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Volume - 5 Issue - 4

October, 2009 (Monthly Magazine)

Editorial / Mailing Office :

112-B, Shakti Nagar, Kota (Raj.) 324009

Editorial

e-mail : xtraedge@gmail.com

Editor :

Pramod Maheshwari

[B.Tech. IIT-Delhi]

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Mr. Ajay Jain [B.E]

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XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Dear Students,

Find a mentor who can be your role model and your friend !

A mentor is someone you admire and under whom you can study. Throughout

history, the mentor-protege relationship has proven quite fruituful. Socrates

was one of the early mentors. Plato and Aristotle studied under him and later

emerged as great philosophers in their own right.

Some basic rules to know mentors :

The best mentors are successful people in their own field. Their behaviors

are directly translatable to your life and will have more meaning to you.

It is better to have them teach you how to fish than to have them catch

the fish for you. That way, you will remain in control.

Turn your mentors into role models by examining their positive traits.

Write down their virtues. without identifying to whom they belong.

When you are with these mentors, look for even more behavior that

reflect their success. Use these virtues as guidelines for achieving

excellence in your field.

Be cautious while searching for a mentor :

Select people to be your mentors who have the highest ethical standards

and a genuine willingness to help others.

Choose mentors who have and will share superb personal development

habits with you and will encourage you to follow suit.

Incorporate activities into your mentor relationship that will enable your

mentor to introduce you to people of influence or helpfulness.

Insist that your mentor be diligent about monitoring your progress with

accountability functions.

functioning, productive individual. (In other words, give them full

permission to be brutally honest about what you need to change.)

Getting benefited from a role-mode :

Acquiring good habits from others will accelerate you towards achieving your

goals. Ask yourself these questions to get the most out of your role

model/mentors :

goal ?

Do they have other facts of life in balance ? What effect does that have on

their well-being ?

A final word : Under the right circumstances mentors make excellent role

models. The one-to-one setting is highly conducive to learning as well as to

friendship. But the same cautions hold true here as for any role model. It is

better to adapt their philosophies to your life than to adopt them .

Presenting forever positive ideas to your success.

Yours truly

Pramod Maheshwari,

B.Tech., IIT Delhi

OCTOBER 2009

Volume-5 Issue-4

October, 2009 (Monthly Magazine)

CONTENTS

INDEX

Regulars ..........

Know IIT-JEE With 15 Best Questions of IIT-JEE

Challenging Problems in Physics, Chemistry & Maths

NEWS ARTICLE

KNOW IIT-JEE

IIT-K postpones launch of its dream satellite

Xtra Edge Test Series for JEE-2010 & 2011

PAGE

Study Time........

DYNAMIC PHYSICS

S

Success Tips for the Months

"The way to succeed is to double your

error rate."

"Success is the ability to go from failure to

failure without losing your enthusiasm."

Students Forum

Physics Fundamentals

Magnetic Field

Gravitation

CATALYST CHEMISTRY

wisdom.

They can because they think they can.

Nothing can stop the man with the

Nothing can stop the man with the

mental attitude from achieving his

nothing on earth can help the man

the wrong mental attitude.

right

right

goal;

with

true success depends at last upon yourself.

27

Key Concept

Halogen Derivatives

Halogen & Noble Gases Family

Understanding: Organic Chemistry

ability that you have."

We are all motivated by a keen desire for

praise, and the better a man is, the more

he is inspired to glory.

14

DICEY MATHS

36

Mathematical Challenges

Students Forum

Key Concept

Limit, Continuity & Differentiability

Parabola, ElLipse & Hyperbola

XTRAEDGE TEST SERIES

45

Class XII IIT-JEE 2011 Paper

OCTOBER 2009

become critical for IIT

admission

CHENNAI: Marks scored in the

Class XII board examinations are

likely

to

become

a

key

determining factor in addition to

the performance in the

nerve-wracking Joint Entrance

Examination (JEE) for admission

into the prestigious Indian

Institutes of Technology (IITs) by

2011.

In a couple of months, a pan-IIT

committee constituted by the

union

human

resources

development (HRD) ministry to

suggest reforms to the JEE is

expected to submit its report

recommending ways and means to

factor in the marks scored by

students in higher secondary

examinations while preparing the

IIT merit list. A meeting of all IIT

directors and JEE representatives

held in Chennai over the weekend

discussed the proposed changes.

The proposal comes amidst

widespread concern among top

academicians over the current IIT

admission system which is entirely

dependant on JEE scores and

ignores academic performances in

board exams. The inherent

weakness of such a system is that

the IITs have been able to largely

attract only students who have

been "conditioned for the JEE" by

high profile coaching centres in

Kota and Hyderabad. Such

students

who

lack

"raw

intelligence", as described by IIT

Madras director M S Ananth in the

past, are sometimes at sea after

entering

the

campus.

"We

hope

to

devise

a

methodology to compute a

normalised class XII cut-off

eligibility

score

for

each

educational board (CBSE, ICSE,

and State Boards). If it is

approved, only students who have

scored this cut-off mark would

become eligible to appear for the

JEE

and

consecutively

for

admission," IIT Madras deputy

director V G Idichandy, who is

heading the committee, said on

Monday. The present eligibility

norm of an aggregate score of

60% in Class XII determined by

the IIT standing council, as

opposed to 85% recommended by

a JEE review committee four years

ago, is considered too low a

benchmark.

"We are collecting data on Class

XII results of the past four to five

years from different boards in all

states

to

base

our

recommendation on. Much will

depend on how we compute an

acceptable method to normalise

the marks scored in different

boards. You have nearly 40 boards

of education in India," Professor

Idichandy said.

However, the more difficult part

will be to convince authorities of

all the boards to declare Class XII

results

within

a

specified

timeframe every academic year.

"This will be crucial for us as we

have to base the JEE on the Class

XII results. I personally think that

this is where a common school

board, at least at the level of

higher secondary education, which

has been proposed by the HRD

minister Kapil Sibal, will be of help

in determining any all-India merit

list," he contended.

JEE cannot be abolished "but we

want to give as much importance

as possible, for the performance of

students at the school level" in the

IIT admissions.

to dog IIT

NEW DELHI: In an unforeseen

effect of RTI, globally respected

IITs have been stuck in a spiral of

low cut-offs in their joint entrance

examinations

(JEE) for the last three years even

for general candidates.

Despite all their efforts to pull out

of the single-digit cut-offs they had

fallen into in 2007 and 2008 (1,4 &

3 and 5,0 & 3 in Maths, Physics

and Chemistry, respectively), IITs

could improve only marginally this

year, as evident from the marks

announced earlier this month.

Out of the maximum possible

marks of 160 in each subject in

2009, the cut-offs in Maths and

Chemistry barely broke into

double digits (11 marks each)

while it remained a single-digit

score in Physics (8 marks).

This is even after IITs abandoned

the cut-off formula they had

adopted in 2007 and 2008 (20

percentile or the best of the

bottom 20 per cent of the

candidates) and tried a new one in

2009 (average or mean of the

marks of all the candidates).

Such ridiculously low cut-offs have

been dogging IITs ever since they

found themselves at a loss to

explain to the Central Information

Commission the basis on which

they had arrived at the respectably

high cut-offs of 37, 48 and 55 in

the 2006 JEE, which was the first

OCTOBER 2009

force in November 2005.

In their third and latest attempt to

explain the 2006 cut-offs, they set

up a committee last month

consisting of directors of IIT

Guwahati and IIT Bombay,

Gautam Barua and Dewang

Khakhar, to submit a report to the

Calcutta high court showing the

exact calculations.

The calculations contained in the

11-page report reveal that, in a

major departure from the norms

of fair selection, IITs had in the

2006 JEE excluded hundreds of

high-aggregate scoring candidates

even before arriving at the subject

cut-offs, which was meant to be

the first level of screening.

It is because of this serious flaw in

the implementation of the 2006

formula that IITs, in their two

earlier attempts before the CIC

and high court, could not account

for the major mismatch between

the stated cut-offs (37, 48 and 55)

and those yielded by the two

different formulas claimed by them

(while the first formula produced

cut-offs of -8, -3 & -6, the second

resulted in 7,4 and 6).

In a bid to bridge this wide gap,

the Barua-Khakhar committee

took recourse to the "iterative

process", which is used to increase

the cut-offs "with every iteration"

to get the desired number of

candidates. But while determining

the cut-off of one subject through

the

iterative

process,

the

committee

eliminated

the

candidates who had high marks in

the other two subjects.

Thus,

although

they

were

supposed to

be

calculated

separately through the iterative

process, the cut-off of one subject

affected the cut-offs of the other

two subjects. The committee did

not however admit this paradox

anywhere in its report.

Had the IITs implemented their

belatedly-disclosed

iterative

procedure

in

a

fair

and

would have actually been 42, 44

and 51, thereby reducing the

deviation among the three subject

cut-offs to 9 marks instead of 18

marks. This would have very

significantly

changed

the

composition of the merit list in

2006.

And had they applied the iterative

process in the JEE of the past

three years as well, the IITs would

have been able to take their low

cut-offs to a more respectable

level and spared themselves the

embarrassment

of

admitting

general candidates who got, for

instance, 5% in Physics in last

year's JEE.

system goes online

MUMBAI: If you've made it to an

Indian Institute of Technology, you

no longer need to travel to the

campus to book your seat. The

tech schools have decided to take

the counselling process online,

thus allowing students to submit

their preferences a mix of streams

and

IITs

from

home.

Currently, students from across

the country travel to the closest

IIT after they make their mark in

the Joint Entrance Exam. "Now, all

general category students will be

allowed

to

submit

their

preferences online. However, all

other candidates will have to

travel to the nearest IIT campus

for the same as they have to

submit their certificates to us,''

said

IIT-Guwahati

director

Gautam Barua.

The decision to conduct the

counselling online was taken when

the directors recently met in

Chennai to discuss plans for the

upcoming JEE in April 2010. In

another key decision, the IIT

directors agreed to centrally

conduct two or more rounds of

seat allocation, to ensure that

seats don't go abegging.

While this year, the IITs for the

first time conducted a second

4

held at the institute level. Students

who took admission were offered

internal betterment before the

second allotment had taken place.

So, if a student with a ranking of

1,104 in JEE-2009 did not take the

seat allotted to him in IIT-B,

another candidate with a lower

ranking got his place (if he had

opted for that subject and IIT-B in

his

preference

form).

Also, if a candidate signed up at

IIT-Delhi in the first round, s/he

were not allowed to move to say

IIT-Madras or IIT-Bombay even if a

slot opened there and these

institutes were listed in his/her

choices. "Now, we want to

remove that barrier. A student

will be allowed to move out of

one IIT and join another, if he

prefers to do so in the later

rounds of seat allotment,'' added

Barua. In another relief to

students, the IITs have decided to

put out the answer key of the

entrance exam, soon after the

exam ends.

non-PhDs as lecturers

NEW DELHI: Close to three

decades ago, the Indian Institutes

of Technology (IITs) upped the bar

for selecting faculty: only PhDs

were allowed to

take classes. Diluting that lofty

standard, the HRD ministry has

now allowed non-PhDs to join as

lecturers. What's more shocking is

that at least 10% jobs have been

reserved at the lecturer's level, an

obsolete term that has been

scrapped from academia around

the world.

Making it tough for IITs to attract

talent at the level of assistant

professor is another clause that

mandates the tech schools to take

only those with three years'

experience. IIT directors fear it

might result in bright students

preferring to take up posts at

foreign universities where a

fresher begins his career as an

OCTOBER 2009

lecturer. Earlier, the IITs too were

taking fresh, bright PhDs at

assistant professor level.

While the directive on taking nonPhDs as lecturers is optional, the

directors are clueless why it was

inserted. "We don't need it. The

four-tier recruitment concept is

regressive and I don't understand

why the government needs to

disturb something that is in good

equilibrium," asked an IIT director,

who refused to be named.

Currently, none of the IITs has

faculty members who are nonPhDs, barring a few of them who

joined the tech schools in the 70's

when the country did not have

too many PhDs. But the ministry

says the decision to take nonPhDs has not been thrust upon

IITs. "There is no coercion

involved. Faculty crunch is a fact,"

one official said.

"That clause was fine at the

development stage. In the early

years of the IITs, when we

advertised for two posts, we used

to get five applications. Now we

get about 40 to 50, all of who are

PhDs. But even now there are

vacant posts for faculty merely

because we are extremely choosy

about who we pick," said a dean

from IIT-Bombay. But some see

no harm in this optional clause.

"Allowing us to take non-PhDs is

just an enabling clause. But what

worries most of us is the

provision that does not allow us

to take bright PhDs fellows as

assistant professors," said Gautam

Barua, director of IIT-Guwahati.

Several directors are seeing red

over the fact that drawing up a

rule to take 10% faculty as

lecturers puts them in a "peculiar

not-very-good position". Whether

to take a candidate as a lecturer

or as an assistant professor, said

another director, "must be left to

the good judgment of the

selection panel".

central technical institutes like

Indian Institutes of Management,

National Institutes of Technology

and the Indian Institutes of Science

Education and Research.

top tech institutes

The

Indian

Institute

of

Technology,

Guwahati,

an

outcome of the Assam Accord,

has earned the distinction of being

ranked 10th in a list of 67 top

engineering

and

technology

institutes in India. The honour

attests to the relatively young

institutions impeccable academic

and research credentials.

The coveted top spot has been

taken by Bangalore-based Indian

Institute of Science, followed by

IIT Kanpur in the second place and

IIT Mumbai in the third slot.

According to media reports the

ranking has been made taking into

account citations, publications and

research record available between

1999 and 2008 in the Scopus

International

bibliographical

database.

Published in the Current Science

the list has been prepared by G

Pratap and BM Gupta of the

National Institute of Science

Communication and Information

Resources and National Institute

of Science, Technology and

Development Studies, reports

stated.

IIT & IIM sites

A Central team will visit the

desert state next week to study

the sites proposed to set up IITRajasthan and IIM. The final

decision about the location of the

institutes is likely only after the

team's visit to the sites suggested

by the state-constituted Vyas

committee,"

Vipin

Chandra

Sharma, principal secretary, higher

education, told TOI on Tuesday.

recently sent the committee

report to the Union HRD

ministry, which decided to see the

proposed sites before taking a final

call. "An HRD expert team would

visit the state next week," Sharma

said. He had gone to Delhi to

discuss the setting up of the

institutes in the state. "The Centre

wants to expedite the site

selection process as the project

has already been delayed," Sharma

pointed out.

The previous BJP government had

proposed Kota as the location for

the IIT. However, the HRD

ministry rejected this on the

ground that Kota is not connected

by air and also cited the presence

of tutorials as another deterrent.

After assuming power, chief

minister Ashok Gehlot constituted

the Vyas committee, which

recommended IIT at Jodhpur and

IIM at Udaipur.

Interestingly, Rajasthan is the only

one among seven states where the

issue of IIT location is still

dragging. This, despite the fact that

the state encompasses 11% of the

country's land and apparently it

possesses the largest land bank.

One of the tiniest, Himachal

Pradesh has, however, identified

the land near Mandi. The other

states such as Andhra Pradesh,

Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat

and Punjab too have sealed land

for the new IITs. IIT-R at present

is functional at IIT-Kanpur, which

is

overburdened

with

the

presence of the two batches of

IIT-R.

Chandrayan-II mission

Banking upon the rich expertise

the IIT-Kanpur has in field of

research and technology, the

Indian

Space

Research

Organisation (ISRO), which plans

to send a lunar rover as a part of

Chandrayan-II mission to the

moon in the year 2012, has

handed over the responsibility of

OCTOBER 2009

computer

vision

based

autonomous 3D map generation

and development and validation of

kinematic traction control models

(a sub-controller which will

correct the path of the rover due

to slip and slide) to the two

professors of this prestigious

institute.

Dr Ashish Dutta, Associate

Professor, Dept of Mechanical

Engineering at IIT-K who is

working on the development and

validation of kinematic traction

control models said, "In 2012

ISRO plans to send a lunar rover

as a part of Chandrayan-II mission

to the moon. The landing module

would carry a mobile robot

(rover) that would emerge out of

the lander to explore the surface

and also perform scientific

experiments."

The IIT-K is involved in the

following two aspects of the

Chandrayan-II mission, first is the

development and testing of

computer

vision

based

autonomous 3D terrain map

generation and obstacle detection

algorithms for path planning and

second is development and

validation of kinematic traction

control models (a sub-controller

which will correct the path of the

rover due to slip and slide) for coordinating the six wheels of the

rover based on wheels and surface

interaction, said Dr Dutta "The

lunar terrain consists of loose

sand, dust, craters, ash etc. It is

expected that due to slip, sinkage

of the wheels the rover may not

function as desired and drift from

its desired path or may even

overturn.

Hence,

terrain

properties

strongly

influence

rover mobility and eventually the

success of the mission", he added.

Dr KS Venkatesh, Associate

Professor,

Department

of

Electrical Engineering, IIT-Kanpur

is working on the visual navigation

of the lunar surface. Dr Dutta

further elucidated that the vision

single stationary camera and

structured light has already been

completed. The system is capable

of functioning in real time with

reasonable computing resources.

This method is now being

extended to mobile platforms

where the cameras would be

mounted on a prototype rover

moving on an uneven terrain.

get delayed further," Dhande said.

The satellite weighing around five

kilograms is 34 cm long and 10 cm

broad and has been designed to

collect information regarding flood

and drought situations in the

country.

surface interaction parameters, a

one-wheel test set up has been

developed to study the variation

of slip, friction etc for different

types of lunar like terrain

conditions. A kinematic control

model of a six wheel rover with a

rocker-bogey mechanism has also

been developed. Finally, the vision

based system would give us the

3D map of the terrain based on

which the traction control

algorithm would give the safest

path for the rover, said he.

and scientists of IIT Kharagpore

(IIT-KGP) had gathered to watch a

game of football. As they rooted

for their teams in the five-a-side

match, all the players have been

built by them and by students

from three other technical

institutes.

projects are being funded through

two MoUs signed between IITKanpur and VSSC (Vikram

Sarabhai Space Centre). VSSC is a

centre of the Department of

Space, Government of India.

of its dream satellite

The launch of IIT-K's ISRO funded

dream project, nano satellite

'Jugnu' has been postponed to

next year, Director IIT-Kanpur

said. "The project designed by the

students and the scientists of the

institution was scheduled to be

launched by the end of this year

but now it has been rescheduled

for some time between Jan-March

next year," Sanjay Govind Dhande,

Director, IIT-Kanpur said today.

Ruling out any link between the

satellite's schedule with ISRO's

Chandrayaan

moon

mission,

Dhande said the institute will

complete the project on time.

"The students engaged in the

project are a bit dejected by the

jolt faced by Chandrayaan but we

6

IIT-KGP

prestigious RoboCup, being held

in India for the first time. The

RoboCup Challenge @ India 2009

was held from August 28 till 30 at

the IIT campus, around 120 km

southwest from Kolkata.

The host of this event, IIT

Kharagpur, has become the first

institute in the country to obtain

an approval from the International

RoboCup Federation.

This is the first time that a

RoboCup Challenge is being held

in South-East Asia. It is adding yet

another

crown

to

IITs

achievements in the field of

robotics, said its coordinator

Mithilesh Gurujala.

Each team spent around Rs 80,000

to built their robots. Although IITKGP

and

Hyderabad-based

institutes International Institute of

Information Technology were

finalists, the match could not be

completed on Sunday due to some

technical snag.

There was also some problem

with the batteries. Were working

on it and hopefully by 1 am on

Monday well be able to hold the

final rounds, said, Gurujala, also

the referee for the matches.

OCTOBER 2009

Success Story

This article contains story of a person who get succeed after graduation from different IIT's

Ph.D. (I.I.T. Kanpur)

M.Tech (I.I.T. Kharagpur)

M.Sc.Tech (Allabhad Univ.)

graduation Allahabad University, and after that he was

awarded by master degree as Master of Technology in

Industrial Electronics from I.I.T., Kharagpur in 1969 then

achieved Ph.D. in Computer Science, Indian Institute of

Technology, Kanpur in 1973. Presently, he is working as

Professor in I.I.T., Kanpur and related to various research

works

Areas of Interest:

Artificial Intelligence

Natural Language Processing, Machine Translation,

Speech to Speech Translation, Indian Language

Technology

Vision, Pattern Recognition, OCR, Document

Processing

Computer Architecture

Research & Projects

R.M.K. Sinha works primarily in the area of Applied

Artificial Intelligence. He applies AI techniques to

document processing, text recognition, computer vision,

speech processing, natural language processing and in

design of knowledge based systems. Intercommunicating

layers of knowledge and their integration is key to his

design approach. R.M.K. Sinha also applies artificial neural

networks and fuzzy computing techniques in pattern

recognition. In natural language processing, one of the

primary aims is to design machine aids for translation

from English to Indian languages & vice-versa and among

Indian languages. R.M.K. Sinha's approach is based on a

new concept of using Pseudo-Interlingua, word expert

model utilizing Karak theory, pattern directed rule base

and hybrid example base. His investigations also include

exploring design and development of special parallel

architectures for computer vision and natural language

processing.

Language Technology for the last three decades and his

research has touched and provided direction to almost all

facets of providing technological solution to the problem

of overcoming the language barrier in the country. The

multi-lingual GIST technology and several other packages

for Indian language processing have been developed under

his supervision.

Some of the major projects that have been initiated and

executed / currently being executed under his supervision

are the following:

Machine Translation

Speech to Speech Translation

Optical Character Recognition

Vision Course Projects

Spell-checker design

Honours & Recognition

Associate of UNESCO Chair in Communication:

ORBICOM, Quebec, Canada.

Senior Member Institution of Electrical and Electronic

Engineers (IEEE), USA.

Member Technical Advisory Committee of Centre

for Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC),

India.

Founder President, Society for Machine Aids for

Translation and Communication (SMATAC) India.

Adjudged Best CS Teacher, Asian Institute of

Technology, Bangkok, 1983.

Invited Expert on occasion of release of CD for Hindi

fonts and Web-site by Smt. Sonia Gandhi, Vigyan

Bhavan, June 20, 2005.

Member Selection Committees for IITs, Universities

and Ministries.

OCTOBER 2009

KNOW IIT-JEE

By Previous Exam Questions

density. Calculate this energy, given the product of

the mass and the radius of the earth to be 2.5 1031

kg-m.

(c) If the same charge of Q as in part (a) above is

given to a spherical conductor of the same radius R,

what will be the energy of the system ? [IIT-1992]

Sol. (a) In this case the electric field exists from centre of

the sphere to infinity. Potential energy is stored in

electric field with energy density

dr

PHYSICS

1.

frictionless nail at O. A bullet of mass m strikes with

velocity v and sticks to it. Find angular velocity of

the system immediately after the collision about O.

[IIT-2005]

O

M

m

v

Sol.

We know that =

dL

dt = d L

dt

1

0E2 (Energy/Volume)

2

(i) Energy stored within the sphere (U1)

Electric field at a distance r is

1

Q

E=

.

.r

4 0 R 3

u=

momentum is constant. In this case for the wooden

log-bullet system, the angular impulse about O is

constant. Therefore,

[angular momentum of the system]initial

= angular momentum of the system]final

...(i)

mv L = I0

where I0 is the moment of inertia of the wooden logbullet system after collision about O

I0 = Iwooden log + Ibullet

1

= ML2 + ML2

...(ii)

3

From (i) and (ii)

mv L

=

1

2

2

3 ML + mL

3mv

mv

=

=

ML

(M + 3m)L

3 + mL

2.

1

1

Q

0E2 = 0

.

r

2

2 4 0 R 3

Volume of element dV = (4r2)dr

Energy stored in this volume dU = U(dr)

1

Q

dU = (4r dr) 0

. 3 r

2 4 0 R

dU =

1

Q2

. 6 .r4dr

40 0 R

U1 =

dU =

Q2

8 0 R 6

Q2

80 R 6

R 4

0

r dr

[r 5 ]0R

1

Q2

.

40 0 R

(ii) Energy stored outside the sphere (U2)

Electric field at a distance r is

1

Q

E=

. 2

4 0 R

spherical volume of radius R. Obtain an expression

for the energy of the system.

(b) What will be the corresponding expression for the

energy needed to completely disassemble the planet

earth against the gravitational pull amongst its

constituent particles ?

U=

U1 =

...(1)

OCTOBER 2009

1

1

Q

U = 0E2 = 0

. 2

2

2 4 0 R

dU = . dV = (4r2dr) 0

2

dU =

1

Q

4 . R 2

0

...(2)

Q

Q

+

40 0 R 8 0 R

due to semicircle KLM + Magnetic field due to other

semicircle KNM

I

I

B = 0 ( i ) + 0 ( j )

4R

4R

0 I 0 I

B =

i +

j

4R

4R

I

= 0 ( i + j )

4R

Magnetic force acting on the particle

1

by G.

4 0

GM 2

R

gR 2

G=

M

3

MgR

U=

5

Therefore, energy needed to completely disassemble

the earth against gravitational pull amongst its

constituent particle will be given by

3

E = |U| = MgR

5

Substituting the values, we get

3

E = (10m/s2) (2.5 1031 kg-m)

5

E = 1.5 1032 J

(c) This is the case of a charged spherical conductor

g=

3.

F = q( v B )

I

= q{(v0 i ) ( i + j )} 0

4R

0 qv 0 I

k

F =

4R

F1 = F2 = 2BIR i

Total force on the loop,

F = F1 + F2

or

F = 4BIR i

Note : If a current carrying wire ADC (of any shape)

1 Q2

2 C

Q

1 Q

=

.

8 0 R

2 4 0 R

Then, F ADC = F AC

or | F ADC| = i (AC)B

From this we can conclude that net force on a current

carrying loop in uniform magnetic field is zero. In the

question, segments KLM and KNM also form a loop

and they are also placed in a uniform magnetic field

but in this case net force on the loop will not be zero.

It would had been zero if the current in any of the

segments was in opposite direction.

and given a shape as shown in figure. One of the

semicircles (KNM) lies in the x-z plane and the other

one (KLM) in the y-z plane with their centres at

origin. Current I is flowing through each of the

[IIT-2000]

semicircles as shown in figure.

3 GM 2

5 R

semicircles KLM and KNM due to the field and the

by replacing Q2 by M2 and

or U =

on the particle. Assume that space is gravity free.

(b) If an external uniform magnetic field B0 j is

3 Q2

or U =

20 0 R

(b) Comparing this with gravitational forces, the

gravitational potential energy of earth will be

U=

x

N

dU =

U = U1 + U2 =

Q 2 dr

8 0 r 2

dr

Q2

Q2

.

=

R

8 0 R r 2 8 0 R

Therefore, total energy of the system is

U2 =

OCTOBER 2009

4.

that the total internal reflection occurs on both the

surfaces?

[IIT-2005]

1 =

1

=

= 0.5

2

2

Now, de broglie wavelength is given be

n = 1, dmin =

2 = 2

K=

3 = 3

=

Sol. For total internal reflection on interface AB

1

2

electron can form a standing wave between the atoms

arranged in a one dimensional array with nodes at

each of the atomic sites. It is found that one such

standing wave is formed if the distance d between the

atoms of the array is 2. A similar standing wave is

again formed if d is increased to 2.5 but not for any

intermediate value of d. Find the energy of the

electrons in electron volts and the least value of d for

which the standing wave of the type described above

can form.

[IIT-1997]

Sol. As nodes are formed at each of the atomic sites,

hence

2 = n

...(1)

2

2.5

N

N

(n+1) loops

N

n loops

N

/2

...(2)

2

2.5

n +1 5

n +1

=

,

=

or n = 4

2

n

4

n

Hence, from equation (1),

i.e. = 1

2 = 4

2

d will be minimum, when

and

2.5 = (n + 1)

(6.63 10 34 ) 2

(1 10

10 2

) 2 9.1 10 31 1.6 10 19

eV

(6.63) 2

102 eV = 151 eV

8 9.1 1.6

5 22.6

(0.02 M) =

L (0.02 mol L1) = 0.00113 mol.

2

1000

The chemical equations involved during the

treatment of KI and the titration with Na2S2O3 are

2Cu2+ + 4I Cu2I2 + I2

and

I2 + 2S2O32 2I + S4O62

From these equations, we conclude

2 mol Cu2+ 4 mol I 1 mol I2

and

1 mol I2 2 mol S2O32

Now, Amount of S2O32 consumed = (11.3 mL)

11.3

(0.05 M) =

L (0.05 mol L1)

1000

Hence from the figure

2

N

2 .2m

and C2O42 ions on titration with 0.02 M KMnO4 in

presence of H2SO4 consumes 22.6 mL of the oxidant.

The resultant solution is neutralized with Na2CO3,

acidified with dilute acetic acid and treated with

excess KI. The liberated iodine requires 11.3 mL of

0.05 M Na2S2O3 solution for complete reduction.

Find out the mole ratio of Cu2+ to C2O42 in the

compound. Write down the balanced redox reactions

involved in the above titration.

[IIT-1991]

Sol. The chemical equations involved in the titration of

C2O42 with MnO4 are :

MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O] 2

C2O42 2CO2 + 2e] 5

2MnO4 + 5C2O42 + 16H+

2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2O

From this equation, we conclude 2 mol MnO4 5

mol C2O4. Hence,

5

Amount of C2O42 in the solution = (22.6 mL)

2

5.

2mK

h2

6.

i = 60

The minimum angle for total internal reflection

for both the interface is 60.

or K =

CHEMISTRY

1

2

=

=

; i = 45

2

2

2

for total internal reflection on interface CD

3

1

sin i = 3 = 3 =

2

2

2

sin i =

11.3

=

(0.05) mol = 0.000565 mol

1000

Amount of Cu2+ equivalent to the above amount of

S2O32 = 0.000565 mol

Hence,

10

Amount of Cu 2 +

Amount of

C 2 O 24

1

0.000565

=

2

0.00113

OCTOBER 2009

enthalpy of CC and CH bonds.

CH(ethane) = 1556.5 kJ mol1

CH (propane) = 2117.5 kJ mol1

C(graphite) C(g); H = 719.7 kJ mol1

Bond enthalpy of HH = 435.1 kJ mol1

fH(H2O, 1) = 284.5 kJ mol1

[IIT-1990]

fH(CO2, g) = 393.3 kJ mol1

Sol. From the enthalpy of combustion of ethane and

propane, we write

7

(1) C2H6(g) + O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(1) :

2

CH = 3fH(H2O, 1) + 2fH(CO2, g) fH(C2H6, g)

Thus,

fH(C2H6,g) = CH + 3fH(H2O, 1)+ 2fH(CO2, g)

= (1556.5 3 284.5 2 393.3) kJ mol1

= 83.6 kJ mol1

(2) C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(1)

CH = 3f H(CO2, g)+ 4fH(H2O), 1) fH(C3H8, g)

Thus

fH(C3H8, g) = CH + 3fH(CO2, g) + 4fH(H2O, 1)

= (2217.5 3 393.5 4 284.5) kJ mol1

= 101.0 kJ mol1

To calculate the CH and CC, we carry out the

following manipulations.

(i) 2C(graphite) + 3H2(g) C2H6(g)

H = 83.6 kJ mol1

2C(g) 2C (graphite)

H = 2 719.7 kJ mol1

6H(g) 3H2(g)

H = 3 435.1 kJ mol1

Add

2C(g) + 6H(g) C2H6(g)

H(i) = (83.6 2 719.7 3 435.1) kJ mol1

= 2828.3 kJ mol1

(ii) 3C(graphite) + 4H2(g) C3H8(g)

H = 101.0 kJ mol1

3C(g) 3C (graphite)

H = 3 719.7 kJ mol1

8H(g) 4H2(g)

H = 4 435.1 kJ mol1

Add

3C(g) + 8H(g) C3H8(g)

H(ii) = ( 101 3 719.7 4 435.1) kJ mol1

= 4000.5 kJ mol1

Now,

H(i) = CC 6CH

= 2828.3 kJ mol1

H(ii) = 2CC 8CH

= 4000.5 kJ mol1

Solving for CC and CH, we get

CH = 414.0 kJ mol1

and

CH = 344.3 kJ mol1

two-litre evacuated flask at 27C, 30% of the solid

decomposes into gaseous ammonia and hydrogen

sulphide. (i) Calculate Kc and Kp for the reaction at

27C. (ii) What would happen to equilibrium when

more solid NH4HS is introduced into the flask ?

Sol. The reaction along with the given data is

NH4HS(s)

NH3(g) + H2S(g)

t = 0 3.06g (= 0.06mol)

0

0

0.3 0.06 mol 0.3 0.06 mol

teq 0.7 0.06 mol

= 0.018 mol

= 0.018 mol

(i) The equilibrium constant KC is

0.018 mol 0.018 mol

KC = [NH3][H2S] =

2L

2L

The equilibrium constant Kp is

Kp = Kc(RT)vg

= (8.1 105 mol2/L2)

(0.082 atm L mol1 K1) (300 K)2

= 4.90 102 atm2

(ii) There will not be any effect on the equilibrium by

introducing more of solid NH4HS as the equilibrium

constant is independent of the quantity of solid.

8.

7.

smelling gas when treated with choroform and

alcoholic potash. A 0.295 g sample of the substance,

dissolved in aqueous HCl, and treated with NaNO2

solution at 0 C liberated a colourless, odourless gas

whose volume corresponded to 112 mL at STP. After

the evolution of the gas was complete, the aqueous

solution was distilled to give an organic liquid which

did not contain nitrogen and which on warming with

alkali and iodine gave a yellow precipitate. Identify

the original substance. Assume that it contains one N

atom per molecule.

[IIT-1993]

Sol. Since the compound gives a foul smellings gas on

treating with CHCl3 and alcoholic KOH, the

compound must be a primary amine.

RNH2 + CHCl3 + 3KOH

RNC + 3KCl

9.

alkyl isocyanide

(foul smelling gas)

+ 3H2O ...(1)

Since the compound on treating with NaNO2/HCl at

0 C produce a colourless gas, the compound must be

an aliphatic primary amine.

RNH2 + HNO2 ROH + N2 + H2O

Thus, the gas produced is nitrogen.

1

112 mL

=

mol

Amount of gas liberated =

1

22400 mL mol

200

From the above equation, it is obvious that

1

Amount of compound RNH2 =

mol

200

If M is the molar mass of RNH2, then

0.295 g

1

=

mol

M

200

or

M = 0.295 200 g mol1 = 59 g mol1.

11

OCTOBER 2009

i.e. 43 g mol1. Hence, R must be C3H7.

From Eq. (2), it is obvious that the liquid obtained

after distillation is ROH. Since this gives yellow

precipitates with alkali and iodine (iodoform test), it

must contain CH C group.

[O] CH3

CH3

C = CHCH3

C = O + HOOCCH3

CH3CH2

CH3CH2

(A)

The structure of B is

Hence,

it

is

CH3 CH CH3 .

OH

concluded

that

ROH

CH3CH2CHCH2CH3

CH3

CH3

3-methyl pentane

(B)

Structure of A is CH3CH2C = CHCH3

NH2

Isopropylamine

CH3

3-methyl pent-2-ene

per cent carbon and 14.3 per cent hydrogen. This

compound consumes 1 molar equivalent of hydrogen

to give a saturated hydrocarbon B. 1.0 g of

hydrocarbon A just decolourized 38.05 g of a 5

percent solution (by mass) of Br2 in CCl4. Compound

A, on oxidation with concentrated KMnO4, gave

compound C (molecular formula C4H8O) and

compound C could easily be prepared by the action

of acidic aqueous mercuric sulphate on 2-butyne.

Determine the molecular formula of A and deduce

the structures A, B and C.

[IIT-1984]

Sol. The ratio of atoms in the compound A is

85.7 14.3

C:H::

:

: : 7.14 : 14.3 : : 1 : 2

12

1

Thus, Empirical formula of A is CH2.

Since the compound A consumes 1 mol of hydrogen,

the molecule of A contains only one carbon-carbon

double bond. From the data on the absorption of

bromine, we can calculate the molar mass of A as

shown in the following.

Mass of bromine absorbed by 1.0 g of hydrocarbon

5

=

38.05 g

100

Mass of hydrocarbon absorbing 160 g (= 1 mol) of

1.0

160 g = 84.1 g.

Br2 =

(5 38.05 / 100)

Hence, Molar mass of A is 84.1 g mol1

The number of repeating CH2 group in one molecule

of A will be 6(= 84.1/14). Hence, Molecular formula

of A is C6H12. Now, it is given that

Structure of B is CH3CH2CHCH2CH3

CH3

3-methyl pentane

Structure of C is CH3CCH2CH3

O

2-butanone

MATHEMATICS

11. An unbiased die, with faces numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,

is thrown n times and the list on n numbers showing

up is noted. What is the probability that among the

numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 only three numbers appear in

this list ?

[IIT-2001]

Sol. Let us define at onto function F from A : [r1, r2 ... rn]

to B : [1, 2, 3] where r1r2 .... rn are the readings of n

throws and 1, 2, 3 are the numbers that appear in the

n throws.

Number of such functions,

M = N [n(1) n(2) + n(3)]

where N = total number of functions and

n(t) = number of function having exactly t elements

in the range.

Now, N = 3n, n(1) = 3.2n, n(2) = 3, n(3) = 0

M = 3n 3.2n + 3

Hence the total number of favourable cases

= (3n 3.2n + 3). 6C3

required probability =

conc. KMnO

4

C 6 H12

C 4 H 8 O + CH3COOH

(3n 3.2 n + 3) 6 C3

6n

(C)

(A )

x + y = 1 and x + y = 3 at P and Q respectively.

Through P and Q two straight lines L1 and L2 are

drawn, parallel to 2x y = 5 and 3x + y = 5

respectively. Lines L1 and L2 intersect at R, shown

that the locus of R as L varies, is a straight line.

[IIT-2002]

2-butyne. Hence, its structure obtained from the

reaction is

2-butyne

H2

CH3CH2C = CHCH3

is

OH

Thus, the original compound is CH3 CH CH3

CH3C CCH3

3-methylpent-2-ene

(C)

+H2O

HgSO4/H2SO4

OH

2-butanone

(C)

12

OCTOBER 2009

m

3m

1

3

,

,

P

; Q

m +1 m +1

m +1 m +1

1

BCDE = (BC + DE) (KL)

2

2

1

3a 15a

= (a + 4a) =

2

4

2

m2

...(1)

m +1

3m + 9

equation of L2 : y + 3x =

...(2)

m +1

By eliminating 'm' from equation (1) and (2), we get

locus of R as x 3y + 5 = 0, which represents a

straight line.

Now equation of L1 : y 2x =

the vectors

a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k ;

b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k

circle x2 + y2 = a2/2 and parabola y2 = 4ax. Find the

area of the quadrilateral formed by the common

tangents, the chord of contact of the circle and the

chord of contact of the parabola.

[IIT-1996]

Sol. Equation of any tangent to the parabola, y2 = 4ax is

y = mx + a/m.

This line will touch the circle x2 + y2 = a2/2

y

x = a/2

A(a, 0)

c = c1 i + c2 j + c3 k

If ar, br, cr, where r = 1, 2, 3 are non-negative real

3

numbers and

a 12 + a 22 + a 32

b12 + b 22 + b 32

x=a

c12 + c 22 + c 32

...(1)

3

[(a1 + a2 + a3) (b1 + b2 + b3) (c1 + c2 + c3)]1/3

L3 [(a1 + a2 + a3)(b1 + b2 + b3)(c1 + c2 + c3)] ..(2)

Now, (a1 + a2 + a3)2

= a12 + a 22 + a 32 + 2a1a2 + 2a1a3 + 2a2a3 a12 + a 22 + a 32

Now, L =

(a1 + a2 + a3)

a

a

(m2 + 1)

=

2

m

1

1

= (m2 + 1) 2 = m4 + m2

2

2

m

m4 + m2 2 = 0

(m2 1)(m2 + 2) = 0

m=1

Therefore, two common tangents are

y = x + a and y = x a

These two intersect at A(a, 0)

The chord of contact of A(a, 0) for the circle

x2 + y2 = a2/2 is

(a)x + 0.y = a2/2

or x = a/2

and chord of contact of A(a, 0) for the parabola

y2 = 4ax is

0.y = 2a(x a) or x = a

Again length of BC = 2BK

If

Similarly,

and

a 12 + a 22 + a 32

(b1 + b2 + b3)

(c1 + c2 + c3)

b12 + b 22 + b 32

c12 + c 22 + c 32

L3 [( a12 + a 22 + a 32 )( b12 + b 22 + b 32 )( c12 + c 22 + c 32 )]1/3 V

15. T is a prallelopiped in which A, B, C and D are

vertices of one face and the just above it has

corresponding vertices A, B, C, D, T is now

compressed to S with face ABCD remaining same

and A, B, C, D shifted to A, B, C, D in S.

The volume of parallelopiped S is reduced to 90% of

T. Prove that locus of A is a plane. [IIT-2004]

Sol. Let the equation of the plane ABCD be

ax + by + cz + d = 0, the point A be (, , ) and

the height of the parallelopiped ABCD be h.

| a + b + c + d |

= 90%. h

a 2 + b2 + c2

= 2 OB2 OK 2

a + b + c + d = 0.9h a 2 + b 2 + c 2

a2 a2

a2

=2

=2

=a

2

4

4

and we know that DE is the latus rectum of the

parabola so its length is 4a.

[IIT-2002]

Sol. V = | a .( b c ) |

r =1

V L3.

C

2

(a

locus of A is a plane parallel to the plane ABCD

13

OCTOBER 2009

Set # 6

This section is designed to give IIT JEE aspirants a thorough grinding & exposure to variety

of possible twists and turns of problems in physics that would be very helpful in facing IIT

JEE. Each and every problem is well thought of in order to strengthen the concepts and we

hope that this section would prove a rich resource for practicing challenging problems and

enhancing the preparation level of IIT JEE aspirants.

By : Dev Sharma

Director Academics, Jodhpur Branch

So l ut i ons wi l l b e pub l i s he d i n ne x t i s s ue

Passage # 1 (Ques. 1 to 4)

The internal energy 'U' v/s PV graph where P is the

pressure and V is the volume of an ideal gas filled up

in a piston cylinder system is shown below

If tan = b then

is r =

m a 2 + b2

q.B 0

2m

.a

q.B0

2m

.b

q.B 0

4. Same path as followed by circulating electrons

which is responsible for the unstable Rutherford

atomic model, means spiral path of decreasing

radius.

3. Helix and the pitch of the Helix is

(0, a)

PV

1.

molecule if b = 3 and a = 2.

2.

terms of a or b or in terms of both a and b.

3.

4.

5.

Passage # 2 (Ques. 6 to 8)

Two conducting wires are sliding in two separate

portions, the details of motion are given along with

the figure. If terminals a and d are grounded then

C/R-1

a(t) = 2(3 + t) and b remains constant then draw the

graph of CV v/s a where CV is the molar specific heat

at constant volume.

2v

Part-2

c

vl

C/R-2

l

C/R-3

b(t) = c0 + c1t2 where c0 and c1 are positive constants

df

v/s t graph where f is the

then find the slope of

dt

degrees of freedom for the gas.

x

C/R Conducting Rail

R = 10

vBl = 30 volts

6.

direction.

7.

8.

across b and c.

The place where the magnetic field exists and the

particle moves is filled with the resistive medium

then path followed by the particle is(Charge on particle q and mass m)

B B

Part-1

14

OCTOBER 2009

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Solution

Que s t i o ns we r e Publ i sh e d i n Se p t e m be r I s s ue

surface because of trichromatic light are 2eV, 2.8eV

and 3eV

The work function of the metal is 2.5eV so light

waves/photons corresponding to frequency 2 and 3

are able to have photo electric effect but not of

frequency 1.

so KEmax. due to light of frequency 2 is

(KEmax.)2 = E2 W = 2.8 2.5 = 0.3eV

KEmax. due to light of frequency 3 is

(KEmax.)3 = E3 W = 3 2.5 = 0.5eV

As (KEmax.)3 > (KEmax.)2 so fastest photo electron is

related with (KEmax.)3 and the stopping potential will

be 0.5 volt.

3.4 eV

n=2

n=1

Nucleus

Accepts energy photon of 1.9eV so the final energy

= 3.4 + 1.9

= 1.5 eV corresponds to n = 3

electron

n=3

1.5 eV

Position of electron

in hydrogen atom

n=2

HA1 and HA2 &

3.4 eV hydrogen spectra

1 are not able eject the photo electrons so there is no

effect on stopping potential and photo current.

n=1

13.6 eV

n ( n 1) 3(3 1)

=

=3

No. of spectral lines emitted =

2

2

2 are able to have the photo electric effect but not

ejecting the fastest moving photoelectron so, Photo

current decreases but there is no effect on stopping

potential.

6.

first spectral line of Balmer series.

7.

10.2 eV

12.1 eV

have photo electric effect and responsible to eject

fastest photoelectron so,

- Photo current decreases

- As no photo electric effect takes place due to this

light intensity = 0

So stopping potential is not 0.5 volt instead of that it

is 0.3 volt because now the fastest electron is due to

light of frequency 2.

Ist line of

Ist line of

IInd line of

Balmer series

Lymen series

Lymen series

If 2nd line of Lymen series get aabsorbed by

absorption column then

KEmax. of fastest elect. = E W = 10.2 2

= 8.2 eV

(No photo electric emission due to 1st line of Balmer

series)

So stopping potential is 8.2 volt.

Ground state

13.6 eV

8.

n=1

Nucleus

Accepts energy photon of 12.1eV so the final energy

= 13.6 + 12.1

= 1.5 eV corresponds to n = 3

As hydrogen atom HA2

First excited state

Set # 5

15

energies 1.9eV, 10.2eV and 12.1eV falls on to metal.

Now, KEmax of fastest elect.

KEmax. = E W = 12.1-2

= 10.1eV and stopping potential = 10.1volt

so stopping potential increases from 8.2 volt to

10.1volt and as no. of photoelectrons ejected will be

more because of simultaneous presence of 10.2eV

and 12.1eV photons so photocurrent also increases.

OCTOBER 2009

Students' Forum

PHYSICS

distance L from each other are released from their

initial rest state. What will their velocity be when the

distance between them is l ?

Sol. Notice that when the masses were released, the

velocity of the center of mass was

r

0.m1 + 0.m 2

=0

...(1)

v cm =

m1 + m 2

Because both of the initial velocities are zero. Thus,

the total momentum of the system is zero. We denote

the velocities of the masses m1 and m2 as v1 and v2,

respectively. Using the law of conservation of linear

momentum, derived from the absence of external

forces, we obtain :

...(2)

m1v1 = m2v2

The gravitational force between the masses is

conservative. Calculating the potential energy

between the two masses at the moment of release, we

arrive at :

L

L Gm m

Gm1m 2

1 2

...(3)

Ep = F dr =

dr =

2

L

r

When the masses arrive at distance l we have :

Gm1m 2

1

1

Gm1m 2

=

+ m1v12 + m2v22 ..(4)

L

2

2

l

Using this result along with Eq. (2), we obtain

2

2G

1 l

m 22

v1 =

m1 + m 2

l L

..(5)

2

G

1 l

2

2

v 2 =

m1

m1 + m 2

l L

1.

1 1

= 2G (m1 + m2)

l L

and therefore,

...(7)

1 1

..(8)

2 G ( m1 + m 2 )

l L

Another method of finding v12 is to use one of the

masses as the frame of reference;

m2

m1

r

| v12 | =

a0

for example, m1 (fig. 1). The frame of m1 is not

inertial. Its acceleration, a0, is :

F

1 Gm1m 2

Gm 2

=

=

...(9)

a0 =

m1

m1

r2

r2

The force exerted on m2 in this frame, F, is the sum

of the gravity and D'alembert's force,

Gm1m 2

Gm

F =

m2 2 2

2

r

r

1

= Gm2(m1 + m2) 2

r

The difference between the initial and the final

kinetic energies, Ek, must equal the work done by

the force F, Ek = W,

1

where Ek = m2 v 22 .

2

Therefore,

r

r2 r r

l

1

W = r F.d r =

Gm 2 ( m1 + m 2 ) 2 dr

r1

L

r

can be expressed :

r

r

r

v12 = v1 v 2 = (v1 + v2) r

We can solve this equation simply by plugging the

calculated v1 and v2 into it, or as following :

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

| v12 |2 = | v1 v 2 |2 = ( v1 v 2 ). ( v1 v 2 )

r

r

r r

= v12 + v 22 2 v1 . v 2

Hence, v12 =

2.

...(6)

= v12 + v 22 + 2v1v2

Notice that the directions of the velocities are

opposite. Using Eq. (2) and Eq. (5), we have :

m

r

| v12 |2 = v12 + v 22 + 2 1 v12

m2

2G

1 1

2

2

( m1 + m 2 + 2m1m2)

m1 + m 2 l L

16

1 1

2G (m1 + m 2 ) as expected

l L

Another mass m2 is connected to the other end of the

spring (see figure). The whole system is held at rest.

At t = 0, m2 is released and the system falls freely due

to gravity. Assume that the natural length of the

spring is L0, its initial stretched length (before t = 0)

is L and the acceleration due to gravity is g.

(i) Find the position of the centre of mass as a

function of time.

OCTOBER 2009

of motion are defined as:

m1&x&1 = k(x1 x2 L0)

...(7)

in the frame of the laboratory.

(iii) Find the distance between m1 and m2 as a

function of time.

m2

g

m1

Sol. (i) Denoting the position of the center of mass at t = 0

1

by x0, we can write: x(t) = x0 + gt2

2

where the downwards direction is defined as positive.

(ii) Let us first find the force constant of the spring

from the force equation of the initial state :

m1g

k=

...(1)

L L0

The equations of motion are :

m2

x1

L0

(7-8) using only terms of r(t). The two equations will

be identical, since using eq. (5) leaves us with only

one degree of freedom. Therefore,

m1m 2

&r& = &r&

...(11)

m1 + m 2

m1

where =

...(2)

m1 + m 2

x1(t)

m2

m1m 2

is the reduced mass of the

m1 + m 2

system.

Another way to write the equation of motion is by

dividing Eq. (2) by m1, dividing Eq. (3) by m2 and

subtracting Eq. (3) from Eq. (2). The resulting

equation is :

...(3)

Note that (x1 x2 L0) > 0 implies positive

acceleration (downwards) for m2, and negative

acceleration (upwards) for m1.

(iii) An easy way to solve this problem is by

transforming to frame which accelerates with our

system at g. In this frame, D' alernbert's force exists,

balancing gravity so that we are left only with the

force applied by the spring. Also, in this frame, the

center of mass x0 is at rest, so we choose x0 is at

rest, so we choose x0 = 0. Therefore,

m1x1 ( t ) + m 2 x2 ( t )

= x0(t) = x0(0) = 0

...(4)

m1 + m 2

This leads us to:

m

...(5)

xt(t) = 2 x2(t)

m1

The distance between the two masses is given by :

R(t) = R(t) = x1(t) x2(t)

m

= x1(t) + 1 x1(t)

m2

=

...(8)

equilibrium. From Eq. (6), we have :

m1 + m 2

x1 ( t ) L 0

r ( t ) =

m2

m1 + m 2

&

...(9)

x& 1 ( t )

r ( t ) =

m2

m1 + m 2

&&

&x&1 ( t )

r ( t ) = m

2

m2

x 2 (t )

x1 =

m1

m2

...(10)

x& 2 ( t )

x& 1 =

m1

m2

&&

x1 = m &x& 2 ( t )

1

1

1

(x1 x2 L0)

&x&1 &x& 2 = k

+

m

m

2

1

k

= (x1 x2 L0)

...(12)

k

...(13)

r(t) = A cos

t +

conditions, R(0) = L0, and R(0) = 0. Hence,

R(t) = r(t) + L0

k

= L0 + (L L0) cos

..(14)

t

mass used here is quite common in two-body

problems. In general, we replaced:

...(6)

17

OCTOBER 2009

m1, m2 =

v0

5

= v0

...(4)

7/5

7

Note that this problem cannot be solved easily by

using the principle of conservation of energy. The

reason is the existence of the force of friction. When

the mass stops sliding, the friction does not vanish,

but it does not do any work, because the point of

contact between the body and the plane, A, is

temporarily at rest. Therefore,

r r

W = f .d r = 0

r

for d r = 0.

(iii) On a frictionless surface, the linear and angular

momentum are conserved. Therefore, and v are

unchanged, or :

v= v

m1m 2

m1 + m 2

v=

x1, x2 r = x2 r1

This reduces the number of equations and variables.

3.

moment of inertia I about its center of mass is thrown

horizontaly onto a plane at a velocity v0. Initially, the

body slides and does not roll. Gradually, it starts to

roll as a result of the friction of the plane, until it

finally rolls at a velocity v without sliding.

(i) Compute the final velocity v.

(ii) Find v for a spherical body.

(iii) Later, the sphere reaches a perfectly smooth area

of the plane. Find the angular velocity and the

velocity of the center of mass on the smooth area.

v0

t=0

water. A weight of 10 kg is to be placed on it in order

to submerge when the temperature is 20C. How

much less weight is to be placed when temperature

increases to 25C ?

Given water = 1.5 104 / C, steel = 1 105/ C

Sol. At the instant of submergence,

Total mass of sphere and weight placed on it

= mass of water displaced

mass of water displaced at 20C

= (200 + 10)kg = 210 kg

and

volume of the sphere = volume of water displaced by

it.

210

volume of sphere at 20C is

V0 =

0

4.

t = t0

=0

momentum about the point of contact between the

body and the plane A to solve the problem. The

r

torque relative to this point vanishes ( N = 0); so,

r

dJ

= 0.

dt

J initial = Mv 0 R

r r

...(1)

volume of sphere at 25 C becomes equal to V

= V0(1 + 3s)

210

210.0315

[1 + 3 105(25 20)] =

=

0

0

Density of water at 25C becomes equal to

= 0(1 w) = 0.99925 0

Mass of water to be displaced at 25C in order to

submerge the sphere = V. = 209.847 kg

Required difference of weight to be placed on it

= 210 209.87 = 0.126 kg Ans.

final angular momentum about the point A equals the

angular momentum in the center of mass frame, I,

plus the angular momentum of the center of mass

point about the point A. At t = 0 the only motion of

the mass is the rolling; therefore, v = R. Hence,

v

+ MvR

...(2)

Jf = I

R

Applying the principle of conservation of

momentum, Ji = Jf, we obtain:

v0

...(3)

v=

I

1+

MR 2

(ii) For a spherical rigid body we know that

2

I = MR2. Therefore,

5

5.

225

92 X

Y +

helical path in a uniform magnetic field of induction

B = 5T. Radius and pitch of the helix traced by the 18

OCTOBER 2009

Calculate binding energy per nucleon of nucleus X.

Given that,

m(Y) = 221.03 u

m() = 4.003 u

m(n) = 1.009 u

m(p) = 1.008 u

2

Mass of -particle = 1026 kg

3

1 u = 931 MeV/c2

Sol. Let velocity of emitted -particle be v at angle with

the direction of magnetic field.

Then radius of helical path traced by the -particle,

mv sin

R=

qB

Nuclear Physics :

and have the symbol

RqB

= 1.2 107 ms1

or v sin =

m

where q (charge of -particle) = 3.2 1019 coulomb.

2mv cos

and pitch, p =

qB

protons (2 for alpha)

Deuterium (

pqB

= 9 106 ms1.

or v cos =

2m

velocity of emitted -particle,

neutrons (4 for alpha)

particle accelerator such as a cyclotron or Van

Der Graaf generator.

), beta (

and gamma (high energy x-rays)

atomic number.

defect is converted into binding energy.

(E=mc2)

atomic masses but the same number of protons

(atomic numbers).

bubble chambers are all used to detect or

observe radiation.

using his famous gold-foil experiment.

make helium.

to be split into middle size atoms and produce

extra neutrons.

heat or pressure.

energy (E = mc2).

v=

or

Regents Physics

( v cos ) 2 + ( v sin ) 2

When an -particle is emitted with velocity v from a

stationary nucleus X, decay product (nucleus Y)

recoils. According to law of conservation of

momentum, that recoil velocity V of Y is given by

myV = mav

...(1)

where mass of nucleus Y,

221.03 2

my =

1026 kg

4.003

3

V = 2.715 105 ms1

Total energy released during -decay of nucleus X is

E = kinetic energy of nucleus Y

+ kinetic energy of -particle

1

1

E = myV2 + mv2 = 4.77 MeV

2

2

Hence, mass lost during -decay,

E

u = 0.005 u

m =

931

mass of nucleus, X,

mx = my + m + m

= 225.038 u

mass defect in nucleus X,

md = [92mp + (225 92) mn] mx

md = 1.895 u

Binding energy per nucleon in nucleus X

m 931

MeV

= d

225

= 7.84 MeV Ans.

19

) is an isotope of hydrogen

OCTOBER 2009

Magnetic Field

KEY CONCEPTS & PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY

Magnetic field :

A magnetic field of strength B is said to exist at a

point if a current element or a moving charged

particle passing through the point experiences a

sideways force equal in magnitude to

F = I lB sin or qvB sin

0 NI

tesla (T)

2a

where, a = radius of the coil,

N = its number of turns, I = current.

The direction of B is along the axis of the coil.

Magnetic Field a Point on the Axis of a Coil :

B=

B=

q+

charge moving with velocity v, and is the angle

between the direction of B and the current element,

or between B and v, 0 < < . The direction of the

force F is always perpendicular to the plane

containing l and B, or v and B. In the figures, this

would mean the plane of the paper. The sense of F

is that in which a screw would move if rotated from

l or v to B through . In this case, this would mean

a clockwise rotation, causing F to be directed into

the paper. In vector notation, this is summarized as

r r

r

r

r

q( v B )

F = I( l B ) or

The unit of B is tesla (T) or newton per ampere metre

or weber per square metre. B is called the magnetic

induction.

Biot-Savart Law : A moving charge or any current

element give rise to a magnetic field. This is given by

(B)p =

0 I

(sin 1 + sin 2)

4 d

where d is the perpendicular distance of the point

from the conductor, 1 and 2 are the angles

subtended by the upper and lower portions of the

conductor at the point.

0 2I

4 d

Magnetic Moment of a Loop : Magnetic moment of

a current loop(m) = IS (current area)

or

m = IS ampere metre2

When the conductor is long

B=

the angle between normal to the loop and the

magnetic field.

Energy of a Current Loop in a Magnetic Field

U = U = 0 + mB(1 cos )

Work Done in Turning a Current Loop

W = mB(1 cos )

Step 1 : Identify the relevant concepts : The righthand rule allows you to determine the magnetic force

on a moving charged particle.

Step 2 : Set up the problem using the following steps :

r

r

Draw the velocity vector v and magnetic field B

with their tails together so that you can visualize

the plane in which these two vector lie.

field at P, while 0 is a universal magnetic constant

with the value 0 = 4 107 weber/ampere metre or

henry per metre. The direction of (B)P is

perpendicular to the plane containing l and r, with

the same sense as the motion of a screw which is

r

r

rotated from l towards r through the smaller

angle.

tesla (T)

B=

2( a 2 + x 2 ) 3 / 2

Magnetic Field due to a Straight Conductor at a

Point :

0 Il sin

4

r2

I

0 NIa 2

20

OCTOBER 2009

magnitude and direction of the force, or it may be

r

r

the magnitude or direction of v or B .

Magnetic Field Calculations :

Step 1 : Identify the relevant concepts : The law of

Biot and Savart allows you to calculate the magnetic

field due to a current carrying wire of any shape.

The idea is to calculate the field due to a

representative current element in the wire, then

combine the contributions from all such elements to

find the total field.

Step 2 : Setup the problem using the following steps :

Make a diagram showing a representative current

element and the point P at which the field is to be

determined (the field point).

r

Draw the current element d l , being careful to

ensure that it points in the direction of the current.

Draw the unit vector r . Note that it is always

directed from the current element (the source

point) to the field point P.

Identify the target variables. Usually they will be

the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field

r

B.

Step 3 : Execute the solution as follows :

r

r 0 I d l r

0 I dl sin

Use eq. dB =

or dB =

4

4 r 2

r2

r

to express the magnetic field dB at P from the

representative current element.

r

Add up all the dB 's to find the total field at point

r

P. In some situations the dB 's at point P have the

same direction for all the current elements; then

r

the magnitude of the total B field is the sum of

r

r

the magnitudes of the dB 's. But often the dB 's

have different direction for different current

elements. Then you have to set up a coordinate

r

system and represent each dB in terms of its

r

components. The integrals for the total B is then

expressed in terms of an integral for each

component.

Sometimes you can use the symmetry of the

r

situation to prove that one component of B must

vanish. Always be alert for ways to use symmetry

to simplify the problem.

Look for ways to use the principle of

superposition of magnetic fields. Later in this

chapter we'll determine the fields produced by

certain simple conductor shapes; if you encounter

a conductor of a complex shape that can be

represented as a combination of these simple

shapes, you can use superposition to find the field

of the complex shape. Examples include a

rectangular loop and a semicircle with straight

line segments on both sides.

r

r r

Express the magnetic force using Eq. F = q v B

The magnitude of the force is given by

r

Remember that F is perpendicular to the plane of

r

r r

r

the vectors v and B . The direction of v B is

determined by the right-hand rule; keep referring

to until you're sure you understand this rule. If q

r r

is negative, the force is opposite to v B .

solve the problem in two ways. Do it directly from

the geometric definition of the vector product. Then

find the components of the vectors in some

convenient axis system and calculate the vector

product algebraically from the components. Verify

that the results agree.

Problem Solving Strategy : Motion in Magnetic Fields :

Step 1 : Identify the relevant concepts : In analyzing

the motion of a charged particle in electric and

magnetic fields, you will apply Newton's second law

r

r

of motion, F = m a , with the net force given by

r r r

r

F = q (E + v B) . Often, other forces such as

gravity can be neglected.

Step 2 : Setup the problem using the following steps :

Determine the target variable(s).

Often the use of components is the most efficient

approach. Choose a coordinate system and then

r r r

express all vector quantities (including E , B , v ,

r

r

F and a ) in terms of their components in this

system.

If the particle moves perpendicular to a uniform

magnetic field, the trajectory is circle with a

radius and angular speed given by Eqs.

mv

R=

and

|q|B

|q|B

v

|q|B

=v

=

R

m

mv

r

r

trajectory, use F = m a in component form:

Fx = max, and so forth. This approach is

particularly useful when both electric and

magnetic fields are present.

results are reasonable.

21

OCTOBER 2009

r

will be a mathematical expression for B as a

function of the position of the field point. Check the

answer by examining its behavior in as many limits

as you can.

=

2m

2 6.64 10 27

12

= 2.25 10 J

(c) E(energy acquired) = Vq

or

E =

or V =

Solved Examples

1.

3.

antiparallel currents i, as shown in the figure.

Calculate the magnetic induction at a point P

equidistant from the wires at a distance D from a

point midway between the wires.

A

E

2.25 10 12

=

V = 7.0 106 V

q

3.2 10 19

B at the common centre of the following circuits.

i

2i

magnitude of field due each = 0

2

4 D + d 2

AP and that due to B is at right angles to BP.

Resolving the field along OP and perpendicular to it,

the normal components cancel out and the

components along OP are added.

B sin

A

B

d

B cos

0 0

D

P B cos

d

B

B

B sin

B (field) at P = 2B cos along OP

0 id

2i

d

=

=2 0

4 D 2 + d 2

( D 2 + d 2 )

D2 + d2

r1

d

dl

i

b

d

0

idl sin 90

Then dB1 = 0

perpendicular into the

4

r12

plane of the paper

i(r d)

dB1 = 0 1 2

(Q dl = r1d)

4 r1

B1 =

2.

0.45 m in a magnetic field with B = 1.2 Wb m2.

Calculate (a) its speed, (b) its kinetic energy, and (c)

the potential difference through which if would have

to be associated to achieve this energy. Mass of alpha

particle = 6.64 1027 kg.

Sol. (a) Bqv = mr2/r v = Bqr/m

0 i

4 r1

d =

0 i

4r1

0 i

out of the

4r2

Bqr

1.2 3.2 10 19 0.45

=

m

6.64 10 27

7

1

= 2.6 10 ms

(b) Bqv = mv2/r

0 i 1 1

4 r1 r2

The second circuit is a special case of the above

when =

1 1 1

B = 0 i

4 r1 r2

or v =

0

Sol. The field due to the straight portions da and bc is zero

as the centre O is at end-on position relative to them.

The field due to the curved parts are opposite as can

seen by the screw rule. To find the magnitude due to

either conductor, consider an element of width dl at

angular distance , from the radius Od.

i

Bq = mv/r =

r2

r1

r2

2d

2mE

1

2

Q E = mv

r

2

22

OCTOBER 2009

4.

the general direction of a radically symmetrical

diverging magnetic field as shown in the figure. The

flux density in the region occupied by the wire itself

is 0.1 Wb m2 and the direction of the field

everywhere is at an angle of 60 with the plane of the

ring. Find the magnitude and direction of the force on

the ring when the current in it is 15.9 A.

destructive forces but continue to remain a

mystery in terms of how to predict and anticipate

them. To understand the level of destruction

associated with earthquakes you really need to

look at some examples of the past.

axis of the ring. The resolved parts are B sin and B

cos . The forces on the elements of the ring due to

the 'Bsin' component are in the plane of the ring and

are distributed symmetrically towards the centre all

along the ring, so they sum up to zero. But the forces

on the elements due to 'Bcos' component are along

the normal to the ring, hence they sum up to a

resultant along that direction.

F = IlB cos

= BIl cos

= BI2R cos

( l = 2R)

or F = 2BIR cos

= 2 0.1 15.9 (4 102) cos 60

= 0.2N

5.

China, a huge earthquake racked up an official

death toll of 255,000 people. In addition to this an

estimated 690,000 were also injured, whole

families, industries and areas were wiped out in the

blink of a second. The scale of destruction is hard

to imagine but earthquakes of all scales continue to

happen all the time.

So what exactly are they ? Well the earths outer

layer is made up of a thin crust divided into a

number of plates. The edges of these plates are

referred to as boundaries and its at these

boundaries that the plates collide, slide and rub

against each other. Over time when the pressure at

the plate edges gets too much, something has to

give which results in the sudden and often violent

tremblings we know as earthquakes.

plane of a ribbon carrying current I2 parallel to the

previous one. The width of the ribbon is b and the

straight conductor is at a distance 'a' from the near

edge. Find the force of attraction between the two.

b

I1

a

I2

machine called a seismograph. It records the

trembling of the ground and scientists are able to

measure the exact power of the quake via a scale

known as the richter scale. The numbers range

from 1-10 with 1 being a minor earthquake

(happen multiple times per day and in most case

we dont even feel them) and 7-10 being the

stronger quakes (happen around once every 10-20

years). Theres a lot to learn about earthquakes so

hopefully well release some more cool facts in the

coming months.

dx. It is equivalent to a long straight conductor

carrying (I2dx/b) current.

I

I dx

dF (force of attraction) = 0 1 2

2x

b

0 I1I 2 dx

=

2b

x

0 I1I 2 a + b dx

F=

2b x x

0 I1I 2

a+b

=

ln

2b

b

23

OCTOBER 2009

Gravitation

KEY CONCEPTS & PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY

Gravitational field (g) and potential (V) due to a

spherical shell and a solid sphere :

M

M

Two point masses m1 and m2, separated by' a distance

r, attract each other with a force

F=G

m1m 2

r2

where G = 6.67 1011 Nm2 kg2

= universal constant of gravitation.

m1

m2

F

F

(i) Outside

g=G

masses, acts though in opposite directions. It does not

depend on the medium present between the two

masses.

Gravitation Field :

This is a region in space where any mass will

experience a force. The gravitational field strength

(g) at a point is the force acting on a unit mass placed

at that point. It is a vector.

m

g=G

r2

M

r

(ii) Inside

g=0

M

r

(ii) Inside

V=G

g=G

r

R3

where R is the radius of

the sphere

M

R

where R is the radius

of the shell

V=G

M

2R 3

(3R2 r2)

Escape Velocity :

The minimum velocity to be imparted to a body on

the surface of a planet, so that it is carried beyond the

gravitational field of that planet, is called the escape

velocity of that planet. Obviously to carry the body

beyond the gravitational field, the amount of energy

needed is that which is required to bring it from

infinity up to the surface of the planet. This is exactly

the potential energy of the body. Potential energy per

unit mass is equal to the potential of the field. So if m

is the mass of the body and vc is the escape velocity,

then

r2

The negative sign indicates that the gravitational field

is always attractive.

Gravitational Potential :

The gravitational potential (V) at a points is the work

that has to be done to bring a unit mass from infinity

to that point. It is a scalar. The gravitational potential

at a distance r from a point mass m is

m

r

The negative sign arises because in bringing the unit

mass from infinity, work is done by the system, so

that its potential energy decreases.

The potential at a point does not depend on the actual

path followed in bringing the unit mass from infinity.

Thus, gravitational force is a conservative force.

V=G

r2

r

M

g = G 2 r

r

V=G

gravitational field strength at a distance r from a point

mass m is

r

M

g = G 2 r

r

V=G

(i) Outside

g

r

g = G

M

1

mv e2 = Vm = G m

2

R

where M is the mass of the planet and R is its radius.

or

24

ve =

2GM

R

OCTOBER 2009

2.

mg =

ve =

2GM

sun of mass ms with velocity v = 34.9 kms1 with

respect to the heliocentric frame of reference, that is,

with the sun at the centre of the frame. Find the

period of revolution of this planet around the sun and

show that Kepler's third law, that is, the cube of the

orbital radius is proportional to the square of the time

revolution of planets, Given that ms = 1.97 1030 kg,

G = 6.67 1011 units.

Sol. From the dynamics of circular motion (assuming

circular orbit)

or GM = gR2

R2

2gR

A satellite is a small body revolving around a larger

body under the gravitational attraction of the latter.

The force of gravitational attraction provides the

necessary centripetal force so that the satellite may be

in rotational equilibrium. The speed at which

rotational equilibrium is attained is called the orbital

speed. Let it be v0. Then for rotational equilibrium

Gm s

m

v2

= Gm 2 v2 =

d

d

d

v = d

m

mv 02

r

where r is the radius of the orbit, measured from the

centre of the planet.

Fattraction =

Mm

r2

v2 =

or T =

mv 02

v0 =

parabolic and if v >

1.

each other and initially at rest, start interacting

gravitationally. Find their velocity of approach when

they are a distance s apart.

Sol. Since they move under mutual attraction and no

external force acts on them, their momentum and

energy are conserved.

1

1

GM1M 2

0 = M1v12 + M2v22

2

2

s

(It is zero because in the beginning, both kinetic

energy and potential energy are zero.)

0 = M1v1 + M2v2

mv 2

GM

v=

2

r

r

r

1 GMm

1 GMm

GMm

E=

+

=

r

2

r

2

r

1 GMm

dr

dE =

2 r2

Also dE = power dt = Fv dt = av3dt

GMm

1 GMm

GM

dr = a

2 r2

r

m

r1/2 dr

dt =

2a GM

2GM 22

s ( M1 + M 2 )

2GM 22

s ( M1 + M 2 )

V(velocity of approach) = v1 (v2) = v1 + v2

2G (M1 + M 2 )

s

v22 =

v3

2 6.67 10 11 1.97 10 30

R and mass M) moves in an orbit whose radius is n

times the radius of the earth. Assuming resistance to

the motion to be proportional to the square of

velocity, that is F = av2, find how long the satellite

will take to fall on to the earth.

1

GMm

Sol. E (energy of the satellite) =

+ mv2

r

2

By the dynamics of circular motion

Solved Examples

and

2Gm s

3.

2 v0 the path is

v3

Gm s

or

= 225 days

(34.9 10 3 ) 3

Taking the equation in terms of d and

Gmm s

4 2 3

2

2

d

=

m

d

T

=

Gm s

d2

T2 d3 This is Kepler's third law.

=

GM

r

If a satellite is projected with velocity v < v0 the path

is a small ellipse with point of projection as apogee

or

Gm s

v

t=

m

2a GM

Q GM = gR2, t =

25

nR

3/ 2

dt

r 1/ 2 dr =

m

a gR

m R

a GM

( n 1)

( n 1)

OCTOBER 2009

4.

radius = R) along a parabolic path which is almost

tangential to its surface. At the moment of maximum

approach, the brake rocket is fired to convert the

spaceship into a satellite of the moon. Find the

change in speed.

Sol. If v is the velocity at the vertex of the parabola, then

v is also the escape velocity because if it is thrown

with this velocity it will follow the parabolic path

never to return to the moon.

At a Glance

1.

distance.

1 par sec = 3.26 light year

2.

1 X-ray unit = 1013 m

v v orbit

3.

2GM

R

v = vfinal vinitial = vorbit vescape

1 slug = 14.59 kg

Now vescape =

4.

GM

2GM

GM

=

( 2 1)

R

R

R

The negative sign means the speed has to be

decreased.

v =

5.

R2

rel =

= m r

gR e2

R3

or

rel =

10 6.4 2 1012

23 10 21

gR 2

R3

gR e2

R3

6.

1 barn = 1028 m2

7.

1 cusec = 1 cubic foot per second flow

8.

velocity of supersonic jets.

1 match no. = velocity of sound

= 332 m/sec.

9.

(Q GM= gRe )

ships in water.

1 knot = 1.852 km/hour

+ e

1 rutherford (rd) = 1 106 disintegrations/sec

+ 7.27 10

2

(Q e =

= 7.27 105)

86400

rel = 22.6 105 + 7.27 105

= 30 105 rad s1

2

2

=

=

rel

30 10 5

= 2.09 104s = 5 hr 48 min

1 Shake = 106 second

GM

( 2 1)

R

radius R = 2 104 km from east to west. Calculate

the interval after which it will appear at the same

equatorial town. Given that the radius of the

earth = 6400 km and g (acceleration due to gravity) =

10 ms2.

Sol. Let be the actual angular velocity of the satellite

from east to west and c be the angular speed of the

earth (west to east).

Then relative = (e) = + e = rel e

By the dynamics of circular motion

2

practical unit of mass.

1 Chandra Shekhar limit = 1.4 Solar mass

5.

GMm

1 dalton =

1

mass of C12 = 931 MeV

12

= 1 a.m.u.

1 curie = 3.7 1010 disintegration / sec

26

OCTOBER 2009

KEY CONCEPT

HALOGEN

DERIVATIVES

Organic

Chemistry

Fundamentals

chlorobenzene), the lone pairs of electrons on the

halogen atom are delocalized on the benzene ring as

shown below :

Due to electronegativity difference between the

carbon and the halogen, the shared pair of electron

lies closer to the halogen atom.

+

C : X

:Cl:

charge, i.e., while the carbon carries a small

positive charge, i.e., +. Consequently CX bond is a

polar covalent bond.

Since the size of halogen atom increases as we move

down the group in the periodic table, fluorine atom is

the smallest and iodine the largest. Consequently, the

carbon-halogen bond length increases and bond

enthalpy decreases from C F to C I.

Further, as we move from F to I, the electronegativity

of the halogen decreases, therefore, the polarity of the

CX bond and hence the dipole moment of the

haloalkane should also decrease accordingly. But the

dipole moment of CH3F is slightly lower than that of

CH3Cl. The reason being that although the magnitude

of ve charge on the F atom is much higher than that

on the Cl atom but due to small size of F as compared

to Cl the C F bond distance is so small that the

product of charge and distance, i.e., dipole moment

of CH3F turns out to be slightly lower than that of

CH3Cl. The bond lengths, bond enthalpies and dipole

moments of halomethanes are given in table.

Some Physical Data of Halomethanes (CH3X)

Halo

methane

CX bond

length

/pm

CX bond

enthalpy/kJ

mol1

Dipole

moment /

Debye

CH3F

CH3Cl

139

178

452

351

1.847

1.860

CH3Br

193

293

1.830

CH3I

214

234

1.636

+Cl:

+Cl:

+Cl:

V

I

II

III

IV

(a) As a result, C Cl bond acquires some double

bond character, i.e., Cl is attached to C by little more

than a single pair of electrons. On the other hand, in

case of alkyl halides (say methyl chloride) carbon is

attached to chloring by a pure single bond.

Consequently, C X bond in aryl halides is little

stronger than in alkyl halides, and hence cannot be

easily broken.

represented as a resonance hybrid of the following

structures :

CH2 = CH Cl:

+

:CH2 CH = Cl:

haloarenes, is little more stronger than in alkyl

halides and hence cannot be easily broken.

resonance out alkyl halides are not. Consequently, the

energy of activation for the displacement of halogen

from aryl halides is much greater than that from alkyl

halides. Thus, aryl halides are much less reactive than

alkyl halides towards nucleophilic substitution

reactions.

(ii) Difference in hybridization of carbon atom in

C X bond. In haloalkanes (e.g., methyl chloride),

the halogen is attached to sp3-hybridized carbon

while in halogens or vinyl halides, the halogen is

attached to sp2-hybridized carbon. Since a sp2hybridized orbital is smaller in size as compared to

sp3-orbital of carbon, therefore, the C Cl bond in

chlorobenzene or vinyl chloride should be shorter and

hence stronger than in methyl chloride. This has been

confirmed by the X-ray analysis which shows that the

C Cl bond in chlorobenzene is 169 pm whereas in

methyl chloride, it is 177 pm.

Reactivity of Haloarenes :

Both haloalkanes (alkyl halides) and haloarenes (aryl

halides) or vinyl halides contain a C X bond but

haloarenes and vinyl halides are extremely less

reactive than haloalkanes towards nucleophilic

substitution reactions. The following reasons can be

given to account for the low reactivity of aryl and

vinyl halides.

:Cl:

27

OCTOBER 2009

sp2

aromatic substitution. Benzyne :

When an aryl halide like chlorobenzene is treated

with the very strong basic amide ion, NH2, in liquid

ammonia, it is converted into aniline. This is not the

simple displacement that, on the surface, it appears to

be. Instead, the reaction involves two stages :

elimination and then addition. The intermediate is the

molecule called benzyne (or dehydrobenzene).

X

NH2

NH2

NH2

NH3

NH3

Cl

177 pm

sp3

C

Cl

169 pm

H

in methyl chloride and hence difficult to break.

bond. Another reason for the low reactivity of aryl

halides over alkyl halides is their lesser polar

character.

The sp2-hybrid carbon due to greater s-character is

more electronegative than a sp3-hybrid carbon

Therefore, the sp2-hybrid carbon of C X bond in

aryl halides or vinyl halides has less tendency to

release electrons to the halogen than a sp3-hybrid

carbon in alkyl halides. As a result , the C X bond

in aryl halides or vinyl halides is less polar than in

alkyl halides. This is supported by the observation

that the dipole moment of chlorobenzene is just 1.7 D

as compared to the dipole moment of methyl

cholride, i.e, 1.86 D. Consequently, the halogen atom

present in aryl haldides cannot be easily displaced by

nucleophiles.

X

+

Benzyne

Aryl halide

additional bond is formed between two carbons (the

one originally holding the halogen and the one

originally holding the hydrogen) by sideways overlap

of sp2 orbitals. This new bond orbital lies along the

side of the ring, and has little interaction with the

cloud lying above and below the ring. The sideways

overlap is not very good, the new bond is a weak one,

and benzyne is a highly reactive molecule.

H

H

+

CX

Haloarene or aryl

halide

(C X bond is less polar

and hence X cannot be

displaced

easily

by

nucleophiles.)

Haloalkane or alkyl

halide

(C X bond is more

polar than in aryl halides

and hence X can be

easily

displaced

by

nucleophiles)

H

Benzyne molecule. The sideways overlap

of sp2 orbitals form a bond out of the

plane of the aromatic cloud.

involves two steps : abstraction of a hydrogen ion

(step 1) by the amide ion to form ammonia and

carbanion I, which then loses halide ion (step 2) to

form benzyne.

vinyl halides, the phenyl cation or the vinyl cation

formed as a result of self-ionization is not stabilized

by resonance because the sp2-hybridized orbital of

carbon having the +ve charge is perpendicular to the

p-orbitals of the phenyl ring or the vinyl group.

Therefore, these cations are not formed hence aryl

and vinyl halide do not undergo nucleophilic

substitution reactions (SN1 mechanism).

+

Cl

Chlorobenzene

Phenyl cation

CH2 = CH Cl

Vinyl chloride

+

CH2 = CH + Cl

Vinyl cation

Aniline

(1)

X

+ NH2

+ NH3

I

+ X

(2)

+ Cl

Benzyne

Elimination

The addition stage, in which benzyne is consumed,

may also involve two steps : attachment of the amide

ion (step 3) to form carbanion II, which then reacts

with an acid, ammmonia, to abstract a hydrogen ion

(step 4). It may be that step (3) and step (4) are

28

OCTOBER 2009

is so, the transition state is probably one in which

attachment of nitrogen has proceeded to a greater

extent attachment of hydrogen, so that it has

considerable carbanion character.

NH2

+ NH2

(3)

(4)

NH2

+ NH2

NH2

+ NH3

:

II

Chemistry Facts

II

Benzyne

speed of 18,460 miles per second (30,000

kilometers per second) at lead, the

German scientists at Darmstadt, Germany

created a single atom of 112 protons

(ununbium) that survived for one third (1/3)

of a millisecond.

solution or molten salt (the electrolyte),

ions will migrate to the electrodes: positive

ions (cations) to the negative electrode

(cathode) and negative ions (anions) to the

positive electrodes (anions).

the U.S. physicist Carl Anderson at

California Institute of Technology, United

States.

by the Germans in World War I. (Unable to

live with his, his wife commited suicide in

1915).

power a small truck for 25 miles (40

kilometers) a day. The digestive process

produces methane gas, which can be

burned as fuel.

inches (0.0000005 millimeter).

99.985% percent of all hydrogen atoms.

The remaining 0.015% percent contain one

neutron.

can hold only up to two electrons.

Aniline

Addition

(a) Fact. Labeled chlorobenzene in which 14C held the

chlorine atom was allowed to react with amide ion. In

half the aniline obtained the amino group was held by

14

C and in half it was held by an adjacent carbon.

Cl

*

NH2

NH2

*

*

+

NH3

NH2

(53%)

(47%)

the ones next to it become equivalent, and NH2 adds

randomly (except for a small isotope effect) to one or

the other.

*

*

Cl

*

NH2

NH2

*

NH3

NH2

NH2

NH3

*

NH2

NH3

H2N

halogen like 2-bromo-3-methyl anisole, do not react

at all.

Br

CH3O

CH3

NH2

NH3

No reaction

benzyne cannot form.

29

OCTOBER 2009

KEY CONCEPT

Inorganic

Chemistry

Fundamentals

GASES FAMILY

halogen atom gains an electron, and X X. Thus,

the halogen all form halide ions.

Bond energy in X2 Molecule :

The elements all form diatomic molecules. It would

be expected that the bond energy in the X2 molecules

would decrease as the atoms become larger, since

increased size results in less effective overlap of

orbitals. Cl2, Br2 and I2 show the expected trend

(table) but the bond energy for F2 does not fit the

expected trend.

Bond energy and bond lengths of X2

Ionization Energy :

The ionization energies of the halogens show the

usual trend to smaller values as the atoms increase in

size. The values are very high, and there is little

tendency for the atoms to lose electrons and form

positive ions.

Ionization and hydration energies, electron affinity

First ionization

energy

(kJ mol1)

Electron

affinity

(kJ mol1)

Hydration

energy X

(kJ mol1)

1681

333

513

Cl

1256

349

370

Br

1143

325

339

1009

296

274

At

270

energy of dissociation)

(kJ mol1)

than for the others because of its small size. F always

has an oxidation state of (1) except in F2. It forms

compounds either by gaining an electron to form F,

or by sharing an electron to form a covalent bond.

Hydrogen has an ionization energy of 1311 kJ mol1,

and it forms H+ ions. It is at first surprising that the

halogens Cl, Br and I have lower ionization energies

than H, yet they do not form simple X+ ions. The

ionization energy is the energy required to produce

an ion from a single isolated gaseous atom. Usually

we have a crystalline solid, or a solution, so the

lattice energy or hydration energy must also be

considered. Because H+ is very small , crystals

containing H+ have a high lattice energy, and in

solution the hydration energy is also very high (1091

kJ mol1). The negative ions also have a hydration

energy. Thus H+ ions are formed because the lattice

energy, or the hydration energy, exceeds the

ionization energy. In contrast the halide ions X+

would be large and thus have low hydration and

lattice energies. Since the ionization energy would be

larger than the lattice energy or hydration energy,

these ions are not normally formed. However, a few

compounds are know where I+ is stabilized by

forming a complex with a Lewis base. for example

[I(pyridine)2]+ NO3.

The electron affinities for the halogens are all

negative. This shows that energy is evolved when a

Bond length X2

()

126

1.43

Cl

210

1.99

Br

158

2.28

118

2.66

and this is largely responsible for its very high

reactivity. (Other elements in the first row of the

periodic table also have weaker bonds than the

elements which follow in their respective groups. For

example in Group 15 the N N bond in hydrazine is

weaker than P P, and in Group 16 the O O bond

in peroxides is weaker than S S.) Two different

explanation have been suggested for the low bond

energy :

(1) Mulliken postulated that in Cl2, Br2 and I2 some

pd hybridization occurred, allowing some multiple

bonding. This would make the bonds stronger than in

F2 in which there are no d orbitals available.

(2) Coulson suggested that since fluorine atoms are

small, the F F distance is also small (1.48 ), and

hence internuclear repulsion is appreciable. The

larger electron electron repulsions between the lone

pairs of electrons on the two fluorine atoms weaken

the bond.

Pseudohalogens and Pseudohalides :

A few ions are known, consisting of two or more

atoms of which at least one is N, that have properties

similar to those of the halide ions. They are therefore

called pseudohalide ions. Pseudohalide ions are

univalent, and these form salts resembling the halide

salts.

30

OCTOBER 2009

but the silver salts are insoluble. The hydrogen

compounds are acids like the halogen acids HX.

Some of the pseudohalide ions combine to form

dimers comparable with the halogen molecules X2.

These include cyanogen (CN)2, thiocyanogen (SCN)2

and selenocyanogen (SeCN)2.

The important pseudohalogens

Anion

Acid

Dimer

CN : cyanide ion

selenocyanogen

in a similar way when water is frozen under a high

pressure of the gas. These are clathrate compounds,

but are more commonly called 'the noble gas

hydrates'. They have formulae approximating to

6H2O : 1 gas atom. He and Ne are not trapped

because they are too small. The heavier noble gases

can also be trapped in cavities in synthetic zeolites,

and samples have been obtained containing up to

20% of Ar by weight. Clathrates provide a

convenient means of storing radioactive isotopes of

Kr and Xe produced in nuclear reactors.

(i) Structure and bonding in XeF4 : The structure of

XeF4 is square planar, with XeF distances of 1.95 .

The valence bond theory explains this by promoting

two electrons as shown :

5s

5d

5p

(SeCN)2 :

selenocyanogen

H2NCN : cyanamide

N3 : azide ion

Cl, Br and I in the following respects :

1. It forms an acid HCN.

2. It can be oxidized to form a molecule cyanogen

(CN)2.

3. It forms insoluble salts with Ag+, Pb2+ and Hg+.

4. Interpseudohalogen compounds ClCN, BrCN and

ICN can be formed.

5. AgCN is insoluble in water but soluble in ammonia,

as is AgCl.

6. It forms a large number of complexes similar to

halide complexes. e.g. [Cu(CN)4]2 and [CuCl4]2,

and [Co(CN)6]3 and [CoCl6]3.

Clathrate Compounds :

Clathrate compounds of the noble gases are well

known. Normal chemical compounds have ionic or

covalent bonds. However, in the clathrates atoms or

molecules of the appropriate size are trapped in

cavities in the crystal lattice of other compounds.

Though the gases are trapped, they do not form

bonds.

If an aqueous solution of quinol (1, 4dihydroxybenzene) is crystallized under a pressure of

10 40 atmospheres of Ar, Kr or Xe, the gas

becomes trapped in cavities of about 4 diameter in

the -quinol structure. When the clathrate is

dissolved, the hydrogen bonded arrangement of quinol breaks down and the noble gas escapes. Other

small molecules such as O2, SO2, H2S, MeCN and

CH3OH form clathrates as well as Ar, Kr and Xe. The

smaller noble gases He and Ne do not form clathrate

compounds because the gas atoms are small enough

to escape from the cavities. The composition of these

clathrate compounds corresponds to 3 quinol : 1

trapped molecule, through normally all the cavities

are not filled.

(four unpaired electrons form bonds to four fluorine

atoms six electron pairs form octahedral structure

with two positions occupied by lone pairs)

The Xe atom bonds to four F atoms. The xenon 5px

orbital forms a three-centre MO with 2p orbitals from

two F atoms just as in XeF2. The 5py orbital forms

another three-centre MO involving two more F

atoms. The two three-centre obitals are at right angles

to each other, thus giving a square planar molecule.

F

Xe

of XeF6 is a distorted octahedron. The bonding in

XeF6 has caused considerable controversy which is

not completely resolved. The structure may be

explained in valence bond terms by promoting three

electrons in Xe :

5s

5d

5p

atoms. The distribution of seven orbitals gives either

a capped octahedron or a pentagonal bipyramid (as in

IF7). (A capped octahedron has a lone pair pointing

through one of the faces of the octahedron) Since

there are six bonds and one lone pair, a capped

31

OCTOBER 2009

molecule. The molecular orbital approach fails with

XeF6, since three three-centre molecular orbitals

systems mutually at right angles would give a regular

octahedral shape.

F

= 7(5bp + 1lp + 1d-pbp)

1lp)

Geometry : Square pyramidal

Structure of XeO2F2 :

Total number of electron in valence shell of

Xe = 14 (8 from Xe + 2 from F + 4 from O)

Total number of electron pairs

F

Xe

F

F

F

F

The vibrational spectrum of gaseous XeF6 indicates

C3v, symmetry, i.e. an octahedron distorted by the

lone pair at the centre of one triangular face. The

structure of the molecule rapidly fluctuates between

structures where the lone pair occupies each of the

eight triangular faces. In various non-aqueous

solvents, xenon hexafluoride forms a tetramer Xe4F24.

Solid xenon hexafluoride is polymorphic. Except at

very low temperatures it contains tetramers, where

four square pyramidal XeF5+ ions are joined to two

similar ions by means of two bridging Fions. The

XeF distances are 1.84 on the square pyramidal

units and 2.23 and 2.60 in the bridging groups.

Xenon Oxyfluorides :

Structure of XeOF2 :

Total number of electrons in valence shell of

Xe:12 (8 from Xe + 2 from O and 2 from F)

Total number of electrons pairs

O

Xe

O

F

Geometry : Trigonal bipyramidal or Sea-saw.

Similarly : Structure of XeO3F2 and XeO2F4

O

F

F

F

O

Xe

O

Xe

F

O

F

XeO3F2

XeO2F4

(Trigonal bipyramidal)

Xe

(Octahedral)

MEMORABLE

POINTS

O

Geometry = T-shaped

Structure of XeOF4 :

Total number of electron in valence shell of

Xe : 14 (8 from Xe + 2 from O + 4 from F)

18/5 km h1 equal to

1 ms1

Dot product of force and velocity is

1015 m

Power

Angular momentum

Xe

1025 m

1018 s

O

F

Distance

i

32

OCTOBER 2009

UNDERSTANDING

Organic Chemistry

1.

2.

ml of oxygen and the mixture was exploded. On

cooling, the volume was reduced to 95 ml On adding

KOH, the volume was further reduced to 75 ml. The

residual gas was found to be oxygen. All volumes

were measure under the same condition of

temperature and pressure. Calculate the molecular

formula of hydrocarbon.

Sol. Volume of hydrocarbon = 10 ml

Volume of mixed oxygen = 100 ml

Volume of the mixture after explosion and cooling

(Vol. of CO2 + unused O2)

= 95 ml

Unused oxygen = 75 ml (given)

Volume of used oxygen = 100 75 = 25 ml

Contraction in volume on treatment with KOH, i.e.,

volume of CO2 produced

= 95 75 = 20 ml

If the molecular formula of hydrocarbon is CxHy, its

combustion will take place according to the equation.

y

y

4

2

(i ) O

Sol. A(C8H10) 3 C 4 H 6 O 2

( ii ) H 2O

2H

H C C H

C3H5 C C C3H5

+ C 6 H10

hence compound (A) is

CH2

CH2

CH C C CH

CH2

CH2

1,2-dicyclopropyl ethane

moles of cyclopropane carboxylic acid (C4H6O2).

CH2 (i) O3

CH2

CH C C CH

CH2

CH2 (A)

O

CH2

CH2

CH C C CH

CH2

CH2

OO

CH2

H2O

warm

CH2

CH2

CH C C CH

CH2

+H2O2

CH2

CH COOH

CH2 (B)

Compound (B) is prepared from cyclopropyl bromide

as follows :

O

Mg

CH2

CH2

CH.MgBr C = O

CH Br

either

CH2

CH2 (C)

Cyclopropyl

2

5y

2

5y

2

or

y=2

Now on substitution of the value of x and y in the

formula CxHy, the molecular formula of hydrocarbon

come to beC2H2.

or 25 20 =

( B)

should have either a C = C or a C C bond.

If it was alkene its formula should be C8H16 (CnH2n)

and if it was alkyne it should have the formula C8H14;

it is definite that the compound has an unsaturated

group, it appears that it is a cyclosubstituted ethyne.

10 ml 10 x + ml 10 x ml

4

y

4

According to the question,

Volume of CO2 produced = 20 = 10x

x=2

...(i)

y

4

...(ii)

Substituting the value of x in Eqn. (ii)

y

25 = 10 2 +

4

25 = 20 +

ozonolysis gives compound (B), C4H6O2, only. The

compound (B) can also be obtained from the alkyl

bromide, (C) (C3H4Br) upon treatment with Mg in

dry ether, followed by treatment with CO2 and

acidification. Identify (A), (B) and (C) and also give

equations for the reactions.

CH2

CH2

CH.COOMgBr

Addition compound

magnesium bromide

HOH

dil. HCl; MgBrOH

CH2

CH2

33

CH COOH

OCTOBER 2009

A,

CC

Hence, A,

B,

COOH

C,

Br

CH3 C = CH CH CH3

CH3

B,

CH3 CH COOH

CH3

3.

aldehyde. The aldehyde is easily oxidised to an acid

(B). When (B) is treated with Br2 in presence of P, it

yields a compound (C) which on hydrolysis gives a

hydroxy acid (D). This acid can also be obtained

from acetone by the reaction with hydrogen cyanide

followed by hydrolysis. Identify the compounds (A),

(B), (C) and (D).

Sol. The structure of compound can be easily obtained by

the fact that it is synthesized from acetone as follows

(Streeker synthesis).

OH

CH3

CH3

C = O + HCN

C

CN

CH3

CH3

CH3

2H2O

H+

CH3

Br

C,

CH3

OH

D,

(B)

CH3

4.

gives propane. Treatment of (A) with aqueous alkali

followed by oxidation gives (B) C3H4O4 which gives

effervescence with NaHCO3. Esterification of (B)

with ethanol gives (C), C7H12O4, which is well

known synthetic reagent. When (B) is heated alone,

the product is ethanoic acid, but while heating with

soda-lime it gives methane. Compound (B) on

reduction with LiAlH4 gives a diol which on reaction

with SOCl2 gives back compound (A). Identify all the

compounds and give balanced equation of the

reactions.

Sol. Compound (B) gives effervescence with NaHCO3

solution. Hence it is a dicarboxylic acid, since it on

heating alone gives acetic acid and with soda-lime

CH4, it means two COOH in it are at different

carbon atoms.

COONa

COOH 2NaHCO3

CH2

CH2

+ 2CO2 +2H2O

COONa

COOH

COOH

(D)

(C)

CH3

H+

CH3

OH

C

(D)

CH3 C COOH

2-hydroxy-2-methyl propanoic acid

OH

CH3 C COOH

2-bromo-2-methyl propanoic acid

indicates that the reaction (B) to (C) is Hell-VolhardZelinsky reaction.

Thus we have :

Br

Br2/P CH3

H

CH3

C

C

COOH

CH3

COOH

CH

3

COOH

compound (B) is obtained by oxidation has the

structure :

CH3 CH CHO

(B)

CH3

Soda-lime

2-methyl propanal

acetone and isobutyraldehyde propanal), i.e.,

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

O

O3

CH3

CH3

H2O

Zn

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH4 + 2CO2

(A)

CH3

Propane 1,3-diol

3[O]

C CH CH CH3

OO

CH2

COOH

COOH

+ H2O

(B)

which is a synthetic reagent of high importance.

COOH

COOC2H5

CH2

CH2

+ C2H5OH

COOH

COOC2H5

2H2O

C = O + CH3 CH CHO

CH3

Hence the compounds (A), (B), (C) and (D) are as

follows :

CH3COOH + CO2

should be 1,3-dichloro propane.

CH2Cl 2NaOH(aq.)

CH2OH

CH2

CH2

CH2Cl (2NaCl)

CH2OH

2[O]

C = O + O = HC CH CH3

C = CH CH

CH3

2,4-dimethyl pentene-2

(B)

34

Malonic ester

OCTOBER 2009

COOH LiAlH

4

COOH 2H2O CH2

CH2

(B)

CH2OH

CH2OH

CH2Cl

2SOCl2

CH2

2SO2; 2HCl

elements named for places or regions. Ytterby in

Sweden has given its name to four elements:

Erbium, Terbium, Ytterbium and Yttrium.

CH2Cl

(A)

CH2Cl

CH2Cl

(B) CH2

COOH

COOH

5.

H. Its vapour density is 47. It gives characteristic

colour with FeCl3 solution. Compound (A) when

treated with CO2 and NaOH at 140 C under pressure

gives (B), which on acidification gives (C). (C) reacts

with phenol in presence of POCl3 to give (D), which

is a well known antiseptic. (C) also reacts with

methanol in presence of H2SO4 to give (E), which is

used as a hair tonic. What are (A) to (E) ? Explain the

reaction involved.

Sol. (i) Calculation of empirical and molecular formula of

(A).

of California at Berkeley

Europium : Europe

Francium : France

for Lecoq de Boisbaudran, the element's

discoverer (Lecoq in Latin is gallus)

Element

Relative no.

of atoms

Simplest

ratio

76.6

76.6

= 6.38

12

6.38

=6

1.06

6.38

6.38

= 6.38

1

6.38

=6

1.06

Germanium : Germany

1.06

=1

1.06

17.02

17.02

= 1.06

16

Greece

Polonium : Poland

province

CH3OH

Conc. H2SO4

north (Scandinavia?)

Empirical formula wt. = 94

Molecular wt. = V.D. 2

= 47 2 = 94

So, molecular formula of (A) is C6H6O

(ii) Since (A) gives colour with FeCl3, hence it is

phenol.

(iii) All the reactions are :

OH

OH

COONa HCl

CO2 + NaOH

140C

(A)

OH

COOH

NaCl

(B)

OH

COOCH3

(C)

(E)

Methyl salicylate

Oil of winter green

(Hair tonic)

C6H5OH/POCl3

OH

COOC6H5

HCl

(D)

Antiseptic (Salol)

35

OCTOBER 2009

Set

`t{xt|vt V{txzx

This section is designed to give IIT JEE aspirants a thorough grinding & exposure to variety

of possible twists and turns of problems in mathematics that would be very helpful in facing

IIT JEE. Each and every problem is well thought of in order to strengthen the concepts and

we hope that this section would prove a rich resource for practicing challenging problems and

enhancing the preparation level of IIT JEE aspirants.

By : Shailendra Maheshwari

S ol ut i o ns wi l l be p ubl i s he d i n ne x t i s s ue

Joint Director Academics, Career Point, Kota

1.

(ax) (by) (c z) (ax + by + cz), where a, b, c are

known positive quantities and a x, b y, c z are

also positive?

2.

xf (x) + f(x) = g(x), where f(x) and g(x) are

continuous functions. If f(x) is decreasing function

for all x R+, then prove that

using mathematical induction) (n2 1)n is divisible

by 24. Here n > 1.

Maths Facts

3.

intercepts of length p on the coordinate axes, then

find the range of p.

with letters in alphabetical order, while "one"

is the only one with letters in reverse order.

4.

centre O. B divides the arc AC in the ratio 2 : 1. If

1 googol = 10100;

1 googolplex = 10 googol = 1010100 .

OA = a and OB = b , find OC .

5.

= 12345678 9 87654321

random. Prove that the chance of their sum being

even is greater than that of their sum being odd.

6.

3x + 2y + 10 = 0 such that |PA PB| is maximum

when A is (4, 2) and B is (2, 4).

7.

circle at the pairs of points

P1, Q1; P2, Q2; ...., Pn, Qn.

Show that AP1 . AQ1 = AP2 . AQ2 = ....

= APn . AQn

as a fraction.

consecutively (1+2+3+4+5...) the total is

5050.

the values of the numbers of factors they have.

8.

AB= BA. Prove that ABT = ATB.

long; more than the number of atoms in the

universe.

9.

If a2 + b2 + c2 = 1, b + ic = (1 + a) z, prove that

1 + iz

a + ib

=

, where a, b, c are real numbers and z

1 iz

1+ c

is a complex number.

decimal point can keep going forever, and

there is no pattern to these digits at all.

36

OCTOBER 2009

MATHEMATICAL CHALLENGES

SOLUTION FOR SEPTEMBER ISSUE (SET # 5)

1.

2.

Q(a,a)

& S2 a2x2 + 2h2xy + b2 y2 + 2g2x + 2f2y + c2 = 0

be the rectangular hyperbolas. So

a1 + b1 = 0 & a2 + b2 = 0

Now S1 + S2 = 0 represents the conics through their

points of intersection i.e. A, B, C and D. The sum of

coefficient of x2 & y2 in it is

(a1 + a2) + (b1 + b2) = (a1 + b1) + (a2 + b2) = 0

Hence, it will also be rectangular hyperbola. Now for

when it represents pair of straight lines then also

sum of coeff. of x2 & y2 will be zero. Hence those

lines will be perpendicular. So AD & BC will be

perpendicular. Similarly BD & AC and CD & AB

will also pairs of perpendicular lines. Hence D will

be orthocentre of triangle ABC. In fact orthocentre of

triangle forms by any of 3 of these points will be the

fourth point.

h2 + k2

k2 + h

h2 + k2

= a2 +

h

2

2

2.

s

= r2 + 2Rr

3.

2

2

2a h + k

h2 + k2

h

h2 + k2

h

(x2 + y2) (x 2a) + a2x = 0

a2 = (h 2a)

4.

f(x) = x4 + 2x3 + 3x2 + 4x + 5 = 0

f (x) = 4x3 + 6x2 + 6x + 4 = 0

4(x + 1) (4x2 + 4 4x + 6x) = 0

(x + 1) (4x2 + 2x + 4) = 0

x = 1 is only real root

& f(1) = 1 2 + 3 4 + 5 = 3 > 0

no real root of f(x).

Now let z = iy be the purely imaginary roots then

y4 2iy3 3y2 + 4iy + 5 = 0

so y4 3y2 + 5 = 0 and 2y3 + 3y2 = 0 must have

simultaneous solution which is not possible.

as y = 0, y = 3/2 are the roots of 2nd but they do not

satisfy.

5.

L.H.S.

2R

.R; 2 = 1 +

r

s

r

k

1

k

& m2(PR) =

=

h

m1

+ h

so m1m2 = 1

k

k

.

=1

h + h

so

h = h2 + k2

k2 = +h h2;

h2 + k2

h2 + k2

=

so point R is

, 0

h

m1(OQ) =

2(h2 + k2)

k2 + h2 a2 = 2(h2 + k2) 2a

a2 + b2 = c2

a + b + c = 2s

a + b = 2(s R) as c = 2R

a2 + b2 + 2ab = 4(s R)2 = 4R2 + 2ab

ab = 2(s R)2 2R2 = 2s2 4sR

2 = 2s2 4sR

2

2

= a h + k

h2 + k2

k2 + h2 +

h

=r

s

abc

= R;

4

A

c = 2R;

(h,k) r

O

R A(a,0)

(b,0)

a2

a

y

=

x=

x

y

a

y a ln (a 2 / y)

f +

a y a2 / y

I=

a 1

f a + y y (ln a

a 2 dy

y2

lny) dy

37

OCTOBER 2009

Since both roots of f(x) = 0 lie in (1, 4), hence

D = (a2 + 1)2 16 0

dy

x a

I = f + (2ln a lny)

a

x

y

dx

x a

I=

2I = f + (lna)

a

x

x

6.

a (, 3 ) ( 3 , )

and f(1) > 0 1 (a2 + 1) 4 > 0

a (2, 2)

and f(4) > 0 16 (a2 + 1) 4 + 4 > 0

a (2, 2)

x a lna

f +

dx

a x x

0

variable line be

| m + c | | m + c |

.

= a; where

y = mx + c as given

1+ m2

1+ m2

'a' is a constant.

so |c2 m22| = a (1 + m2)

...(1)

Now let foot of the perpendicular from (, 0) be (h, k)

h

1

k

then c = k mh &

=

m=

m

k

h

and

k2

(h ) 2

k2

2 = a 1+

y = f(x) =

e zx z dz =

9.

zx

ze zx .e z dz + 1 =

(2, 0)

(5, 0)

1/3

(0,3(4) )

x = 2 is local min.

x = 0 is local max.

f(x) is non diff. at x = 0

f(0) = 0

f(2) = 25/3 5.22/3.(2 5) = 3.22/3 = 3(4)1/3

f(x) = x2/3 (x 5)

f(x) passes through (0, 0), (5, 0)

If x5/3 5x2/3 = k has exactly one positive root then

from sketch.

k>0

.e z dz

2

1 zx

e (2ze z ) dz + 1

2

2

2

1

= (e z . e zx ) 0x xe z . e zx dz + 1

2

1

1

dy

xy = 1

= xy + 1

2

2

dx

I.F. = e 2

solution is

y . e x

y = ex

/4

=

x

/4

dx

= ex

ex

z 2 / 4

element

similarly there will be 98C49 subsets in which 2 will

be least element

so

p min = 1.99C49 + 2.98C49 + 3.97C49 + .... + 51.49C49

/4

px

/4

dx =

z2 / 4

..... + 51(1+x)49]

1

1

(1 + x ) 51 51(1 + x ) 48

= Coeff. of (1 + x)99

1

1

1

1

1

+

x

1

+

x

dz

dz proved.

8.

a2 7

Since

+

= 2

1

1

a 4

= Coeff. of

(1 + x ) 99 (1 + x ) 48

51(1 + x ) 49

x

x2

(1 + x ) 2

51

= coeff. of x in [(1 + x)101 (1 + x)50]

+ coeff. of x50 in 51(1 + x)49

101

= C51 0 + 0 = 101C51

2 ( + )

a2 7

= 2

+ 1 ( + )

a 4

as given = 4, so + = a2 + 1

Hence the equation is x2 (a2 + 1) x + 4 = 0

5 2/3 10 1/3 5 ( x 2)

x

x

=

3 x1 / 3

3

3

sign. dia of f(x)

+

+

2

0

k2

...(4)

f(x) =

(h ) 2

y =

7)

Hence a (2, 3 ] [ 3 , 2)

|k2 + h2 h + h 2| |k2 + h2 h h + 2 |

= a(k2 + (h )2)

so x2 + y2 = (2 + a)

7.

...(3)

a +1

(1, 4) 1 <

<4

2

2a

a ( 7 , 1) (1,

h(h )

k 2 + h 2 h

=

k

k

use these in (1)

...(2)

so c = k +

( k 2 + h 2 h ) 2

...(1)

38

OCTOBER 2009

Students' Forum

Experts Solution for Question asked by IIT-JEE Aspirants

MATHS

1.

also

(9

2t

2.9 t ) dt 0

(9

2t

2.9 ) dt 0

0

| a b |

1 + 1 + 2 + 1 2

2

+ 2

1 2

where, 1

2

0

a

3.

E( 0)

B( b)

2 =

| a b |

2

(1 + 1 2 ) 2

| a b | | 1 2 |

2

2 +

f(x) and if P be product of roots of the equation

S

f(x) = 0, then find the value of , given that :

P

1 x

1

2 x

f(x) = (x 1) 2 x 3 x ,

2

2

3

3

1

1

1

( x 1) x x ... x

2

3

25

1 1

1

12, 22, 32, ..... , 252 and 1, , , .....,

2 3

25

Now f(x) is the polynomial of degree 50,

So coefficient of x49 will be :

S = (sum of roots)

1 2 ...(i)

1

| a b | +

2

x

x

x

f(x) = ( x 1) 2 3 ... 25

2

3

25

and

| a b |

+

2

1 + 2 1 2 + 1 2

1

x

......... 25 x

25

25

C(1 , a )

| a b |

1

| a b || 1 2 | =

2

2

1

1

2 = | E B EA | = | a b |

2

2

| a b |

2

case side AB and DC will become parallel.

where , 2 R+

1

Now, 1 = | E C E D | = 1 2 | a b |

2

2

1 =

quadrilateral ABCD. Also discuss the case when the

equality holds.

Sol. Let the position vector of the points A, B, C and and

A (a )

(1 + 1 )(1 + 2 )

space having E as the point of intersection of its

diagonals. If 1 and 2 be the areas of triangles DEC

and AEB, using vector method prove that

D ( 2 , b )

| a b |

2

92t

2.9 t

0 9 2 t + ( 49) t

2 log 9 log 9

a

2a

a

9 4.9 + 3 0 t2 4t + 3 0;

where t = 9a and t (1, )

(t 1) (t 3) 0

t 1 or t 3 is possible as t > 1.

1

9a 3 a ; |3a 3 a 1

2

2.

(1 + 1 )(1 + 2 )

1

| A C B D | =

| a b |

2

2

Sol. Here

...(ii)

39

OCTOBER 2009

1

1 1

= (12 + 22 + ... + 252) 1 + + + .... +

25

2 3

25

1

25 26 51

=

+ K where, K =

n

6

n =1

S = (K + 5525).

Product of roots :

1 1

1

12 . 22 . 32 .... 252 . 1 .

.

....

= 1 . 2 . 3 ...25

2 3

25

P = 25 !

Hence

S

(K + 5525)

=

, where K =

P

25!

25

O

C

n

n =1

PA.PD =

4

4 2

=

{from (i) and (ii)}

sin 2

4 cos 2 + 9 sin 2

8 2

4

=

sin 2

4(1 + cos 2) + 9(1 cos 2)

1

2

=

sin 2

13 5 cos 2

13 = 5 cos 2 + 2 sin 2

42

25 + 4 2

169 25

4 2 + 25 13 2

= 36

4

(, 6] [6, )

a 2 + b2 + c2

Equality holds only when

ax + by + cz

2

x

y

z

= 2

=

=

= 2

2

2

a

b

c

a +b +c

a + b2 + c2

The minimum value of is ;

a 2 + b2 + c2

5.

suppose that both f(1) and f(2) are odd. Then, prove

that for any integer n, f(n) 0.

Sol. Suppose f(x) = 0 for some integer n.

Then (x n) divides f(x)

So;

f(x) = (x n) g (x)

Now, f(1) = (1 n) . g(1) and f(2) = (2 n) g (2)

Now g (1) and g(2) are both integers, and one of

(1 n) or (2 n) is even.

So one of f(1) or f(2) is even, which is contradictory,

so there is no integer n, for which f(n) = 0

6.

a 2 + b2 + c2

x 2 y2

= 1 at the points

+

9

4

A and D. Same line meets the x-axis and y-axis at the

points B and C respectively. Find the range of values

of '' such that PA. PD = PB.PC.

Sol. We have been given,

drawn to meet the ellipse

4 2

...(i)

(4 cos 2 + 9 sin 2 )

Similarly, putting x = r cos + , y = r sin + 2 in

the equation of coordinate axis i.e. xy = 0

(r cos + ). (r sin + 2) = 0

r2 sin cos + r (2 cos + sin ) + 2 = 0

Since PB and PC and the roots of this quadratic in 'r',

2

4

=

...(ii)

we get,

PB.PC =

sin cos

sin 2

Thus, we get

x

B

C

where is the area of ABC.

We have the identity :

(x2 + y2 + z2) (a2 + b2 + c2) (ax + by + cz)2

= (ax by)2 + (by cz)2 + (cz ax)2

2

2

(x + y + z2)(a2 + b2 + c2) (ax + by + cz)2

(x2 + y2 + z2) (a2 + b2 + c2 42

42

PA.PD = PB.PC

Equation of any line through point 'P' is :

x

y2

=

=r

cos

sin

or x = + r cos , y = 2 + r sin

Putting this point in the equation of given ellipse, we get

4(r cos + )2 + 9(2 + r sin )2 = 36

r2 (4 cos2 + 9 sin2) + 4r (9 sin + 2 cos )

+ 4 2 = 0

Since PA and PD are the roots of this quadratic in r,

we get

of the squares of distance to the three side is

minimum. Find also the minimum value of the sum

of squares of distance.

Sol. If a, b, c are the lengths of the sides of the and x, y,

z are length of perpendicular from the points on the

sides BC, CA and AB respectively, we have to

minimise : = x2 + y2 + z2

1

1

1

we have, ax + by + cz =

2

2

2

ax + by + cz = 2

A

x2 + y2 + z-2

4.

P(,2)

A

40

OCTOBER 2009

MATH

DIFFERENTIABILITY

Mathematics Fundamentals

Limits :

Theorems of Limits :

If f(x) and g(x) are two functions, then

(i)

(ii)

(x)

1

1

3

5

x a

x a

x a

x a

x a

x a

(i)

lim f ( x )

f (x)

= x a

if lim g ( x ) 0

(iii) lim

x a g ( x )

x a

lim g( x )

x a

(ii)

x a

(v)

lim f ( x ) =

(vi) lim f ( x )

x a

p/q

lim f ( x )

f ( x )

= xlim

a

(iv) lim

x 0

(v)

integers.

Some important expansions :

(i)

lim cos x = 1

x 0

sin x

x

= 1 = lim

x 0 x

x 0 sin x

x a

p/q

lim sin x = 0

x 0

(iii) lim

x a

x a

1 x3 1 3 x5 1 3 5 x7

+ . . + . . .

+ ......

sin1x = x + .

2 3 2 4 5 2 4 6 7

log(1 + x )

=1

x 0

x

lim

(vi) lim e x = 1

x 0

x3 x5 x7

sin x = x

+

+ ....

3! 5! 7 !

e x 1

=1

x 0

x

(vii) lim

x 2 x 4 x 6

+ ....

(ii) cos x = 1

2

!

4

!

6

!

(viii) lim

x3 x5

(iii) sin h x = x +

+

+ ....

3! 5!

(ix) lim

a x 1

= logea

x 0

x

xn an

= nan1

x a x a

x

x 2 x 4

+

+ ....

(iv) cos h x = 1 +

2! 4!

(x)

a

(xii) lim 1 + = ea

x

x

, if a > 1

(xiii) lim a n =

x

0, if a < 1

x2 x3

+

+ ....

(vii) ex = 1 + x +

2 ! 3!

(1 + x ) n 1

=n

x 0

x

(xiv) lim

x

(viii) ax = 1 + x log a +

(log a ) 2 + ....

2!

sin 1 x

tan 1 x

= 1 = lim

x 0

x 0

x

x

(xv) lim

(ix) (1 x) = {1 + x + x + x + ......}

x 0

x 2 x3 x 4

+

+ ....

(vi) log(1 + x) = x

2

3

4

1

1

lim 1 + = e = lim 1 +

x

x

x

x

(xi) lim (1 + x )1 / x = e

x 3 2x 5

(v) tan x = x +

+

+ ....

3

15

tan x

x

= 1 = lim

x 0 tan x

x

41

OCTOBER 2009

helps to obtain the limit of the function.

Continuity :

x a

x a

x a

x a

x a

discontinuous at a point a of its domain D if is not

continuous there at. The point a is then called a point

of discontinuity of the function. The discontinuity

may arise due to any of the following situations:

x e

(xx) lim

x 0

1

1 cos x

=

2

2

x

x a

x a

(xxi) lim (f ( x )) g ( x ) = l

x a +

x a

x a

x a +

x a

x a +

x a

x a

x a

(b) lim e f ( x ) = e xa

x a

x a

= el

1

= 0.

x a f ( x )

x a

x a +

the left at x = a if lim f ( x ) exists but not equal to

( x )

, factorise

x a ( x )

both (x) and (x), if possible, then cancel the

common factor involving a from the numerator and

the denominator. In the last obtain the limit by

substituting a for x.

By factorisation : To evaluate lim

x a

similarly defined.

Discontinuity of second kind : A function f is said

to have a discontinuity of the second kind at x = a if

neither lim f ( x ) nor lim f ( x ) exists.

x a

x a

x a +

the left at x = a if lim f ( x ) does not exist.

denominator, then cancel the common factor

involving h in the numerator and denominator. In the

last obtain the limit by substituting h = 0.

By L Hospital's rule : Apply L-Hospital's rule to

0

or

.

the form

0

x a

x a +

at x = a.

Differentiability :

f(x) is said to be differentiable at x = a if R = L

f (x )

f (x )

f n (x )

= lim

= lim n

x a g ( x )

x a g(x )

x a g ( x )

lim

f (a + h ) f (a )

f (a h ) f (a )

= Lt

h 0

h 0

h

h

Note : We discuss R, L or R, L at x = a when the

function is defined differently for x > a or x < a and

at x = a.

i.e. Lt

formulae can also be used with advantage in

simplification and evaluation of limits.

By rationalisation : In case if numerator or

denominator (or both) are irrational functions,

x a +

assigning a suitable value to the function f at x = a.

Discontinuity of the first kind : A function f is said

to have a discontinuity of the first kind at x = a if

lim f ( x ) and lim f ( x ) both exist but are not equal.

x a

x a

We classify the point of discontinuity according to

various situations discussed above.

Removable discontinuity : A function f is said to

have removable discontinuity at x = a if

x a

x a

lim f ( x )

x a

unequal.

a and lim f ( x ) = l = lim h ( x ) , then lim g ( x ) = l.

x a

x a

neighbourhood (nbd) of a, then lim f ( x ) lim g ( x ) .

x a

x a

42

OCTOBER 2009

MATH

HYPERBOLA

Mathematics Fundamentals

Here foot of normal is (am2, 2am)

The line y = mx + c may be tangent to the parabola if

c = a/m and may be normal to the parabola if

c = 2am am3.

Chord of contact at point (x1, y1) is

yy1 = 2a (x + x1)

Ellipse :

If a point moves in a plane in such a way that ratio of

its distances from a fixed point (focus) and a fixed

straight line (directrix) is always less than 1, i.e. e < 1

called an ellipse

Parabola :

The locus of a point which moves such that its

distance from a fixed point is equal to its distance

from a fixed straight line, i.e. e = 1 is called a

parabola.

P

M

Y

L

X

O

Y

N

S(a, 0)

P

Its equation in standard form is y2 = 4ax

(i) Focus S (a, 0)

(ii) Equation of directrix ZM is x + a = 0

(iii) Vertex is O (0, 0)

(iv) Axis of parabola is XOX

Some definitions :

Focal distance : The distance of a point on parabola

from focus is called focal distance. If P(x1, y1) is on

the parabola, then focal distance is x1 + a.

Focal chord : The chord of parabola which passes

through focus is called focal chord of parabola.

Latus rectum : The chord of parabola which passes

through focus and perpendicular to axis of parabola is

called latus rectum of parabola. Its length is 4a and

end points are L(a, 2a) and L(a, 2a).

Double ordinate : Any chord which is perpendicular

to the axis of the parabola is called its double

ordinate.

Equation of tangent at P(x1, y1) is

yy1 = 2a(x + x1)

and equation of tangent in slope form is

a2

y2

b2

=1

where b2 = a2 (1 e2)

Now, When a > b

M

B(0,b)

L1

Z

X

S

O (ae,0) S

A

A

(ae,0) (0,0)

(a,0)

(a,0)

L

B(0, b)

Z

X

In this position,

(i) Major axis 2a and minor axis 2b

(ii) Foci, S(ae, 0) and S(ae, 0) and centre O(0, 0)

(iii) Vertices A (a, 0) and A(a, 0)

(iv) Equation of directries ZM and ZM are

x

a

y = mx +

m

a

a

a

= 0, Z , 0 and Z , 0

e

e

2b 2

= LL = L1L1

a

The coordinates of points of intersection of line

y = mx + c and the ellipse are given by

a 2a

Here point of contact is 2 ,

m m

Equation of normal at P (x1, y1) is

y1

(x x1)

2a

and equation of normal in slope form is

y = mx 2am am3

y y1 =

x2

a 2m

b2

,

2

2 2

b2 + a 2m2

b +a m

43

OCTOBER 2009

2

the parallel chords of others are called conjugate

diameters. Therefore, the two diameters y = m1x and

y = mx b + a m

and the line y = mx + c is a tangent of the ellipse, if

2

c = b +a m

The length of chord cuts off by the ellipse from the

line y = mx + c is

where b2 = a2 (e2 1)

h2

k2

a2

y2

b2

= 1

B

O

S(ae,0)

Z

A (a,0)

X

L

Equation of directrices ZM and ZM are

a2

b2

a2

b2

The locus of point of intersection of two

perpendicular tangents drawn on the ellipse is

x2 + y2 = a2 + b2. This locus is a circle whose centre is

the centre of the ellipse and radius is length of line

joining the vertices of major and minor axis. This

circle is called "director circle".

The eccentric angle of point P on the ellipse is made

by the major axis with the line PO, where O is centre

of the ellipse.

(a) The sum of the focal distance of any point on an

ellipse is equal to the major axis of the ellipse.

(b) The point (x1, y1) lies outside, on or inside the

ellipse f(x, y) = 0 according as f(x1, y1) > = or < 0.

The locus of mid-point of parallel chords of an ellipse

x2

In this case,

i.e. T = S1

=1

y2

B

(0,b)

L1

yy1

ky

(0,b)

(ae,0)S

Z

X (a,0) A

=1

a

b2

Chord whose mid-point is (h, k) is

hx

b2

(0,0)

M

L1

equation of normal is

ax sec by cosec = a2 b2

Focal distance of a point P(x1, y1) are a ex1

Chord of contact at point (x1, y1) is

+

x2

y2

( x x 1 )a 2

( y y1 )b 2

=

x1

y1

= 1 in

a2

b2

having b , most of the results proved for the ellipse

are true for the hyperbola, if we replace b2 by b2 in

their proofs. We therefore, give below the list of

corresponding results applicable in case of hyperbola.

y sin

x cos

+

=1

b

a

Parametric equations of the ellipse are

x = a cos and y = b sin .

The equation of normal at any point (x1, y1) on the

ellipse is

xx1

x2

yy1

greater than 1, i.e. e > 1, then the conic is said to be

hyperbola.

=1

a

b2

and at the point (a cos , b sin ) on the ellipse, the

tangents is

2

a2

Hyperbola :

2ab 1 + m 2 . a 2 m 2 + b 2 c 2

b 2 + a 2m 2

The equation of tangent at any point (x1, y1) on the

ellipse is

xx 1

b2

x m

a

a

a

= 0, Z , 0 and Z , 0

e

e

e

Centre O (0, 0).

Length of latus rectum LL = L1L1 =

2b 2

a

P(x1, y1) on hyperbola remains constant and is equal

to the length of transverse axis. i.e.

SP ~ SP = (ex1 + a) (ex1 a) = 2a

The equation of rectangular hyperbola

x2 y2 = a2 = b2 i.e. in standard form of hyperbola put

b2x

a = b. Hence e =

a 2m

44

OCTOBER 2009

IIT-JEE 2010

XtraEdge Test Series # 6

Time : 3 Hours

Syllabus : Physics : Calorimetry, K.T.G., Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, Thermal expansion, Transverse wave, Sound

wave, Doppler's effect, Atomic Structure, Radioactivity, X-ray, Nuclear Physics, Matter Waves, Photoelectric Effect,

Practical Physics. Chemistry : Chemical Equilibrium, Acid Base, Ionic Equilibrium, Classification & Nomenclature,

Isomerism , Hydrogen Family, Boron Family & Carbon Family, S-block elements, Nitrogen Family, Oxygen Family,

Halogen Family & Noble Gas, Salt Analysis, Metallurgy, Co-ordination Compounds, Transitional Elements.

Mathematics: Point, Straight line, Circle, Parabola, Ellipse, Hyperbola, Vector, 3-D, Probability, Determinants, Matrices.

Instructions :

Section - I

Question 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions with only one correct answer. +3 marks will be awarded for correct

answer and -1 mark for wrong answer.

Question 10 to 13 are Reason and Assertion type questions with only one correct answer in each. +3 marks will be

awarded for correct answer and -1 mark for wrong answer.

Question 14 to 19 are passage based single correct type questions. +4 marks will be awarded for correct answer and

-1 mark for wrong answer.

Section - II

Question 20 to 22 are Column Matching type questions. +6 marks will be awarded for the complete correctly

matched answer and No Negative marks for wrong answer. However, 1 mark will be given for a correctly

A

PHYSICS

Process1

question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of

which ONLY ONE is correct.

1.

2.

3.

Process2

O

(A) m1 = m2

(C) m1 < m2

many solids at low temperature T varies according to

the relation c = T3, where is a constant. The heat

energy required to raise the temperature of 4 kg mass

from T = 1 K to T = 3K is

(A) 208 (B) 20 (C) 80

(D) 8

A system is taken from state A to B along two

different paths 1 and 2. The work done on the system

along these two paths is W1 and W2 respectively. The

heat absorbed by the system along these two paths is

Q1 and Q2 respectively. The internal energy at A and

B is UA and UB respectively

(A) W1 = W2 = UB UA

(B) Q1 = Q2 = UA UB

(C) Q1 + W1 = Q2 + W2 = UA + UB

(D) Q1 + W2 = Q2 + W1 = UB UA

The indicator diagram for two processes 1 and 2

carried on an ideal gas is shown in figure. If m1 and

m2 be the slopes (dP/dV) for Process 1 and Process 2

respectively, then

45

(B) m1 > m2

(D) None of these

4.

where symbols have their usual meanings. If vp is the

maximum particle velocity and v is the wave velocity

of the wave then

(A) vp can never be equal to v

(B) vp = v for = 2A

(C) vp = v for = A/2

A

(D) vp = v for =

5.

stretched so that its extension is L. The speed of the

transverse wave tavelling on the string is v. If the

string is further stretched so that the extension in the

string becomes 4L. The speed of transverse wave

traveling on the string will be

1

1

(A)

v (B) 2 v (C) v

(D) 2 2 v

2

2

OCTOBER 2009

6.

7.

Reason : Total binding energy of the fission

fragments is larger than the total binding energy of

the parents nucleus.

(B)

tube in increased, the wavelength of the characteristic

X-ray do not change.

Reason : When an electron beam strikes the target in

an X-ray tube, part of kinetic energy is converted into

X-ray energy.

(D)

(C)

9.

for adiabatic expansion would be a monotonically

decreasing curve.

Reason : The slope of an adiabatic process

represented on T-V graph is always + ve.

is and that of the other is 5. The decay products in

both cases are stable. A plot is made of the total

number of radioactive nuclei as a function of time.

Which of the following figures best represents the

form of this plot ?

N

N

(A)

8.

wire the energy of each element of wire remains

constant.

Reason : The net energy transfer in a standing wave

is zero.

20 kV and 10 mA current flows through the voltage

supply. Only 0.5% of the energy carried by the

electrons striking the target is converted into X-rays.

The power carried by X-ray beam is P.

(A) P = 0.1 W

(B) P = 1 W

(C) P = 2 W

(D) P = 10 W

via the processes 1H2 + 1H2 1H3 + p and 1H2 + 1H3

2He4 + n. If the average power radiated by the star

is 1016 W, the deutron supply of the star is exhausted

in a time of the order of

(The masses of nuclei are : m(H2) = 2.014 u,

m(p) = 1.007 u, m(n) = 1.008 u, m(He4) = 4.001 u)

(A) 106 s (B) 108 s (C) 1012 s

(D) 1016 s

choice questions. (Question 14 to 19) Each question has

4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE

is correct.

Passage : I (No. 14 to 16)

In the following figure the spring is at its natural

length. In both the chambers 'n' moles of monoatomic

gas is filled at temperature T. Heat is supplied to the

right chamber. Piston is non-conducting and vessel is

non-conducting. Temperature of the left chamber

does not change. Piston is displaced by L/4.

has total energy of 3.4 eV. If the kinetic energy of

the electron is E and its de Broglie wavelength is ,

then

(A) E = 6.8 eV, ~ 6.6 1010 m

(B) E = 3.4 eV, ~ 6.6 1010 m

(C) E = 3.4 eV, ~ 6.6 1011 m

(D) E = 6.8 eV, ~ 6.6 1011 m

n, T

K

(Assertion and Reason type question). Each question

has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY

ONE is correct.

Use the following Key to choose the appropriate

answer.

(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the

correct explanation of (A).

(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the

correct explanation of (A).

(C) If (A) is true, but (R) is false.

(D) If (A) is false, but (R) is true.

n, T

(A) 2T +

5 LK 2

16 nR

(C) 2T/3 +

5KL2

16nR

(B) T/3 +

KL2

16nR

(D) 2T/3 +

5KL2

nR

(A) nRT +

15

KL2

32

46

KL2

32

15

(D) 3nRT +

KL2

32

(B) nRT +

OCTOBER 2009

2

(C)

2

(A) 2nRT +

KL

2

(B) nRT +

KL

2

(C) 3nRT +

KL2

32

(D) nRT +

KL2

32

(D)

Two hydrogen like atoms A and B are of different

masses and each atom contains equal number of

protons and neutrons. The energy difference between

the radiation corresponding to first Balmer lines

emitted A and B is 5.667 eV when A & B moving

with the same velocity, strikes a heavy target they

rebound back with the same velocity. In this process

the atom B imparts twice the momentum to the target

the A imparts.

(D) 4

(A) 2, 4

(B) 4, 2

(C) 2, 1

(D) 4, 1

The section contains 3 questions (Questions 20 to 22).

Each question contains statements given in two

columns which have to be matched. Statements (A, B,

C, D) in Column I have to be matched with statements

(P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to these

questions have to be appropriately bubbled as

illustrated in the following example. If the correct

matches are A-P, A-S, B-Q, B-R, C-P, C-Q and D-S,

then the correctly 4 4 matrix should be as follows :

P Q R S

A P Q R S

B P Q R S

transferred versus

temperature is

Amplitude of the

resultant wave

will vary

periodically with

position

(S)

Amplitude of the

resultant wave

will vary

periodically with

time

(S)

Column -I

Column-II

(A) An electron moves in (P) Total Energy

an orbit in a Bohr

Potential Energy

=

atom

2

(B) As a satellite moves (Q) Kinetic Energy =

in a circular orbit

Magnitude

of

around total earth

Energy

(C) In Rutherford's - (R) Motion in under a

central force

scattering experiment,

as an -particle

moves in the electric

field of a nucleus

(D) As an object, release (S) Mechanical energy

from some height

is coserved

above ground, falls

towards

earth,

assuming negligible

air resistance

C P Q R S

D P Q R S

y1 = (0.2m) sin 504 (t x/300) and y2 = (0.6 m) sin

490 (t x/300) are superimposed. Consider another

situation (ii) that two sound waves, y1 = (0.2m) sin

504(t x/300)

y2 = (0.4 m) sin 504(t + x/300), are superimposed.

Match the Column-I with Column-II :

Column -I

Column-II

(A) In situation (i)

(P) Stationary waves

are formed

(B) In situation (ii)

(Q) There will be the

phenomenon of

'Beats'

(R)

C = AT, where A is a constant, T is temperature. The

substance is heated from 27C to 127C. Unit of A is

J/kg/K2. Then match quantities in column I to that in

column II.

Column -I

Column-II

(A) Mean specific heat in the (P) 400 A

range 27C to 127C is

(B) Actual specific heat at (Q) 350 A

127C is

(C) Graph of specific heat (R)

versus temperature is

(A) 27.2 eV

(B) 13.6 eV

(C) 10.2 eV

(D) 54.4 eV

18. Atomic number of atom A is

(A) 1

(B) 2

(C) 3

same frequency and

amplitude

and

travelling in opposite

directions

superimpose

If the intensity of

sound

alternately

increases

and

decreases periodically

as

a

result

of

superposition

of

waves of slightly

different frequencies

47

OCTOBER 2009

CHEMISTRY

5.

O

O

a

OH

H

SH

OH

OH

d

c

b

(A) a

(B) b

(C) c

(D) d

6.

gas X which is used as gaseous insulator in high

power generators. It does not get hydrolysed. Another

compound is obtained by reaction of sulphur

dichloride with NaF. It can be easily hydrolysed and

has see-saw shape. X and Y respectively are

(A) AgI, AgBr

(B) SF6, SF4

(C) SF4, SF6

(D) SCl4,SCl6

7.

(A) SiO bond is stronger than CO bond

(B) Dimethyl ether acts as better lewis base but not

disilyl ether

(C) (CH3)3SiO is more stable than (CH3)3CO

(D) All of these

8.

question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of

which ONLY ONE is correct.

1.

2.

3.

[Ag(CN)2]

Ag+ + 2CN

The equilibrium constant at 25 C is 4 1019. If a

solution is 0.1 M in KCN and 0.03 M in AgNO3

originally, at equilibrium, the concentration of Ag+ is

(A) 7.5 1016 M

(B) 7.5 1018 M

19

(C) 1.25 10 M

(D) 1.25 1017

At 25 C, solubility product of Zn(OH)2 is 1014. If

NH4OH is 50% dissociated, then the concentration of

Zn2+ in its 0.1 M solution is

(A) 2 1012

(B) 1 1014

12

(C) 10

(D) 4 1012

Which of the following pairs of compounds will have

identical B.P ?

Me

Me

(A) H

Cl

&

Et

Me

H

CH2Cl

OH & H

Br

Br

CH3

H

H

OH

&

H

OH

HO

OH

(C) H

H

Me

Yellow

solution

(C)

Orange

Coloured

(D)

(A) FeSO4, FeCl3, Fe(OH)3, PbCl2

(B) FeCl2, FeSO4, Fe(OH)3, PbSO4

(C) Cr2O3, Na2CrO4, Na2Cr2O7, PbCrO4

(D) FeSO4, Fe2(CO3)2, Fe(OH)3, PbCO3

OH

OH

Me

9.

Me

(A) Me CH = C = CH Me is optically active

Me

H

C

is optically inactive

(B)

Me

Me

(C) All the compounds having chiral centre with L.P.

as one of the group, are non-resolvable.

(D) All geometrical isomers are diastereomers

H2SO4 + H2O

Evaporation

Yellow ppt.

4.

(B)

Pb (CH3COO)2

CH3

Me

CH3

Me

fused Na2CO3

+ air

Green

Solid

OH

CH3

(B)H

(A)

coloured solution containing polyatomic sulphur

cation is obtained. The formula of cation present is

(A) S 24 +

(B) S82 +

2+

(C) S19

2+

(D) S16

(Assertion and Reason type question). Each question

has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY

ONE is correct.

48

OCTOBER 2009

(A) Al(CH3)3

(B) CH3Li

(C) Si(CH3)4

(D) Be(CH3)2

answer.

(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the

correct explanation of (A).

(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the

correct explanation of (A).

(C) If (A) is true, but (R) is false.

(D) If (A) is false, but (R) is true.

A black coloured compound (A) on reaction with dil

H2SO4 form a gas 'B' and a solution of compound

(C). When gas B is passed through solution of

compound (C), a black coloured compound 'A' is

obtained which is soluble in 50% HNO3 and forms

blue coloured complex 'D' with excess of NH4OH

and chocolate brown ppt. 'E' with K4[Fe(CN)6]

Reason : Colour of KMnO4 is due to charge transfer.

11. Assertion : [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 reacts with excess of

AgNO3 to form 2 moles of AgCl (white ppt)

Reason : [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 gives 2 moles of Cl which

react with AgNO3 to forms 2 moles of AgCl.

17. 'A' is

(A) CuS

(C) PbS

but dissolves in NaF.

Reason : NaF produces free F

18. 'D' is

(A) Cu(OH)2

(B) [Cu(NH3)2]SO4

(C) [Cu(NH3)4](NO.3)2 (D) [Cu(NH3)6]SO4

Reason : Cu+ ion undergoes disproportionation in

aqueous solution.

19. 'E' is

(A) Cu2[Fe(CN)6]

(C) Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2

choice questions. (Question 14 to 19) Each question has

4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE

is correct.

Each question contains statements given in two

columns which have to be matched. Statements (A, B,

C, D) in Column I have to be matched with statements

(P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to these

questions have to be appropriately bubbled as

illustrated in the following example. If the correct

matches are A-P, A-S, B-Q, B-R, C-P, C-Q and D-S,

then the correctly 4 4 matrix should be as follows :

P Q R S

A P Q R S

B P Q R S

The stability of complexes depend upon stability

constant. Higher the value of stability constant, more

will be stability of complex. It can also be determined

with the help of dissociation constant. Higher the

value of dissociation constant, lesser will be stability.

Smaller cation, with higher charge can form more

stable complex. Stronger the ligand, more stable will

be complex. Polydentate ligands form more stable

complex than unidentate ligand. If multidentate

ligand is cyclic, it further increases the stability, it is

called macrocyclic effect.

(B) [Cu4[Fe(CN)6]

(D) None of these

C P Q R S

D P Q R S

Column -I

(A) Compound show

Geometrical

isomerism

(A) exothermic, decrease in entropy

(B) endothermic, decrease in entropy

(C) exothermic, increase in entropy

(D) endothermic, increase in entropy

(B)

Compound is chiral

plane of symmetry

(D) Compound having

centre of symmetry

(A) [Co(en)3]3+

(B) [Co(NH3)6]3+

3+

(D) [CoF6]3

(C) [Co(H2O)6]

(B) FeS

(D) HgS

49

Column-II

(P)

Me

(Q)

(R)

(S)

Me

H

Me

H

Me

H

Me

Me

=C H

Me

C=C H

H

Me

OCTOBER 2009

Column -I

(A) Two electron three centre

bond

(B) Four electron three centre

bond

(C) sp3 hybrid orbitals

(D) Inorganic graphite

22. Match the following :

Column -I

(A) KHCO3

(P)

(B) NaHCO3

(Q)

(C) LiHCO3

(R)

(S)

(D) NH4HCO3

(A) (2, 1)

(C) (3/2, 2)

Column-II

(P) (BN)x

(Q)

B2H6

(R)

(S)

AlCl3

B4H10

5.

3.

Column-II

Exists in solid state

Soluble in water

Hydrogen bonding

Dimeric anion

6.

is circumscribed about the triangle OAB. If m and n

are the distances of the tangent to the circle at the

origin from the points A and B respectively, the

diameter of the circle is

(A) m(m + n)

(B) m + n

(C) n(m + n)

(D) (1/2) (m + n)

4.

y2

(A)

a 2 + b2

a

a 2 + b2

(B)

(C)

a 2 + b2

b

a 2 + b2

(D)

(D) sin =

11 7

70

|a|

(D)

a (a b)

| b |2

equations

(k + 1)x + 8y = 4k, kx + (k + 3)y = 3k 1 has no

solution is

(A) 0

(B) 3

(C) 2

(D) infinite

8.

and

l 1 m1 n1

= l2

m2

n 2 then

l3

m3

n3

(B) || = 2

(D) = 0

integers 1, 2, 3, ...., 2m is inversely proportional to

k4(1 k 2m), then the probability that chosen

number is odd, is

(A) equal to 1/2

(B) less than

(C) greater than 1/2

(D) less than 1/3

(Assertion and Reason type question). Each question

has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY

ONE is correct.

Use the following Key to choose the appropriate

answer.

(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the

correct explanation of (A).

(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the

correct explanation of (A).

(C) If (A) is true, but (R) is false.

(D) If (A) is false, but (R) is true.

of the parabola (y 1)2 = 2(x + 2), which does not lie

on the line 2x + y + 3 = 0 are

2 6

15

7.

9.

a

b2

normals at P and Q, then k is equal to

2

11 7

70

a (a b)

(A) || = 3

(C) || = 1

+ = /2, be two points on the hyperbola

(B) sin =

then a nonzero vector r satisfying r.a = , for some

scalar , a r = b is

a + (a + b)

a + a b

(A)

(B)

2

|a|

| b |2

(C)

a sin ) is produced to the point M(x, y) so that

+

+

AM : MB = b : a, then x cos

+ y sin

=

2

2

(A) 1

(B) 0

(C) 1

(D) a2 + b2

x2

2 6

15

(C) cos =

question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of

which ONLY ONE is correct.

2.

r = 2i + 3j k + (i + j + k) t and the plane

r.(3i 4j + 5k) = q, then

(A) cos =

MATHEMATICS

1.

(B) ( 3/2, 1)

(D) (3/2, 0)

50

OCTOBER 2009

that AB = O, then A = O or B = O.

Reason : If A, B and X are three 3 3 matrices such

that AX = B, |A| 0, then X = A1 B.

Let A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) be three points.

Area of triangle with vertices A, B and C is given by

1

| |

2

roots of x9 = p, then

1 2 3

= 4 5 6 = 0

7 8 9

P(B) = 1, then A and B are independent.

Reason : A and B are independent if and only if

P(A B) = P(A) P(B)

13. Assertion : The lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a2x + b2y +

c2 = 0 and a3x + b3y + c3 = 0 are concurrent if

a 1 b1 c1

b2

c2 = 0

a3

a3

a3

z3

z3 1

(A)

1

|1|

4

(B)

1

|1|

4i

(C)

1

|1|

2

(D)

1

|1|

2i

x1

y1 1 + x 1

y1 1 = 0

x2

y2 1

y3 1

x3

(A) median of ABC

(B) bisector of A

(C) altitude through vertex A

(D) perpendicular bisector of the side BC

Let k be the length of any edge of a regular tetrahedron. (A

tetrahedron whose edges are all equal in length is called a

regular tetrahedron.) The angle between a line and a plane

is equal to the complement of the angle between the line

and the normal to the plane whereas the angle between two

planes is equal to the angle between the normals. Let O be

the origin of reference and A, B and C vertices with

position vectors a, b and c respectively of the regular

tetrahedron.

Each question contains statements given in two

columns which have to be matched. Statements (A, B,

C, D) in Column I have to be matched with statements

(P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to these

questions have to be appropriately bubbled as

illustrated in the following example. If the correct

matches are A-P, A-S, B-Q, B-R, C-P, C-Q and D-S,

then the correctly 4 4 matrix should be as follows :

P Q R S

A P Q R S

B P Q R S

containing the edge is

(A) cos1(1/2)

(B) cos1 (1/4)

(D) /3

(B) cos1 (1/4)

(D) cos1 (1/2)

C P Q R S

D P Q R S

(A) k2

(B) (1/2)k2

2

(D) k3

(C) (1/3)k

z1 1

z2 1

choice questions. (Question 14 to 19) Each question has

4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE

is correct.

(C) /3

z1

18. If zk = xk + iyk for k = 1, 2, 3 and 1 = z 2

then area of ABC is

concurrent lines is zero.

y1 1

y2 1

y3 1

(A) = 0

(B) > 0

(C) < 0

(D) 0

then determinant equals zero.

a2

x1

= x2

x3

where

51

OCTOBER 2009

20.

Column I

(A) Centroid of the triangle with

vertices A(2, 3, 7), B(6, 7, 5),

C(1, 2, 3)

(B) Mid-point of the line joining

the points A(7, 9, 11) and

B(5, 3, 1)

(C) A point on the line

x y z

= = , at a distance 2

2 3 5

from the origin.

(D) Coordinates of the point

dividing the join of (5, 5, 0)

and (0, 0, 5) in the ratio 2:3.

Column -I

Column-II

(P) (1, 6, 5)

(A) a

(B) a b

(C) a + b

(D) a/b

(Q) (3, 4, 5)

(R) (3, 3, 2)

(S) (4/ 38 ,

6/ 38 ,

0

a

21. Let ak = nCk for 0 k n and Ak = k 1

and

0

a

k

n 1

A

k =1

k .A k +1

2n 2n

( Cn)

n +1

(Q) 0

(R) 2nCn+1

(S) 1

(P)

52 playing cards until r (1 r 4) aces are obtained.

If pr denotes the probability of drawing r aces for the

first time at the nth draw (with n 4), and

Pr = (52Cn)Pr, then

Column -I

Column-II

52 n

(A) P1

(P)

C3

(B) P2

(Q) (n 1) (52 nC2)

(C) P3

(R) (n 1C2) (52 nC1)

(S) n 1C3

(D) P4

10/ 38 )

B=

Column-II

a 0

=

,

0 b

GPS or Global Positioning System is a satellite-based navigation system that consists of network of

18 to 24 satellites that are placed in the earths orbit. It was originally intended for certain military

applications, but in the late 70s, the government came up with a system that was also meant for

civilian use. GPS works anywhere in the world, in all weather conditions, 24/7. There are however

no costs for the use. So, how does GPS work?

Global Positioning System satellites circle the earth in the same orbit, twice a day and transmit signals down to the

stations located on mother earth. The information retrieved from these signals is taken and then triangulation is used

to accurately calculate the users precise location. The GPS receiver will then compare the time when the signal was

transmitted by the satellite to the time the signal was received. This time difference will then tell the receiver how far

away the satellite actually is. With these distance measurements from a couple of the satellites, the receiver will then

be able to determine the users exact position and will then display it on an electronic map in the unit.

It is important to note that these GPS receivers only receive information and dont transmit signals in any way. For

unobstructed transmittance of signals, receivers are required to have an unobstructed view of the sky, so units are

generally placed outdoors and tend to perform very poorly if placed near tall buildings or within forests. GPS

operations are highly dependent on accurate time references that are generally provided by atomic clocks at the U.S.

Naval Observatory. Each and every GPS satellite will have an atomic clock placed on board.

So, we already know that these satellites transmit information that indicates the current time and its current location.

All these GPS satellites synchronize operations so that any repeating signals can be transmitted at the very same

instant. These signals move at the speed of light and arrive at the receivers end at slightly varied times, as some

satellites are farther away than the others. the distance to the satellites is calculated by estimating the time taken for

the signals to reach the GPS receiver. Once the receiver has estimated the distance of at least 4 of these satellites, it

can then calculate their positions in three dimensions (latitude and longitude and even the altitude). Once the

receiver is locked on to the signals of at least three of these satellites, it can then calculate a 2 d position (longitude

and latitude) and can also track movements. Once the position is determined, the unit can then calculate other

factors like the speed, trip distance, track, distance to the destinations, sunrise time and sunset time, and so on.

Today, there are at least 24 functional satellites doing the rounds at all times. The GPS satellites that are operated by the

U.S. Air Force orbit the earth with a period of 12 hours. Ground stations can also precisely track each satellites orbit.

52

OCTOBER 2009

IIT-JEE 2011

XtraEdge Test Series # 6

Time : 3 Hours

Syllabus : Physics : Calorimetry, K.T.G., Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, Thermal expansion, Transverse wave,

Sound wave, Doppler's effect. Chemistry : Chemical Equilibrium, Acid Base, Ionic Equilibrium, Classification &

Nomenclature, Isomerism, Hydrogen Family, Boron Family & Carbon Family, S-block elements. Mathematics:

Point, Straight line, Circle, Parabola, Ellipse, Hyperbola, Vector, 3-D

Instructions :

Section - I

Question 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions with only one correct answer. +3 marks will be awarded for correct

answer and -1 mark for wrong answer.

Question 10 to 13 are Reason and Assertion type questions with only one correct answer in each. +3 marks will be

awarded for correct answer and -1 mark for wrong answer.

Question 14 to 19 are passage based single correct type questions. +4 marks will be awarded for correct answer and

-1 mark for wrong answer.

Section - II

Question 20 to 22 are Column Matching type questions. +6 marks will be awarded for the complete correctly

matched answer and No Negative marks for wrong answer. However, 1 mark will be given for a correctly

(C) 1000 cal

PHYSICS

Questions 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions. Each

question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of

which ONLY ONE is correct.

1.

at temperature T0. Another spherical black body of

radius r0/2 and at temperature 2T0 emits a power

(A) P

(B) 2P

(C) 4P

(D) 8P

2.

(relative molar mass 32) molecules at a particular

temperature is 0.048 eV. The translational kinetic

energy of N2 (relative molar mass 28) molecules in

eV at the same temperature is

(A) 0.0015 (B) 0.003 (C) 0.048

(D) 0.768

3.

4.

PV

PV

(A) zero (B) PV

(C)

(D)

1

1

1 g of water on evaporation at atmospheric pressure

forms 1671 cm3 of steam. Heat of vaporisation at this

pressure is 540 calg1. The increase in internal energy

is

53

(D) 1500 cal

5.

in metre and t is in second.

(A) This represents equation of progressive wave

propagating along x direction with 3 ms1.

(B) This represents equation of progressive wave

propagating along +x direction with 3 ms1

(C) This does not represent a progressive wave

equation

(D) Data is insufficient to arrive at any conclusion of

this sort.

6.

manufacture is 512 Hz is being tested using an

accurate oscillator. It is found that they produce 2

beats per second when the oscillator reads 514 Hz

and 6 beats per second when it reads 510 Hz. The

actual frequency of the fork in Hz is

(A) 508 (B) 512

(C) 516

(D) 518

7.

speed of transverse wave in a taut brass wire. If the

Young's modulus of wire is 1011 Nm2, then the stress

in the wire is

(A) 105 Nm2

(B) 106 Nm2

7

2

(C) 10 Nm

(D) 108 Nm2

OCTOBER 2009

8.

9.

waves given by y1 = 4 sin(400t) and y2 = 3

sin(404t), where t is in second which superpose near

the ears of a person. The person will hear.

(A) 2 beats per second with intensity ratio 4/3

between maxima and minima

(B) 2 beats per second with intensity ratio 49

between maxima and minima

(C) 4 beats per second with intensity ratio 7 between

maxima and minima

(D) 4 beats per second with intensity ratio 4/3

between maxima and minima.

of cooling depends on the difference of temperature

of the body and the surrounding.

This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has 3 multiple

choice questions. (Question 14 to 19) Each question has

4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE

is correct.

Passage : I (No. 14 to 16)

Many waveforms are described in terms of

combinations of travelling waves. Superposition

principle is used to analyse such wave combinations.

Two pulses travelling on same string are described by

5

5

y1 =

, y2 =

(3x 4 t ) 2 + 2

(3x + 4 t 6) 2 + 2

bottom of a lake to its surface. Assuming that the

bubble rises slowly and the atmospheric pressure to

be equal to a column of water of height H, the depth

of the lake is

(A) 4H

(B) 5H

(C) 7H

(D) 14H

(A) y1 is in positive x-axis, y2 is in positive x-axis

(B) y1 is in negative x-axis, y2 is in negative x-axis

(C) y1 is in positive x-axis, y2 is in negative x-axis

(D) y1 is in negative x-axis, y2 is in positive x-axis

(Assertion and Reason type question). Each question

has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY

ONE is correct.

Use the following Key to choose the appropriate

answer.

(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the

correct explanation of (A).

(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the

correct explanation of (A).

(C) If (A) is true, but (R) is false.

(D) If (A) is false, but (R) is true.

(A) 1 sec

(B) 0.5 sec

(C) 0.25 sec

(D) 0.75 sec

16. The point where two waves always cancel

(A) 0.25 m

(B) 0.5 m

(C) 0.75 m

(D) 1 m

Passage : II (No. 17 to 19)

One mole of diatomic gas is taken through following

cyclic process. The process CA is P = (Constant)V.

Temperature at C is 100 K.

more melodious than that produced by a closed organ

pipe.

Reason : Air can flow in a better way in an open

organ pipe.

P

3P0

P0

Hz and 524 Hz are kept close and made to vibrate.

Beats will not be heard.

Reason : Sound waves superimpose only when the

frequencies of superposing waves are equal or nearly

equal.

C

V

17. Temperature at A is

(A) 300 K

(C) 600 K

Reason : According to Stefan's law, a black body at a

higher temperature radiates more power per unit area.

(B) 900 K

(D) 1200 L

(A) R

(B) 2R

(C) 3R

(D) 4R

As it cools, its temperature falls from 80C to 78C in

a time duration t1 and from 50C to 48C in time

duration t2. The temperature of surrounding is

constantly 20C, then t1 > t2.

(B) 200 R

(C) 400 R

(D) 400 R

54

OCTOBER 2009

Each question contains statements given in two

columns which have to be matched. Statements (A, B,

C, D) in Column I have to be matched with statements

(P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to these

questions have to be appropriately bubbled as

illustrated in the following example. If the correct

matches are A-P, A-S, B-Q, B-R, C-P, C-Q and D-S,

then the correctly 4 4 matrix should be as follows :

P Q R S

A P Q R S

B P Q R S

V

(iii)

Column -I

C P Q R S

D P Q R S

20. Match the standing waves formed in column-II due to

plane progressive waves in Column-I and also with

conditions in column-I.

Column -I

Column-II

(P) y = 2A cos kx sin t

Incident wave is

(A)

y = A sin(kx t)

Incident wave is

(Q) y = 2A sin kx t

(B)

y = A cos(kx t)

x = 0 is rigid (R) y = 2A sin kx cos t

(C)

support

x = 0 is flexible (S) y = 2A cos kx cos t

(D)

support

21. Match Columns-I and II

Column I

Wien's

(P)

(A) displacement law

explains

(Q)

Planck's

explains

(B)

law

(R)

(C)

Kirchhoff's

explains

law

(D)

Newton's second

law explains

(S)

1/V

(i)

(A)

In fig. (i)

(B)

In fig (ii)

(C)

In fig (iii)

(D)

In fig. (iv)

(P)

(Q)

(R)

(S)

V

(iv)

Column-II

Heat is absorbed by the

system

Work is done on the

system

Heat is rejected by the

system

Work is done by the

system

CHEMISTRY

Questions 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions. Each

question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of

which ONLY ONE is correct.

1.

according to the equation

A(g)

B(g) + C(g)

The equilibrium partial pressure of A at T K is 1/9 P,

the equilibrium Kp at TK is

8

64

16

(A) P (B)

P (C)

P

(D) 9 P

9

9

9

2.

Al(OH)3. Its first dissociation is 100% where as

second dissociation is 50% and third dissociation is

negligible.

(A) 2

(B) 12

(C) 11

(D) 13

3.

solution of

(A) glucose and salt concentration

(B) protein and salt concentration

(C) CO33 and HCO3

(D) Salt and carbonate ion

4.

OH

CH3

Column-II

Why days are hot and

night cold in deserts

Why a blackened

platinum wire, when

gradually

heated,

appears first dull red

and then blue

The distribution of

energy in black body

spectrum at shorter as

well

as

longer

wavelengths

Why some stars are

hotter than others

a given amount of an ideal gas.

P

Adiabatic

(A) 2-methyl-3-cyclohexenol

(B) 3-methyl-1-cyclohexen-4-ol

(C) 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-cyclohexene

(D) 2-hydroxy-1-methylcyclohexene

V

(ii)

55

OCTOBER 2009

5.

process like Na2CO3.

Reason : KHCO3 is highly water soluble.

Cl

(A)

Reason : Both Pb4+ and I1 are strong oxidant and

strong reductant respectively.

Cl

(C)

6.

(D) All

7.

preference to nitrogen-oxygen mixture because

(A) helium is much less soluble in blood than

nitrogen

(B) nitrogen is highly soluble in water

(C) helium is insoluble in water

(D) nitrogen is less soluble in blood than helium

8.

(A) [SF5][BF2]+

(B)[SF3]+[BF4]

(C) SF6

(D) S2F4

9.

choice questions. (Question 14 to 19) Each question has

4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE

is correct.

results in the formation of

(A) [Al(H2O)4(OH)2]+ (B) [Al(H2O)3(OH)3]

(C) [Al(H2O)2(OH)4] (D) [Al(H2O)6](OH)3

Lithium only forms monoxide when heated in

oxygen. Sodium forms monoxide and peroxide in

excess of oxygen. Other alkali metals form super

oxide with oxygen i.e., MO2. The abnormal

behaviour of lithium is due to small size. The larger

size of nearer alkali metals also decides the role in

formation of superoxides. The three ions related to

each other as follows :

O 2

Oxide ion

O 22

Peroxide ion

2O 2

Superoxide ion

M + O2 MO 2

(M = alkali metal)

(A) PbO

(B) PbO2

(C) PbO + Pb(NO3)2

(D) PbO2 + Pb(NO3)2

( super oxide)

(A) M can not be Li and Na

(B) M can not be Cs and Rb

(C) M can not be Li and Rb

(D) None of these

(Assertion and Reason type question). Each question

has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY

ONE is correct.

Use the following Key to choose the appropriate

answer.

(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the

correct explanation of (A).

(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the

correct explanation of (A).

(C) If (A) is true, but (R) is false.

(D) If (A) is false, but (R) is true.

(A) of its small size

(B) d-orbital are absent in it

(C) it is highly reactive and form superoxide in place

of peroxide

(D) covalent nature of peroxide

16. Which compound will liberate oxygen when react

with water :

(A) Na2O2

(B) KO2

(C) Na2O

(D) Cs2O2

energy for the reaction is minimum.

Reason : The free energy for both reactants and

products decreases and become equal.

All the boron trihalides except BI3 may be prepared

by direct reaction between the elements. Boron

trihalides consist of trigonalplanar BX3 molecules.

Unlike the halides of the other elements in the group

they are monomeric in the gas, liquid and solid states,

BF3 and BCl3 are gases, BBr3 is a volatile liquid and

BI3 is a solid. Boron trihalides are Lewis acids

because they form Lewis complexes with suitable

bases.

(CH3)3C

Reason : It is stabilized by both resonance effect and

inductive effect.

1/ 2 O

56

OCTOBER 2009

However, boron chlorides, bromides and iodides are

susceptible (sensitive) to protolysis by mild proton

sources such as water, alcohols and even amines for

example BCl3 undergoes rapid hydrolysis.

BCl3(g) + 3H2O(l) B(OH)3(aq.) + 3HCl(aq.)

It is supposed that the first step in the above reaction

is the formation of the complex Cl3B OH2 which

then eliminates HCl and reacts further with water.

Column -I

Column-II

(A) Enantiomers

(P) meso-Tartaric acid

(B) Enantiomerism (Q) CH3CH = C = CHC2H5

(R) Possess identical

physical and chemical

(C) Diastereomers

properties

(S) Possess different

(D) Diastereomerism

physical properties

22. Match the following :

Column -I

Saturated solution of

(A)

AgCl

Unsaturated solition

(B)

of AgCl

Supersaturated

(C)

solution of AgCl

Solution of AgCl in

(D)

presence of NaCl

acid strength of BF3, BCl3 and BBr3 ?

(A) BF3 > BCl3 > BBr3 (B) BF3 = BCl3 = BBr3

(C) BF3 < BCl3 <BBr3 (D) BBr3 > BF3 > BCl3

18. Which of the following reaction is incorrect ?

(A) BF3(g) + F(aq.) [BF4 ](aq.)

(B) BCl3(g) + 3EtOH(l) B(OEt)3(l) + 3HCl(g)

(C) BBr3(l) + F3BN(CH3)3(g)

BF3(g) +Br3BN(CH3)3(g)

(D) BCl3(g) + 2C 5 H 5 N ( l) Cl3B(C5H5N)2(s)

(R) IP > SP

(S) IP < SP

MATHEMATICS

Excess

question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of

which ONLY ONE is correct.

(A) B(OCH3)3 is much weaker Lewis acid than BBr3

(B) B(OH)3(aq.) behave as a triprotic acid

(C) [H2BO3](aq.) is a conjugate base of H3BO3(aq.)

(D) BF3 does not react with ethers.

The section contains 3 questions (Questions 20 to 22).

Each question contains statements given in two

columns which have to be matched. Statements (A, B,

C, D) in Column I have to be matched with statements

(P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to these

questions have to be appropriately bubbled as

illustrated in the following example. If the correct

matches are A-P, A-S, B-Q, B-R, C-P, C-Q and D-S,

then the correctly 4 4 matrix should be as follows :

P Q R S

A P Q R S

B P Q R S

C P Q R S

D P Q R S

1.

points P (a, x) and T (b, y) such that PQ = QR = RS =

5a + 3b 5x + 3y

ST, then

,

is the mid point of the

8

8

segment

(A) PQ

(B) QR

(C)RS

(D) ST

2.

is the mid-point of AB (fig.) P1 is the foot of the

perpendicular from P to OA; M1 is that from P1 to

OP; P2 is that from M1 to OA; M2 is that from P2 to

OP; P3 is that from M2 to OA and so on. If Pn denotes

the nth foot of the perpendicular on OA from Mn1,

then OPn =

y

Column -I

Column-II

(A) Na + Liq. NH3 (P) Paramagnetic

(B) Li

(Q) Blue coloured

(R) Strongest reducing

(C) KO2

agent

(S) Highest ionisation

(D) [e(NH3)x]

energy

Column-II

(P) Common ion

effect

(Q) IP = SP

P

M1

M2

O P3 P2 P1

57

(A) 1/2

(B) 1/2n

(C) 1/2n/2

(D) 1/ 2

OCTOBER 2009

3.

point P to the circle x2 + y2 + 4x 6y + 9 sin2 + 13

cos2 = 0 is 2. The equation of the locus of the

point P is

(A) x2 + y2 + 4x 6y + 4 = 0

(B) x2 + y2 + 4x 6y 9 = 0

(C) x2 + y2 + 4x 6y 4 = 0

(D) x2 + y2 + 4x 6y + 9 = 0

4.

(A) x 3/4 = 0

(B) x + 1/4 = 0

(C) x 1/4 = 0

(D) x 4/3 = 0

5.

ellipse

(Assertion and Reason type question). Each question

has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY

ONE is correct.

Use the following Key to choose the appropriate

answer.

(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the

correct explanation of (A).

(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the

correct explanation of (A).

(C) If (A) is true, but (R) is false.

(D) If (A) is false, but (R) is true.

10. Assertion : The points A(3, 4), B(2, 7), C(4, 4) and

D(3, 5) are such that one of them lies inside the

triangle formed by the other points.

Reason : Centroid of a triangle lies inside the

triangle.

y2

x2

b

a2

auxiliary circle is the curve

x2

a4

y2

b4

(A) 2 = a2

(C) 2 = b2

6.

= 2 where

contact of a point P with respect to the circle

2x2 + 2y2 3x + 5y 7 = 0.

Reason : The line joining the points of contacts of

the tangents drawn from a point P outside a circle to

the circle is the chord of contact of P with respect to

the circle.

(B) 2 = 1/a2

(D) 2 = 1/b2

x2

y2

b2

a2

triangle, O being the centre of the hyperbola. Then

the eccentricity e of the hyperbola, satisfies

(C) e =

7.

8.

(B) e = 2/ 3

(D) e > 2/ 3

hyperbola

( i 2 j + k)

(D)

1

2

y2

a2

y2

b2

= 1if c2 = a2m2 b2

x 1

y

z +1

=

=

and

1

1

1

x 1

y +1

z

=

=

are coplanar and equation of the

2

2

3

plane containing them is 5x + 2y 3z 8 = 0

x2

y +1

z

Reason : the line

=

=

is

1

2

3

perpendicular to the plane 3x + 6y + 9z 8 = 0 and

parallel to the plane x + y z = 0.

(j k)

choice questions. (Question 14 to 19) Each question has

4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE

is correct.

a + b + c = d and b + c + d = a then j + 4k then

a + b + c + d is equal to

(A) 0

(B) a

(D) ( + )c

(C) b

x2

vectors perpendicular to the vector a and coplanar

with a and b, then a unit vector d perpendicular to

both a and c is

1

1

(A)

(2i j + k)

(B)

(j + k)

6

2

x2

= 1 (a > b > 0)

a2

b2

Reason : The line y = mx + c does not meet the

hyperbola

parallel to the plane r.(2i 3j + 5k) = 0 is

(A) r.(2i 3j + 5k) + 11 = 0

(B) r.(3i 4j + k) + 11 = 0

(C) r.(3i + 4j k) + 7 = 0

(D) r.(2i 3j + 5k) + 11 = 0

(C)

9.

3 /2

A(3, 7) and B(6, 5) are two points.

C : x2 + y2 4x 6y 3 = 0 is a circle.

58

OCTOBER 2009

the family S of circles through A and B are

concurrent at

(A) (2, 3)

(B) (2, 23/3)

(C) (3, 23/2)

(D) (3, 2)

Column -I

(A) P is equidistant

from (a + b, a b)

and (a b), (a + b)

(B) P is at a distance

a + b, from (a, b)

(C) distance of P from

x-axis is twice its

distance

from

y-axis

(D) distance of P from

the origin is the

mean of the its

distances from the

coordinate axes.

the circumference of C is

(A) x2 + y2 5x 1 = 0

(B) x2 + y2 5x + 6y 1 = 0

(C) x2 + y2 5x 6y 1 = 0

(D) x2 + y2 + 5x 6y 1= 0

16. If O is the origin and P is the centre of C, then

difference of the squares of the lengths of the

tangents from A and B to the circle C is equal to

(A) (AB)2

(B) (OP)2

2

2

(C) |(AP) (BP) |

(D) None of these

perpendicular from P on the line r = a + b is

(A) 6i + 7j + 7k

(B) 3i + 2j 2k

(C) 3i + 5j + 9k

(D) 9i + 9j + 5k

(B) 7 17 / 2

(D) 7/2

Each question contains statements given in two

columns which have to be matched. Statements (A, B,

C, D) in Column I have to be matched with statements

(P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to these

questions have to be appropriately bubbled as

illustrated in the following example. If the correct

matches are A-P, A-S, B-Q, B-R, C-P, C-Q and D-S,

then the correctly 4 4 matrix should be as follows :

(S) x = y

(a 2 + b 2 )

(B) y = mx +

a 2m 2 + b 2

Column-II

1+ m 2

x2

(P)

x2

(Q)

a2

y2

b2

y2

b2

=1

=1

(S) x2 + y2 = a2 + b2

Honesty

To be believable, You must be credible.

To be credible, You must be truthful.

P Q R S

A P Q R S

B P Q R S

C P Q R S

D P Q R S

2ab = 0

each other then

Column I

Column-II

2

<<

(A) |a + b| < 1 if

(P)

3

(Q) /2 <

(B) |a b| = |a + b| if

(R) = /2

(C) |a + b| < 2

(S) 0 < /2

(D) |a b| < 2

r

19. If A is the point with position vector a then Area of

the PLA in sq. units is equal to

17

(A) y = mx +

(C) y = mx + a 2 m 2 b 2

(D) y = mx + a/b2x m

(A) (11, 12, 11)

(B) (5, 2, 7)

(C) (5, 8, 15)

(D) (17, 16, 7)

(C)

(Q) y 2x = 0

Column -I

a = 6i + 7j + 7k,

b = 3i + 2j 2k, P(1, 2, 3).

(A) 3 6

Column-II

(P) 3x2 + 3y2 2xy = 0

59

experience fear.

pain for the moment, the other for all time.

OCTOBER 2009

ANSWER KEY

IIT- JEE 2010 (October issue)

PHYSICS

Ques

Ans

Ques

Ans

20

21

22

1

C

11

D

A Q, S

AQ

A P,Q,R,S

2

D

12

A

3

4

C

B

13

14

B

C

B P, R

BP

B P,Q,R,S

5

D

15

A

C P, R

CS

C R, S

6

B

16

B

7

D

17

D

D Q, S

DR

D R, S

8

C

18

A

9

B

19

B

10

D

7

D

17

A

DS

DP

DP

8

C

18

C

9

B

19

A

10

A

7

B

17

A

DR

DS

DS

8

C

18

A

9

C

19

A

10

D

7

8

C

B

17

18

B

C

D P, S

D Not match

D Q, R

9

C

19

B

10

C

7

A

17

C

D P,Q,R

D P, Q

D P, R

8

B

18

D

9

D

19

A

10

A

7

A

17

C

DP

DR

DS

8

B

18

C

9

A

19

B

10

A

C H E MI S T R Y

Ques

Ans

Ques

Ans

20

21

22

1

B

11

C

A P,R,S

A Q, R

A P,Q,R,S

2

D

12

A

3

B

13

A

BQ

BS

B P,Q,R

4

C

14

A

Ques

Ans

Ques

Ans

20

21

22

1

B

11

D

AQ

AR

AP

2

B

12

A

3

D

13

B

BP

BQ

BQ

4

C

14

C

5

A

15

A

C P,R,S

C Q, R

CQ

6

B

16

A

MATHEMATICS

5

B

15

D

CS

CP

CR

6

C

16

B

Ques

Ans

Ques

Ans

20

21

22

1

C

11

C

A P, R

A Q, S

A P, S

2

C

12

B

3

C

13

D

B Q, S

BR

BS

4

B

14

C

Ques

Ans

Ques

Ans

20

21

22

1

C

11

A

A P, Q, R

AR

AQ

2

B

12

D

3

C

13

A

BS

BQ

BS

4

A

14

A

PHYSICS

5

B

15

D

C Q, R

CP

C P, S

6

C

16

D

C H E MI S T R Y

5

D

15

A

CP

CS

CR

6

C

16

B

MATHEMATICS

Ques

Ans

Ques

Ans

20

21

22

1

B

11

D

AQ

AS

AP

2

B

12

C

3

D

13

B

BR

BP

B R

4

C

14

B

5

B

15

C

CQ

CQ

CQ

60

6

D

16

C

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