halo
methane

CX bond
length
/pm

CX bond
enthalpy/kJ
mol1

Dipole
moment /
Debye

CH3F
CH3Cl

139
178

452
351

1.847
1.860

CH3Br

193

293

1.830

CH3I

214

234

1.636

+Cl:

+Cl:

+Cl:

V
I
II
III
IV
(a) As a result, C Cl bond acquires some double
bond character, i.e., Cl is attached to C by little more
than a single pair of electrons. On the other hand, in
case of alkyl halides (say methyl chloride) carbon is
attached to chloring by a pure single bond.
Consequently, C X bond in aryl halides is little
stronger than in alkyl halides, and hence cannot be
easily broken.

Like aryl, vinyl halides such as vinyl chloride can be


represented as a resonance hybrid of the following
structures :
CH2 = CH Cl:

+
:CH2 CH = Cl:

As a result, C X bond is vinyl halides, like in


haloarenes, is little more stronger than in alkyl
halides and hence cannot be easily broken.

(b) As discussed above, aryl halides are stabilised by


resonance out alkyl halides are not. Consequently, the
energy of activation for the displacement of halogen
from aryl halides is much greater than that from alkyl
halides. Thus, aryl halides are much less reactive than
alkyl halides towards nucleophilic substitution
reactions.
(ii) Difference in hybridization of carbon atom in
C X bond. In haloalkanes (e.g., methyl chloride),
the halogen is attached to sp3-hybridized carbon
while in halogens or vinyl halides, the halogen is
attached to sp2-hybridized carbon. Since a sp2hybridized orbital is smaller in size as compared to
sp3-orbital of carbon, therefore, the C Cl bond in
chlorobenzene or vinyl chloride should be shorter and
hence stronger than in methyl chloride. This has been
confirmed by the X-ray analysis which shows that the
C Cl bond in chlorobenzene is 169 pm whereas in
methyl chloride, it is 177 pm.

Reactivity of Haloarenes :
Both haloalkanes (alkyl halides) and haloarenes (aryl
halides) or vinyl halides contain a C X bond but
haloarenes and vinyl halides are extremely less
reactive than haloalkanes towards nucleophilic
substitution reactions. The following reasons can be
given to account for the low reactivity of aryl and
vinyl halides.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

:Cl:

27

OCTOBER 2009

sp2

Elimination-addition mechanism for nucleophilic


aromatic substitution. Benzyne :
When an aryl halide like chlorobenzene is treated
with the very strong basic amide ion, NH2, in liquid
ammonia, it is converted into aniline. This is not the
simple displacement that, on the surface, it appears to
be. Instead, the reaction involves two stages :
elimination and then addition. The intermediate is the
molecule called benzyne (or dehydrobenzene).
X
NH2
NH2
NH2
NH3
NH3

Cl
177 pm
sp3
C

Cl
169 pm
H

Thus, in chlorobenzene, C Cl bond is stronger than


in methyl chloride and hence difficult to break.

(iii) Polarity (or Nature) of the carbon-halogen


bond. Another reason for the low reactivity of aryl
halides over alkyl halides is their lesser polar
character.
The sp2-hybrid carbon due to greater s-character is
more electronegative than a sp3-hybrid carbon
Therefore, the sp2-hybrid carbon of C X bond in
aryl halides or vinyl halides has less tendency to
release electrons to the halogen than a sp3-hybrid
carbon in alkyl halides. As a result , the C X bond
in aryl halides or vinyl halides is less polar than in
alkyl halides. This is supported by the observation
that the dipole moment of chlorobenzene is just 1.7 D
as compared to the dipole moment of methyl
cholride, i.e, 1.86 D. Consequently, the halogen atom
present in aryl haldides cannot be easily displaced by
nucleophiles.

X
+

Benzyne

Aryl halide

Benzyne has the structure shown in fig. in which an


additional bond is formed between two carbons (the
one originally holding the halogen and the one
originally holding the hydrogen) by sideways overlap
of sp2 orbitals. This new bond orbital lies along the
side of the ring, and has little interaction with the
cloud lying above and below the ring. The sideways
overlap is not very good, the new bond is a weak one,
and benzyne is a highly reactive molecule.
H
H

+
CX

Haloarene or aryl
halide
(C X bond is less polar
and hence X cannot be
displaced
easily
by
nucleophiles.)

Haloalkane or alkyl
halide
(C X bond is more
polar than in aryl halides
and hence X can be
easily
displaced
by
nucleophiles)

H
Benzyne molecule. The sideways overlap
of sp2 orbitals form a bond out of the
plane of the aromatic cloud.

The elimination stage, in which benzyne is formed,


involves two steps : abstraction of a hydrogen ion
(step 1) by the amide ion to form ammonia and
carbanion I, which then loses halide ion (step 2) to
form benzyne.

(iv) Instability of phenyl cation : In haloarenes and


vinyl halides, the phenyl cation or the vinyl cation
formed as a result of self-ionization is not stabilized
by resonance because the sp2-hybridized orbital of
carbon having the +ve charge is perpendicular to the
p-orbitals of the phenyl ring or the vinyl group.
Therefore, these cations are not formed hence aryl
and vinyl halide do not undergo nucleophilic
substitution reactions (SN1 mechanism).
+

Cl
Chlorobenzene

Phenyl cation

CH2 = CH Cl
Vinyl chloride

+
CH2 = CH + Cl
Vinyl cation

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Aniline

(1)

X
+ NH2

+ NH3
I

+ X

(2)

+ Cl

Benzyne

Elimination
The addition stage, in which benzyne is consumed,
may also involve two steps : attachment of the amide
ion (step 3) to form carbanion II, which then reacts
with an acid, ammmonia, to abstract a hydrogen ion
(step 4). It may be that step (3) and step (4) are

28

OCTOBER 2009

concerted, and addition involves a single step; if this


is so, the transition state is probably one in which
attachment of nitrogen has proceeded to a greater
extent attachment of hydrogen, so that it has
considerable carbanion character.
NH2

+ NH2

(3)

(4)

NH2
+ NH2

NH2
+ NH3
:

II

Chemistry Facts

II

Benzyne

After firing 5 billion billion zinc ions at a


speed of 18,460 miles per second (30,000
kilometers per second) at lead, the
German scientists at Darmstadt, Germany
created a single atom of 112 protons
(ununbium) that survived for one third (1/3)
of a millisecond.

If an electric current is passed through a


solution or molten salt (the electrolyte),
ions will migrate to the electrodes: positive
ions (cations) to the negative electrode
(cathode) and negative ions (anions) to the
positive electrodes (anions).

The positron was discovered in 1932 by


the U.S. physicist Carl Anderson at
California Institute of Technology, United
States.

Fritz Haber developed chlorine gas for use


by the Germans in World War I. (Unable to
live with his, his wife commited suicide in
1915).

The flatulence of a single sheep could


power a small truck for 25 miles (40
kilometers) a day. The digestive process
produces methane gas, which can be
burned as fuel.

Cesiums has a diameter of 0.0000002


inches (0.0000005 millimeter).

Hydrogen atoms with no neutrons make up


99.985% percent of all hydrogen atoms.
The remaining 0.015% percent contain one
neutron.

The very first shell of an atom (innermost)


can hold only up to two electrons.

Aniline
Addition

Some facts on which the above mechanism is based.


(a) Fact. Labeled chlorobenzene in which 14C held the
chlorine atom was allowed to react with amide ion. In
half the aniline obtained the amino group was held by
14
C and in half it was held by an adjacent carbon.
Cl
*

NH2

NH2
*

*
+

NH3

NH2

(53%)

(47%)

Interpretation : In benzyne the labeled carbon and


the ones next to it become equivalent, and NH2 adds
randomly (except for a small isotope effect) to one or
the other.
*
*
Cl
*

NH2
NH2
*

NH3
NH2

NH2

NH3
*

NH2
NH3

H2N

(b) Fact. Compounds containing two groups ortho to


halogen like 2-bromo-3-methyl anisole, do not react
at all.
Br
CH3O

CH3

NH2
NH3

No reaction

Interpretation : With no ortho hydrogen to be lost,


benzyne cannot form.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

29

OCTOBER 2009

KEY CONCEPT

Inorganic
Chemistry
Fundamentals

HALOGEN & NOBLE


GASES FAMILY
halogen atom gains an electron, and X X. Thus,
the halogen all form halide ions.
Bond energy in X2 Molecule :
The elements all form diatomic molecules. It would
be expected that the bond energy in the X2 molecules
would decrease as the atoms become larger, since
increased size results in less effective overlap of
orbitals. Cl2, Br2 and I2 show the expected trend
(table) but the bond energy for F2 does not fit the
expected trend.
Bond energy and bond lengths of X2

Ionization Energy :
The ionization energies of the halogens show the
usual trend to smaller values as the atoms increase in
size. The values are very high, and there is little
tendency for the atoms to lose electrons and form
positive ions.
Ionization and hydration energies, electron affinity
First ionization
energy
(kJ mol1)

Electron
affinity
(kJ mol1)

Hydration
energy X
(kJ mol1)

1681

333

513

Cl

1256

349

370

Br

1143

325

339

1009

296

274

At

270

Bond energy (free


energy of dissociation)
(kJ mol1)

The ionization energy for F is appreciably higher


than for the others because of its small size. F always
has an oxidation state of (1) except in F2. It forms
compounds either by gaining an electron to form F,
or by sharing an electron to form a covalent bond.
Hydrogen has an ionization energy of 1311 kJ mol1,
and it forms H+ ions. It is at first surprising that the
halogens Cl, Br and I have lower ionization energies
than H, yet they do not form simple X+ ions. The
ionization energy is the energy required to produce
an ion from a single isolated gaseous atom. Usually
we have a crystalline solid, or a solution, so the
lattice energy or hydration energy must also be
considered. Because H+ is very small , crystals
containing H+ have a high lattice energy, and in
solution the hydration energy is also very high (1091
kJ mol1). The negative ions also have a hydration
energy. Thus H+ ions are formed because the lattice
energy, or the hydration energy, exceeds the
ionization energy. In contrast the halide ions X+
would be large and thus have low hydration and
lattice energies. Since the ionization energy would be
larger than the lattice energy or hydration energy,
these ions are not normally formed. However, a few
compounds are know where I+ is stabilized by
forming a complex with a Lewis base. for example
[I(pyridine)2]+ NO3.
The electron affinities for the halogens are all
negative. This shows that energy is evolved when a

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Bond length X2
()

126

1.43

Cl

210

1.99

Br

158

2.28

118

2.66

The bond energy in F2 is abnormally low (126 kJmol1),


and this is largely responsible for its very high
reactivity. (Other elements in the first row of the
periodic table also have weaker bonds than the
elements which follow in their respective groups. For
example in Group 15 the N N bond in hydrazine is
weaker than P P, and in Group 16 the O O bond
in peroxides is weaker than S S.) Two different
explanation have been suggested for the low bond
energy :
(1) Mulliken postulated that in Cl2, Br2 and I2 some
pd hybridization occurred, allowing some multiple
bonding. This would make the bonds stronger than in
F2 in which there are no d orbitals available.
(2) Coulson suggested that since fluorine atoms are
small, the F F distance is also small (1.48 ), and
hence internuclear repulsion is appreciable. The
larger electron electron repulsions between the lone
pairs of electrons on the two fluorine atoms weaken
the bond.
Pseudohalogens and Pseudohalides :
A few ions are known, consisting of two or more
atoms of which at least one is N, that have properties
similar to those of the halide ions. They are therefore
called pseudohalide ions. Pseudohalide ions are
univalent, and these form salts resembling the halide
salts.
30

OCTOBER 2009

For example, the sodium salts are soluble in water,


but the silver salts are insoluble. The hydrogen
compounds are acids like the halogen acids HX.
Some of the pseudohalide ions combine to form
dimers comparable with the halogen molecules X2.
These include cyanogen (CN)2, thiocyanogen (SCN)2
and selenocyanogen (SeCN)2.
The important pseudohalogens
Anion

Acid

Dimer

CN : cyanide ion

HCN hydrogen cyanide (CN)2 : cyanogen

SCN : thiocynate ion

HSCN : thiocyanic acid (SCN)2 :


selenocyanogen

SeCN : selenocyanate ion

The gases Ar, Kr and Xe may be trapped in cavities


in a similar way when water is frozen under a high
pressure of the gas. These are clathrate compounds,
but are more commonly called 'the noble gas
hydrates'. They have formulae approximating to
6H2O : 1 gas atom. He and Ne are not trapped
because they are too small. The heavier noble gases
can also be trapped in cavities in synthetic zeolites,
and samples have been obtained containing up to
20% of Ar by weight. Clathrates provide a
convenient means of storing radioactive isotopes of
Kr and Xe produced in nuclear reactors.

Structure and bonding in Xenon compounds :


(i) Structure and bonding in XeF4 : The structure of
XeF4 is square planar, with XeF distances of 1.95 .
The valence bond theory explains this by promoting
two electrons as shown :
5s
5d
5p

(SeCN)2 :
selenocyanogen

OCN :cyanate ion

HOCN : cyanic acid

NCN2 : cyanamide ion

H2NCN : cyanamide

ONC : fulminate ion

HONC : fulminic acid

N3 : azide ion

HN3 : hydrogen azide

The best known pseudohalide is CN. This resembles


Cl, Br and I in the following respects :
1. It forms an acid HCN.
2. It can be oxidized to form a molecule cyanogen
(CN)2.
3. It forms insoluble salts with Ag+, Pb2+ and Hg+.
4. Interpseudohalogen compounds ClCN, BrCN and
ICN can be formed.
5. AgCN is insoluble in water but soluble in ammonia,
as is AgCl.
6. It forms a large number of complexes similar to
halide complexes. e.g. [Cu(CN)4]2 and [CuCl4]2,
and [Co(CN)6]3 and [CoCl6]3.
Clathrate Compounds :
Clathrate compounds of the noble gases are well
known. Normal chemical compounds have ionic or
covalent bonds. However, in the clathrates atoms or
molecules of the appropriate size are trapped in
cavities in the crystal lattice of other compounds.
Though the gases are trapped, they do not form
bonds.
If an aqueous solution of quinol (1, 4dihydroxybenzene) is crystallized under a pressure of
10 40 atmospheres of Ar, Kr or Xe, the gas
becomes trapped in cavities of about 4 diameter in
the -quinol structure. When the clathrate is
dissolved, the hydrogen bonded arrangement of quinol breaks down and the noble gas escapes. Other
small molecules such as O2, SO2, H2S, MeCN and
CH3OH form clathrates as well as Ar, Kr and Xe. The
smaller noble gases He and Ne do not form clathrate
compounds because the gas atoms are small enough
to escape from the cavities. The composition of these
clathrate compounds corresponds to 3 quinol : 1
trapped molecule, through normally all the cavities
are not filled.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

(Electronic Structure of Xe-excited state)


(four unpaired electrons form bonds to four fluorine
atoms six electron pairs form octahedral structure
with two positions occupied by lone pairs)
The Xe atom bonds to four F atoms. The xenon 5px
orbital forms a three-centre MO with 2p orbitals from
two F atoms just as in XeF2. The 5py orbital forms
another three-centre MO involving two more F
atoms. The two three-centre obitals are at right angles
to each other, thus giving a square planar molecule.

F
Xe

(ii) Structure and bonding in XeF6 : The structure


of XeF6 is a distorted octahedron. The bonding in
XeF6 has caused considerable controversy which is
not completely resolved. The structure may be
explained in valence bond terms by promoting three
electrons in Xe :
5s
5d
5p

(Electronic structure of Xenon-exicted state)

The six unpaired electrons form bonds with fluorine


atoms. The distribution of seven orbitals gives either
a capped octahedron or a pentagonal bipyramid (as in
IF7). (A capped octahedron has a lone pair pointing
through one of the faces of the octahedron) Since
there are six bonds and one lone pair, a capped
31

OCTOBER 2009

octahedron would give a distorted octahedral


molecule. The molecular orbital approach fails with
XeF6, since three three-centre molecular orbitals
systems mutually at right angles would give a regular
octahedral shape.
F

Total number of electron pairs


= 7(5bp + 1lp + 1d-pbp)

Hybridization : sp3d2 (to accommodate 5bp and


1lp)
Geometry : Square pyramidal
Structure of XeO2F2 :
Total number of electron in valence shell of
Xe = 14 (8 from Xe + 2 from F + 4 from O)
Total number of electron pairs

F
Xe

F
F

= 7(4bp + 1lp + 2bp)


F

F
The vibrational spectrum of gaseous XeF6 indicates
C3v, symmetry, i.e. an octahedron distorted by the
lone pair at the centre of one triangular face. The
structure of the molecule rapidly fluctuates between
structures where the lone pair occupies each of the
eight triangular faces. In various non-aqueous
solvents, xenon hexafluoride forms a tetramer Xe4F24.
Solid xenon hexafluoride is polymorphic. Except at
very low temperatures it contains tetramers, where
four square pyramidal XeF5+ ions are joined to two
similar ions by means of two bridging Fions. The
XeF distances are 1.84 on the square pyramidal
units and 2.23 and 2.60 in the bridging groups.
Xenon Oxyfluorides :
Structure of XeOF2 :
Total number of electrons in valence shell of
Xe:12 (8 from Xe + 2 from O and 2 from F)
Total number of electrons pairs

O
Xe
O
F

Hybridization: sp3d (to accommodate 4bp + 1lp)


Geometry : Trigonal bipyramidal or Sea-saw.
Similarly : Structure of XeO3F2 and XeO2F4
O
F
F
F
O

Xe
O

Xe

F
O

F
XeO3F2

XeO2F4

(Trigonal bipyramidal)

= 6(3bp + 2lp + 1bp)

Xe

(Octahedral)

MEMORABLE
POINTS

Parsec is the unit of


O

Estimated radius of universe is

Hybridisation = sp3d (to accommodate 3bp and 2lp)


Geometry = T-shaped
Structure of XeOF4 :
Total number of electron in valence shell of
Xe : 14 (8 from Xe + 2 from O + 4 from F)

18/5 km h1 equal to

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

1 ms1

1 femtometre (1 fm) is equal to


Dot product of force and velocity is

1015 m
Power

Moment of momentum is equal to

Angular momentum
Xe

1025 m
1018 s

Estimated age of Sun is

O
F

Distance

Rocket propulision is based on the principle of

Conservation of linear momentum

The largest of astronomical unit, light year and


i
32

OCTOBER 2009

UNDERSTANDING

Organic Chemistry

1.

2.

10 ml. of gaseous hydrocarbon were mixed with 100


ml of oxygen and the mixture was exploded. On
cooling, the volume was reduced to 95 ml On adding
KOH, the volume was further reduced to 75 ml. The
residual gas was found to be oxygen. All volumes
were measure under the same condition of
temperature and pressure. Calculate the molecular
formula of hydrocarbon.
Sol. Volume of hydrocarbon = 10 ml
Volume of mixed oxygen = 100 ml
Volume of the mixture after explosion and cooling
(Vol. of CO2 + unused O2)
= 95 ml
Unused oxygen = 75 ml (given)
Volume of used oxygen = 100 75 = 25 ml
Contraction in volume on treatment with KOH, i.e.,
volume of CO2 produced
= 95 75 = 20 ml
If the molecular formula of hydrocarbon is CxHy, its
combustion will take place according to the equation.
y
y

CxHy + x + O2 xCO2 + H2O


4
2

(i ) O

Sol. A(C8H10) 3 C 4 H 6 O 2
( ii ) H 2O

2H
H C C H
C3H5 C C C3H5
+ C 6 H10

the C3H5 correspond to cyclopropyl () radical


hence compound (A) is
CH2
CH2
CH C C CH
CH2
CH2
1,2-dicyclopropyl ethane

The ozonolysis of above compound would give two


moles of cyclopropane carboxylic acid (C4H6O2).
CH2 (i) O3
CH2
CH C C CH
CH2
CH2 (A)

O
CH2
CH2

CH C C CH

CH2
CH2

OO

CH2

H2O
warm

CH2
CH2

CH C C CH

CH2

+H2O2

CH2

CH COOH
CH2 (B)
Compound (B) is prepared from cyclopropyl bromide
as follows :
O
Mg
CH2
CH2
CH.MgBr C = O
CH Br
either

CH2
CH2 (C)
Cyclopropyl
2

5y
2

5y
2
or
y=2
Now on substitution of the value of x and y in the
formula CxHy, the molecular formula of hydrocarbon
come to beC2H2.

or 25 20 =

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

( B)

Since compound (A) adds one mol of O3, hence it


should have either a C = C or a C C bond.
If it was alkene its formula should be C8H16 (CnH2n)
and if it was alkyne it should have the formula C8H14;
it is definite that the compound has an unsaturated
group, it appears that it is a cyclosubstituted ethyne.

10 ml 10 x + ml 10 x ml
4

According to above equation 10 ml of hydrocarbon


y

will require 10 x + ml of oxygen for complete


4

combustion and 10x ml CO2 will be produced.


According to the question,
Volume of CO2 produced = 20 = 10x
x=2
...(i)
y

Volume of oxygen used = 25 = 10 x + ml


4

...(ii)
Substituting the value of x in Eqn. (ii)
y

25 = 10 2 +
4

25 = 20 +

A hydrocarbon (A) of the formula C8H10, on


ozonolysis gives compound (B), C4H6O2, only. The
compound (B) can also be obtained from the alkyl
bromide, (C) (C3H4Br) upon treatment with Mg in
dry ether, followed by treatment with CO2 and
acidification. Identify (A), (B) and (C) and also give
equations for the reactions.

CH2
CH2

CH.COOMgBr

Addition compound

magnesium bromide
HOH
dil. HCl; MgBrOH

CH2
CH2

33

CH COOH

OCTOBER 2009

A,

CC

Hence, A,
B,

COOH

C,

Br

CH3 C = CH CH CH3
CH3

B,

CH3 CH COOH
CH3

3.

An alkene (A) on ozonolysis yields acetone and an


aldehyde. The aldehyde is easily oxidised to an acid
(B). When (B) is treated with Br2 in presence of P, it
yields a compound (C) which on hydrolysis gives a
hydroxy acid (D). This acid can also be obtained
from acetone by the reaction with hydrogen cyanide
followed by hydrolysis. Identify the compounds (A),
(B), (C) and (D).
Sol. The structure of compound can be easily obtained by
the fact that it is synthesized from acetone as follows
(Streeker synthesis).
OH
CH3
CH3
C = O + HCN
C
CN
CH3
CH3
CH3

2H2O
H+

CH3

2-methyl propanoic acid

Br
C,

CH3
OH
D,

(B)

CH3

4.

Compound (A), C3H6Cl2, on reduction with LiAlH4


gives propane. Treatment of (A) with aqueous alkali
followed by oxidation gives (B) C3H4O4 which gives
effervescence with NaHCO3. Esterification of (B)
with ethanol gives (C), C7H12O4, which is well
known synthetic reagent. When (B) is heated alone,
the product is ethanoic acid, but while heating with
soda-lime it gives methane. Compound (B) on
reduction with LiAlH4 gives a diol which on reaction
with SOCl2 gives back compound (A). Identify all the
compounds and give balanced equation of the
reactions.
Sol. Compound (B) gives effervescence with NaHCO3
solution. Hence it is a dicarboxylic acid, since it on
heating alone gives acetic acid and with soda-lime
CH4, it means two COOH in it are at different
carbon atoms.
COONa
COOH 2NaHCO3
CH2
CH2
+ 2CO2 +2H2O
COONa
COOH

COOH

(D)

(C)

CH3

H+

CH3

OH

C
(D)

CH3 C COOH
2-hydroxy-2-methyl propanoic acid

OH

CH3 C COOH
2-bromo-2-methyl propanoic acid

The conversion of (B) to (C) and then (C) to (D)


indicates that the reaction (B) to (C) is Hell-VolhardZelinsky reaction.
Thus we have :
Br
Br2/P CH3
H
CH3
C
C
COOH
CH3
COOH
CH
3

COOH

Hence, we conclude that the aldehyde from which


compound (B) is obtained by oxidation has the
structure :
CH3 CH CHO

(B)

CH3

Soda-lime

2-methyl propanal

Now, the ozonolysis of the compound (A) gives


acetone and isobutyraldehyde propanal), i.e.,
CH3

CH3

CH3
CH3
CH3

CH3

O
O3

CH3

CH3
H2O
Zn

CH3

CH3
CH3

CH4 + 2CO2

(A)

CH3

Propane 1,3-diol
3[O]

C CH CH CH3
OO

CH2

COOH
COOH

+ H2O

(B)

Esterification of (B) with ethanol gives malonic ester


which is a synthetic reagent of high importance.
COOH
COOC2H5

CH2
CH2
+ C2H5OH
COOH
COOC2H5
2H2O

C = O + CH3 CH CHO

CH3
Hence the compounds (A), (B), (C) and (D) are as
follows :

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

CH3COOH + CO2

Acid (B) can be prepared from (A), C3H6Cl2, which


should be 1,3-dichloro propane.
CH2Cl 2NaOH(aq.)
CH2OH
CH2
CH2
CH2Cl (2NaCl)
CH2OH

2[O]

C = O + O = HC CH CH3

C = CH CH

CH3

2,4-dimethyl pentene-2

(B)

34

Malonic ester

OCTOBER 2009

COOH LiAlH
4
COOH 2H2O CH2

CH2
(B)

CH2OH

Elements Named for Places

CH2OH
CH2Cl

2SOCl2
CH2
2SO2; 2HCl

This is an alphabetical list of element toponyms or


elements named for places or regions. Ytterby in
Sweden has given its name to four elements:
Erbium, Terbium, Ytterbium and Yttrium.

CH2Cl
(A)

Hence, (A) CH2

CH2Cl
CH2Cl

(B) CH2

COOH
COOH

5.

An organic compound (A) has 76.6% C and 6.38%


H. Its vapour density is 47. It gives characteristic
colour with FeCl3 solution. Compound (A) when
treated with CO2 and NaOH at 140 C under pressure
gives (B), which on acidification gives (C). (C) reacts
with phenol in presence of POCl3 to give (D), which
is a well known antiseptic. (C) also reacts with
methanol in presence of H2SO4 to give (E), which is
used as a hair tonic. What are (A) to (E) ? Explain the
reaction involved.
Sol. (i) Calculation of empirical and molecular formula of
(A).

Americium : America, the Americas

Berkelium : University of California at Berkeley

Californium : State of California and University


of California at Berkeley

Copper : probably named for Cyprus

Darmstadtium : Darmstadt, Germany

Dubnium : Dubna, Russia

Erbium : Ytterby, a town in Sweden

Europium : Europe

Francium : France

Gallium : Gallia, Latin for France. Also named


for Lecoq de Boisbaudran, the element's
discoverer (Lecoq in Latin is gallus)

Element

Relative no.
of atoms

Simplest
ratio

76.6

76.6
= 6.38
12

6.38
=6
1.06

6.38

6.38
= 6.38
1

6.38
=6
1.06

Germanium : Germany

1.06
=1
1.06

Hafnium : Hafnia, Latin for Copenhagen

17.02

17.02
= 1.06
16

Hassium : Hesse, Germany

Holmium : Holmia, Latin for Stockholm

Lutetium : Lutecia, ancient name for Paris

Magnesium : Magnesia prefecture in Thessaly,


Greece

Polonium : Poland

Rhenium : Rhenus, Latin for Rhine, a German


province

Ruthenium : Ruthenia, Latin for Russia

Scandium : Scandia, Latin for Scandinavia

CH3OH

Strontium : Strontian, a town in Scotland

Conc. H2SO4

Terbium : Ytterby, Sweden

Thulium : Thule, a mythical island in the far


north (Scandinavia?)

Ytterbium : Ytterby, Sweden

Yttrium : Ytterby, Sweden

Hence, Empirical formula of (A) = C6H6O


Empirical formula wt. = 94
Molecular wt. = V.D. 2
= 47 2 = 94
So, molecular formula of (A) is C6H6O
(ii) Since (A) gives colour with FeCl3, hence it is
phenol.
(iii) All the reactions are :

OH

OH
COONa HCl

CO2 + NaOH
140C

(A)

OH
COOH

NaCl

(B)

OH
COOCH3

(C)

(E)

Methyl salicylate
Oil of winter green
(Hair tonic)

C6H5OH/POCl3
OH
COOC6H5
HCl

(D)

Antiseptic (Salol)

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

35

OCTOBER 2009

Set

`t{xt|vt V{txzx

This section is designed to give IIT JEE aspirants a thorough grinding & exposure to variety
of possible twists and turns of problems in mathematics that would be very helpful in facing
IIT JEE. Each and every problem is well thought of in order to strengthen the concepts and
we hope that this section would prove a rich resource for practicing challenging problems and
enhancing the preparation level of IIT JEE aspirants.
By : Shailendra Maheshwari
S ol ut i o ns wi l l be p ubl i s he d i n ne x t i s s ue
Joint Director Academics, Career Point, Kota

1.

Find the greatest value of the expression


(ax) (by) (c z) (ax + by + cz), where a, b, c are
known positive quantities and a x, b y, c z are
also positive?

2.

Let f(x) satisfies the differential equation


xf (x) + f(x) = g(x), where f(x) and g(x) are
continuous functions. If f(x) is decreasing function
for all x R+, then prove that

10. Let n is an odd positive integer, show that (without


using mathematical induction) (n2 1)n is divisible
by 24. Here n > 1.

x.g (x) <

g(x) dx; for x > 0.

Maths Facts

3.

If a chord of the circle x2 + y2 = 32 makes equal


intercepts of length p on the coordinate axes, then
find the range of p.

40 when written "forty" is the only number


with letters in alphabetical order, while "one"
is the only one with letters in reverse order.

4.

The arc AC of a circle subtends a right angle at the


centre O. B divides the arc AC in the ratio 2 : 1. If

1 googol = 10100;
1 googolplex = 10 googol = 1010100 .

111 111 111 x 111 111 111

OA = a and OB = b , find OC .
5.

= 12345678 9 87654321

Out of 20 consecutive numbers 4 are chosen at


random. Prove that the chance of their sum being
even is greater than that of their sum being odd.

6.

Find a point P on the line


3x + 2y + 10 = 0 such that |PA PB| is maximum
when A is (4, 2) and B is (2, 4).

7.

Secants are drawn from a given point A to cut a given


circle at the pairs of points
P1, Q1; P2, Q2; ...., Pn, Qn.
Show that AP1 . AQ1 = AP2 . AQ2 = ....
= APn . AQn

Pi (3.14159...) is a number that cannot be written


as a fraction.

If you add up the numbers 1-100


consecutively (1+2+3+4+5...) the total is
5050.

The billionth digit of Pi is 9.

1 and 2 are the only numbers where they are


the values of the numbers of factors they have.

2 and 5 are the only primes that end in 2 or 5.

8.

Let A & B be the matrices such that AAT = I and


AB= BA. Prove that ABT = ATB.

The largest prime number is 9,808,358 digits


long; more than the number of atoms in the
universe.

9.

If a2 + b2 + c2 = 1, b + ic = (1 + a) z, prove that
1 + iz
a + ib
=
, where a, b, c are real numbers and z
1 iz
1+ c
is a complex number.

The digits to the right of the Pi's (3.141...)


decimal point can keep going forever, and
there is no pattern to these digits at all.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

36

OCTOBER 2009

MATHEMATICAL CHALLENGES
SOLUTION FOR SEPTEMBER ISSUE (SET # 5)

1.

2.

Q(a,a)

Let S1 a1x2 + 2h1xy + b1y2 + 2g1x + 2f1y + c1 = 0


& S2 a2x2 + 2h2xy + b2 y2 + 2g2x + 2f2y + c2 = 0
be the rectangular hyperbolas. So
a1 + b1 = 0 & a2 + b2 = 0
Now S1 + S2 = 0 represents the conics through their
points of intersection i.e. A, B, C and D. The sum of
coefficient of x2 & y2 in it is
(a1 + a2) + (b1 + b2) = (a1 + b1) + (a2 + b2) = 0
Hence, it will also be rectangular hyperbola. Now for
when it represents pair of straight lines then also
sum of coeff. of x2 & y2 will be zero. Hence those
lines will be perpendicular. So AD & BC will be
perpendicular. Similarly BD & AC and CD & AB
will also pairs of perpendicular lines. Hence D will
be orthocentre of triangle ABC. In fact orthocentre of
triangle forms by any of 3 of these points will be the
fourth point.

Now (PR)2 = (RA)2

h2 + k2
k2 + h

h2 + k2
= a2 +
h

2
2

2.

s
= r2 + 2Rr
3.

2
2

2a h + k

h2 + k2
h

h2 + k2
h
(x2 + y2) (x 2a) + a2x = 0
a2 = (h 2a)

4.

Let z = x be the purely real root then


f(x) = x4 + 2x3 + 3x2 + 4x + 5 = 0
f (x) = 4x3 + 6x2 + 6x + 4 = 0
4(x + 1) (4x2 + 4 4x + 6x) = 0
(x + 1) (4x2 + 2x + 4) = 0
x = 1 is only real root
& f(1) = 1 2 + 3 4 + 5 = 3 > 0
no real root of f(x).
Now let z = iy be the purely imaginary roots then
y4 2iy3 3y2 + 4iy + 5 = 0
so y4 3y2 + 5 = 0 and 2y3 + 3y2 = 0 must have
simultaneous solution which is not possible.
as y = 0, y = 3/2 are the roots of 2nd but they do not
satisfy.

5.

L.H.S.

2R

.R; 2 = 1 +
r
s
r

k
1
k
& m2(PR) =
=
h
m1
+ h
so m1m2 = 1
k
k
.
=1
h + h
so
h = h2 + k2
k2 = +h h2;
h2 + k2
h2 + k2
=
so point R is
, 0
h

m1(OQ) =

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

2(h2 + k2)

k2 + h2 a2 = 2(h2 + k2) 2a

a2 + b2 = c2
a + b + c = 2s
a + b = 2(s R) as c = 2R
a2 + b2 + 2ab = 4(s R)2 = 4R2 + 2ab
ab = 2(s R)2 2R2 = 2s2 4sR
2 = 2s2 4sR

2
2

= a h + k

h2 + k2
k2 + h2 +
h

=r
s

abc
= R;
4
A

c = 2R;

(h,k) r
O
R A(a,0)
(b,0)

a2
a
y
=
x=
x
y
a

y a ln (a 2 / y)
f +
a y a2 / y

I=

a 1

f a + y y (ln a

a 2 dy

y2

lny) dy

37

OCTOBER 2009

Let f(x) = x2 (a2 + 1)x + 4


Since both roots of f(x) = 0 lie in (1, 4), hence
D = (a2 + 1)2 16 0

dy
x a
I = f + (2ln a lny)
a
x
y

dx
x a
I=
2I = f + (lna)
a
x
x

6.

a (, 3 ) ( 3 , )
and f(1) > 0 1 (a2 + 1) 4 > 0
a (2, 2)
and f(4) > 0 16 (a2 + 1) 4 + 4 > 0
a (2, 2)

x a lna
f +
dx
a x x
0

Let the fixed points be P(, 0) & Q ( , 0) and


variable line be
| m + c | | m + c |
.
= a; where
y = mx + c as given
1+ m2
1+ m2
'a' is a constant.
so |c2 m22| = a (1 + m2)
...(1)
Now let foot of the perpendicular from (, 0) be (h, k)
h
1
k
then c = k mh &
=
m=
m
k
h

and

k2

(h ) 2
k2

2 = a 1+

y = f(x) =

e zx z dz =

9.

zx

ze zx .e z dz + 1 =

(2, 0)
(5, 0)
1/3

(0,3(4) )
x = 2 is local min.
x = 0 is local max.
f(x) is non diff. at x = 0
f(0) = 0
f(2) = 25/3 5.22/3.(2 5) = 3.22/3 = 3(4)1/3
f(x) = x2/3 (x 5)
f(x) passes through (0, 0), (5, 0)
If x5/3 5x2/3 = k has exactly one positive root then
from sketch.
k>0

.e z dz

2
1 zx
e (2ze z ) dz + 1
2

2
2
1
= (e z . e zx ) 0x xe z . e zx dz + 1
2

1
1
dy
xy = 1
= xy + 1
2
2
dx

I.F. = e 2
solution is
y . e x
y = ex

/4

=
x

/4

dx

= ex

ex

z 2 / 4

10. There will be 99C44 subsets in which 1 will be least


element
similarly there will be 98C49 subsets in which 2 will
be least element
so
p min = 1.99C49 + 2.98C49 + 3.97C49 + .... + 51.49C49

/4

px

/4

dx =

z2 / 4

= Coeff. of x49 in [(1 + x)99 + 2(1 + x)98 +


..... + 51(1+x)49]
1
1
(1 + x ) 51 51(1 + x ) 48
= Coeff. of (1 + x)99

1
1

1
1

1
+
x
1
+
x

dz

dz proved.

8.

a2 7
Since
+
= 2
1
1
a 4

= Coeff. of

(1 + x ) 99 (1 + x ) 48

51(1 + x ) 49
x

x2
(1 + x ) 2
51
= coeff. of x in [(1 + x)101 (1 + x)50]
+ coeff. of x50 in 51(1 + x)49
101
= C51 0 + 0 = 101C51

2 ( + )
a2 7
= 2
+ 1 ( + )
a 4
as given = 4, so + = a2 + 1
Hence the equation is x2 (a2 + 1) x + 4 = 0

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

5 2/3 10 1/3 5 ( x 2)
x
x
=
3 x1 / 3
3
3
sign. dia of f(x)
+
+
2
0

k2

...(4)

f(x) =

(h ) 2

y =

7)

Hence a (2, 3 ] [ 3 , 2)

|k2 + h2 h + h 2| |k2 + h2 h h + 2 |
= a(k2 + (h )2)
so x2 + y2 = (2 + a)
7.

...(3)

a +1

(1, 4) 1 <
<4
2
2a

a ( 7 , 1) (1,

h(h )
k 2 + h 2 h
=
k
k
use these in (1)

...(2)

so c = k +

( k 2 + h 2 h ) 2

...(1)

38

OCTOBER 2009

Students' Forum
Experts Solution for Question asked by IIT-JEE Aspirants

MATHS
1.

Find all possible negative real values of 'a' such that :

also

(9

2t

2.9 t ) dt 0

(9

2t

2.9 ) dt 0
0

| a b |
1 + 1 + 2 + 1 2
2
+ 2
1 2
where, 1
2

0
a

3.

E( 0)

B( b)

2 =

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

| a b |
2

(1 + 1 2 ) 2

| a b | | 1 2 |
2

2 +

1 {using (i) and (ii)

Let S be the coefficients of x49 in given expression


f(x) and if P be product of roots of the equation
S
f(x) = 0, then find the value of , given that :
P
1 x
1

2 x
f(x) = (x 1) 2 x 3 x ,
2
2
3
3

1
1
1

( x 1) x x ... x
2
3
25

Now roots of f(x) = 0 are;


1 1
1
12, 22, 32, ..... , 252 and 1, , , .....,
2 3
25
Now f(x) is the polynomial of degree 50,
So coefficient of x49 will be :
S = (sum of roots)

1 2 ...(i)

1
| a b | +
2

x
x
x

f(x) = ( x 1) 2 3 ... 25
2
3
25

and

| a b |
+
2

1 + 2 1 2 + 1 2

1
x

......... 25 x
25
25

Sol. Here we can write f(x) as :

C(1 , a )

| a b |
1
| a b || 1 2 | =
2
2

1
1
2 = | E B EA | = | a b |
2
2

| a b |
2

It is clear that equality holds if 1 = 2 and in this


case side AB and DC will become parallel.

D with respect to E be a , b , 1. a and 2 b ;


where , 2 R+


1
Now, 1 = | E C E D | = 1 2 | a b |
2
2

1 =

1 + 2 , where is the area of the


quadrilateral ABCD. Also discuss the case when the
equality holds.
Sol. Let the position vector of the points A, B, C and and

A (a )

(1 + 1 )(1 + 2 )

Let ABCD be any arbitrary plane quadrilateral in the


space having E as the point of intersection of its
diagonals. If 1 and 2 be the areas of triangles DEC
and AEB, using vector method prove that

D ( 2 , b )

| a b |
2

92t
2.9 t

0 9 2 t + ( 49) t
2 log 9 log 9

a
2a
a
9 4.9 + 3 0 t2 4t + 3 0;
where t = 9a and t (1, )
(t 1) (t 3) 0
t 1 or t 3 is possible as t > 1.
1
9a 3 a ; |3a 3 a 1
2

2.

(1 + 1 )(1 + 2 )
1
| A C B D | =
| a b |
2
2

Sol. Here

...(ii)

39

OCTOBER 2009

1
1 1
= (12 + 22 + ... + 252) 1 + + + .... +
25
2 3
25

1
25 26 51

=
+ K where, K =
n
6

n =1
S = (K + 5525).
Product of roots :
1 1
1
12 . 22 . 32 .... 252 . 1 .
.
....
= 1 . 2 . 3 ...25
2 3
25
P = 25 !

Hence

S
(K + 5525)
=
, where K =
P
25!

25

O
C

n
n =1

PA.PD =

4
4 2
=
{from (i) and (ii)}
sin 2
4 cos 2 + 9 sin 2
8 2
4
=

sin 2
4(1 + cos 2) + 9(1 cos 2)
1
2
=
sin 2
13 5 cos 2
13 = 5 cos 2 + 2 sin 2

42

25 + 4 2
169 25
4 2 + 25 13 2
= 36
4
(, 6] [6, )

a 2 + b2 + c2
Equality holds only when
ax + by + cz
2
x
y
z
= 2
=
=
= 2
2
2
a
b
c
a +b +c
a + b2 + c2
The minimum value of is ;
a 2 + b2 + c2
5.

where; 5 cos 2 + 2 sin 2

Let f(x) be a polynomial with integral coefficients


suppose that both f(1) and f(2) are odd. Then, prove
that for any integer n, f(n) 0.
Sol. Suppose f(x) = 0 for some integer n.
Then (x n) divides f(x)
So;
f(x) = (x n) g (x)
Now, f(1) = (1 n) . g(1) and f(2) = (2 n) g (2)
Now g (1) and g(2) are both integers, and one of
(1 n) or (2 n) is even.
So one of f(1) or f(2) is even, which is contradictory,
so there is no integer n, for which f(n) = 0
6.

4(s a )(s b)(s c)s


a 2 + b2 + c2

From an external point P(, 2) a variable line is

x 2 y2
= 1 at the points
+
9
4
A and D. Same line meets the x-axis and y-axis at the
points B and C respectively. Find the range of values
of '' such that PA. PD = PB.PC.
Sol. We have been given,
drawn to meet the ellipse

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

4 2

...(i)
(4 cos 2 + 9 sin 2 )
Similarly, putting x = r cos + , y = r sin + 2 in
the equation of coordinate axis i.e. xy = 0
(r cos + ). (r sin + 2) = 0
r2 sin cos + r (2 cos + sin ) + 2 = 0
Since PB and PC and the roots of this quadratic in 'r',
2
4
=
...(ii)
we get,
PB.PC =
sin cos
sin 2
Thus, we get

x
B
C
where is the area of ABC.
We have the identity :
(x2 + y2 + z2) (a2 + b2 + c2) (ax + by + cz)2
= (ax by)2 + (by cz)2 + (cz ax)2
2
2
(x + y + z2)(a2 + b2 + c2) (ax + by + cz)2
(x2 + y2 + z2) (a2 + b2 + c2 42

42

PA.PD = PB.PC
Equation of any line through point 'P' is :
x
y2
=
=r
cos
sin
or x = + r cos , y = 2 + r sin
Putting this point in the equation of given ellipse, we get
4(r cos + )2 + 9(2 + r sin )2 = 36
r2 (4 cos2 + 9 sin2) + 4r (9 sin + 2 cos )
+ 4 2 = 0
Since PA and PD are the roots of this quadratic in r,
we get

Find the point inside a triangle from which the sum


of the squares of distance to the three side is
minimum. Find also the minimum value of the sum
of squares of distance.
Sol. If a, b, c are the lengths of the sides of the and x, y,
z are length of perpendicular from the points on the
sides BC, CA and AB respectively, we have to
minimise : = x2 + y2 + z2
1
1
1
we have, ax + by + cz =
2
2
2
ax + by + cz = 2
A

x2 + y2 + z-2

4.

P(,2)
A

40

OCTOBER 2009

MATH

LIMIT, CONTINUITY &


DIFFERENTIABILITY
Mathematics Fundamentals

Limits :
Theorems of Limits :
If f(x) and g(x) are two functions, then

(i)
(ii)

(x)

1
1

(xi) tan1x = x x 3 + x 5 .....


3
5

lim [f ( x ) g( x )] = lim f ( x ) lim g( x )

x a

x a

x a

lim [f ( x ).g( x )] = lim f ( x ) . lim g( x )

x a

x a

Some important Limits :

x a

(i)

lim f ( x )
f (x)
= x a
if lim g ( x ) 0
(iii) lim

x a g ( x )
x a
lim g( x )
x a

(ii)

(iv) lim [kf ( x )] = k lim f ( x ) , where k is constant.


x a

(v)

lim f ( x ) =

(vi) lim f ( x )
x a

p/q

lim f ( x )

f ( x )
= xlim
a

(iv) lim

x 0

, where p and q are


(v)

integers.
Some important expansions :
(i)

lim cos x = 1

x 0

sin x
x
= 1 = lim
x 0 x
x 0 sin x

x a

p/q

lim sin x = 0

x 0

(iii) lim

x a

x a

1 x3 1 3 x5 1 3 5 x7
+ . . + . . .
+ ......
sin1x = x + .
2 3 2 4 5 2 4 6 7

log(1 + x )
=1
x 0
x
lim

(vi) lim e x = 1
x 0

x3 x5 x7
sin x = x
+

+ ....
3! 5! 7 !

e x 1
=1
x 0
x

(vii) lim

x 2 x 4 x 6

+ ....
(ii) cos x = 1
2
!
4
!
6
!

(viii) lim

x3 x5
(iii) sin h x = x +
+
+ ....
3! 5!

(ix) lim

a x 1
= logea
x 0
x

xn an
= nan1
x a x a
x

x 2 x 4

+
+ ....
(iv) cos h x = 1 +
2! 4!

(x)

a
(xii) lim 1 + = ea
x
x
, if a > 1
(xiii) lim a n =
x
0, if a < 1

x2 x3
+
+ ....
(vii) ex = 1 + x +
2 ! 3!

i.e. a = , if a > 1 and a = 0, if a < 1

(1 + x ) n 1
=n
x 0
x

(xiv) lim

x
(viii) ax = 1 + x log a +
(log a ) 2 + ....
2!

sin 1 x
tan 1 x
= 1 = lim
x 0
x 0
x
x

(xv) lim

(ix) (1 x) = {1 + x + x + x + ......}

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

x 0

x 2 x3 x 4
+

+ ....
(vi) log(1 + x) = x
2
3
4

1
1
lim 1 + = e = lim 1 +

x
x
x
x

(xi) lim (1 + x )1 / x = e

x 3 2x 5
(v) tan x = x +
+
+ ....
3
15

tan x
x
= 1 = lim
x 0 tan x
x

41

OCTOBER 2009

rationalisation of numerator or denominator (or both)


helps to obtain the limit of the function.
Continuity :

(xvi) lim sin 1 x = sin1a, |a| 1


x a

(xvii) lim cos 1 x = cos1a, |a| 1


x a

f(x) is continuous at x = a if lim f ( x ) exists and is


x a

(xviii) lim tan 1 x = tan1a, < a <

equal to f(a) i.e. if lim f ( x ) = f(a) = lim+ f ( x ) .

x a

x a

(xix) lim log e x = 1

Discontinuous functions : A function f is said to be


discontinuous at a point a of its domain D if is not
continuous there at. The point a is then called a point
of discontinuity of the function. The discontinuity
may arise due to any of the following situations:

x e

(xx) lim

x 0

1
1 cos x
=
2
2
x

Let lim f ( x ) = l and lim g ( x ) = m, then


x a

x a

(xxi) lim (f ( x )) g ( x ) = l

(a) lim f ( x ) or lim f ( x ) of both may not exist.


x a +

x a

x a

x a +

x a

(c) lim f ( x ) as well as lim f ( x ) both may exist but


x a +

x a

In particular (a) lim log f ( x ) = log lim f ( x ) = log l


x a
x a

(b) lim e f ( x ) = e xa
x a

lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) but their common value is not

x a

= el

1
= 0.
x a f ( x )

x a

Evaluation of Limits (Working Rules) :

x a +

f is said to have a discontinuity of the first kind from


the left at x = a if lim f ( x ) exists but not equal to

( x )
, factorise
x a ( x )
both (x) and (x), if possible, then cancel the
common factor involving a from the numerator and
the denominator. In the last obtain the limit by
substituting a for x.
By factorisation : To evaluate lim

x a

f(a). Discontinuity of the first kind from the right is


similarly defined.
Discontinuity of second kind : A function f is said
to have a discontinuity of the second kind at x = a if
neither lim f ( x ) nor lim f ( x ) exists.

Evaluation by substitution : To evaluate lim f ( x ) ,

x a

x a

x a +

f if said to have discontinuity of the second kind from


the left at x = a if lim f ( x ) does not exist.

put x = a + h and simplify the numerator and


denominator, then cancel the common factor
involving h in the numerator and denominator. In the
last obtain the limit by substituting h = 0.
By L Hospital's rule : Apply L-Hospital's rule to

0
or
.
the form
0

x a

Similarly, if lim f ( x ) does not exist, then f is said to


x a +

have discontinuity of the second kind from the right


at x = a.
Differentiability :
f(x) is said to be differentiable at x = a if R = L

f (x )
f (x )
f n (x )
= lim
= lim n
x a g ( x )
x a g(x )
x a g ( x )
lim

f (a + h ) f (a )
f (a h ) f (a )
= Lt
h 0
h 0
h
h
Note : We discuss R, L or R, L at x = a when the
function is defined differently for x > a or x < a and
at x = a.
i.e. Lt

By using expansion formulae : The expansion


formulae can also be used with advantage in
simplification and evaluation of limits.
By rationalisation : In case if numerator or
denominator (or both) are irrational functions,

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

x a +

equal to f(a). Such a discontinuity can be removed by


assigning a suitable value to the function f at x = a.
Discontinuity of the first kind : A function f is said
to have a discontinuity of the first kind at x = a if
lim f ( x ) and lim f ( x ) both exist but are not equal.

(xxv) If lim f ( x ) = + or , then lim


x a

x a

either of the two or both may not be equal to f(a).


We classify the point of discontinuity according to
various situations discussed above.
Removable discontinuity : A function f is said to
have removable discontinuity at x = a if

(xxiv) lim fog( x ) = f lim g ( x ) = f(m)


x a
x a

lim f ( x )

x a

unequal.

(xxiii) If f(x) g(x) h(x) for every x in the deleted nbd of


a and lim f ( x ) = l = lim h ( x ) , then lim g ( x ) = l.
x a

x a

(b) lim f ( x ) as well as lim f ( x ) may exist but are

(xxii)If f(x) g(x) for every x in the deleted


neighbourhood (nbd) of a, then lim f ( x ) lim g ( x ) .

x a

x a

42

OCTOBER 2009

MATH

PARABOLA, ELLIPSE &


HYPERBOLA
Mathematics Fundamentals
Here foot of normal is (am2, 2am)
The line y = mx + c may be tangent to the parabola if
c = a/m and may be normal to the parabola if
c = 2am am3.
Chord of contact at point (x1, y1) is
yy1 = 2a (x + x1)
Ellipse :
If a point moves in a plane in such a way that ratio of
its distances from a fixed point (focus) and a fixed
straight line (directrix) is always less than 1, i.e. e < 1
called an ellipse

Parabola :
The locus of a point which moves such that its
distance from a fixed point is equal to its distance
from a fixed straight line, i.e. e = 1 is called a
parabola.
P
M
Y
L
X

O
Y

N
S(a, 0)

P
Its equation in standard form is y2 = 4ax
(i) Focus S (a, 0)
(ii) Equation of directrix ZM is x + a = 0
(iii) Vertex is O (0, 0)
(iv) Axis of parabola is XOX
Some definitions :
Focal distance : The distance of a point on parabola
from focus is called focal distance. If P(x1, y1) is on
the parabola, then focal distance is x1 + a.
Focal chord : The chord of parabola which passes
through focus is called focal chord of parabola.
Latus rectum : The chord of parabola which passes
through focus and perpendicular to axis of parabola is
called latus rectum of parabola. Its length is 4a and
end points are L(a, 2a) and L(a, 2a).
Double ordinate : Any chord which is perpendicular
to the axis of the parabola is called its double
ordinate.
Equation of tangent at P(x1, y1) is
yy1 = 2a(x + x1)
and equation of tangent in slope form is

Standard equation of an ellipse is

a2

y2

b2

=1

where b2 = a2 (1 e2)
Now, When a > b
M

B(0,b)

L1

Z
X

S
O (ae,0) S
A
A
(ae,0) (0,0)
(a,0)
(a,0)
L
B(0, b)

Z
X

In this position,
(i) Major axis 2a and minor axis 2b
(ii) Foci, S(ae, 0) and S(ae, 0) and centre O(0, 0)
(iii) Vertices A (a, 0) and A(a, 0)
(iv) Equation of directries ZM and ZM are
x

a
y = mx +
m

a
a
a
= 0, Z , 0 and Z , 0
e
e

2b 2
= LL = L1L1
a
The coordinates of points of intersection of line
y = mx + c and the ellipse are given by

a 2a
Here point of contact is 2 ,
m m
Equation of normal at P (x1, y1) is

(v) Length of latus rectum is

y1
(x x1)
2a
and equation of normal in slope form is
y = mx 2am am3
y y1 =

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

x2

a 2m
b2

,
2
2 2
b2 + a 2m2
b +a m
43

OCTOBER 2009

Equation of tangents of ellipse in term of m is


2

The two diameter of an ellipse each of which bisect


the parallel chords of others are called conjugate
diameters. Therefore, the two diameters y = m1x and

y = mx b + a m
and the line y = mx + c is a tangent of the ellipse, if
2

y = m2x will be conjugate diameter if m1m2 =

c = b +a m
The length of chord cuts off by the ellipse from the
line y = mx + c is

Standard equation of hyperbola is


where b2 = a2 (e2 1)

h2

k2

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

a2

y2
b2

= 1

B
O

S(ae,0)
Z
A (a,0)
X
L

Foci are S (ae, 0) and S(ae, 0).


Equation of directrices ZM and ZM are

a2
b2
a2
b2
The locus of point of intersection of two
perpendicular tangents drawn on the ellipse is
x2 + y2 = a2 + b2. This locus is a circle whose centre is
the centre of the ellipse and radius is length of line
joining the vertices of major and minor axis. This
circle is called "director circle".
The eccentric angle of point P on the ellipse is made
by the major axis with the line PO, where O is centre
of the ellipse.
(a) The sum of the focal distance of any point on an
ellipse is equal to the major axis of the ellipse.
(b) The point (x1, y1) lies outside, on or inside the
ellipse f(x, y) = 0 according as f(x1, y1) > = or < 0.
The locus of mid-point of parallel chords of an ellipse

which is passes through centre of the ellipse.

x2

In this case,

i.e. T = S1

is called its diameter and its equation is y =

=1

y2

B
(0,b)

L1

yy1

ky

(0,b)

(ae,0)S
Z
X (a,0) A

=1
a
b2
Chord whose mid-point is (h, k) is

hx

b2

(0,0)

M
L1

also at the point (a cos , b sin ) on the ellipse, the


equation of normal is
ax sec by cosec = a2 b2
Focal distance of a point P(x1, y1) are a ex1
Chord of contact at point (x1, y1) is
+

x2

y2

( x x 1 )a 2
( y y1 )b 2
=
x1
y1

= 1 in
a2
b2
having b , most of the results proved for the ellipse
are true for the hyperbola, if we replace b2 by b2 in
their proofs. We therefore, give below the list of
corresponding results applicable in case of hyperbola.

differs from that of the ellipse

y sin
x cos
+
=1
b
a
Parametric equations of the ellipse are
x = a cos and y = b sin .
The equation of normal at any point (x1, y1) on the
ellipse is

xx1

x2

Since the equation of the hyperbola

yy1

When the ratio (defined in parabola and ellipse) is


greater than 1, i.e. e > 1, then the conic is said to be
hyperbola.

=1
a
b2
and at the point (a cos , b sin ) on the ellipse, the
tangents is
2

a2

Hyperbola :

2ab 1 + m 2 . a 2 m 2 + b 2 c 2
b 2 + a 2m 2
The equation of tangent at any point (x1, y1) on the
ellipse is

xx 1

b2

x m

a
a
a
= 0, Z , 0 and Z , 0
e
e
e

Transverse axis AA = 2a, conjugate axis BB = 2b.


Centre O (0, 0).
Length of latus rectum LL = L1L1 =

2b 2
a

The difference of focal distance from any point


P(x1, y1) on hyperbola remains constant and is equal
to the length of transverse axis. i.e.
SP ~ SP = (ex1 + a) (ex1 a) = 2a
The equation of rectangular hyperbola
x2 y2 = a2 = b2 i.e. in standard form of hyperbola put

b2x

a = b. Hence e =

a 2m
44

2 for rectangular hyperbola.

OCTOBER 2009

Based on New Pattern

IIT-JEE 2010
XtraEdge Test Series # 6

Time : 3 Hours
Syllabus : Physics : Calorimetry, K.T.G., Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, Thermal expansion, Transverse wave, Sound
wave, Doppler's effect, Atomic Structure, Radioactivity, X-ray, Nuclear Physics, Matter Waves, Photoelectric Effect,
Practical Physics. Chemistry : Chemical Equilibrium, Acid Base, Ionic Equilibrium, Classification & Nomenclature,
Isomerism , Hydrogen Family, Boron Family & Carbon Family, S-block elements, Nitrogen Family, Oxygen Family,
Halogen Family & Noble Gas, Salt Analysis, Metallurgy, Co-ordination Compounds, Transitional Elements.
Mathematics: Point, Straight line, Circle, Parabola, Ellipse, Hyperbola, Vector, 3-D, Probability, Determinants, Matrices.

Instructions :
Section - I
Question 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions with only one correct answer. +3 marks will be awarded for correct
answer and -1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 10 to 13 are Reason and Assertion type questions with only one correct answer in each. +3 marks will be
awarded for correct answer and -1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 14 to 19 are passage based single correct type questions. +4 marks will be awarded for correct answer and
-1 mark for wrong answer.
Section - II
Question 20 to 22 are Column Matching type questions. +6 marks will be awarded for the complete correctly
matched answer and No Negative marks for wrong answer. However, 1 mark will be given for a correctly

marked answer in any row.


A

PHYSICS

Process1

Questions 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions. Each


question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct.
1.

2.

3.

Process2
O

(A) m1 = m2
(C) m1 < m2

According to Debye's T3 Law, the specific heat of


many solids at low temperature T varies according to
the relation c = T3, where is a constant. The heat
energy required to raise the temperature of 4 kg mass
from T = 1 K to T = 3K is
(A) 208 (B) 20 (C) 80
(D) 8
A system is taken from state A to B along two
different paths 1 and 2. The work done on the system
along these two paths is W1 and W2 respectively. The
heat absorbed by the system along these two paths is
Q1 and Q2 respectively. The internal energy at A and
B is UA and UB respectively
(A) W1 = W2 = UB UA
(B) Q1 = Q2 = UA UB
(C) Q1 + W1 = Q2 + W2 = UA + UB
(D) Q1 + W2 = Q2 + W1 = UB UA
The indicator diagram for two processes 1 and 2
carried on an ideal gas is shown in figure. If m1 and
m2 be the slopes (dP/dV) for Process 1 and Process 2
respectively, then

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

45

(B) m1 > m2
(D) None of these

4.

A wave equation is given by y = A cos(t kx),


where symbols have their usual meanings. If vp is the
maximum particle velocity and v is the wave velocity
of the wave then
(A) vp can never be equal to v
(B) vp = v for = 2A
(C) vp = v for = A/2
A
(D) vp = v for =

5.

A string of length 2L, obeying Hooke's Law, is


stretched so that its extension is L. The speed of the
transverse wave tavelling on the string is v. If the
string is further stretched so that the extension in the
string becomes 4L. The speed of transverse wave
traveling on the string will be
1
1
(A)
v (B) 2 v (C) v
(D) 2 2 v
2
2

OCTOBER 2009

6.

7.

12. Assertion : Energy is released in nuclear fission.


Reason : Total binding energy of the fission
fragments is larger than the total binding energy of
the parents nucleus.

(B)

13. Assertion : If the accelerating potential in an X-ray


tube in increased, the wavelength of the characteristic
X-ray do not change.
Reason : When an electron beam strikes the target in
an X-ray tube, part of kinetic energy is converted into
X-ray energy.

(D)

(C)

9.

11. Assertion : On a T-V graph (T on y-axis), the curve


for adiabatic expansion would be a monotonically
decreasing curve.
Reason : The slope of an adiabatic process
represented on T-V graph is always + ve.

A radioactive sample consists of two distinct species


is and that of the other is 5. The decay products in
both cases are stable. A plot is made of the total
number of radioactive nuclei as a function of time.
Which of the following figures best represents the
form of this plot ?
N
N
(A)

8.

10. Assertion : In a standing wave formed in a stretched


wire the energy of each element of wire remains
constant.
Reason : The net energy transfer in a standing wave
is zero.

The potential difference across the Coolidge tube is


20 kV and 10 mA current flows through the voltage
supply. Only 0.5% of the energy carried by the
electrons striking the target is converted into X-rays.
The power carried by X-ray beam is P.
(A) P = 0.1 W
(B) P = 1 W
(C) P = 2 W
(D) P = 10 W

A star initially has 1040 deutrons. It produces energy


via the processes 1H2 + 1H2 1H3 + p and 1H2 + 1H3
2He4 + n. If the average power radiated by the star
is 1016 W, the deutron supply of the star is exhausted
in a time of the order of
(The masses of nuclei are : m(H2) = 2.014 u,
m(p) = 1.007 u, m(n) = 1.008 u, m(He4) = 4.001 u)
(A) 106 s (B) 108 s (C) 1012 s
(D) 1016 s

This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has 3 multiple


choice questions. (Question 14 to 19) Each question has
4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct.
Passage : I (No. 14 to 16)
In the following figure the spring is at its natural
length. In both the chambers 'n' moles of monoatomic
gas is filled at temperature T. Heat is supplied to the
right chamber. Piston is non-conducting and vessel is
non-conducting. Temperature of the left chamber
does not change. Piston is displaced by L/4.

In an excited state of hydrogen like atom an electron


has total energy of 3.4 eV. If the kinetic energy of
the electron is E and its de Broglie wavelength is ,
then
(A) E = 6.8 eV, ~ 6.6 1010 m
(B) E = 3.4 eV, ~ 6.6 1010 m
(C) E = 3.4 eV, ~ 6.6 1011 m
(D) E = 6.8 eV, ~ 6.6 1011 m

n, T
K

This section contains 4 questions numbered 10 to 13,


(Assertion and Reason type question). Each question
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct.
Use the following Key to choose the appropriate
answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false, but (R) is true.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

n, T

14. Change in temperature of right chamber is


(A) 2T +

5 LK 2
16 nR

(C) 2T/3 +

5KL2
16nR

(B) T/3 +

KL2
16nR

(D) 2T/3 +

5KL2
nR

15. Change in the internal energy of the right chamber is


(A) nRT +

15
KL2
32

(C) 2nRT + 15 KL2


46

KL2
32
15
(D) 3nRT +
KL2
32

(B) nRT +

OCTOBER 2009

16. Heat transferred into the system is


2

(C)
2

(A) 2nRT +

KL
2

(B) nRT +

KL
2

(C) 3nRT +

KL2
32

(D) nRT +

KL2
32

(D)

Passage : II (No. 17 to 19)


Two hydrogen like atoms A and B are of different
masses and each atom contains equal number of
protons and neutrons. The energy difference between
the radiation corresponding to first Balmer lines
emitted A and B is 5.667 eV when A & B moving
with the same velocity, strikes a heavy target they
rebound back with the same velocity. In this process
the atom B imparts twice the momentum to the target
the A imparts.

(D) 4

19. Mass number of atom B & Atom A


(A) 2, 4
(B) 4, 2
(C) 2, 1
(D) 4, 1
The section contains 3 questions (Questions 20 to 22).
Each question contains statements given in two
columns which have to be matched. Statements (A, B,
C, D) in Column I have to be matched with statements
(P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to these
questions have to be appropriately bubbled as
illustrated in the following example. If the correct
matches are A-P, A-S, B-Q, B-R, C-P, C-Q and D-S,
then the correctly 4 4 matrix should be as follows :
P Q R S
A P Q R S
B P Q R S

(D) Graph of amount of heat


transferred versus
temperature is

Amplitude of the
resultant wave
will vary
periodically with
position

(S)

Amplitude of the
resultant wave
will vary
periodically with
time

(S)

22. Match the Column-I with Column-II


Column -I
Column-II
(A) An electron moves in (P) Total Energy
an orbit in a Bohr
Potential Energy
=
atom
2
(B) As a satellite moves (Q) Kinetic Energy =
in a circular orbit
Magnitude
of
around total earth
Energy
(C) In Rutherford's - (R) Motion in under a
central force
scattering experiment,
as an -particle
moves in the electric
field of a nucleus
(D) As an object, release (S) Mechanical energy
from some height
is coserved
above ground, falls
towards
earth,
assuming negligible
air resistance

C P Q R S
D P Q R S

20. Consider a situation (i) that two sound waves,


y1 = (0.2m) sin 504 (t x/300) and y2 = (0.6 m) sin
490 (t x/300) are superimposed. Consider another
situation (ii) that two sound waves, y1 = (0.2m) sin
504(t x/300)
y2 = (0.4 m) sin 504(t + x/300), are superimposed.
Match the Column-I with Column-II :
Column -I
Column-II
(A) In situation (i)
(P) Stationary waves
are formed
(B) In situation (ii)
(Q) There will be the
phenomenon of
'Beats'

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

(R)

21. The specific heat capacity of a material is given as


C = AT, where A is a constant, T is temperature. The
substance is heated from 27C to 127C. Unit of A is
J/kg/K2. Then match quantities in column I to that in
column II.
Column -I
Column-II
(A) Mean specific heat in the (P) 400 A
range 27C to 127C is
(B) Actual specific heat at (Q) 350 A
127C is
(C) Graph of specific heat (R)
versus temperature is

17. Ionization energy of Atom B is


(A) 27.2 eV
(B) 13.6 eV
(C) 10.2 eV
(D) 54.4 eV
18. Atomic number of atom A is
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3

When two waves of


same frequency and
amplitude
and
travelling in opposite
directions
superimpose
If the intensity of
sound
alternately
increases
and
decreases periodically
as
a
result
of
superposition
of
waves of slightly
different frequencies

47

OCTOBER 2009

CHEMISTRY

5.

Identify most acidic hydrogen in given compound.


O
O
a
OH
H
SH
OH
OH
d
c
b
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d

6.

A yellow powder reacted with F2 to form a colourless


gas X which is used as gaseous insulator in high
power generators. It does not get hydrolysed. Another
compound is obtained by reaction of sulphur
dichloride with NaF. It can be easily hydrolysed and
has see-saw shape. X and Y respectively are
(A) AgI, AgBr
(B) SF6, SF4
(C) SF4, SF6
(D) SCl4,SCl6

7.

Which of the following statement is true ?


(A) SiO bond is stronger than CO bond
(B) Dimethyl ether acts as better lewis base but not
disilyl ether
(C) (CH3)3SiO is more stable than (CH3)3CO
(D) All of these

8.

Here A, B, C and D are respectively

Questions 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions. Each


question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct.
1.

2.

3.

For the reaction :


[Ag(CN)2]
Ag+ + 2CN
The equilibrium constant at 25 C is 4 1019. If a
solution is 0.1 M in KCN and 0.03 M in AgNO3
originally, at equilibrium, the concentration of Ag+ is
(A) 7.5 1016 M
(B) 7.5 1018 M
19
(C) 1.25 10 M
(D) 1.25 1017
At 25 C, solubility product of Zn(OH)2 is 1014. If
NH4OH is 50% dissociated, then the concentration of
Zn2+ in its 0.1 M solution is
(A) 2 1012
(B) 1 1014
12
(C) 10
(D) 4 1012
Which of the following pairs of compounds will have
identical B.P ?
Me

Me

(A) H

Cl

&

Et

Me

H
CH2Cl

OH & H
Br
Br

CH3
H

H
OH
&
H
OH
HO
OH

(C) H
H
Me

Yellow
solution

(C)
Orange
Coloured

(D)
(A) FeSO4, FeCl3, Fe(OH)3, PbCl2
(B) FeCl2, FeSO4, Fe(OH)3, PbSO4
(C) Cr2O3, Na2CrO4, Na2Cr2O7, PbCrO4
(D) FeSO4, Fe2(CO3)2, Fe(OH)3, PbCO3

OH
OH
Me

9.

Me

Which of the following statements are not correct ?


(A) Me CH = C = CH Me is optically active
Me
H
C
is optically inactive
(B)
Me
Me
(C) All the compounds having chiral centre with L.P.
as one of the group, are non-resolvable.
(D) All geometrical isomers are diastereomers

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

H2SO4 + H2O
Evaporation

Yellow ppt.

(D) None of these

4.

(B)

Pb (CH3COO)2

CH3
Me

CH3
Me

fused Na2CO3
+ air

Green
Solid

OH

CH3

(B)H

(A)

When sulphur is dissolved in oleum, a deep blue


coloured solution containing polyatomic sulphur
cation is obtained. The formula of cation present is
(A) S 24 +

(B) S82 +

2+
(C) S19

2+
(D) S16

This section contains 4 questions numbered 10 to 13,


(Assertion and Reason type question). Each question
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct.

48

OCTOBER 2009

16. Which of the following exist as dimer


(A) Al(CH3)3
(B) CH3Li
(C) Si(CH3)4
(D) Be(CH3)2

Use the following Key to choose the appropriate


answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false, but (R) is true.

Passage : II (No. 17 to 19)


A black coloured compound (A) on reaction with dil
H2SO4 form a gas 'B' and a solution of compound
(C). When gas B is passed through solution of
compound (C), a black coloured compound 'A' is
obtained which is soluble in 50% HNO3 and forms
blue coloured complex 'D' with excess of NH4OH
and chocolate brown ppt. 'E' with K4[Fe(CN)6]

10. Assertion : KMnO4 is a coloured compound


Reason : Colour of KMnO4 is due to charge transfer.
11. Assertion : [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 reacts with excess of
AgNO3 to form 2 moles of AgCl (white ppt)
Reason : [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 gives 2 moles of Cl which
react with AgNO3 to forms 2 moles of AgCl.

17. 'A' is
(A) CuS
(C) PbS

12. Assertion : AlF3 is almost insouble in anhydrous HF


but dissolves in NaF.
Reason : NaF produces free F

18. 'D' is
(A) Cu(OH)2
(B) [Cu(NH3)2]SO4
(C) [Cu(NH3)4](NO.3)2 (D) [Cu(NH3)6]SO4

13. Assertion : Cu+ ion does not exist in solution.


Reason : Cu+ ion undergoes disproportionation in
aqueous solution.

19. 'E' is
(A) Cu2[Fe(CN)6]
(C) Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2

This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has 3 multiple


choice questions. (Question 14 to 19) Each question has
4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct.

The section contains 3 questions (Questions 20 to 22).


Each question contains statements given in two
columns which have to be matched. Statements (A, B,
C, D) in Column I have to be matched with statements
(P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to these
questions have to be appropriately bubbled as
illustrated in the following example. If the correct
matches are A-P, A-S, B-Q, B-R, C-P, C-Q and D-S,
then the correctly 4 4 matrix should be as follows :
P Q R S
A P Q R S
B P Q R S

Passage : I (No. 14 to 16)


The stability of complexes depend upon stability
constant. Higher the value of stability constant, more
will be stability of complex. It can also be determined
with the help of dissociation constant. Higher the
value of dissociation constant, lesser will be stability.
Smaller cation, with higher charge can form more
stable complex. Stronger the ligand, more stable will
be complex. Polydentate ligands form more stable
complex than unidentate ligand. If multidentate
ligand is cyclic, it further increases the stability, it is
called macrocyclic effect.

(B) [Cu4[Fe(CN)6]
(D) None of these

C P Q R S
D P Q R S

20. Match the following :


Column -I
(A) Compound show
Geometrical
isomerism

14. Formation of complex involves


(A) exothermic, decrease in entropy
(B) endothermic, decrease in entropy
(C) exothermic, increase in entropy
(D) endothermic, increase in entropy

(B)

Compound is chiral

(C) Compound having


plane of symmetry
(D) Compound having
centre of symmetry

15. Which of the following is most stable


(A) [Co(en)3]3+
(B) [Co(NH3)6]3+
3+
(D) [CoF6]3
(C) [Co(H2O)6]

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

(B) FeS
(D) HgS

49

Column-II
(P)
Me

(Q)
(R)
(S)

Me
H
Me
H
Me
H

Me
Me

=C H
Me

C=C H

H
Me

OCTOBER 2009

21. Match the following :


Column -I
(A) Two electron three centre
bond
(B) Four electron three centre
bond
(C) sp3 hybrid orbitals
(D) Inorganic graphite
22. Match the following :
Column -I
(A) KHCO3
(P)
(B) NaHCO3
(Q)
(C) LiHCO3
(R)
(S)
(D) NH4HCO3

(A) (2, 1)
(C) (3/2, 2)

Column-II
(P) (BN)x
(Q)

B2H6

(R)
(S)

AlCl3
B4H10

5.

3.

Column-II
Exists in solid state
Soluble in water
Hydrogen bonding
Dimeric anion

6.

A line meets the coordinate axes in A and B. A circle


is circumscribed about the triangle OAB. If m and n
are the distances of the tangent to the circle at the
origin from the points A and B respectively, the
diameter of the circle is
(A) m(m + n)
(B) m + n
(C) n(m + n)
(D) (1/2) (m + n)

4.

y2

(A)

a 2 + b2
a

a 2 + b2
(B)

(C)

a 2 + b2
b

a 2 + b2
(D)

(D) sin =

11 7
70

|a|

(D)

a (a b)
| b |2

The number of values of k for which the system of


equations
(k + 1)x + 8y = 4k, kx + (k + 3)y = 3k 1 has no
solution is
(A) 0
(B) 3
(C) 2
(D) infinite

8.

If l 12 + m12 + n12 = 1, and l1 l2 + m1m2 + n1n2 = 0,


and
l 1 m1 n1

= l2

m2

n 2 then

l3

m3

n3

(B) || = 2
(D) = 0

If the probability of choosing an integer k out of 2m


integers 1, 2, 3, ...., 2m is inversely proportional to
k4(1 k 2m), then the probability that chosen
number is odd, is
(A) equal to 1/2
(B) less than
(C) greater than 1/2
(D) less than 1/3

This section contains 4 questions numbered 10 to 13,


(Assertion and Reason type question). Each question
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct.
Use the following Key to choose the appropriate
answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false, but (R) is true.

The coordinates of the end point of the latus rectum


of the parabola (y 1)2 = 2(x + 2), which does not lie
on the line 2x + y + 3 = 0 are

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

2 6
15

7.

9.

= 1. If (h, k) is the point of intersection of


a
b2
normals at P and Q, then k is equal to
2

11 7
70

a (a b)

(A) || = 3
(C) || = 1

Let P (a sec , b tan ) and Q (a sec , b tan ) where


+ = /2, be two points on the hyperbola

(B) sin =

If a, b are nonzero vectors and a is perpendicular to b


then a nonzero vector r satisfying r.a = , for some
scalar , a r = b is
a + (a + b)
a + a b
(A)
(B)
2
|a|
| b |2
(C)

The line joining A(b cos , b sin ) and B (a cos ,


a sin ) is produced to the point M(x, y) so that
+
+
AM : MB = b : a, then x cos
+ y sin
=
2
2
(A) 1
(B) 0
(C) 1
(D) a2 + b2

x2

2 6
15

(C) cos =

Questions 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions. Each


question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct.

2.

If q is the angle between the line


r = 2i + 3j k + (i + j + k) t and the plane
r.(3i 4j + 5k) = q, then
(A) cos =

MATHEMATICS

1.

(B) ( 3/2, 1)
(D) (3/2, 0)

50

OCTOBER 2009

10. Assertion : If A and B are two 3 3 matrices such


that AB = O, then A = O or B = O.
Reason : If A, B and X are three 3 3 matrices such
that AX = B, |A| 0, then X = A1 B.

Passage : II (No. 17 to 19)


Let A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) be three points.
Area of triangle with vertices A, B and C is given by
1
| |
2

11. Assertion : Let p < 0 and 1, 2, ... 9 be the nine


roots of x9 = p, then
1 2 3
= 4 5 6 = 0
7 8 9

12. Assertion : If A and B are two events such that


P(B) = 1, then A and B are independent.
Reason : A and B are independent if and only if
P(A B) = P(A) P(B)
13. Assertion : The lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a2x + b2y +
c2 = 0 and a3x + b3y + c3 = 0 are concurrent if
a 1 b1 c1

b2

c2 = 0

a3

a3

a3

z3

z3 1

(A)

1
|1|
4

(B)

1
|1|
4i

(C)

1
|1|
2

(D)

1
|1|
2i

x1

y1 1 + x 1

y1 1 = 0

x2

y2 1

y3 1

x3

then the line through A and P is


(A) median of ABC
(B) bisector of A
(C) altitude through vertex A
(D) perpendicular bisector of the side BC

Passage : I (No. 14 to 16)


Let k be the length of any edge of a regular tetrahedron. (A
tetrahedron whose edges are all equal in length is called a
regular tetrahedron.) The angle between a line and a plane
is equal to the complement of the angle between the line
and the normal to the plane whereas the angle between two
planes is equal to the angle between the normals. Let O be
the origin of reference and A, B and C vertices with
position vectors a, b and c respectively of the regular
tetrahedron.

The section contains 3 questions (Questions 20 to 22).


Each question contains statements given in two
columns which have to be matched. Statements (A, B,
C, D) in Column I have to be matched with statements
(P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to these
questions have to be appropriately bubbled as
illustrated in the following example. If the correct
matches are A-P, A-S, B-Q, B-R, C-P, C-Q and D-S,
then the correctly 4 4 matrix should be as follows :
P Q R S
A P Q R S
B P Q R S

14. The angle between any edge and a face not


containing the edge is
(A) cos1(1/2)
(B) cos1 (1/4)
(D) /3

15. The angle between any two faces is


(B) cos1 (1/4)
(D) cos1 (1/2)

C P Q R S
D P Q R S

16. The value of [a b c]2 is


(A) k2
(B) (1/2)k2
2
(D) k3
(C) (1/3)k

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

z1 1
z2 1

19. If P(x, y) is such that

This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has 3 multiple


choice questions. (Question 14 to 19) Each question has
4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct.

(A) cos1 (1/ 3 )


(C) /3

z1
18. If zk = xk + iyk for k = 1, 2, 3 and 1 = z 2
then area of ABC is

Reason : The area of the triangle formed by three


concurrent lines is zero.

(C) cos1 (1/ 3 )

y1 1
y2 1
y3 1

17. Points A, B, C are collinear if and only if


(A) = 0
(B) > 0
(C) < 0
(D) 0

Reason : If two rows of a determinant are identical,


then determinant equals zero.

a2

x1
= x2
x3

where

51

OCTOBER 2009

20.

Column I
(A) Centroid of the triangle with
vertices A(2, 3, 7), B(6, 7, 5),
C(1, 2, 3)
(B) Mid-point of the line joining
the points A(7, 9, 11) and
B(5, 3, 1)
(C) A point on the line
x y z
= = , at a distance 2
2 3 5
from the origin.
(D) Coordinates of the point
dividing the join of (5, 5, 0)
and (0, 0, 5) in the ratio 2:3.

Column -I

Column-II
(P) (1, 6, 5)

(A) a
(B) a b
(C) a + b
(D) a/b

(Q) (3, 4, 5)
(R) (3, 3, 2)

(S) (4/ 38 ,
6/ 38 ,

0
a
21. Let ak = nCk for 0 k n and Ak = k 1
and
0
a
k

n 1

A
k =1

k .A k +1

2n 2n
( Cn)
n +1
(Q) 0
(R) 2nCn+1
(S) 1
(P)

22. Cards are dealt one by one from wellshuffled pack of


52 playing cards until r (1 r 4) aces are obtained.
If pr denotes the probability of drawing r aces for the
first time at the nth draw (with n 4), and
Pr = (52Cn)Pr, then
Column -I
Column-II
52 n
(A) P1
(P)
C3
(B) P2
(Q) (n 1) (52 nC2)
(C) P3
(R) (n 1C2) (52 nC1)
(S) n 1C3
(D) P4

10/ 38 )

B=

Column-II

a 0
=
,
0 b

How does GPS Work?


GPS or Global Positioning System is a satellite-based navigation system that consists of network of
18 to 24 satellites that are placed in the earths orbit. It was originally intended for certain military
applications, but in the late 70s, the government came up with a system that was also meant for
civilian use. GPS works anywhere in the world, in all weather conditions, 24/7. There are however
no costs for the use. So, how does GPS work?
Global Positioning System satellites circle the earth in the same orbit, twice a day and transmit signals down to the
stations located on mother earth. The information retrieved from these signals is taken and then triangulation is used
to accurately calculate the users precise location. The GPS receiver will then compare the time when the signal was
transmitted by the satellite to the time the signal was received. This time difference will then tell the receiver how far
away the satellite actually is. With these distance measurements from a couple of the satellites, the receiver will then
be able to determine the users exact position and will then display it on an electronic map in the unit.
It is important to note that these GPS receivers only receive information and dont transmit signals in any way. For
unobstructed transmittance of signals, receivers are required to have an unobstructed view of the sky, so units are
generally placed outdoors and tend to perform very poorly if placed near tall buildings or within forests. GPS
operations are highly dependent on accurate time references that are generally provided by atomic clocks at the U.S.
Naval Observatory. Each and every GPS satellite will have an atomic clock placed on board.
So, we already know that these satellites transmit information that indicates the current time and its current location.
All these GPS satellites synchronize operations so that any repeating signals can be transmitted at the very same
instant. These signals move at the speed of light and arrive at the receivers end at slightly varied times, as some
satellites are farther away than the others. the distance to the satellites is calculated by estimating the time taken for
the signals to reach the GPS receiver. Once the receiver has estimated the distance of at least 4 of these satellites, it
can then calculate their positions in three dimensions (latitude and longitude and even the altitude). Once the
receiver is locked on to the signals of at least three of these satellites, it can then calculate a 2 d position (longitude
and latitude) and can also track movements. Once the position is determined, the unit can then calculate other
factors like the speed, trip distance, track, distance to the destinations, sunrise time and sunset time, and so on.
Today, there are at least 24 functional satellites doing the rounds at all times. The GPS satellites that are operated by the
U.S. Air Force orbit the earth with a period of 12 hours. Ground stations can also precisely track each satellites orbit.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

52

OCTOBER 2009

Based on New Pattern

IIT-JEE 2011
XtraEdge Test Series # 6

Time : 3 Hours
Syllabus : Physics : Calorimetry, K.T.G., Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, Thermal expansion, Transverse wave,
Sound wave, Doppler's effect. Chemistry : Chemical Equilibrium, Acid Base, Ionic Equilibrium, Classification &
Nomenclature, Isomerism, Hydrogen Family, Boron Family & Carbon Family, S-block elements. Mathematics:
Point, Straight line, Circle, Parabola, Ellipse, Hyperbola, Vector, 3-D

Instructions :
Section - I
Question 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions with only one correct answer. +3 marks will be awarded for correct
answer and -1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 10 to 13 are Reason and Assertion type questions with only one correct answer in each. +3 marks will be
awarded for correct answer and -1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 14 to 19 are passage based single correct type questions. +4 marks will be awarded for correct answer and
-1 mark for wrong answer.
Section - II
Question 20 to 22 are Column Matching type questions. +6 marks will be awarded for the complete correctly
matched answer and No Negative marks for wrong answer. However, 1 mark will be given for a correctly

marked answer in any row.

(A) 250 cal


(C) 1000 cal

PHYSICS
Questions 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct.
1.

A spherical black body of radius r0 radiates a power P


at temperature T0. Another spherical black body of
radius r0/2 and at temperature 2T0 emits a power
(A) P
(B) 2P
(C) 4P
(D) 8P

2.

The average translational kinetic energy of O2


(relative molar mass 32) molecules at a particular
temperature is 0.048 eV. The translational kinetic
energy of N2 (relative molar mass 28) molecules in
eV at the same temperature is
(A) 0.0015 (B) 0.003 (C) 0.048
(D) 0.768

3.

4.

The internal energy of an ideal gas is


PV
PV
(A) zero (B) PV
(C)
(D)
1
1
1 g of water on evaporation at atmospheric pressure
forms 1671 cm3 of steam. Heat of vaporisation at this
pressure is 540 calg1. The increase in internal energy
is

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

53

(B) 500 cal


(D) 1500 cal

5.

A motion is described by y = 3ex.e3t where y, x are


in metre and t is in second.
(A) This represents equation of progressive wave
propagating along x direction with 3 ms1.
(B) This represents equation of progressive wave
propagating along +x direction with 3 ms1
(C) This does not represent a progressive wave
equation
(D) Data is insufficient to arrive at any conclusion of
this sort.

6.

A tuning fork A of frequency as given by the


manufacture is 512 Hz is being tested using an
accurate oscillator. It is found that they produce 2
beats per second when the oscillator reads 514 Hz
and 6 beats per second when it reads 510 Hz. The
actual frequency of the fork in Hz is
(A) 508 (B) 512
(C) 516
(D) 518

7.

The speed of longitudinal wave is 100 times the


speed of transverse wave in a taut brass wire. If the
Young's modulus of wire is 1011 Nm2, then the stress
in the wire is
(A) 105 Nm2
(B) 106 Nm2
7
2
(C) 10 Nm
(D) 108 Nm2
OCTOBER 2009

8.

9.

Two sounding bodies are producing progressive


waves given by y1 = 4 sin(400t) and y2 = 3
sin(404t), where t is in second which superpose near
the ears of a person. The person will hear.
(A) 2 beats per second with intensity ratio 4/3
between maxima and minima
(B) 2 beats per second with intensity ratio 49
between maxima and minima
(C) 4 beats per second with intensity ratio 7 between
maxima and minima
(D) 4 beats per second with intensity ratio 4/3
between maxima and minima.

Reason : According to Newton's law of cooling, rate


of cooling depends on the difference of temperature
of the body and the surrounding.
This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has 3 multiple
choice questions. (Question 14 to 19) Each question has
4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct.
Passage : I (No. 14 to 16)
Many waveforms are described in terms of
combinations of travelling waves. Superposition
principle is used to analyse such wave combinations.
Two pulses travelling on same string are described by
5
5
y1 =
, y2 =
(3x 4 t ) 2 + 2
(3x + 4 t 6) 2 + 2

An air bubble doubles in radius on rising from the


bottom of a lake to its surface. Assuming that the
bubble rises slowly and the atmospheric pressure to
be equal to a column of water of height H, the depth
of the lake is
(A) 4H
(B) 5H
(C) 7H
(D) 14H

14. The direction in which pulse is travelling is


(A) y1 is in positive x-axis, y2 is in positive x-axis
(B) y1 is in negative x-axis, y2 is in negative x-axis
(C) y1 is in positive x-axis, y2 is in negative x-axis
(D) y1 is in negative x-axis, y2 is in positive x-axis

This section contains 4 questions numbered 10 to 13,


(Assertion and Reason type question). Each question
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct.
Use the following Key to choose the appropriate
answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false, but (R) is true.

15. The time when the two waves cancel everywhere


(A) 1 sec
(B) 0.5 sec
(C) 0.25 sec
(D) 0.75 sec
16. The point where two waves always cancel
(A) 0.25 m
(B) 0.5 m
(C) 0.75 m
(D) 1 m
Passage : II (No. 17 to 19)
One mole of diatomic gas is taken through following
cyclic process. The process CA is P = (Constant)V.
Temperature at C is 100 K.

10. Assertion : Sound produced by an open organ pipe is


more melodious than that produced by a closed organ
pipe.
Reason : Air can flow in a better way in an open
organ pipe.

P
3P0
P0

11. Assertion : Two tuning forks having frequencies 410


Hz and 524 Hz are kept close and made to vibrate.
Beats will not be heard.
Reason : Sound waves superimpose only when the
frequencies of superposing waves are equal or nearly
equal.

C
V

17. Temperature at A is
(A) 300 K
(C) 600 K

12. Assertion : A blue star is hotter than a red star.


Reason : According to Stefan's law, a black body at a
higher temperature radiates more power per unit area.

(B) 900 K
(D) 1200 L

18. Molar heat capacity for process CA is


(A) R
(B) 2R
(C) 3R
(D) 4R

13. Assertion : A hot body is kept in some surrounding.


As it cools, its temperature falls from 80C to 78C in
a time duration t1 and from 50C to 48C in time
duration t2. The temperature of surrounding is
constantly 20C, then t1 > t2.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

19. Work done in the cycle is (A) 200 R


(B) 200 R
(C) 400 R
(D) 400 R

54

OCTOBER 2009

The section contains 3 questions (Questions 20 to 22).


Each question contains statements given in two
columns which have to be matched. Statements (A, B,
C, D) in Column I have to be matched with statements
(P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to these
questions have to be appropriately bubbled as
illustrated in the following example. If the correct
matches are A-P, A-S, B-Q, B-R, C-P, C-Q and D-S,
then the correctly 4 4 matrix should be as follows :
P Q R S
A P Q R S
B P Q R S

V
(iii)
Column -I

C P Q R S
D P Q R S
20. Match the standing waves formed in column-II due to
plane progressive waves in Column-I and also with
conditions in column-I.
Column -I
Column-II
(P) y = 2A cos kx sin t
Incident wave is
(A)
y = A sin(kx t)
Incident wave is
(Q) y = 2A sin kx t
(B)
y = A cos(kx t)
x = 0 is rigid (R) y = 2A sin kx cos t
(C)
support
x = 0 is flexible (S) y = 2A cos kx cos t
(D)
support
21. Match Columns-I and II
Column I
Wien's
(P)
(A) displacement law
explains
(Q)

Planck's
explains

(B)

law

(R)
(C)

Kirchhoff's
explains

law

(D)

Newton's second
law explains

(S)

1/V
(i)

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

(A)

In fig. (i)

(B)

In fig (ii)

(C)

In fig (iii)

(D)

In fig. (iv)

(P)
(Q)
(R)
(S)

V
(iv)
Column-II
Heat is absorbed by the
system
Work is done on the
system
Heat is rejected by the
system
Work is done by the
system

CHEMISTRY
Questions 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct.
1.

At constant pressure P, A dissociates on heating


according to the equation
A(g)
B(g) + C(g)
The equilibrium partial pressure of A at T K is 1/9 P,
the equilibrium Kp at TK is
8
64
16
(A) P (B)
P (C)
P
(D) 9 P
9
9
9

2.

Calculate the pH of 6.66 103 M solution of


Al(OH)3. Its first dissociation is 100% where as
second dissociation is 50% and third dissociation is
negligible.
(A) 2
(B) 12
(C) 11
(D) 13

3.

pH of the blood in the body is maintained by buffer


solution of
(A) glucose and salt concentration
(B) protein and salt concentration
(C) CO33 and HCO3
(D) Salt and carbonate ion

4.

IUPAC name of the following compound is :


OH
CH3

Column-II
Why days are hot and
night cold in deserts

Why a blackened
platinum wire, when
gradually
heated,
appears first dull red
and then blue
The distribution of
energy in black body
spectrum at shorter as
well
as
longer
wavelengths
Why some stars are
hotter than others

22. The figures given below depict different processes for


a given amount of an ideal gas.
P

Adiabatic

(A) 2-methyl-3-cyclohexenol
(B) 3-methyl-1-cyclohexen-4-ol
(C) 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-cyclohexene
(D) 2-hydroxy-1-methylcyclohexene

V
(ii)

55

OCTOBER 2009

5.

12. Assertion : K2CO3 can be prepared by Solvay


process like Na2CO3.
Reason : KHCO3 is highly water soluble.

Which will form geometrical isomers ?


Cl
(A)

(B) CH3CH = NOH

13. Assertion : PbI4 does not exist although PbCl4 exist.


Reason : Both Pb4+ and I1 are strong oxidant and
strong reductant respectively.

Cl
(C)

6.

(D) All

7.

Helium-oxygen mixture is used by deep sea divers in


preference to nitrogen-oxygen mixture because
(A) helium is much less soluble in blood than
nitrogen
(B) nitrogen is highly soluble in water
(C) helium is insoluble in water
(D) nitrogen is less soluble in blood than helium

8.

SF4 + BF3 (A). The compound 'A' is


(A) [SF5][BF2]+
(B)[SF3]+[BF4]
(C) SF6
(D) S2F4

9.

This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has 3 multiple


choice questions. (Question 14 to 19) Each question has
4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct.

The dissolution of Al(OH)3 by a solution of NaOH


results in the formation of
(A) [Al(H2O)4(OH)2]+ (B) [Al(H2O)3(OH)3]
(C) [Al(H2O)2(OH)4] (D) [Al(H2O)6](OH)3

Passage : I (No. 14 to 16)


Lithium only forms monoxide when heated in
oxygen. Sodium forms monoxide and peroxide in
excess of oxygen. Other alkali metals form super
oxide with oxygen i.e., MO2. The abnormal
behaviour of lithium is due to small size. The larger
size of nearer alkali metals also decides the role in
formation of superoxides. The three ions related to
each other as follows :

O 2

Oxide ion

O 22

Peroxide ion

2O 2

Superoxide ion

All the three ions abstract proton from water.

14. Consider the following reaction :


M + O2 MO 2
(M = alkali metal)

Red lead on reaction with dil. HNO3 forms


(A) PbO
(B) PbO2
(C) PbO + Pb(NO3)2
(D) PbO2 + Pb(NO3)2

( super oxide)

Select the correct statement :


(A) M can not be Li and Na
(B) M can not be Cs and Rb
(C) M can not be Li and Rb
(D) None of these

This section contains 4 questions numbered 10 to 13,


(Assertion and Reason type question). Each question
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct.
Use the following Key to choose the appropriate
answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false, but (R) is true.

15. Lithium does not form stable peroxide because :


(A) of its small size
(B) d-orbital are absent in it
(C) it is highly reactive and form superoxide in place
of peroxide
(D) covalent nature of peroxide
16. Which compound will liberate oxygen when react
with water :
(A) Na2O2
(B) KO2
(C) Na2O
(D) Cs2O2

10. Assertion : For a reaction at equilibrium, the free


energy for the reaction is minimum.
Reason : The free energy for both reactants and
products decreases and become equal.

Passage : II (No. 17 to 19)


All the boron trihalides except BI3 may be prepared
by direct reaction between the elements. Boron
trihalides consist of trigonalplanar BX3 molecules.
Unlike the halides of the other elements in the group
they are monomeric in the gas, liquid and solid states,
BF3 and BCl3 are gases, BBr3 is a volatile liquid and
BI3 is a solid. Boron trihalides are Lewis acids
because they form Lewis complexes with suitable
bases.

11. Assertion : Tropylium cation is more stable than


(CH3)3C
Reason : It is stabilized by both resonance effect and
inductive effect.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

1/ 2 O

56

OCTOBER 2009

BF3(g) + : NH3(g) F3B NH3(g)


However, boron chlorides, bromides and iodides are
susceptible (sensitive) to protolysis by mild proton
sources such as water, alcohols and even amines for
example BCl3 undergoes rapid hydrolysis.
BCl3(g) + 3H2O(l) B(OH)3(aq.) + 3HCl(aq.)
It is supposed that the first step in the above reaction
is the formation of the complex Cl3B OH2 which
then eliminates HCl and reacts further with water.

21. Match the following :


Column -I
Column-II
(A) Enantiomers
(P) meso-Tartaric acid
(B) Enantiomerism (Q) CH3CH = C = CHC2H5
(R) Possess identical
physical and chemical
(C) Diastereomers
properties
(S) Possess different
(D) Diastereomerism
physical properties
22. Match the following :
Column -I
Saturated solution of
(A)
AgCl
Unsaturated solition
(B)
of AgCl
Supersaturated
(C)
solution of AgCl
Solution of AgCl in
(D)
presence of NaCl

17. Which of the following is the best order of Lewis


acid strength of BF3, BCl3 and BBr3 ?
(A) BF3 > BCl3 > BBr3 (B) BF3 = BCl3 = BBr3
(C) BF3 < BCl3 <BBr3 (D) BBr3 > BF3 > BCl3
18. Which of the following reaction is incorrect ?
(A) BF3(g) + F(aq.) [BF4 ](aq.)
(B) BCl3(g) + 3EtOH(l) B(OEt)3(l) + 3HCl(g)
(C) BBr3(l) + F3BN(CH3)3(g)
BF3(g) +Br3BN(CH3)3(g)
(D) BCl3(g) + 2C 5 H 5 N ( l) Cl3B(C5H5N)2(s)

(R) IP > SP
(S) IP < SP

MATHEMATICS

Excess

Questions 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions. Each


question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct.

19. Which of the following is correct ?


(A) B(OCH3)3 is much weaker Lewis acid than BBr3
(B) B(OH)3(aq.) behave as a triprotic acid
(C) [H2BO3](aq.) is a conjugate base of H3BO3(aq.)
(D) BF3 does not react with ethers.
The section contains 3 questions (Questions 20 to 22).
Each question contains statements given in two
columns which have to be matched. Statements (A, B,
C, D) in Column I have to be matched with statements
(P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to these
questions have to be appropriately bubbled as
illustrated in the following example. If the correct
matches are A-P, A-S, B-Q, B-R, C-P, C-Q and D-S,
then the correctly 4 4 matrix should be as follows :
P Q R S
A P Q R S
B P Q R S
C P Q R S
D P Q R S

1.

Q, R and S are the points on the line joining the


points P (a, x) and T (b, y) such that PQ = QR = RS =
5a + 3b 5x + 3y
ST, then
,
is the mid point of the
8
8
segment
(A) PQ
(B) QR
(C)RS
(D) ST

2.

The line x + y = 1 meets x-axis at A and y-axis at B.P


is the mid-point of AB (fig.) P1 is the foot of the
perpendicular from P to OA; M1 is that from P1 to
OP; P2 is that from M1 to OA; M2 is that from P2 to
OP; P3 is that from M2 to OA and so on. If Pn denotes
the nth foot of the perpendicular on OA from Mn1,
then OPn =
y

20. Match the following :


Column -I
Column-II
(A) Na + Liq. NH3 (P) Paramagnetic
(B) Li
(Q) Blue coloured
(R) Strongest reducing
(C) KO2
agent
(S) Highest ionisation

(D) [e(NH3)x]
energy

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Column-II
(P) Common ion
effect
(Q) IP = SP

P
M1

M2

O P3 P2 P1

57

(A) 1/2

(B) 1/2n

(C) 1/2n/2

(D) 1/ 2

OCTOBER 2009

3.

The angle between a pair of tangents drawn from a


point P to the circle x2 + y2 + 4x 6y + 9 sin2 + 13
cos2 = 0 is 2. The equation of the locus of the
point P is
(A) x2 + y2 + 4x 6y + 4 = 0
(B) x2 + y2 + 4x 6y 9 = 0
(C) x2 + y2 + 4x 6y 4 = 0
(D) x2 + y2 + 4x 6y + 9 = 0

4.

The directrix of the parabola y2 + 4x + 3 = 0 is


(A) x 3/4 = 0
(B) x + 1/4 = 0
(C) x 1/4 = 0
(D) x 4/3 = 0

5.

Equation of the locus of the pole with respect of the


ellipse

This section contains 4 questions numbered 10 to 13,


(Assertion and Reason type question). Each question
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct.
Use the following Key to choose the appropriate
answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false, but (R) is true.
10. Assertion : The points A(3, 4), B(2, 7), C(4, 4) and
D(3, 5) are such that one of them lies inside the
triangle formed by the other points.
Reason : Centroid of a triangle lies inside the
triangle.

y2

x2

+ 2 = 1, of any tangent line to the


b
a2
auxiliary circle is the curve

x2
a4

y2
b4

(A) 2 = a2
(C) 2 = b2

6.

= 2 where

11. Assertion : The line 9x + y 28 = 0 is a chord of


contact of a point P with respect to the circle
2x2 + 2y2 3x + 5y 7 = 0.
Reason : The line joining the points of contacts of
the tangents drawn from a point P outside a circle to
the circle is the chord of contact of P with respect to
the circle.

(B) 2 = 1/a2
(D) 2 = 1/b2

If PQ is a double ordinate of the hyperbola


x2

y2

= 1 such that OPQ is an equilateral


b2
a2
triangle, O being the centre of the hyperbola. Then
the eccentricity e of the hyperbola, satisfies

(A) 1 < e < 2/ 3


(C) e =

7.

8.

(B) e = 2/ 3
(D) e > 2/ 3

hyperbola

( i 2 j + k)

(D)

1
2

y2

a2

y2
b2

= 1if c2 = a2m2 b2

x 1
y
z +1
=
=
and
1
1
1

x 1
y +1
z
=
=
are coplanar and equation of the
2
2
3
plane containing them is 5x + 2y 3z 8 = 0
x2
y +1
z
Reason : the line
=
=
is
1
2
3
perpendicular to the plane 3x + 6y + 9z 8 = 0 and
parallel to the plane x + y z = 0.

(j k)

This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has 3 multiple


choice questions. (Question 14 to 19) Each question has
4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct.

If a, b, c are three non-coplanar vectors such that


a + b + c = d and b + c + d = a then j + 4k then
a + b + c + d is equal to
(A) 0
(B) a
(D) ( + )c
(C) b

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

x2

13. Assertion : The lines

If a = (i + j k), b = (i j + k), and c are unit


vectors perpendicular to the vector a and coplanar
with a and b, then a unit vector d perpendicular to
both a and c is
1
1
(A)
(2i j + k)
(B)
(j + k)
6
2

x2

= 1 (a > b > 0)
a2
b2
Reason : The line y = mx + c does not meet the
hyperbola

Equation of the plane through (3, 4, 1) which is


parallel to the plane r.(2i 3j + 5k) = 0 is
(A) r.(2i 3j + 5k) + 11 = 0
(B) r.(3i 4j + k) + 11 = 0
(C) r.(3i + 4j k) + 7 = 0
(D) r.(2i 3j + 5k) + 11 = 0

(C)

9.

3 /2

12. Assertion : The line bx ay = 0 will not meet the

Passage : I (No. 14 to 16)


A(3, 7) and B(6, 5) are two points.
C : x2 + y2 4x 6y 3 = 0 is a circle.
58

OCTOBER 2009

14. The chords in which the circle C cuts the members of


the family S of circles through A and B are
concurrent at
(A) (2, 3)
(B) (2, 23/3)
(C) (3, 23/2)
(D) (3, 2)

20. If P(x, y) is a point in the coordinate plane such that


Column -I
(A) P is equidistant
from (a + b, a b)
and (a b), (a + b)
(B) P is at a distance
a + b, from (a, b)
(C) distance of P from
x-axis is twice its
distance
from
y-axis
(D) distance of P from
the origin is the
mean of the its
distances from the
coordinate axes.

15. Equation of the member of the family S which bisects


the circumference of C is
(A) x2 + y2 5x 1 = 0
(B) x2 + y2 5x + 6y 1 = 0
(C) x2 + y2 5x 6y 1 = 0
(D) x2 + y2 + 5x 6y 1= 0
16. If O is the origin and P is the centre of C, then
difference of the squares of the lengths of the
tangents from A and B to the circle C is equal to
(A) (AB)2
(B) (OP)2
2
2
(C) |(AP) (BP) |
(D) None of these

17. The position vector of L, the foot of the


perpendicular from P on the line r = a + b is
(A) 6i + 7j + 7k
(B) 3i + 2j 2k
(C) 3i + 5j + 9k
(D) 9i + 9j + 5k

(B) 7 17 / 2
(D) 7/2

The section contains 3 questions (Questions 20 to 22).


Each question contains statements given in two
columns which have to be matched. Statements (A, B,
C, D) in Column I have to be matched with statements
(P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to these
questions have to be appropriately bubbled as
illustrated in the following example. If the correct
matches are A-P, A-S, B-Q, B-R, C-P, C-Q and D-S,
then the correctly 4 4 matrix should be as follows :

(S) x = y

(a 2 + b 2 )

(B) y = mx +

a 2m 2 + b 2

Column-II

1+ m 2

x2

(P)

x2

(Q)

a2

y2
b2
y2
b2

=1
=1

(R) b2y2 = 4ax


(S) x2 + y2 = a2 + b2

Honesty

To be persuasive, You must be believable.


To be believable, You must be credible.
To be credible, You must be truthful.

P Q R S
A P Q R S
B P Q R S
C P Q R S
D P Q R S

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

(R) x2 + y2 2ax 2by


2ab = 0

22. If a and b are two units vectors inclined at angle to


each other then
Column I
Column-II
2
<<
(A) |a + b| < 1 if
(P)
3
(Q) /2 <
(B) |a b| = |a + b| if
(R) = /2
(C) |a + b| < 2
(S) 0 < /2
(D) |a b| < 2

r
19. If A is the point with position vector a then Area of
the PLA in sq. units is equal to

17

(A) y = mx +

(C) y = mx + a 2 m 2 b 2
(D) y = mx + a/b2x m

18. The image of the point P in the line r = a + b is


(A) (11, 12, 11)
(B) (5, 2, 7)
(C) (5, 8, 15)
(D) (17, 16, 7)

(C)

(Q) y 2x = 0

21. Match the column.


Column -I

Passage :II (No. 17 to 19)


a = 6i + 7j + 7k,
b = 3i + 2j 2k, P(1, 2, 3).

(A) 3 6

Column-II
(P) 3x2 + 3y2 2xy = 0

59

An honest man is the noblest work of God.

If I am honesty in all my dealings, I can never


experience fear.

Prefer a loss to a dishonest gain; one brings


pain for the moment, the other for all time.

OCTOBER 2009

XtraEdge Test Series


ANSWER KEY
IIT- JEE 2010 (October issue)
PHYSICS
Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans
20
21
22

1
C
11
D
A Q, S
AQ
A P,Q,R,S

2
D
12
A

3
4
C
B
13
14
B
C
B P, R
BP
B P,Q,R,S

5
D
15
A
C P, R
CS
C R, S

6
B
16
B

7
D
17
D
D Q, S
DR
D R, S

8
C
18
A

9
B
19
B

10
D

7
D
17
A
DS
DP
DP

8
C
18
C

9
B
19
A

10
A

7
B
17
A
DR
DS
DS

8
C
18
A

9
C
19
A

10
D

7
8
C
B
17
18
B
C
D P, S
D Not match
D Q, R

9
C
19
B

10
C

7
A
17
C
D P,Q,R
D P, Q
D P, R

8
B
18
D

9
D
19
A

10
A

7
A
17
C
DP
DR
DS

8
B
18
C

9
A
19
B

10
A

C H E MI S T R Y
Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans
20
21
22

1
B
11
C
A P,R,S
A Q, R
A P,Q,R,S

2
D
12
A

3
B
13
A
BQ
BS
B P,Q,R

4
C
14
A

Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans
20
21
22

1
B
11
D
AQ
AR
AP

2
B
12
A

3
D
13
B
BP
BQ
BQ

4
C
14
C

5
A
15
A
C P,R,S
C Q, R
CQ

6
B
16
A

MATHEMATICS
5
B
15
D
CS
CP
CR

6
C
16
B

IIT- JEE 2011 (October issue)


Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans
20
21
22

1
C
11
C
A P, R
A Q, S
A P, S

2
C
12
B

3
C
13
D
B Q, S
BR
BS

4
B
14
C

Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans
20
21
22

1
C
11
A
A P, Q, R
AR
AQ

2
B
12
D

3
C
13
A
BS
BQ
BS

4
A
14
A

PHYSICS
5
B
15
D
C Q, R
CP
C P, S

6
C
16
D

C H E MI S T R Y
5
D
15
A
CP
CS
CR

6
C
16
B

MATHEMATICS
Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans
20
21
22

1
B
11
D
AQ
AS
AP

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

2
B
12
C

3
D
13
B
BR
BP
B R

4
C
14
B

5
B
15
C
CQ
CQ
CQ

60

6
D
16
C

OCTOBER 2009