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Do not allow the quest for perfection to ruin your life

because whatever you do you will always feel that you


could have done better

Volume - 5 Issue - 3
September, 2009 (Monthly Magazine)
Editorial / Mailing Office :
112-B, Shakti Nagar, Kota (Raj.) 324009

Editorial

Tel. : 0744-2500492, 2500692, 3040000


e-mail : xtraedge@gmail.com
Editor :

Dear Students,

Pramod Maheshwari
[B.Tech. IIT-Delhi]
Analyst & Correspondent
Mr. Ajay Jain [B.E]
Cover Design & Layout
Niranjan Jain
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The difference between success and failure is your attitude towards


success and the strategies that you employ to achieve it. The difference
between success and failure is only a few minutes or a few hours
everyday. You have to keep on striving for success at every
conceivable opportunity. Never postpone your happiness and zest for
life and work. You should make it a habit to enjoy your profession and
your job all the time. Never be a quitter because a quitter can never be
a winner.
You should always remember that People live not by the reason of any
care they have for themselves but by the love for them that is in other
people. Have only those people for friends and companions who do
their best to bring out the best in you. They will be of unlimited worth
to you. Such persons understand what life means to you and your goal.
They feel for you as you feel for yourselves. They are the ones who
are bound to you in triumph and disaster. They provide a purpose to
live and break the spell of loneliness. A true friend is worth befriending
as he will always stand by you. But before you expect others to be the
right person to be your friend you must also become one.
Be always committed to your cause. Be so engrossed in your work
that you have hardly any time to think of anything else. The great
secret of success is to do whatever you are to do and do it
wholeheartedly. Make yourself the star of your workplace. For this you
must have clear and precise objectives to be achieved within a definite
time-frame. Always respect and value time. Be result-oriented and
keep track of the hours. Respect the time of others as well as your
own. Be always organized and write down everything you want to
accomplish.
Always make an assessment of yesterday's "To Do" list to crosscheck
how realistic it has turned out to be today. This will help you to avoid
or rectify mistakes, if any, in your planning. Keep on visualizing your
goals and lists of the task to be done.
Forever presenting positive ideas to your success.
Yours truly

Owned & Published by Pramod Maheshwari,


112, Shakti Nagar, Dadabari, Kota & Printed
by Naval Maheshwari, Published & Printed at
112, Shakti Nagar, Dadabari, Kota.

Editor : Pramod Maheshwari


XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Pramod Maheshwari,
B.Tech., IIT Delhi

SEPTEMBER 2009

Volume-5 Issue-3
September, 2009 (Monthly Magazine)
NEXT MONTHS ATTRACTIONS

CONTENTS
INDEX

Regulars ..........

Key Concepts & Problem Solving strategy for IIT-JEE.


Know IIT-JEE With 15 Best Questions of IIT-JEE
Challenging Problems in Physics, Chemistry & Maths

NEWS ARTICLE

IITian ON THE PATH OF SUCCESS

KNOW IIT-JEE

IIT-Kanpur students made Nano-satellite


IIT-K all set to start FM radio station

Much more IIT-JEE News.


Xtra Edge Test Series for JEE-2010 & 2011

PAGE

Mr. Kannan M. Modgalya

Previous IIT-JEE Question

Study Time........
DYNAMIC PHYSICS
S

"True success is overcoming the fear of


being unsuccessful."

8-Challenging Problems [Set# 5]


Students Forum
Physics Fundamentals
Current Electricity
Circular Motion, Rotational Motion

"Get up one time more than you're


knocked down."

CATALYST CHEMISTRY

Success Tips for the Months

"When your physical environment is in


alignment with your aspiration, success
becomes the norm."
"The most important single ingredient in
the formula of success is knowing how to
get along with people."
"Dictionary is the only place that success
comes before work. Hard work is the
price we must pay for success. I think you
can accomplish anything if you're willing to
pay the price."

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

33

Key Concept
Aliphatic hydrocarbon
Oxygen Family & Hydrogen Family
Understanding : Inorganic Chemistry

"Most people who succeed in the face of


seemingly impossible conditions are people
who simply don't know how to quit."
"The truth is that all of us attain the
greatest success and happiness possible in
this life whenever we use our native
capacities to their greatest extent."

14

DICEY MATHS

42

Mathematical Challenges
Students Forum
Key Concept
Probability
Binomial Theorem

Test Time ..........


XTRAEDGE TEST SERIES

53

Class XII IIT-JEE 2010 Paper


Class XII IIT-JEE 2011 Paper

SEPTEMBER 2009

IIT-Kanpur students made


Nano-satellite

Kanpur:
The
Indian
Space
Research Organization (ISRO) will
launch
Nano-satellite
"Jugnu"
made by students of the Indian
Institute of Technology, Kanpur
(IIT-K) in December 2009.
"A team of 20 students from our
institute has made the nanosatellite," said Prof. S.G. Dhande,
Director of IIT-Kanpur.
The weight of the satellite is less
than 10 kilograms. The satellite is
made worth of 2 Crores.
The satellite will give information
related with drought, flood,
agriculture and forestry.
In addition to this IIT-K will also
celebrate its golden jubilee from
August 2009 to December 2010.
The inauguration is from August
8th-9th 2009. Inaugural address
will be delivered on August 8.
Mr. N. R. Narayana Murthy, the
non-executive chairman and chief
mentor of Infosys, will join the
function as Chief Guest. He is a
distinguished alumnus of IIT-K.

IIT-K all set to start FM


radio station

Kanpur: The Indian Institute of


Technology, Kanpur (IIT-K) will
soon start an FM radio station in
the campus. This is for the first
time an FM radio station is going
to be operational from IIT campus.
The FM station will broadcast
scientific programmes and classical
music.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

IIT-K has already received green


signal for the project from the
Ministry of Information and
Broadcasting. The FM station in
IIT-K will operational following the
model of America's National
Public Radio (NPR).
Cultural programme will also air
by the upcoming FM radio station
at IIT-K.
"We have decided the land for the
FM station and instruments worth
Rs.22 lakh have been purchased.
All formalities have also been
completed to start the FM
station," said Prof. Dhande,
Director IIT-K.
A
four-member
committee
headed by Prof. Sanjay Kasalkar,
Registrar of the institute has been
constituted to put the whole
project
into
operation.
The most important feature of the
FM station will be the phone-in
programme in which students
from across the city can put their
queries relating to science to the
professors of the college.

IIT Delhi to hone marketing


skills at tourism ministry
NEW DELHI: The tourism
ministry has, for the first time,
organised a three-day training
programme for its overseas
officials by experts at the
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)
Delhi in an effort to sharpen their
marketing skills.
Talking about the programme,
Tourism Minister Kumari Selja
said that the ministry's officials will
be trained to promote India
better.
'Our overseas officials who
promote India as an ideal travelling
destination will get this training on
better
and
more
effective
marketing
and
promotion
3

technique from IIT Delhi's


management wing. It will be a
three-day training programme,'
Selja said at the inaugural function
of the ministry's two-day overseas
marketing
meet
here.
'After this, we are planning a
similar training programme for our
domestic officials as well,' Selja
added.
Twenty tourism officials will
attend the first programme.
'This meet is very important,
especially in the light of the global
meltdown and its drastic effects
on tourism. From January to June
this year our foreign tourist arrival
fell by 9.3 percent as compared to
last year,' Selja said.
'However, our efforts to bring
India back on the tourists' map,
the several roadshows in different
countries and promotion of niche
tourism products has ensured that
in June this year there was a
positive growth of 0.2 percent in
the foreign tourist arrival to India,'
she added.
Selja further said that the meet,
which will see overseas tourism
officials and the private sector
here interacting, is bound to
throw up innovative ideas to
attract more travellers to the
country.

More than 500 candidates


refused to get into IITs
Mumbai: To get into Indian
Institutes of Technology (IITs) is
considered as "one of the hardest
nuts to crack", but this year more
than 500 students have refused to
get into IITs after qualifying for the
Joint Entrance Test, conducted by
IITs.
All students have their own
reason to refuse to study in IITs.
Some of them have no confidence
SEPTEMBER 2009

in the new IITs, while some of


them did not get their own choice
of streams. An IIT official said,
"This experience might force HRD
minister Kapil Sibal to do a rethink
on his expansion plans for the
IITs."
In addition to existing seven IITs,
eight IITs that are more new have
been added during the eleventh
five-year plan in the country.
After not getting sufficient number
of qualified student for the reserve
categories, IITs have transferred
1100 reserved-category seats to
the one-year preparatory course.
The one-year 'prep course' trains
quota students to bring them up
to the mark.
But this year more than 500
candidates who have refused
admission to IITs are from open
category.

IT BHU soon to become IIT


New Delhi: The Institute of
Technology,
Banaras
Hindu
University (IT BHU) will soon join
the league of Indian Institute of
Technology (IIT).
The Ministry of Human Resource
Development
(MHRD)
has
decided to convert IT BHU into
an IIT.
The decision was conveyed in the
Lok Sabha on Monday by D.
Purandeswari, Minister of State for
HRD.
The decision was conveyed when
she replied to a question on
whether the government has
taken any steps in developing
technology institutions across the
country on the lines of IITs.
For a long time, IT BHU had been
in a process of upgrading itself into
an IIT.
The admission process for
students is already being done
through the IIT Joint Entrance
Examination (IIT JEE).
As per S.N. Upadhyaya, Director,
IT BHU, "The IIT status will not
only improve the infrastructure
and academics of the institute but

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

will also get better students and


attract bright faculties".
"With more academic freedom,
the institute will be able to
introduce
inter-disciplinary
courses that were not possible
earlier as we were tied up with
the rules and regulations of the
university, to go through various
councils to get a new academic
programme passed. But the status
of IIT will enable us to introduce
new courses without these
limitations"
he
added.
"Appointing faculties will also
become much easier," he avers.
Seven other institutes comprising
of Bengal Engineering College;
Howrah, Cochin University of
Science and Technology; Kochi,
Engineering
and
Technology
Department
of
Jadavpur
University and Zakir Hussain
College of Engineering and
Technology;
Aligarh
Muslim
University apart from IT BHU are
being considered to become a
part of the IIT brigade.

IIT-D to conduct annual


convocation in Aug
New Delhi: The Indian Institute of
Technology, Delhi (IIT-D) will
award 180 PhD degrees to
students,the highest ever. Scholars
will be awarded their degree at
the convocation taking place next
month on August 8 and 9 in the
campus.
Last year 147 students were
awarded PhD.
IIT-D has taken several steps to
make the institute as a reputed
research centre in the country and
attract students towards research
programme.
Undergraduate and Postgraduate
students will also be awarded their
degrees during the convocation

IIT-Delhi to spend Rs.1


crore on tightening security
New Delhi: Trespassing is pass at
the Indian Institute of Technology,
Delhi (IIT-D) as the institute is all
geared up to tighten their security
levels.
4

IIT-D is planning to shell out Rs.1


crore on enhancing the level of
security within next few months.
This will include installation of
close circuit television (CCTV)
cameras, introducing electronic
access system in hostels, academic
areas such as library, reading
room
and
canteen.
"The raising number of population
in the campus made us take this
step. This being an educational
campus it was practically not
possible to keep a vigil on all those
entering or leaving the campus.
The new measures will help us in
safeguarding the campus," said
Surendra Prasad, Director, IIT-D.
The surveillance at all the five
entry gates of the campus by 17
CCTV cameras, will ensure that
the 325 acres of the campus which
is pretty permeable to the people
from the neighbouring villages,
cannot be easily breached.
With the new security measures,
the institute hopes to overcome
the menace of trespassers and
petty thefts at the campus.
Nearly 5,500 students of IIT-D will
be issued new identification cards
before the end of this year.
"The new cards will act as a single
admit card to the library, hostel
and reading room. Instead of the
current cards that act as their
identity cards as well as the library
card. This will limit the entry and
exit of the outsiders in the
academic areas," said Captain B.N.
Yadav, Security Officer, IIT-D.

Three
new
MTech
programmes at IIT this year
CHENNAI: Three new M.Tech
programmes
in
Catalysis
Technology, Nuclear Engineering
and Petroleum Engineering will be
offered at IIT-Madras in the
2009-10 academic year, director
M S Ananth announced on Friday
Delivering the director's report at
the 46th convocation of the
institute here on Friday, he said a
five-year integrated dual degree
programme would also be
introduced in these disciplines.
SEPTEMBER 2009

"IIT-Madras is establishing a
research park adjacent to its
campus in Chennai, the first of its
kind in the country. For this
purpose, IIT-M has obtained 11.42
acres of land from the state
government,"
he
added.
Pointing out that the facility was
likely to be inaugurated in
September, professor Ananth said
they hoped to have the prime
minister, the Tamil Nadu chief
minister and Union Minister for
Human Resource Development
(MHRD) Kapil Sibal at the
inaugural
event.
A total of 1,439 students received
degrees 162 were awarded Ph.D,
121 M.S., 354 M.Tech, 83 M.Sc, 62
MBA, 313 B.Tech awards and 172
got
dual
degrees.
Professor Jagdish N Bhagwati of
the department of economics at
Columbia University, who was
conferred the degree of Doctor of
Science (Honoris Causa) by the
institute
on
the
occasion,
delivered the convocation address.
"You should have learnt from your
IIT
education
that
great
universities teach you two things:
creation of knowledge and the
practice of virtue. As scientists,
you must imbibe knowledge and
seek to extend its frontiers. As
part of humanity, you must also
learn to put it to good use," he
said.
In addition to instructing students
on the need for them to
periodically adjust and revise their
knowledge, professor Bhagwati
reminded his audience that each of
them owed his/her success equally
to
their
parents.
"Great
opportunities are open now to
put your knowledge, and your
ingenuity, at the service of India
and
her
poor,"
he
said.
Touching on the problem of
limited availability of qualified
faculty in the higher education
system today, R Chidambaram,
principal scientific advisor to
Government
of
India,
and
chairman, board of governors, IITMadras, said online teaching could
be one way of ensuring quality

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technical
education.
"An
alternative to the required growth
in
brick-and-mortar
through
expansion and addition is a
massive online education system.
A country like India therefore has
no
choice.
The
National
Programme
on
Technology
Enhanced
Learning
(NPTEL),
liberally funded by the MHRD, is
an opportunity to provide quality
online engineering education," he
said.

Bill Clinton to address IIT


summit in Chicago
Former American President Bill
Clinton will be among many top
leaders to address the seventh
Pan-IIT Global Conference being
held in Chicago in October.
Kapil Sibal, Indian minister for
human resource development;
Sam Pitroda, Indian Knowledge
Commission chairman; Aneesh
Chopra,
America's
chief
technology officer; and Meera
Shankar, Indian ambassador in the
US, will be among other keynote
speakers at the Pan-IIT Global
Conference to be held in Chicago
from Oct 9-11.
According to conference chairman
Ray Mehra, 'Entrepreneurship and
Innovation in a Global Economy' is
the theme of this year's techie
summit. Over 3,000 IITians from
around the world will attend the
annual gathering to be opened by
Sibal. Chopra will deliver the
keynote address.
"We have invited President
Clinton since the goals of his
William J. Clinton Foundation and
the Pan-IIT conference are the
same. We have common areas like
energy, climate change, health care
and education to work on,'' Mehra
told IANS.
"The president and other global
leaders in their fields will discuss
how we can transform ideas into
action on both sides of the ocean
(in the US and India),'' he said.
Mehra said the Pan-IIT summit will
take a holistic approach to

problems in areas like health and


energy in India.
"We will discuss how the public
health system (PHS) in India can
be steered with inputs from the
PHS in the US which is under
massive changes now,'' he said.
Mehra said the conference will
also discuss its proposal called
Panch Ratnas submitted to the
Indian
government
to
revolutionize higher education in
the country.
"We presented a white paper
titled PanIIT Panch Ratnas to
President Pratibha Patil last
month, proposing a five-point
action plan to make India the
global hub for knowledge creation
and talent development by 2022.
We will debate this in detail in
Chicago,'' he said.
Pan-IIT's Panch Ratnas include
implementation
of
wholesale
policy reforms in education,
quality control and increase
capacity,
and
'quantum
improvement in faculty service
conditions,
deployment
of
technology for teaching and
collaborative research, and the
establishment of an industryacademia interface, according to
Mehra.
Other prominent speakers at the
summit include James Owens,
chairman and CEO of Caterpillar
Inc., Sharon Oster, dean of the
Yale School of Management, Tulsi
Tanti, chairman of Suzlon Energy,
Carl Shramm, president and CEO
of the Kauffman Foundation, and
Prof Raghuram G Rajan of the
University of Chicago and former
chief economist of the IMF. There
are said to be an estimated 35,000
IITians in the US.

Science learning materials


on Net soon
By the end of this year,
elementary school teachers and
students can find an interactive,
experiential
science
learning
programme
developed
in
association with IIT-Madras, freely
available on the Internet. The
SEPTEMBER 2009

Kuruvila Jacob Initiative for


promoting excellence in school
education, which was set up in
memory of the headmaster of the
Madras Christian College High
School, has been running a
programme
to
develop
multimedia-enhanced
science
learning materials for Classes VI to
IX, in partnership with IIT-Madras
since February 2007.
At the sixth annual function of the
Initiative, launched on Kuruvila
Jacobs birth centenary, IIT-M
Director M.S. Ananth launched
the latest DVDs of Physics and
Chemistry
material,
and
announced that the whole project
would be ready for a Web launch
by the end of 2009.
From the very beginning, it was
decided to make it available in the
public domain, said Dr. Ananth,
explaining how the modules were
developed
using
the
same
equipment and team which are
putting IITs engineering courses
on YouTube.
About 80 teachers, from 22
schools in the city, were involved
in developing the materials. An
experiment showing how the
electron moves is worth three
lectures in quantum mechanics,
said Dr. Ananth, discussing the
experiential and demonstrative
mode of teaching that the project
has attempted to use in each
module. He believes that distance
education can help fill the gaps in
the Indian school education
system, just as it is starting to do
in higher education as well.
The ratio of teachers to students
is 1:100 or worse, he pointed
out. We are moving from a
gurukulam education at the home
of the guru to what I call
sishyakulam at the homes of the
sishyas, no matter how scattered
they may be, he said, explaining
that the Internet version of these
science modules would allow
students to study from the
comfort of their own homes.
Earlier, historian and writer
Ramachandra Guha delivered the

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keynote address at the function,


on the topic Why India is the
most interesting country in the
world.
He explained that the country was
undergoing
simultaneous
revolutions in at least five areas
industrial,
urban,
national,
democratic and social in a way
that was unprecedented in
international history.

IIT-K disappointed over


rejection of setting up of
n-reactor
In a disappointment to the officials
of IIT Kanpur, the Department of
Atomic Energy has rejected the
college's proposal of setting up of
a small nuclear reactor in its
campus citing security reasons.
However, the officials of IIT
Kanpur said they were trying to
clear the doubts and will try to
convince the Department of
Atomic
Energy
at
the
'International Nuclear Meet' in
November.
Director of IIT Kanpur Prof Sanjay
Govind Dhande said that the
college asked for a permission
from the Department of Atomic
Energy, Mumbai to set up a
nuclear reactor for M.Tech
students, who are doing Nuclear
Engineering.
"We have asked for the
permission from the Department
of Atomic Energy, Mumbai, for a
small reactor in the campus. But
due to security reasons as cited by
the Department it has been
rejected,"
he
said.
He said the college was hopeful of
a positive reply after India signed
the 123 agreement with the US.
According to the college officials,
since the last 35 years the college
has been providing Nuclear
engineering course to 15 students
each year but they were able to
give
only
theory
classes.
"The college has been giving only
theory classes to the students.
Due to the lack of a nuclear
reactor facility in the college, the
students are devoid of any
practical training.
6

He added the Department has not


only cited security problems but
has also mentioned about the lack
of nuclear fuel in the country.

IIT-D faculty gets National


Award for Atmospheric
Science and Technology

New Delhi: Prof. Shishir Kumar


Dube, former Director of Indian
Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
and currently Professor at the
Centre for Atmospheric Sciences,
IIT, Delhi was awarded with
National Award in Atmospheric
Sciences for the year 2009.The
award has been given to Prof.
Dube by Ministry of Earth
Sciences in recognition of his
outstanding contributions in the
field. He was born in Kalpi District
of Uttar Pradesh on 4th October
1947. He worked at the India
Meteorological Department from
1972-78 and then joined the
faculty of IIT, Delhi. Research
interests of Prof. Dube include
Numerical
Storm
Surge
Prediction,
Ocean
Wave
Modeling, Coastal Marine Hazards
and
Regional
Ocean
State
Forecasting
Models.
He
is
internationally recognized for his
pioneering contributions in the
field of storm surge prediction in
the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian
Sea. Prof. Dube is responsible for
the development of real time
operational
surge
prediction
systems which under the auspices
of
World
Meteorological
Organisation
have
been
transferred to the National
Weather Services of Bangladesh,
Maldives,
Myanmar,
Oman,
Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand
for their operational use. Prof.
Dube has received several honors
and awards including the 12th
MAUSAM Award for the year
1982-83.

SEPTEMBER 2009

Success Story
This article contains story of a person who get succeed after graduation from different IIT's

Mr. Kannan M. Modgalya


B.Tech, IIT Madras
Master of Electrical Engineering, Doctorate (Ph.D)
in Chemical Engineering, Rice University

Mr. Kannan M. Modgalaya completed his B.Tech in


Chemical Engineering, IIT Madras, June 1980 and after that
he was awarded by mastered degree as Master of
Electrical Engineering from Rice University in May 1985
then achived Doctorate (Ph.D) in Chemical Engineering,
Rice University, May 1985

of performance deterioration through network delays is


being studied.
Simulation

Presently he is related to various reseach work and


awarded with with various awards and fellowship that are
described below:

He has worked on the topic of simulation methodologies


and simulation environments through modern computing
tools. This approach has been applied to simulation of
neuro transmission in muscle cells. Automatic model
derivation from first principles and data driven model
generation are some focus areas.

Research Areas

Awards and Affiliations

Dynamical Systems, Discontinuity Detection, Discontinuity


Sticking, Differential Algebraic Equations, Process Control,
Digital Control, Reactor Control, Grade Transition.

1.

Best Paper Presentation Award for "Control of a


high index DAE system through a linear control
law" by P. Vora,

Current Research

2.

K. Moudgalya and A. K. Pani, American Contro


Conference, Anchorage, 8 May 2002.

3.

Lovraj Kumar Industry-Academia Exchange


Fellowship, April 1997

4.

Best Poster Award for the paper ``An Integrated


Simulation Environment'' by S. H. Rao, K.
Moudgalya, K. V. Nori.

5.

G. Sivakumar, International Conference on


Advances in Chemical Engineering, 11-13 Dec.
1996, IIT Madras.

Dynamics
He is studying discontinuous dynamical systems that
exhibit the property of sliding. The concept of equivalent
dynamics has been shown to speed up sliding DAE
systems by 10,000 times.
Control
He is looking at the control of chemical processes,
especially reactors. He also looked at control of systems,
such as, an inverted pendulum through internet. Handling

Dare to dream, dare to try, dare to fail, dare to succeed


XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

SEPTEMBER 2009

KNOW IIT-JEE
By Previous Exam Questions

Q = mc T
...(iii)
From (i) and (iii) Since U = Q Therefore

PHYSICS

1 M 2g 2l
2 r 2 Y
1 M 2g 2l
T =
2 r 2 Ycm
Here
m = mass of string = density volume of string
= r2l

mcT =

1.

A transverse harmonic disturbance is produced in a


string. The maximum transverse velocity is 3 m/s and
maximum transverse acceleration is 90 m/s2. If the
wave velocity is 20 m/s then find the waveform.
[IIT-2005]
Sol. The wave form of a transverse harmonic disturbance
y = a sin (t kx )
...(i)
Given vmax = a = 3 m/s
....(ii)
Amax = a2 = 90 m/s2
Velocity of wave v = 20 m/s
...(iii)
Dividing (ii) by (i)

T =

1 M 2g 2
2 (r 2 ) 2 Yc

1
(100 10) 2

2
(3.14 2 10 3 ) 2 2.1 1011 420 7860
= 0.00457C

a2
90
=
= 30 rad/s
...(iv)
a
3
Substituting the value of in (i) we get
3
a=
= 0.1 m
...(v)
30
Now
3
2
2
2v

30
k=
=
=
=
=
= ...(vi)
2

v/v
v
v
20
From (iv), (v) and (vi) the wave form is
3

y = 0.1 sin 30t x


2

3.

A 5m long cylindrical steel wire with radius 2 103


m is suspended vertically from a rigid support and
carries a bob of mass 100 kg at the other end. If the
bob gets snapped, calculate the change in temperature
of the wire ignoring radiation losses. (For the steel
wire : Young's modulus = 2.1 1011 Pa; Density =
7860 kg/m3; Specific heat = 420 J/kg-K). [IIT-2001]
Sol. When the mass of 100 kg is attached, the string is
under tension and hence in the deformed state.
Therefore it has potential energy (U) which is given
by the formula.
1
stress stain volume
U=
2
1
(Stress) 2

r2l
=
2
Y
1 M 2g 2l
1 (Mg / r 2 ) 2
r2l =
...(i)
=
2
Y
2 r 2 Y
This energy is released in the form of heat, thereby
raising the temperature of the wire

An unknown resistance X is to be determined using


resistance R1, R2 or R3. Their corresponding null
points are A, B and C. Find which of the above will
give the most accurate reading and why ? [IIT-2005]
R = R1 or R2 or R3
Sol. All null point, the wheat stone bridge will be
balanced
r
X
R
=
X=R 1

r1
r2
r2

2.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

X
G
r1

r2

M A
C N
B
where R is a constant r1 and r2 are variable. The
maximum fraction error is
r
r
X
= 1 + 2
X
r1
r2
Here r1 = r2 = y (say) then
X
For
to be minimum r1 r2 should be max
X
[Q r1 + r2 = c (Constt.]
Let
E = r1 r2 E = r1 (r1 c)
dE
= (r1 c) + r1 = 0

dr1

SEPTEMBER 2009

= MB sin
where is the angle between M and B
nhe
nhe B
=
B sin 30 =
4m
8m
The direction of torque can be found by right hand
thumb rule.
The direction of torque is perpendicular to the plane

c
c
r2 =
r1 = r2
2
2
R2 gives the most accurate value.

r1 =

4.

An electron in the ground state of hydrogen atom is


revolving in anticlock-wise direction in a circular
orbit of radius R.
r
B

r
n

containing n and B as shown.

30

5.

(i) Obtain an expression for the orbital magnetic


dipole moment of the electron.
(ii) The atom is placed in a uniform magnetic
r
induction B such that the plane-normal of the
electron-orbit makes an angle of 30 with the
magnetic induction. Find the torque experienced by
the orbiting electron.
Sol. (i) Orbital magnetic dipole moment M = IA
where I is the current due to orbital motion of
e
M = R2
T
electron and A is the area of the loop made by
electron.
1
e
M=
R2
M = eR2
2
2

induction B is applied perpendicular and into the


plane of rotation as shown in the figure below. An
inductor L and an external resistance R are connected
through a switch S between the point O and a point C
on the ring to form an electrical circuit. Neglect the
resistance of the ring and the rod. Initially, the switch
is open.
[IIT-1995]
Y

r
B

30

(ii) We know that torque

= M B

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

x2
Br 2
e = B x dx = B =
0
2
2 0
(b) i. The above diagram can be reconstructed as the
adjacent figure e is a constant. O will accumulate
positive charge and A negative when the switch S is

L
(a) What is the induced emf across the terminals of
the switch ?
(b) The switch S is closed at time t = 0.
(i) Obtain an expression for the current as a function
of time.
(ii) In the steady state, obtain the time dependence of
the torque required to maintain the constant angular
speed, given that the rod OA was along the positive
X-axis at t = 0.
Sol. (a) Let us consider a small length of metal rod dx at a
distance x from the origin. Small amount of emf (de)
induced in this small length (due to metallic rod
cutting magnetic lines of force) is
de = B(dx)v
...(i)
where v is the velocity of small length dx
v = x
...(ii)
From (i) and (ii) de = B(dx)x
The total emf across the whole metallic rod OA is

But according to Bohr's postulate


nh
nh
R2 =
mR2 =
2
2m
e
nh
nhe
M=

=
2
2m
4m
The direction of magnetic momentum is same as the
direction of area vector, i.e. perpendicular to the
plane of orbital motion.

r
n

A metal rod OA of mass 'm' and length 'r' is kept


rotating with a constant angular speed in a vertical
plane about a horizontal axis at the end O. The free
end A is arranged to slide without friction along a
fixed conducting circular ring in the same plane as
that of rotation. A uniform and constant magnetic

SEPTEMBER 2009

closed, transient current at any time t, when current I


is flowing in the circuit,
S

CHEMISTRY
A sample of hard water contains 96 ppm of SO42 and
183 ppm of HCO3, with Ca2+ as the only cation.
How many moles of CaO will be required to remove
HCO3 from 1000 kg of this water ? If 1000 kg of this
water is treated with the amount of CaO calculated
above, what will be concentration (in ppm) of
residual Ca2+ ions? (Assume CaCO3 to be completely
insoluble in water.) If the Ca2+ ions in one litre of the
treated water are completely exchanged with
hydrogen ions, what will be its pH ? (One ppm means
one part of the substance in one million part of water,
[IIT-1997]
mass/mass. )
Sol. In 106g (= 1000 kg) of the given hard water, we will
have
Mass of SO42 ions = 96 g
Mass of HCO3 ions = 183 g
96 g
= 1 mol
Thus Amount of SO42 ions =
96 g mol 1

O
A

6.

I = I0(1 e t / b )

e
Br 2
L
=
and TL =
R
2R
R
Br 2
Therefore, I =
[1 e(R/L)t ]
2R
(ii) In steady state

Here

I0 =

In steady state I =

Br 2
2R
R
t

[Q t has a large value and e L 0]


When current flows in the circuit in steady state,
there is a power loss through the resistor. Also since
the rod is rotating in a vertical plane, work needs to
be done to keep it at constant angular speed.
Power loss due to current I will be

Amount of HCO3 ions =

= 3 mol
61g mol 1
These ions are present as CaSO4 and Ca(HCO3)2.
Hence,
Amount of Ca+ ions = (1 + 1.5) mol = 2.5 mol.
The addition of CaO causes the following reaction :
CaO + Ca(HCO3)2 2CaCO3 + H2O
To remove 1.5 mol of Ca(HCO3)2, 1.5 mol of CaO
will be required in the treated water. After this, the
solution contains only CaSO4. Thus, 1 mol of Ca2+
ions will be present in 106 g of water. Hence its
concentration will be 40 ppm.
Molarity of Ca2+ ions in the treated water will be 103
mol L1. If the Ca2+ ions are exchanged by H+ ions,
then
Molarity of H+ in the treated water = 2 103 M.
Thus, pH = log (2 103) = 2.7

Br 2
R
P = I2R =
2R

P=

B 2 r 4 2
4R
t=t
r/2

r/2 cos
mg

The equilibrium constant Kp of the reaction


2SO3(g) is 900 atm1 at 800
2SO2(g) + O2(g)
K. A mixture containing SO3 and O2 having initial
partial pressures of 1 atm and 2 atm, respectively, is
heated at constant volume to equilibrate. Calculate
the pressure of each gas at 800 K.
[IIT- 1989]
Sol. Since to start with SO2 is not present, it is expected
that some of SO3 will decompose to give SO2 and O2
at equilibrium. If 2x is the partial pressure of SO3 that
is decreased at equilibrium, we would have
2SO2(g) + O2(g)
2SO3(g)
t=0 0
2 atm
1 atm
teq
2x
2 atm + x
1 atm 2x
7.

The torque required for this power = 1


2 4

B r
4R
Torque required to move the rod in circular motion
against gravitation field
r
2 = mg cos
2
The total torque
= 1 + 2
(clock wise)
1 =

B2r 4
mgr
+
cos t
4R
2
The required torque will be of same magnitude and in
anticlockwise direction. The second term will change
signs as the value of cos can be positive as well as
negative.
=

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

183 g

Hence, Kp =

(p SO3 ) 2
(p SO 2 ) 2 ( p O 2 )

(1 atm 2 x ) 2
(2 x ) 2 (2 atm + x )

= 900 atm1
10

SEPTEMBER 2009

Assuming x << 2 atm, we get

(1 atm 2 x ) 2
(2 x ) 2 (2 atm)
or

(1 atm 2 x ) 2
(2x ) 2

COOH
H SO 4
ANaOH
Intermediate compound2
|
heat
COOH
The compound A must be formic acid as the above
reactions are used in the manufacture of oxalic acid.
The reactions are

= 900 atm1
= 1800

H2
(COONa)2
2HCOOH 2HCOONa

1 atm
1 = 42.43
or
2x
1
or x =
atm = 0.0115 atm
2 43.43
Hence, p(SO2) = 2x = 0.023 atm;
p(O2) = 2atm + x = 2.0115 atm and
p(SO3) = 1 atm 2x = 0.977 atm

H (COOH) 2
(C )

The sodium salt of A is produced by passing a gas B


into an aqueous solution of caustic alkali at an
elevated temperature and pressure. The reaction
involved here is
temperature
NaOH + CO High
and

HCOONa
pressure

The sodium salt of a carboxylic acid, A, was


produced by passing a gas, B, into an aqueous
solution of caustic alkali at an elevated temperature
and pressure. A, on heating in presence of sodium
hydroxide followed by treatment with sulphuric acid
gave a dibasic acid, C.A sample of 0.4 g of acid C, on
combustion gave 0.08 g of water and 0.39g of carbon
dioxide. The silver salt of the acid weighing 1.0 g on
ignition yielded 0.71 g of silver as residue. Identify
A, B and C.
[IIT- 1990]
Sol. From the given data, we can determine the molar
mass of dicarboxylic acid. Since on ignition, 2 mol of
Ag ( 215.8 g Ag) will be left per mole of
dicarboxylic acid, we have
1.0 g of silver of dicarboxylic acid
215.8 g Ag
0.71 g Ag
= 303.94 g of silver salt of dicarboxylic acid.
Hence, Macid = 303.94 g mol1 2MAg + 2MH
= 303.94 g mol1 215.8 g mol1 + 2 g mol1
= 90.14 g mol1
Now, since the molar mass of two carboxylic groups
(2COOH) is 90 g mol1, the dicarboxylic acid (C) is
oxalic acid (HCOOH COOH). The nature of
dicarboxylic acid may be confirmed from the
combustion data.
COOH
1
+ O2
2CO2 + H2O
2
COOH
8.

Molar mass
Given data

90 g mol1
0.4 g

Hence, the gas B is carbon monoxide. Thus, the


structures of A, B and C are
A is HCOOH;
B is CO,
C is (COOH)2
An organic compound A, C8H4O3, in dry benzene in
the presence of anhydrous AlCl3 gives compound B.
The compound B on treatment with PCl5 followed by
reaction with H2/Pd(BaSO4) gives compound C,
which on reaction with hydrazine gives a cyclised
compound D(C14H10N2). Identify A, B, C and D.
Explain the formation of D from C.
[IIT-2000]
Sol. The given reactions are as follows.
O
O
9.

O +

OH

C6H5
C

PCl5
H2/Pd (BaSO4)

O
C6H5

O H2NNH2
O

N
N

H
The formation of D from C may be explained as
follows.
C6H5
O
O

44 g mol1 18g mol1


0.39 g
0.08 g

C6H5

NH2

C6H5

NH2
+

NH2

NH2
O

The calculated values of masses of CO2 and H2O


produced during the combustion of 0.4 g of oxalic
acid are
2 44 g CO 2
0.4 oxalic acid = 0.39 g CO2
90 g oxalic acid

NH
NH
OH
C6H5
N
N

18 g H 2 O
0.4 g oxalic acid = 0.08 g H2O
90 g oxalic acid
These values tally with the given data. Hence, the
compound C is confirmed to be oxalic acid. The
production of C from A is as follows.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

AlCl3

10. An aqueous solution of salt A gives a white


crystalline precipitate B with NaCl solution. The
filtrate gives a black precipitate C when H2S is
passed through it. Compound B dissolves in hot
water and the solution gives yellow precipitate D on
treatment with potassium iodide and cooling. The
compound A does not give any gas with dilute HCl

11

SEPTEMBER 2009

but liberates a raddish brown gas on heating. Identify


the compounds A to D giving the involved equation.
[IIT-1976]
Sol. The given information's are as follows.
Aqueous solution
(a)
NaCl
White precipitate
of A
of B
Residue

Filter

hot water

Filtrate

H2 S

KI

Soluble

= coefficient of the term independent of x in


1
(1 + x2 + x4)n
2n
x
= coefficient of x2n in (1 + x2 + x4)n
= coefficient of tn in (1 + t + t2)n = an
12. Find the range of values of t for which

Yellow
precipitate (D)

Black p recipitate (C)

(b) No gas
Saltheat

Brown coloured gas

1
5
1
5
y +
0
y

2 2
2 2

1 5
1+ 5
or y
2
2
1 5
1+ 5
or 2 sin t
or sin t
2
2

3
sin t sin or sin t sin
10
10

11. Let n be a positive integer and


(1 + x + x2)n = a0 + a1x + .... + a2nx2n
Show that a02 a12 + .... + a2n2 = an
[IIT-1994]
Sol. (1 + x + x2)n = a0 + a1x + ... + a2nx2n
...(1)
1
Replacing x by , we obtain
x

a
a
a
a
1 1
1 + 2 = a0 1 + 22 33 + ... + 22nn
x
x
x
x
x x
...(2)
Now, a02 a12 a32 + ... + a2n2 = coefficient of the
term independent of x in
a
a
a

[a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ... + a2nx2n] a 0 1 + 22 ... + 22nn


x x
x

= coefficient of the term independent of x in

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Sol. I =

( x + 1)

x (1 + xe

( x + 1)

x (1 + xe

x 2

x 2

dx =

dx

xe

)
x
Put
1 + xe = t

(ex + xex)dx = dt
dt
Therefore I =
( t 1) t 2

[IIT-1996]

e x ( x + 1)
x

(1 + xe x ) 2

dx

(1 + x + x 2 ) n ( x 2 x + 1) n

=
x 2n
Thus, a02 a12 + a22 + ....a2n2

13. Evaluate

1 1
But R.H.S. = (1 + x + x2)n 1 + 2
x x

3
or t
10
10


3
Thus, Range for t , ,
2 2
10 2

x 2n
(1 + 2 x + x 4 x 2 ) n

5
1

0
y
2
4

MATHEMATICS

1 2 x + 5x 2

Sol. Here, 2 sin t =

From the information given in part (a), it may be


concluded that the compound A is a lead salt. B is
lead chloride as it is soluble in hot water. Yellow
precipitate D is due to PbI2. Black precipitate C is
due to PbS. Lead chloride being spraingly soluble in
water, a little of it remains in the filtrate which is
subsequently precipitated as PbS.
From the information given in part (b), it may be
concluded that anion associated with lead (II) is
nitrate because lead nitrate dissociates on heating as
2Pb(NO3)2 2PbO + 4NO2
+ O2
Brown coloured gas
Hence, A is Pb(NO3)2, B is PbCl2, C is PbS and D is
PbI2.


, t , [IIT-2005]
3x 2 x 1
2 2
2


, t ,
3x 2x 1
2 2
Put, 2sin t = y 2 y 2
(3y 5)x2 2x(y 1) (y + 1) = 0
Since x R {1, 1/3} {as, 3x2 2x 1 0}

D0
4(y 1)2 + 4(3y 5) (y + 1) 0
y2 y 1 0

HCl

1 1
(1 + x + x2)n 1 + 2
x x

1 2 x + 5x 2

2 sin t =

A
1
C
B

+
+ 2
t
( t 1) t 2 ( t 1)
t
1 At2 + Bt(t 1) + C(t 1)
Put
t=0
1=C
Put
t=1
1=A
Again comparing the coefficients of t2, we get
Let

[( x 2 + 1) 2 x 2 ]n

x 2n
(1 + x + x )
2

4 n

x 2n
12

SEPTEMBER 2009


0=1+B
1 1
1
Therefore, I =
dt
t 1 t t 2
1
= ln|t 1| ln|t| + + c
t
t 1
1
+ +c
= ln
t
t
0=A+B

y = 2x

xe x

= ln

1 + xe x

14. Evaluate

1
1 + xe x

O 1/2

+c

1
x 2 the curve y = 2x lies above as
2
compared to y = logex
Hence, the required area
In the region

+ 4x 3
dx
/ 3

2 cos | x | +
3

y = logex

/3

[IIT-2004]

Sol. Let,

1/ 2

(2 x log x ) dx
2

2x

=
( x log x x )
log 2

1 / 2

x 3 dx
dx
I=
+4
/ 3
/ 3

2 cos | x | +
2 cos | x | +
3
3

0,
f ( x ) = f ( x )

f ( x ) dx = a
Using
a
2 f ( x )dx , f ( x ) = f ( x )
0

/3
dx
+0
I=2
0

2 cos | x | +
3

/3
x 3dx

is odd
as
/ 3

2 cos | x | +
3

/3

/3

3
4 2 5
log 2 +
log 2
2
2

GLOBAL WARMING IS REAL

I = 2

/3

dx
2 cos( x + / 3)

dt

, where x + = t
2 cos t
3
2 t
dt
2 / 3 sec
2
= 2
t
/3
1 + 3 tan 2
2
3
3
4
2du
=
. 3 tan 1 3u 1 / 3
= 2
2
1/ 3 1 + 3u
3
4
4
1
(tan1 3 tan11) =
tan1
=
3
3
2
= 2

2 / 3

/3

The arctic ice is receding and global warming is no


longer a theory but a reality. Scientists predict that
by the year 2100, the average surface temperature
will jump up by 6 degrees Fahrenheit. Nighttime
temperatures will be higher and there will be
hotter days.

Since air temperature is a powerful component of


climate, there will be unavoidable climate changes
in the future. Some climate changes involve
extreme weather disturbances such as more severe
hurricanes and longer droughts. There will be an
increased precipitation of snow and rain during
winter. The faster melting of snow during the
spring will result in flooding. All these climate
changes are predicted based on the assumption
that changes will be relatively gradual.

4
+ 4x 3
1
dx =
tan1 .
/ 3

3
2
2 cos | x | +
3

/3

15. Sketch the curves and identify the region bounded by


x = 1/2, x = 2, y = ln x and y = 2x. Find the area of
[IIT-1991]
this region.
Sol. The required area is the shaded portion in following
figure.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

13

SEPTEMBER 2009

Physics Challenging Problems

Set # 5

This section is designed to give IIT JEE aspirants a thorough grinding & exposure to variety
of possible twists and turns of problems in physics that would be very helpful in facing IIT
JEE. Each and every problem is well thought of in order to strengthen the concepts and we
hope that this section would prove a rich resource for practicing challenging problems and
enhancing the preparation level of IIT JEE aspirants.

By : Dev Sharma
Director Academics, Jodhpur Branch

So l ut i ons wi l l b e pub l i s he d i n ne x t i s s ue

HYDROGEN SPECT. TUBE

Incident
Light

M
E
T
A
L

Photo
Electrons

ABSORBTION LIQUID COLUMN

Passage # 2
If the Angular momentum of the revolving electron is
quantized then it is exempted from the law of electro
dynamics and it will not emit electromagnetic
radiations. Its energy remains constant and it is the
ultimate cause of stability of the atom.
If hydrogen atom electron get excited, it will return to
the ground state and emits the energy spectra which
is known as hydrogen spectra which consists of
various series like Lymen, Balmer .....
Hydrogen atom HA-1 and Hydrogen atom HA-2 are
in ground state and in first excited state. Accepts
energies 12.1 eV and 1.9 eV respectively.

Passage # 1
Emission of electrons from the surface of the metal,
when the metallic surface is illuminated by light of
proper frequency / wavelength / energy is known as
photoelectric effect.
The current flow due to photo electrons is known as
photo current and it is dependent on the intensity of
incident light photons.
The proper polarity applied potential difference
which can stop the motion of most energetic photo
electron and ultimately the photo current is known as
stopping potential.
Variation of electric field for incident light
E = E1 sin 1t + E2 sin 2t + E3 sin 3t
Energy related with freq. 1, 2, 3 are 2eV, 2.8eV,
3eV and intensity are Int1, Int2 and Int3 then

Emission
spectra

M
E
T
A
L
W = 2eV

W = 2.5 eV

1.

Write the value of stopping potential for the given


metallic surface.

2.

If the intensity of light of frequency 1 decreases and


then ceases then what will be the effect on stopping
potential and photo current.

3.

If the intensity of light of frequency 2 decreases and


then ceases then what will be the effect on stopping
potential and photo current.

4.

If the intensity of light of frequency 3 decreases and


then ceases then what will be the effect on stopping
potential and photo current.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Photo electrons

14

5.

Find the number of possible lines in emission spectra


of Hydrogen spectrum tube

6.

Name the spectral lines in Hydrogen spectra.

7.

If the "Absorbtion Column" Absorbs 2nd line of


Lymen series then what will be the stopping
potential.

8.

If "Absorbtion Column" get removed then how photo


current & stopping potential get changed.

SEPTEMBER 2009

1.

Solution

Set # 4

Physics Challenging Problems


Que s t i o ns we r e Publ i s he d i n Aug us t I s s ue

As req (ab) = 0

5.

req (ab)

10V 1
so terminal voltage of the battery = 0

2.

current through the battery


i = 10/1 = 10 amp
H = i2Rt = (10)2 (1) (1) = 100 Watt

3.

Key k open
Req (ab) = 7.5

ma = mg sin
a = g sin or a = g tan
Now,

x2 = 4ay;

gx
=
2a
Option [D] is correct.
2x =

10

5
5

mg sin mg cos

dy
x
=
dx
2a

...(1)
(as is small)
x
a=g
2a

g
2a

6.

As surface DC is smooth it will slip but as in path


AD it is pure rolling therefore work done by friction
is zero. Hence mechanical energy is conserved.
Option [C] is correct.

7.

C=

8.

At a distance h above the sheet


E = Esheet + Eslab
D
D

=
+
=
2 0
2 0
2 0
At a distance h below the top surface of slab
(D 2h )
Eslab =
2 0
E = Esheet + Eslab

(D 2h )
+ ( D 2h )
+
=
=
2 0
2 0
2 0
At a distance h below the bottom surface of the slab
D
D

+
=
=
2 0
2 0
2 0
Option [A,B,D] is correct

50 V
0.5

i=

25
50
50

=
=
=
Amp
r + R eq
4
0.5 + 7.5
8
( a ,b )

25
0.5
4
25
175
175
=
so : V = 50 :
= 50
8
8
8
= 400 : 175 16 : 9

V = i r = 50

4.

R eq =
(a ,b )

i=

10(5) + 5(5) + 2(10)(5) 175


=9
=
10 + 5 + 2(5)
25
50
50
100
500

=
=
=
=
95
r + R eq
0.5 + 9
9.5
19
( a ,b )

100
0.5
19
100
50
18
= 50
50
= 50
38
19
19

V = i r = 50

18
: V = 50 : 50 = 19 : 18
19

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

15

0A
, where x is separation between plates
x
I dC
1 dA
1 dx
=

C dT
A dT
x dT
1 dx
dC
1 dA
= 0,
=
S = 2
For
x
dT
dT
A dT
Option [C] is correct.

SEPTEMBER 2009

Students' Forum
PHYSICS
1.

Experts Solution for Question asked by IIT-JEE Aspirants

A ball with mass M/2 filled with gas (whose mass is


M/2) is standing on a frictionless table. A bullet of
mass m = M/4 and velocity v0 x penetrates the ball,
and is rests inside at t = 0 (see figure). Assume that
the amount of gas emitted during the collision can be
neglected. The compressed gas is emitted at a
constant velocity v0/2 relative to the ball and at an
dM
even rate
= K(K is a positive constant).
dt gas

1 1 m + M
r
v (t) = v0 + ln
x
5 2 m + M kt
The final velocity of the ball is determined according
to the time that passes until the force applied by the
emitted gas stops, or when the mass of the gas in the
M
ball is zero, 0 =
kT. Hence,
2
M
T=
2k
Substituting Eq. (7)in Eq. (6) yields

m,v0

1 1 m + M
vfinal = v(T) = v0 + ln
= 0.455 v0
5 2 m + M / 2

1. What is the velocity of the ball after the collision


with the bullet ?
2. Find the velocity of the ball v(t) as a function of
time. As same that the emission of gas starts at t = 0.
What is the final velocity of the ball ?
Note : The penetration of the bullet into the ball is
the horizontal plane.
Sol. 1. From the law of conservation of linear
momentum, we can write :
(m + M)v1 = mv0
we define v1 as the velocity of M + m (the ball, bullet
and all the gas).
v
r
m
v0 x = 0 x
Hence,
v1 =
m+M
5
2. The force that the emitted gas applied on the ball
is :
r
r
v
d(mv)
d(mv) r
Fgas =
=
v = k 0 (right)
2
dt
dt
r
r
dv
where
= 0. Notes that v is the relative velocity
dt
between the gas and the ball. The mass of the ball
and the bullet is time dependent. It equals
m + M kt. Therefore, the equation of motion is :
v
dv
(m + M kt)
= k 0
2
dt
Rearranging and integrating this expression we
obtain:
r
r
v
v (t) v1 = 0 ln(m + M kt) | 0t x
2
Substituting the boundaries and v1 from Eq- we
derive :

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

2.

Two masses, m1 and m2, are tied to the ends of a


spring whose force constant is k, and whose natural
length is a. This system placed horizontally on a
perfectly smooth table, as shown in fig. At t = 0, m1
is bumped and receives a linear momentum of
r
p1 = p0 x , where p0 is a constant.
m2
m1
k

a
(i) Write the equations of motion for m1 and m2.
What is the velocity of the center of mass?
(ii) Prove that the harmonic oscillation equation of
the system is : ( &x& 2 &x&1 ) = k(x2 x1)

m1m 2
m1 + m 2
(iii) What is the oscillation amplitude of (x2 x1) ?
Sol. The motion of the system of the two bodies can be
conveniently described by using the center of mass
frame of reference. The centre of mass moves in a
straight line with constant velocity, due to the
conservation of linear momentum. In the centre of
mass frame the two bodies perform simple harmonic
oscillations. Denoting the position of the masses m1
and m2 by x1 and x2, respectively, we can express the
distance between the masses as x2 x1. The change in
the length of the spring is then x = x2 x1 a.
(i) The forces applied by the spring on the two
systems are :
where =

16

SEPTEMBER 2009

initially at rest, perpendicular to the first rod (see


figure.) At the moment they touch, the two poles
stick together, while the angle between them remain
/2.

m1 &x&1 = kx
...(1)
&
&
m2 x 2 = kx
...(2)
The signs are used according to the position of the
mass relative to the spring. Multiplying Eq.(1) by m2,
Eq. (2) by m1, and subtracting Eq. (1) from Eq. (2)
we have
m1m2( &x& 2 &x&1 ) = k(m1 + m2)x
...(3)
Since x = x2 x1 a, we have x& = x& 2 x& 1 . And

&x& = &x& 2 &x&1 . Therefore,


m1m2 &x& = k(m1 + m2)x
and the solution to this equation is :
x(t) = A cos(0t + )

L
X
V0

...(4)

...(5)

m1 + m 2
k . Notice that x does not
m1m 2
denote the position of any of the masses. It denotes
the difference between the distance between the
masses and the initial state, so that x = (x2 x1) a.
The velocity of the centre of mass is given by :
p 0 x
r
...(6)
v cm =
m1 + m 2
(ii) The equation specified in the problem is easily
derived from Eq. (3), which we found in the first
section. The constant is called the "reduced mass"
of the system, and is defined as
1
1
1

+
...(7)

m1
m2
or in a different form,
m1m 2
=
...(8)
m1 + m 2
(iii) Taking energy into consideration, we have

A
(i) What is the center of mass velocity of the system ?
r
Where is the center of mass ? Express R cm at the
moment of collision.
(ii) What is the angular velocity of the system about
the centre of mass ?
(iii) What is the maximal velocity of the pole's end,
denoted by A, after the collision ? When does the
point A reach this velocity for the first time ?
r
Sol. (i) We know that v = v0 y . According to the
definition :
r
i m i vi
r
1
= v 0 y
...(1)
v cm =
2
i mi
By definition :
1
1
m L x + m L y
r
r
i m i r1
2
2
R cm =
=
i mi
2m

where 0 =

1
L( x y
...(2)
4
where we choose the origin to be the point of
collision (see figure)
1
=

p
1 p 02
1
...(9)
Ek = m1 0 =
2
2 m1
m1
where Ek is the initial kinetic energy. The kinetic
energy of the center of mass is :
p 02
1
Ek(cm) =
...(10)
2 m1 + m 2
and therefore, the total kinetic energy in the centre of
mass frame becomes :
m2
Ek(cm) = Ek Ek(cm) =
p 02
2m1 (m1 + m 2 )
The kinetic energy is proportional to the square of
1
ampitude, Ek = kA2
2
Therefore,

3.

A=

1/4
1

r
R cm ( t = 0) = ( x / 4)( x y)

(ii) In the center of mass frame, the angular


momentum about the centre of mass before the
collision is :
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
J cm = ( r1 R cm ) m1( v1 v cm ) + r1 R cm )
r
r
m2( v 2 v cm )

m 2 p 02
km1 (m1 + m 2 )

L
mv0 z
4

...(3)

r
r
1
where we substitute r1 = L y and r2 = L x . We
2
calculate IC using the parallel axis theorem :

A thin rod of length L and mass m moves on a


r
smooth horizontal surface at a velocity v 0 in the
direction of its length. The end of the rod hits the end
of a second rod of the same length and mass, which is

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

1/4

17

SEPTEMBER 2009

(ii) power required to keep the rod moving with that


steady velocity and
(iii) thermal power generated in the rod.
Sol. Initially, due to battery, a current I = E/R flows
through the rod. According to Fleming's left rule, the
rod experiences a force Bil towards left, due to the
current.
Considering free body diagram of the rod as shown in
fig.
mg

L 2 L 2
5

1
IC = 2 mL2 2m + =
mL2
4
4
3
12


...(4)
1
r
mv 0 L
r
J
3 v0
Hence, cm = cm = 4
z =
z ...(5)
5
5 L
IC
mL2
12
(iii) The maximal velocity is reached when the
velocity of the point A in the centre of mass frame is
r
in the direction of v cm ; i.e., + y (see figure).
Therefore,

F
1

c.m.

VA

RAC
A
vA,max = vcm + RAC
By using simple geometry, we obtain :
2

N
For vertical forces,
N = mg
For horizontal forces,
Fmin = Bil + N
BEl

+ mg
Ans.
or
Fmin =
R

Where a force F = 2 Fmin is applied, the rod begins to


accelerate rightwards and due to its motion, an emf is
induced in it. According to Fleming's right hand rule
this induced emf tries to flow an anti-clockwise
current in the circuit. It means induced emf reinforces
emf of the battery. Hence, leftward force on rod
increases or retarding force increases. Therefore,
acceleration of the rod decreases and it becomes zero
or velocity becomes constant when resultant force on
the rod become zero.
Let the steady state velocity of the rod be v0.
Induced emf, e = Blv0.
Total emf of the ciruit = E + e = (E + Blv0)
(E + Blv 0 )
Current through the circuit, i =
R
Due to current, leftward force on the rod,
Bl(E + Blv 0 )
F = Bil =
R
Considering free body diagram of the rod shown in
fig.
mg

...(6)

10
3L L
L
...(7)
+ =
4
4 4
Notice that the distance RAC is constant in the center
of mass frame. The whole system rotates at an
r
angular velocity of cm about a fixed axis which
passes through the center of mass. Therefore,
1
1
3
3 v 0 10

L = v0 1 +
vA,max = v0 +
2
2
5 L 4
10
RAC =

The time required for RA,cm to rotate to an angle


(see figure) is given by :

5 L

tan 1 (3)
=
tan1(3)
t= r =
3 v0
| |
3 v0
5 L
4.

Two long parallel conducting rails are fixed at a


distance l apart in a horizontal plane. A rod of mass
m and resistance R can slide along the rails. A
uniform magnetic field of induction B exists along
vertically downward direction and coefficient of
friction between rails and rod is .
If a battery of emf E and negligible internal resistance
is connected between the rails at left end, as shown in
fig. calculate minimum value , Fmijn of force required
to be applied horizontally rightwards on the rod to
move it to the right.
E
+

Fmin

Bil
F

If F = 2Fmin, calculate
(i) steady state velocity of the rod,

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

F = Fmin

N
For vertical forces, N = mg
18

SEPTEMBER 2009

Ratio of oscillation amplitude to wavelength is

For horizontal forces,


F + N = 2Fmin
Bl
BEl

(E + Blv0) + mg = 2

+ mg
R
R

10 6
1
2I
a
=
=

2v v
99

Ans. (ii)

mgR + BEl
Ans. (i)
v0 =

B2l 2

Power required to keep the rod moving with this


steady velocity v0 is

or

2(mgR + BEl) 2

P = Fv0 =

Ans. (ii)
RB 2 l 2
Thermal power generated in the rod = i2R

(mgR + 2BEl) 2
2 2

RB l

Regents Physics
You Should Know
Modern Physics :

Ans. (iii)

Due to a point isotropic sonic source, loudness at a


point is L = 40 dB. If density of air is = 15/11 kg
m3 and velocity of sound in air, v = 330 ms1,
calculate
(i) pressure oscillation amplitude at the point of
observation and
(ii) ratio of oscillation amplitude of particles of
medium to wavelength of sonic waves.
Sol. Due to propagation of longitudinal waves, pressure of
the medium varies with time. Maximum change in
pressure is given by
Pa
(P)max =
...(1)
v
5.

Speed of sound waves in a gas is v =

P = v

dB

I10
where
I0 = 1012 Wm2
Intensity of sound waves at the point is
L
I = I0. antilog10
10
or
I = 1 108 Wm2
1
But intensity I = 22n2a2v = (42n2a2)v
2
2I
2 2 2

4 n a =
v
2 2 2

4 n a = (a) , hence, a =

2I
v

2Iv = 3 103 Nm2 Ans. (i)

Substituting = 2n in equation (3),

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

A photon is a particle of light {wave packet}.

Large objects have very short wavelengths


when moving and thus can not be observed
behaving as a wave. (DeBroglie Waves)

All electromagnetic waves originate from


accelerating charged particles.

The frequency of a light wave determines its


energy (E = hf).

The lowest energy state of a atom is called the


ground state.

Increasing light frequency increases the kinetic


energy of the emitted photo-electrons.

As the threshold frequency increase for a


photo-cell (photo emissive material) the work
function also increases.

Increasing light intensity increases the number


of emitted photo-electrons but not their KE.

Centripetal force and centripetal acceleration


vectors are toward the center of the circlewhile the velocity vector is tangent to the
circle.

An unbalanced force (object not in equilibrium)


must produce acceleration.

The slope of the distance-tine graph is velocity.

The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude but


opposite in direction to the resultant vector.

Momentum is conserved in all collision


systems.

Magnitude is a term use to state how large a


vector quantity is.

...(3)

2I
in equation (1),
Substituting = v and a =
v

2na =

Mechanics :

(P)max =

The particle behavior of light is proven by the


photoelectric effect.

...(2)

Loudness at a point is given by L = 10 log10

But

2I
v
But n =
v

19

SEPTEMBER 2009

P HYSICS F UNDAMENTAL F OR IIT-J EE

Current Electricity
KEY CONCEPTS & PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY

I = R

Review of Concepts :
Electric current is the rate of transfer of charge
through a certain surface.
The direction of electric current is as that of flow
of positive charge.
If a charge q cross an area in time t, then the
average current = q/t
Its unit is C/s or ampere.
Electric current has direction as well as
magnitude but it is a scalar quantity.
Electric current obeys simple law of algebra.
i.e.,
I = I1 + I2

I1

or

i.e.,

t=q=

j
en
Here, negative sign indicates that drifting of electron
takes place in the opposite direction of current
density.
The average thermal velocity of electron is zero.
Electric resistance : Electric resistance (R) is
defined as the opposition to the flow of electric
charge through the material.
It is a microscopic quantity.
Its symbol is
Its unit is ohm.
(a)
density v d =

I = lim

t 0

I dt
0

Average current I =

j . dS

I2

or

i=

Relation between drift velocity and current

I1

dq
q

t
dt
Electric charge passing a surface in time
I = f(t)

I
S cos

Its unit A/m2


Electric current can be defined as flux of current
density vector.

Types of Current :
Steady state current or constant current : This
type of current is not function of time.
Transient or variable current : This type of current
passing through a surface depends upon time.

i.e.,

J=

I dt
dt

(b)

0
t

l
A
where, R = resistance,

R=

Convection Current : The electric due to


mechanical transfer of charged particle is called
convection current. Convection current in different
situation.
Case I : If a point charge is rotating with constant
angular velocity .

l = length of the conductor,


A = area of cross section
Continuity Equation :

q
q
2
; T=

I=
T

2
Case II : If a non-conducting ring having charge
per unit length is rotating with constant angular
velocity about an axis passing through centre of
ring and perpendicular to the plane of ring.

dq
c
dt
The continuity equation is based on conservation
principle of charge.
Drift Velocity (vd) : When a potential difference
is applied between ends of metallic conductor, an

= resistivity of the material,

I=

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

20

j . dS =

SEPTEMBER 2009

electric field is established inside the metallic


conductor. Due to this, electron modify their
random motion and starts to drift slowly in the
opposite direction of electric field. The average
velocity of drifting possessed by electron is
known as drift velocity.

e
= E
m

vd

Ohm's Law fails in tube, crystal diodes, thyristors


etc.
EMF and PD of a Cell : A device which supplies
electric energy is called a seat of emf. The seat of
emf is also called a cell.
A battery is a device which manages a potential
difference between its two terminals.
e = EMF of the battery is the work done by the
force per unit charge.
When the terminals of a cell are connected to an
external resistance, the cell is said to be in closed
circuit.
E.M.F. has no electrostatic origin.
Internal Resistance of a Cell (r) : Internal
resistance of a cell is the resistance of its
electrolyte.
The internal resistance of cell :
(a) Varies directly as concentration of the solution of
the cell.
(b) Varies directly as the separation between
electrodes i.e., length of solution between
electrodes.
(c) Varies inversely as the area of immersed
electrodes.
(d) is independent of the material of electrodes.
Potential difference across the cell :
Potential difference across the first cell
V1 = E1 + Ir1 (discharging of cell)

where, vd = drift velocity, e = electron,


= relaxation time, m = mass of electron

E = electric field
Variation of Resistance with Temperature :
Let a metallic conductor of length l and crosssectional area A.
Rt = R0(1 + t)
where,
Rt = resistance of conductor at temperature tC,
R0 = resistance of conductor at 0C,
= temperature coefficient.
i
A

Some Important Points :

(a) '' is proportionality constant known as


temperature coefficient of resistance variation.
(b) The value of does not depend upon initial and
final resistance of the conductor.
(c) The value of depends upon the unit which is
chosen.
(d) The value of may by negative.
Electric Conductance (G) :
It is reciprocal of resistance, G =

1
R
i

Its unit is per ohm.


Electric conductivity =

E1r1

Ohm's law in vector form :

Potential difference across the second cell


V2 = E2 Ir2 (charging of cells)

E= i

where, =

m
2

Concept of Rise up and Drop up of voltage:


(a) Ideal cell

= receptivity of material

ne
According to ohm's law, electric current passing
through a conductor is proportional to the
potential difference between end of the conductor
i.e.,
V = IR
In case of ohms law, V-I graph is straight line.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

E2r2

Rise up
+E

21

Drop up
E

SEPTEMBER 2009

(b) Real cell


r,E
i

r,E

Rise up

problem will ask you explicitly to consider power or


energy.
Step 2 Set up the problem using the following steps :
Make a drawing of the circuit.
Identify the circuit elements, including sources of
emf and resistors.
Determine the target variables. Typically they
will be the power input or output for each circuit
element, or the total amount of energy put into or
taken out of a circuit element in a given time.
Step 3 Execute the solution as follows :

i
Drop up

E ir

E ir

(c) Electric resistance


R
i

Drop up

Rise up

IR

+IR
When a battery being charged, the terminal
voltage is greater than its emf V = E + Ir.
Kirchhoff's Law : Kirchhoff's law is able to
solve complicated circuit problems.
(i) First Law : Incoming current = Outgoing current
I1 + I2 = I3 + I4 + I5

I2
I1

A source of emf delivers power I into a circuit


when the current I runs through the source from
to +. The energy is converted from chemical
energy in a battery, from mechanical energy in a
generator, or whatever. In this case the source has
a positive power output to the circuit or,
equivalently, a negative power input to the
source.

I5

A source of emf power I from a circuit that is,


it has a negative power output, or, equivalently, a
positive power inputwhen currents passes
through the source in the direction from + to
.This occurs in charging a storage battery, when
electrical energy is converted back to chemical
energy. In this case the source has a negative
power output to the circuit or, equivalently, a
positive power input to the source.
No matter what the direction of the current
through a resistor, It removes energy from a
circuit at a rate given by VI = I2R = V2/R, where
V is the potential difference across the resistor.
There is also a positive power input to the internal
resistance r of a source, irrespective of the
direction of the current. The internal resistance
always removes energy from the circuit,
converting it into heat at a rate I2r.
You may need to calculated the total energy
delivered to or extracted from a circuit element in
a given amount of time. If integral is just the
product of power and elapsed time.
Step 4 Evaluate your answer : Check your results,
including a check that energy is conserved. This
conservation can be expressed in either of two forms:
net power input = net power output or the
algebraic sum of the power inputs to the circuit
elements is zero.

I4
I3

This law is based upon conservation principle of


charge.
(ii) Second Law : (Loop rule or voltage law.) This
law is based upon conservation principle of
energy.
Grouping of resistors :
Case I : Resistors in series
RMN = Req = R1 + R2
R2
N
M R1
In general,
Req = R1 + R2 + ... + Rn
Case II : Resistors in parallel

1
R MN

1
1
1
=
+
R eq
R1
R2
R1
M

R2

In general,

1
1
1
1
=
+
+ ... +
R MN
R1
R2
Rn

Problem solving st. : Series and Parallel

Problem solving st. : Power and Energy in circuits


Step 1 Identify the relevant concepts :
The ideas of electric power input and output can be
applied to any electric circuit. In most cases youll
know when these concepts are needed, because the

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Step 1 Identify the relevant concepts : Many resistor


networks are made up of resistors in series, in
parallel, or a combination of the two. The key
concept is such a network can be replaced by a single
equivalent resistor.

22

SEPTEMBER 2009

Step 2 Set up the problem using the following steps:

Problem solving st. : Kirchhoffs Rules :


Step 1 Identify the relevant concepts : Kirchhoffs
rules are important tools for analyzing any circuit
more complicated than a single loop.
Step 2 Set up the problem using the following steps :
Draw a large circuit diagram so you have plenty
of room for labels. Label all quantities, known
and unknown, including an assumed direction for
each unknown current and emf. Often you will
not know in advance the actual direction of an
unknown current or emf, but this does not matter.
If the the actual direction of a particular quantity
is opposite to your assumption, the result will
come out with a negative sign. If you are
Kirchhoffs rules correctly, they will give you the
directions as well as the magnitudes of unknown
currents and emfs.
When you label currents, it is usually best to use
the junction rule immediately to express the
currents of as few quantities as possible. For
example, fig (a) shows a circuit correctly labeled;
fig. (b) shows the same circuit, relabeled by
applying the junction rule to point a to eliminate I3.

Make a drawing of the resistor network.


Determine whether the resistors are connected in
series or parallel. Note that you can often consider
networks such as combinations of series and
parallel arrangements.
a
I

R1

R2

R3

(a) R1, R2, and R3 in series


R1

a
I

R2
R3

b
I

b
I

(b) R1, R2, and R3 in parallel

Determine what the target variables are. They


could include the equivalent resistance of the
network, the potential difference across each
resistor, or the current through each resistor.

r2

r1

Step 3 Execute the solution as follows :

Use Eq. Req = R1 + R2 + R3 (resistors in series)


or

I2

I1

1
1
1
1
=
+
+
+...(resistors in parallel)
R eq R 1 R 2 R 3

I3

to find the equivalent resistance for a series or a


parallel combination, respectively.

I1

If the network is more complex, try reducing in to


series and parallel combinations.
When calculating potential differences, remember
that when resistors are connected in series, the
total potential differences across the combination
equals the sum of the individual potential
differences. When they are connected in parallel,
the potential difference across the parallel
combination.

R1

I2
a

R2

(a)
2

r2

r1

+
I2

I1
I1 + I2

Keep in mind the analogous statements for


current. When resistors are connected in series,
the current is the same through every resistor and
equals the current through the series combination.
When resistors are connected in parallel the total
current through the combination equals the sum
of the currents through the individual resistors.

R3
I2

I1
R1

R2

(b)
Determine which quantities are the target
variables.
Step 3 Execute the solution as follows :
Choose any closed loop in the network and
designate
a
direction
(clockwise
or
counterclockwise) to travel around the loop when
applying the loop rule. The direction does not

Step 4 Evaluate your answer : Check whether your


results are consistent. If resistors are connected in
series, the equivalent resistance should be greater
than that of any individual resistor; if they are
connected in parallel, the equivalent resistance should
be less than that of any individual resistor.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

R3

23

SEPTEMBER 2009

have to be the same as any assumed current


direction.
Travel around the loop in the designated
direction, adding potential differences as you
cross them. Remember that a positive potential
and a negative potential difference corresponds to
a decrease in potential. An emf is counted as
positive when you traverse it from () to (+), and
negative when you go from (+) to (). An IR term
is negative if you travel through the resistor in the
same direction as the assumed current and
positive if you pass it in the opposite direction.
Figure. summarizes these sign conventions. In
each part of the figure travel is the direction
that we imagine going around a loop while using
Kirchhoffs loop law, not necessary the direction
of current.
Equate the sum is Step 2 to zero.
If necessary, choose another loop to get a
different relation among the unknowns, and
continue until you have as many independent
equations as unknowns or until every circuit
element has been included in a at least one of the
chosen loops.
Solve the equations simultaneously to determine
the unknowns. This step involves algebra, not
physics, but it can be fairly complex. Be careful
with algebraic manipulations; one sign error will
prove fatal to the entire solution.
You can use this same bookkeeping system to
find the potential Vab of any point a with respect to
any other point b. Start at b and add the potential
changes you encounter in going from b to a, using the
same sign rules as in Step 2. The algebraic sum of the
these changes is vab = Va Vb.
Step 4 Evaluate your answer : Check all the step in
your algebra. A useful strategy is to consider a loop
other than the ones you used to solve the problem; if
the sum of potential drops around this loop is not
zero, you made an error somewhere in your
calculations. As always, ask yourself whether is
answer make sense.
Travel

Travel

1.

IR

4
Sol. The equivalent Wheatstone's bridge network of the
given circuit is shown in fig.
B

2
3

A
1

C
2

D
2 Volt
Here the points B and D are at the same potential as
the bridge is balanced. So the 3 resistance in BD
arm is ineffective and can be omitted from the circuit.
The resistance of ABC branch is 2 + 4 = 6 as
AB and BC are in series. Similarly the resistance of
A D C branch is 1 + 2 = 3.
The two resistances, i.e., 6 ohm and 3 ohm are in
parallel. The equivalent resistance R is given by
1
1
1
1
=
+
=
R = 2
R
2
6
3
(i) The current drawn from 2 volt accumulator is
E
2
i=
=
= I amp.
R
2
(ii) The current through 3 resistor is zero.
(iii) When the 3 resistor is removed from the
circuit, there will be no change.

+IR

2.

I
I
When using Kirchhoffs rules, follow these sign
conventions as you travel around a circuit loop.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

In a circuit shown in fig.


(i) find the current drawn from the accumulator.
(ii) find the current through the 3 ohm resistor,
(iii) What happens when 3 ohm resistor is removed
from the circuit ?
2V
1

Travel

Travel
+

Solved Examples

24

A battery of e.m.f. 5 volt and internal resistance 20


is connected with a resistance R1 = 50 and a
resistance R2 = 40. A voltmeter of resistance 1000
is used to measure the potential difference across R1.
What percentage error is made in the reading ?
SEPTEMBER 2009

Let R be the voltmeter resistance. The resistance 400


and voltmeter resistance R are in parallel. Their
equivalent resistance R is given by
1
1
1
400 + R
400R
=
+
=
or
R
R
400
400R
400 + R
But R should be equal to 300 ohm. Hence
400R
= 300
R = 1200 ohm
400 + R
Thus, voltmeter resistance is 1200 ohm.
When the voltmeter is connected across 300 ohm, the
effective resistance R" is given by
1
1
1
1+ 4
5
=
+
=
=
R" 1200
300
1200
1200
1200
= 240 ohm.
R =
5
Now the potential difference is shared between 240
ohm and 400 ohm.
Potential diff. across 240 ohm : Potential difference
across 400 ohm
= 240 : 400 = 3 : 5
As total potential is 60 V, hence potential difference
across 240 ohm, i.e., across resistance 300 ohm will
be
3
60 = 22.5 V.
8

Sol. The circuit is shown in fig.


1000
V
R2 = 50

R1 = 50

20
5V
When voltmeter is not connected
E
current in the circuit i =
r + R1 + R 2

1
5
5
=
=
A
22
20 + 50 + 40
110
Potential difference across R1 = i R1
1
50 = 2.27 volt.
=
22
When the voltmeter is connected across R1.
In this case the galvanometer resistance is in parallel
with R1. Hence
1000 50
Equivalent resistance =
= 47.62 ohm
1000 + 50
Current in the circuit
5
5
=
=
A
20 + 40 + 47.62 107.62
Potential difference measured by voltmeter
5
47.62 = 2.21 volt.
=
107.62
2.27 2.21
100 = 2.6%
Percentage error =
2.27
i=

3.

4.

H
+

C
+
G
(i) The potential difference between B and D and
(ii) the potential difference across the terminals of
each of the cells G and H.
Sol. Fig. shows the current distribution.
Applying Kirchhoff's first law at point D, we have
...(1)
i = i1 + i2
Applying Kirchhoff's second law to mesh and
ADBA, we have
2i + 1i + 2i1 = 2 1 = 1
...(2)
or
3i + 2i1 = 1
2V
2
B
A

In the circuit fig. a voltmeter reads 30 V when it is


connected across 400 ohm resistance. Calculate what
the same voltmeter will read when it is connected
across the 300 resistance ?
30 V

V
300
400

60 V
Sol. Potential difference across 400 ohm = 30 V
Potential difference across 300 ohm
= (60 30) = 30 V
This shows that the potential difference is equally
shared.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

In the circuit shown in fig. E, F, G and H are cells of


e.m.f. 2, 1, 3 and 1 volt and their internal resistances
are 2, 1, 3 and 1 ohm respectively. Calculate
E
+
B
A

1V
i
D

25

1V

1
i1
i2

1
C

3V

SEPTEMBER 2009

Applying Kirchhoff's second law to mesh DCBD, we


get
3i2 1i2 2i1 = 3 1
...(3)
or
4i2 2i1 = 2
Solving eqs. (1), (2) and (3), we get
1
6
5
amp., i2 =
amp. and i =
amp.
i1 =
13
13
13
(i) Potential difference between B and D
2
1
volt.
= 2i1 = 2 =
13
13

(ii) Potential difference across G
63
= 1.61 V
= E i2R = 3
13
Potential difference across H
6
=1
(1) = 1.46 V.
13

Black Holes-The Most Efficient


Engines in the Universe
The scientists have just found the most energyefficient engines in the universe. Black holes,
whirling super dense centres of galaxies that suck
in nearly everything. Jets of energy spurting out of
older ultra-efficient black holes also seem to be
playing a crucial role as zoning police in large
galaxies preventing to many stars from sprouting.
This explains why there are fewer burgeoning
galaxies chock full of stars than previously
expected.
For the first time, the scientists have measured
both the mas of hot gas that is being sucked into
nine older black holes and the unseen super speedy
jets of high energy particles split out, which
essentially form a cosmic engine. Then they determined a rate of how efficient these older black hole
engines are and were awe-struck. These black
holes are 25 times more efficient than anything man
has built, with nuclear power being the most
efficient of man-made efforts, said the research's
lead author, Professor Steve Allen of Stanford
University.

Twelve equal wires, each of resistance 6 ohm are


joined up to form a skeleton cube. A current enters at
one corner and leaves at the diagonally opposite
corner. Find the joint resistance between the corners.
Sol. The skeleton ABCDEFGH, is shown in fig.
i/6
F
E
i/3
i/3
i/6
A
B i/6
i/3
i/6
i/3
5.

i/6

H i/3

The galaxies in which these black holes live are


bigger than the Milky way, which is the Earth's
galaxy and are 50 million to 400 million light-years
away.

i/3

D
C
i/6
This skeleton consists of twelve wires. Let the
resistance of each wire be r. Here the current i enters
at corner A and leaves at corner G. The current i at
corner A is divided into three equal parts (i/3)
because the resistance of each wire is the same. At B,
D and E, the current i/3 is divided into two equal
parts each having magnitude i/6. At the corners C, F
and H, the currents again combine to give currents,
each of magnitude i/3 along CG, FG and HG
respectively. At corner G, all these currents combine
so that the current leaving at G is i.
Let R be the equivalent resistance between the
corners A and G. Taking any one of the paths say
ABCG, we have
VAG = VAB + VBC + VCG
i
i
i
iR = r + r + r
3
6
3
5
or R = r
6
According to given problem r = 6 ohm
5
6 = 5 ohm.
R=
6

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Black holes are the most fuel-efficient


engines in the universe.
The results were surprising because the types of
black holes studied were older, less powerful and
generally considered boring, scientists said. But
they ended up being more efficient than originally
thought, possibly as efficient as their younger,
brighter and more potent black hole siblings called
quasars. One way the scientists measured the
efficiency of black holes was by looking at the jets
of high energy spewed out.

26

SEPTEMBER 2009

P HYSICS F UNDAMENTAL F OR IIT-J EE

Circular Motion, Rotational Motion


KEY CONCEPTS & PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY

Without centripetal force, a body can not move on a


circular path. Earth gets this force from the
gravitational attraction between earth and sun;
electron moves in circular path due to electrostatic
attraction between it and nucleus. A cyclic or car
while taking turn, gets the centripetal force from the
friction between road and type. To create this force,
the vehicle tilts itself towards the centre. If it makes
angle with the vertical in tilted position then than
= v2/rg. where v is its velocity and r is the radius of
the path. In order to avoid skidding (or slipping), the
angle of tilt with vertical should be less than angle
of friction . i.e.
tan < tan

Circular Motion :
When a particle moves on a circular path with
uniform speed, its is said to execute a uniform
circular motion.
Angular Velocity : It is the rate of change of
angular displacements of the body. If the radial line
in the adjoining figure rotates through an angle
(radian) in time t (seconds) then its angular velocity.

or

radian / second
t
If it takes the radial line a time T to complete one
revolution, then
=

In limiting condition

v2
= or v =
rg

.r.g

This is the maximum safe speed at the turn.


Since centripetal force is provided by the friction, it
can never be more than the maximum value
R = (mg) or frictional force.
Motion in a vertical circle : When a body tied at one
end of a string is revolved in a vertical circle, it has
different speed at different points of the circular path.
Therefore, the centripetal force and tension in the
string change continuously. At the highest point A of
motion.
A
va
mg
Ta
r
C

2
T
and if n revolutions are made in 1s then
=

1
and = 2n
T
The angular acceleration of the particle is given by

n=

t
Linear Velocity :
Linear velocity = angular velocity radius
v=r
linear acceleration of particle (a) = a r
Centripetal Acceleration : When a particle moves
with uniform speed v in a circle of radius r it is acted
upon by an acceleration v2/r in the direction of centre.
It is called centripetal acceleration. The acceleration
has a fixed magnitude but its direction is
continuously changing. It is always directed towards
the centre of the circle.
Centripetal Forces : If the particle of mass m moves
with uniform velocity v in circle of radius r, then
=

Tb
vb

B
mg

mv a2
mg
r
r
This tension, at highest point will be zero, for a
minimum velocity vc given by
Ta + mg =

mv 2
. This is
r
called centripetal force. It has a fixed magnitude and
is always directed towards the centre.

force acting on it towards the centre is

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

v2
< (since coefficient of friction = tan )
rg

0=
27

mv a2

or

Ta =

mv c2
mg or
r

vc =

gr
SEPTEMBER 2009

This minimum speed is called critical speed (vc). If


the speed at A is less than this value, the particle will
not reach up to the highest point. To reach with this
speed at A, the body should have speed at B given by
the conservation laws viz.
Decrease in kinetic energy = increase in potential
energy

Let l be the length of string AB. The forces acting on


the bob are (i) weight mg acting downwards,
(ii) tension T along the sting (horizontal) component
is T sin and vertical component is T cos ).
T cos = mg
The horizontal component is equal to the centripetal
force i.e.,

1
1
mvb2 mva2 = mg.2r
2
2
vb2 = va2 + 4gr
for critical speed va = vc =
vb2gr + 4gr

A
gr

or

vb =

T cos
T
T sin

5gr
r

Therefore, the body should have speed at B at least

5gr , so that it can just move in vertical circle.


Tension in string at B is given by.

mg

mv 2b
m5vgr
Tb mg =
or Tb = mg +
= 6mg
r
r
This means that the string should be able to stand to a
tension, equal to six times the weight of the body
otherwise the string will break.

Rotational Motion :
Centre of mass of a system of particles :
The point at which the whole mass of the body may
be supposed to be concentrated is called the centre of
mass.
Consider the case of a body of an arbitrary shape of n
XY plane as shown in fig. Let the body consist of
number of

At any other point P making angle with the vertical,


from the figure.
A

Y
(x2, y2)
P1(x1, y1)
(x, y ) P2

vp

P3(x3, y3)

P
B
T mg cos =

mv 2p
r

mg
or

Q
mg cos

particles P1, P2, P3, .... of masses m1, m2, m3, ..... and
coordinates (x1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3), ..... If ( x, y) be
the coordinates of centre of mass, then

T = m
+ g cos
r

v 2r

v2

At point A, = 180; Ta = m a g
r

At point B, = 0;

and

v2
Tb = m b + g

x =

m1x1 + m 2 x 2 + m 3 x 3 + ....
m n x n
=
m1 + m 2 + m 3 + .....
m n

y =

m1 y1 + m 2 y 2 + m 3 y 3 + ...
m n y n
=
m1 + m 2 + m 3 + ....
m n

When there is a continuous distribution of mass


instead of being discrete, we treat an infinitesimal
element of the body of mass dm whose position is
(x, y, z). In such a case, we replace summation by
integration in above equations. Now we have,

Conical pendulum :
A conical pendulum consists of a string AB (fig.)
whose upper end is fixed at A and other and B is tied
with a bob. When the bob is drawn aside and is given
a horizontal push. Let it describe a horizontal circle
with constant angular speed in such a way that AB
makes a constant angle with the vertical. As the
string traces the surface of a cone, it is known as
conic pendulum.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

x =

y =

28

x dm = x dm
M
dm
y dm = y dm
M
dm
SEPTEMBER 2009

z =

Theorems on moment of inertia :


Theorem of parallel axes : According to this
theorem, the moment of inertia I of a body about any
axis is equal to its moment of inertia about a parallel
axis through centre of mass IG plus Ma2 where M is
the mass of the body and a is the perpendicular
distance between the axes, i.e., I = IG + Ma2
Theorem of perpendicular axes : According to this
theorem, the moment of inertia I of the body about a
perpendicular axis is equal to the sum of moment of
inertia of the body about two axes right angles to
each other in the plane of the body and intersecting at
a point where the perpendicular axis passes, i.e.,
I = Ix + Iy
Table of moment of inertia :

z dm = z dm
M
dm

where M is the total mass.


Motion of centre of mass :
Consider two particles of masses m1 and m2 located
at position vectors r1 and r2 respectively with respect
to origin. Now the position vector r of the centre of
mass is given by
...(1)
(m1 + m2)r = m1r1 + m2r2
Thus, the product of the total mass of the system and
position vector of the centre of mass is equal to the
sum of the products of the individual masses and
their respective position vectors. Hence
r=

m1r1 + m 2 r2
m1 + m 2

...(2)

Now the velocity of centre of mass of the system is


dr
given by
v=
dt

Axis

1.

Thin uniform rod


of length l

Through
its
centre
and
perpendicular to
its length

Ml 2
12

2.

Thin rectangular
sheet of sides a
and b.

Through
its
centre
and
perpendicular to
its plane

a 2 b2

M
+
12 12

3.

Thick
rectangular bar
l,
of
length
breadth b and
thickness t.

Through
its
midpoint
and
perpendicular to
its length

l2 b2

M +
12 12

4.

Uniform
solid
sphere of radius
R

About a diameter

2
MR2
5

5.

Circular ring of
radius R.

Through
its
centre
and
perpendicular to
its plane

MR2

6.

Disc of radius R.

Through
its
centre
and
perpendicular to
its plane

1
MR2
2

7.

Solid cylinder of
length l and
radius R.

(i) Through its


centre
and
parallel to its
length
(ii) Through its
centre
and
perpendicular to
its length.

1
MR2
2

The acceleration of the centre of mass is given by


a=

dd
dv
d2x
=
=
dt dt
dt
dt 2

The equation describing the motion of the centre of


mass may be written as
dv
f(total) = M
dt
When no external force acts on the system, then
0=M

dv
dv
or
=0
dt
dt

v = constant
Therefore, when no external force acts on the system,
the centre of mass of an isolated system move with
uniform velocity.
Moment of inertia and radius of gyration :
Moment of Inertia : The moment of inertia of a
body about an axis is defined as the sum of the
products of the masses of the particles constituting
the body and the square of their respective distance
from the axis.
Radius of Gyration : If we consider that the whole
mass of the body is concentrated at a distance K from
the axis of rotation, then moment of inertia I can be
expressed as
I = MK2
where M is the total mass of the body and K is the
radius of gyration. Thus the quantity whose square
when multiplied by the total mass of the body gives
the moment of inertia of the body about that axis is
known as radius of gyration.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Moment of
inertia

Body

R 2 l2
M
+
4 12

Angular momentum of a rotating body :


In case of rotating body about an axis, the sum of the
momentum of the linear momentum of all the

29

SEPTEMBER 2009

particles about the axis of rotation is called angular


momentum about the axis.

Step-1 : Identify the relevant concepts : The equation


= Iz is useful whenever torques act on a rigid
bodythat is, whenever forces act on a rigid body in
such a way as to change the state of the bodys
rotation.
In some cases you may be able to use an energy
approach instead. However, if the target variable is a
force, a torque, an acceleration, an angular
acceleration, or an elapsed time, the approach using
= I2 is almost always the most efficient one.
Step-2 : Setup the problem using the following steps:
Draw a sketch of the situation and select the body
or bodies to be analyzed.
For each body, draw a free-body diagram
isolating the body and including all the forces
(and only those forces) that act on the body,
including its weight. Label unknown quantities
with algebraic symbols. A new consideration is
that you must show the shape of the body
accurately, including all dimensions and angles
you will need for torque calculations.
Choose coordinate axes for each body and
indicate a positive sense of rotation for each
rotating body. If there is a linear acceleration, its
usually simplest to pick a positive axis in its
direction. If you know the sense of z in advance,
picking it as the positive sense of rotation
simplifies the calculations. When you represent a
force in terms of its components, cross out the
original force to avoid including it twice.
Step-3 : Execute the solution as follows :
For each body in the problem, decide whether it
under goes translational motion, rotational
motion, or both. Depending on the behavior of the
r
body in question, apply F = m a , z = Iz, or
both to the body. Be careful to write separate
equations of motion for each body.
There may be geometrical relations between the
motions of two or more bodies, as with a string
that unwinds from a pulley while turning it or a
wheel that rolls without slipping. Express these
relations in algebraic form, usually as relations
between two linear accelerations or between a
linear acceleration and an angular acceleration.
Check that the number of equations matches the
number of unknown quantities. Then solve the
equations to find the target variable(s).
Step-4 : Evaluate your answer : Check that the
algebraic signs of your results make sense. As an
example, suppose the problem is about a spool of
thread. If you are pulling thread off the spool, your
answers should not tell you that the spool is turning
in the direction the results for special cases or
intuitive expectations. Ask yourself : Does this result
make sense ?

Q Also the angular momentum of rigid body about


an axis is the product of moment of inertia and the
angular velocity of the body about that axis.
L = r p = I
Translational and rotational quantities :
Translational Motion

Rotational Motion

Displacement = s

Angular displacement =

Velocity = v

Angular velocity =

Acceleration = a

Angular acceleration =

Inertia = m

Moment of inertia = I

Force = F

Torque =

Momentum = mv

Angular momentum = I

Power = Fv

Rotational power =

Kinetic energy =

1
mv2
2

Rotational K.E. =

1 2
I
2

Kinematics equation of a rotating rigid body :


The angular velocity of a rotating rigid body is
defined as the rate of change of angular displacement,

i.e., = (d / dt )
Similarly, the angular acceleration is defined as the
rate of change of angular velocity, i.e.,

d
d2
=
=
dt
dt 2
Let a body be rotating with constant angular

acceleration with initial angular velocity 0 . If


is the initial angular displacement, then its angular

velocity and angular displacement at any time is


given by the following equations
= 0 + t

1 2
t
2
and 2 = 02 + 2
These equations are similar to usual kinematics
equation of translatory motion.
0 = 0t +

v = u + at, s = ut +

1 2
at
2

and
v2 = u2 + 2as
Problem Solving Strategy : Rotational Dynamics for
Rigid Bodies :
Our strategy for solving problems in rotational
dynamics is very similar to the strategy for solving
problems that in involve Newtons second law.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

30

SEPTEMBER 2009

Problem Solving Strategy: Equilibrium of a Rigid Body


Step-1 : Identify the relevant concepts : The first and
second conditions for equilibrium are useful
whenever there is a rigid body that is not rotating and
not accelerating in space.
Step-2 : Set up the problem using the following steps:
Draw a sketch of the physical situation, including
dimensions, and select the body in equilibrium to
be analyzed.
Draw a free-body diagram showing the forces
acting on the selected body and no others. Do not
include forces exerted by this body on other
bodies. Be careful to show correctly the point at
which each force acts; this is crucial for correct
torque calculations. You can't represent a rigid
body as a point.
Choose coordinate axes and specify a positive
sense of rotation for torques. Represent forces in
terms of their components with respect to the axes
you have chosen; when you do this, cross out the
original force so that you don't included it twice.
In choosing a point to compute torques, note that
if a force has a line of action that goes through a
particular point, the torque of the force with
respect to that point is zero. You can often
eliminate unknown forces or components from
the torque equation by a clever choice of point for
your calculation. The body doesn't actually have
to be pivoted about an axis through the chosen
point.
Step-3 : Execute the solution as follows :
Write equations expressing the equilibrium
conditions. Remember that Fx = 0, Fy = 0, and
z = 0 are always separate equations; never add
x-and y-components in a single equation. Also
remember that when a force is represented in term
of its components, you can compute the torque of
that force by finding the torque of each
component separately, each with its appropriate
lever arm and sign, and adding the results. This is
often easier than determining the lever arm of the
original force.
You always need as many equations as you have
unknowns. Depending on the number of
unknowns, you may need to compute torques
with respect to two or more axes to obtain enough
equations. Often, there are several equally good
sets of force and torque equations for a particular
problem; there is usually no single "right"
combination of equations. When you have as
many independent equations as unknowns, you
can solve the equations simultaneously.
Step-4 : Evaluate your answer : A useful way to
check your results is to rewrite the second condition
for equilibrium, z = 0, using a different choice of
origin. If you've done everything correctly, you'll get
the same answers using this new choice of origin as
you did with your original choice

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Solved Examples
1.

A particle a moves along a circle of radius R = 50 cm


so that its radius vector r relative to point O (fig.)
rotates with the
A
A
Y
r
O

R
O

(a)
(b)
constant angular velocity = 0.40 rad/sec. Find the
modulus of the velocity of the particle and modulus
and direction of its total acceleration.
Sol. Consider X and Y axes as shown in fig. Using sine
law in triangle CAO, we get
r
R
r
R
=
or
=
sin( 2)
sin
2 sin cos
sin

r = 2 R cos
Now r = r cos i + r sin j
= 2 R cos2 i + 2R cos sin j
dr
d
d
= 4R cos sin
i + 2R cos 2
j
Now, v
dt
dt
dt
= 2 R sin 2 i + 2 R cos 2 j
|v| = 2 R
Further
dv
d
d
= 4 R cos 2
a=
i 4 R sin 2
j
dt
dt
dt
= 4 R 2 cos 2 i 4R 2 sin 2 j
|a | = 4 R2

A particle describes a horizontal circle on the smooth


inner surface of a conical funnel as shown in fig. If
the height of the plane of the circle above the vertex
9.8 mark cm, find the speed of the particle.
Sol. The forces acting on the particle are shown in fig.
They are
2.

R sin
mv2/r

mg

R cos

R
r
h=9.8 cm

(i) weight m g acting vertically downwards.


(ii) normal reaction R of smooth surface of the cone.
(iii) reaction of the centripetal force (mv2/r) acting
radially outward.
...(1)
Hence,
R sin = m g
...(2)
and
R cos = (mv2/r)
31

SEPTEMBER 2009

Dividing eq. (1) by eq. (2), we get


gr
...(3)
tan = 2
v
From figure, tan = (r/h)
...(4)
From eqs. (3) and (4), we get
r
gr
= 2 or v = (g h )
h
v
v = [9.8 (9.8 102)]1/2 = 9.98 m/s

Now L =

A particle of 10 kg mass is moving in a circle of 4m


radius with a constant speed of 5m/sec. What is its
angular momentum about (i) the centre of circle (ii) a
point on the axis of the circle and 3 m distant from its
centre ? Which of these will always be in same
direction ?
Sol. The situation is shown in fig.

A thin horizontal uniform rod AB of mass m and


length l can rotate freely about a vertical axis passing
through its end A. At a certain moment the end B
starts experiencing a constant force F which is always
perpendicular to the original position of the stationary
rod and directed in the horizontal plane. Find the
angular velocity of the rod as a function of its
rotation angle counted relative to the initial
position.
Sol. The situation of the rod at an angle is shown in fig.
Here
r = i l cos + + j l sin
and
F=jF
(Force is always perpendicular to rod)
Y F
5.

L2
5

3
0

(a) We know that L = r mv


L = m v r sin
Here m = 10 kg, r = 4 m, v = 5 m/sec
and = 90
L = 10 5 4 1 = 200 kg-m2/sec.
(b) In this case r =

(4 2 + 3 2 ) = 5m.
l

L = 10 5 5 = 250 kg-m2/sec.
From figure it is obvious that angular momentum in
first case always has same direction but in second
case the direction changes.

I2 2 = 2IE or I =

(2IE)

From eqs. (1) and (2), L =

(2IE)

F
X

A symmetrical body is rotating about its axis of


symmetry, its moment of inertia about the axis of
rotation being 1 kg-m2 and its rate of rotation 2
rev./sec. (a) what is its angular momentum ? (b) what
additional work will have to be done to double its
rate of rotation ?
Sol. (a) As the body is rotating about its axis of
symmetry, the angular momentum vector coincides
with the axis of rotation.
Angular momentum L = I
...(1)
1 2
Kinetic energy of rotation E = I
2
or 2E = I2
4.

= r F = (i l cos + j l sin ) (j F)
= l F cos k

| | = l F cos
We know that = 1
1
Here I = m l2 (for rod) and = (d/d)
3
1
l F cos =
m l2 . (d/d)
3
1
m l2 . d
or l F cos d =
3
Integrating within proper limits, we have

1
lF
cos d = m l2 d
0
0
3

...(2)

...(3)

= 2 rev/sec = 2 2
or 4 radian/sec.
1
2
2
E=
1 (4) = 8 joule
2

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

( 2 1 8 2 )

= (16 2 ) = 4
= 12.57 kg.m2/sec.
(b) When the rate of rotation is doubled, i.e., 4
rev/sec or 8 radians/sec, the kinetic energy of
rotation is given by
1
E=
1 (8)2 = 322 joule
2
Additional work required
= Final K.E. of rotation Initial K.E. of rotation
= 322 82
= 24 2 = 236.8 joule

3.

L1

(2IE) =

l F sin =

32

1
m l2(2/2)
3

6 F sin
ml

SEPTEMBER 2009

KEY CONCEPT

ALIPHATIC
HYDROCARBON

Organic
Chemistry
Fundamentals

Oxymercurationdemercuration is also highly


regioselective. The net orientation of the addition of
the elements of water, H and OH, is in accordance
with Markovnikovs rule. The H becomes attached
to the carbon atom of the double bond with the
greater number of hydrogen atoms :

Alcohols from Alkenes through OxymercurationDemercuration Markovnikov Addition :

A useful laboratory procedure for synthesizing


alcohols from alkenes that avoids rearrangement is a
two-step method called oxymercuration demercuration.

Alkenes react with mercuric acetate in a mixture of


tetrahydrofurane (THF) and water to produce
(hydroxyalkyl)
mercury
compounds.
These
(hydroxyalkyl) mercury compounds can be reduced
to alcohols with sodium borohydride :

C=C
R

C=C

+ H2O +

HO

OAc) 2
CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 CH = CH 2 Hg
(

THF H 2 O
1 Pentene
(15 s )
4
CH3(CH2)2 CH CH 2
NaBH

OH
|
|
(1 h )
OH HgOAc

+ CH3COH

Hg OCCH3

HO

CH3(CH2)2 CHCH 3 + Hg
|
OH

+ OH + NaBH4

2-Pentanol (93%)

Hg OCCH3
C C + Hg + CH3CO

OH
HgOAc

Hg(OAc)2
THF-H2O
(20 s)

1-Methylcyclopentene

In the first step, oxymercuration, water and mercuric


acetate add to the double bond; in the second step,
demercuration, sodium borohydride reduces the
acetoxymercury group and replaces it with hydrogen.
(The acetate group is often abbreviated OAc.)

H3C
NaBH4
OH

OH
+ Hg

(6 min)

1-Methylcyclopentanol

Both steps can be carried out in the same vessel, and


both reactions take place very rapidly at room
temperature
or
below.
The
first
step
oxymercurationusually goes to completion within a
period of 20s 10 min. The second step
demercuration normally requires less than an hour.
The overall reaction gives alcohols in very high
yields, usually greater than 90%.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

H3C

CH3

HO

HO

Step 2 : Demercuration

CC

R C C H

(2) NaBH4, OH

The following are specific examples :


THF

O
CC

H H

(1) Hg(OAc)2/THFH2O

+
HO H

Step 1 : Oxymercuration

||
OCCH
Hg
3 2

Rearrangements of the carbon skeleton seldom occur


in
oxymercuration
demercuration.
The
oxymercuration - demercuration of 3, 3-dimethyl-1butene is a striking example illustrating this feature.
It is in direct contrast to the hydration of 3, 3dimethyl-1-butene.

33

SEPTEMBER 2009

(CH3CH2)2O, or in some higher molecular weight


ether such as diglyme [(CH3OCH2CH2)2O,
diethylene glycol dimethyl ether]. Great care must be
used in handling diborane and alkylboranes because
they ignite spontaneously in air (with a green flame).
The solution of BH3: THF must be used in an inert
atmosphere (e.g., argon or nitrogen) and with care.
Stereochemistry of Hydroboration :

CH 3
|
(1) Hg ( OAc ) 2 / THF H 2 O
CH 3C CH = CH 2

( 2 ) NaBH 4 , OH
|
CH 3
3, 3-Dimethyl-1-butene

CH 3
|
CH 3C CHCH 3
|
|
CH 3 OH
3,3-Dimethyl-2-butanol (94%)
Analysis of the mixture of products by gas
chromatography failed to reveal the presence of any
2,
3-dimethyl-2-butanol.
The
acid-catalyzed
hydration of 3, 3-dimethyl-1-butene, by contrast,
gives 2, 3-dimethyl-2-butanol as the major product.
A mechanism that accounts for the orientation of
addition in the oxymercuration stage, and one that
also explains the general lack of accompanying
rearrangements. Central to this mechanism is an

HB

We can see the results of a syn addition in our


examples
involving
the
hydroboration
of
1-methylcyclopentene ring :

Alkene

hydroboration

anti-Markovnikov

H
+
HB

Alkylborane

CH3CH = CH2

Hydroboration can be accomplished with diborane


(B2H6), which is a gaseous dimer of borane (BH3), or
more conveniently with a reagent prepared by
dissolving diborane in THF. When diborane is
introduced to THF, it reacts to form a Lewis acid
base complex of borane (the Lewis acid) and THF.
The complex is represented as BH3 : THF.

(1) OsO4, pyridine


(2) Na2SO3/H2O or NaHSO3/H2O

THF
(tetrahydrofuran)

Propene

CH2 = CH2 + KMnO4

1,2-Propanediol
(propylene glycol)
cold
OH, H2O

H2C CH2
OH OH

+
2H B O

Ethene

1,2-Ethanediol
(ethylene glycol)

Mechanisms for Syn Dihydroxylation of Alkenes :


The mechanisms for the formation of 1, 2-diols by
osmium tetroxide and potassium permanganate
involve cyclic intermediates that result in syn
addition of the oxygen atoms. After formation of the

BH3 : THF

Solutions containing the BH3 : THF complex can be


obtained commercially. Hydroboration reactions are
usually carried out in ethers : either in diethyl ether

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

CH3CH CH2
OH OH

H
Diborane

H
+ enantiomer

H
B2H6 + 2 O

Oxidation of Alkenes : Syn 1, 2-Dihydroxylation


Alkenes undergo a number of reactions in which the
carbon-carbon double bond is oxidized. One
important reaction is the 1, 2-dihydroxylation of
alkenes. Osmium tetroxide, for example, is widely
used to synthesize 1, 2-diols (sometimes called
glycols). Potassium permanganate can also be used,
although because it is a stronger oxidizing agent it is
prone to cleave the diol through further oxidation.

CC

Boron hydride

CH3

CH3 syn addition

electrophilic attack by the mercury species, H gOAc ,


at the less substituted carbon of the double bond (i.e.,
at the carbon atom that bears the greater number of
hydrogen atoms), and the formation of a bridged
intermediate.
Hydroboration : Synthesis of Alkylboranes
Hydroboration of an alkene is the starting point for a
number of useful synthetic procedures, including the
anti-Markovnikov
syn
hydration
procedure.
Hydroboration was discovered by Herbert C. Brown,
and it can be represented in its simplest terms as
follows :
C=C + HB

34

SEPTEMBER 2009

cyclic intermediate with osmium or manganese,


cleavage at the oxygenmetal bonds takes place
without altering the stereochemistry of the two new
C O bonds.
C=C

Pyridine

+
O

Os

O
O
An osmate ester

Os

OH

C=C

CC
O

+
O

H2O
several
steps

O
Mn

25C
pyridine

O
Os

O
+ MnO4 cold

O
Mn

NaHSO3
H2O

OH

OH

OH

OH

cis-1,2-Cyclopentanediol
(a meso compound)

Anti 1,2-Dihydoxylation of Alkenes via Epoxides :


Epoxidation of cyclopentene produces 1,
epoxyclopentane :
O
O
H
+ RCOH
+ RCOOH
O
H
Cyclopentene

OH
H

H
OH
H
+ enantiomer
OH
H

The ozone-layer is showing signs of recoring, but it


is unlikely to stabilise at pre-1980 levels. The
depletion of the earth's protective ozone-layer is
caused by the chemical action of chlorine and
bromine
released
by
man-made
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are used in
aerosol sprays and cooling equipments.
Ozone-depleting chemicals were banned by the
1987 Montreal Protocol which has now been
ratified by 180 nations. Ozone-layer is getting
better due to Montreal Protocol.
Dr. Weatherhead and Dr. Signe Bech Anderson of
the Danish Meteorological Institute in Copenhagen
analysed data from satellites and ground stations
and information from 14 modelling studies. They
found that ozone levels have stabilised or increased
slightly in the last 10 years. The full recovery is still
decades away.

2-

Process of Ozone-layer Healing


The research team leader Dr. S. B. Anderson said,
"The depletion has been most severe at the poles
and to a lesser extent at mid-latitudes covering
bands of North America, South America and
Europe." Shifting temperatrues, green house gases,
nitrous oxide and atmospheric dynamics, which can
influence ozone-levels, are going to change inthe
future. Volcanic activities on the Earth can also
have an impact. The 1993 Mount Pinatubo eruption
in the Phillippines caLI sed ozone-levels to backslide
for several years.

1-2-Epoxycyclopentane

Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of 1,2-epoxyclopentane


yields a trans diol, trans-1,2-cyclopentanediol. Water
acting as a nucleophile attacks the protonated epoxide
from the side opposite the epoxide group. The carbon
atom being attacked undergoes an inversion of
configuration. We show here only one carbon atom
being attacked. Attack at the other carbon atom of
this symmetrical system is equally likely and
produces the enantiomeric form of trans-1,2cyclopentanediol :

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Ozone-layer Healing Itself

cis-1,2-Cyclopentanediol
(a meso compound)

H2O
OH

Epoxidation followed by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis


gives us, therefore, a method for anti 1,2dihydroxylation of a double bond.

OH OH

MnO2
O
O
The syn stereochemistry of these dihydroxylations
can readily be observed by the reaction of
cyclopentene with osmium tetroxide or potassium
permanganate. The product in either case is cis-1,2cyclopentanediol.
+ OsO4

H
O+
H
H
OH
H

trans-1,2-Cyclopentanediol

CC

Mn

1-2-Epoxycyclopentane

OH OH

+ H

O
H

CC

O
Os

CC

NaHSO3
H2O

H + H
O

35

SEPTEMBER 2009

KEY CONCEPT

OXYGEN FAMILY &


HYDROGEN FAMILY

Inorganic
Chemistry
Fundamentals

Singlet dioxygen can add to a diene molecule in the


1, 4 positions, rather like a DielsAlder reaction. It
may add 1, 2 to an alkene which can be cleaved into
two carbonyl compounds.
OO
CH2
CH2 + singlet O2

Oxygen :
Oxygen occurs as two non-metallic forms, dioxygen
O2 and ozone O3. Dioxygen O2 is stable as a diatomic
molecule, which accounts for it being a gas. The
bonding in the O2 molecules is not as simple as it
might at first appear. If the molecule had two
covalent bonds, then all electron would be paired and
the molecule should be diamagnetic.
O + O

CH CH

Singlet dioxygen may be involved in biological


oxidations.
Ozone O3 is the triatomic allotrope of oxygen. It is
unstable, and decomposes to O2. The structure of O3
is angular, with an O O O bond angle of 11648.
Both O O bond lengths are 1.28 , which is
intermediate between a single bond (1.48 in H2O2)
and a double bond (1.21 in O2). The older valence
bond representation as resonance hybrid now seldom
used. The structure is described as the central O atom
using sp2 hybrid orbitals to bond to the terminal O
atoms. The central atom has one lone pair, and the
terminal O atoms have two lone pairs. This leaves
four electrons for bonding. The pz atomic orbitals
from the three atoms form three delocalized
molecular orbitals covering all three atoms. One MO
is bonding, one non-bonding, and one antibonding.
The four electron fill the bonding and non-bonding
MOs and thus contribute one delocalized bond to
the molecule in addition to the two bonds. Thus the
bond order is 1.5, and the system is described as a
four-electron three-centre bond.
Trioxides of Sulphur :
The only important trioxide in this group, SO3, is
obtained by reaction of sulfur dioxide with molecular
oxygen, a reaction that is thermodynamically very
favorable but extremely slow in the absence of a
catalyst. Platinum sponge, V2O5, and NO serve as
catalysts under various conditions. Sulfur trioxide
reacts vigorously with water to form sulfuric acid.
Commercially, for practical reasons, SO3 is absorbed
in concentrated sulfuric acid, to give oleum, which is
then diluted. Sulfur trioxide is used as such for
preparing sulfonated oils and alkyl arenesulfonate
detergents. It is also a powerful but generally
indiscriminate oxidizing agent; however, it will
selectively oxidize pentachlorotoluene and similar
compounds to the alcohol.
The free molecule, in the gas phase, has a planar,
triangular structure that may be considered to be a

or O = O

Dioxygen is paramaginetic and therefore contains


unpaired electrons. The explanation of this
phenomenon was one of the early successes of the
molecular orbital theory.
Liquid dioxygen is pale blue in colour, and the solid
is also blue. The colour arises from electronic
transitions which excite the ground state (a triplet
state) to a singlet state. This transition is 'forbidden'
in gaseous dioxygen. In liquid or solid dioxygen a
single photon may collide with two molecules
simultaneously and promote both to excited states,
absorbing red yellow green light, so O2 appears
blue. The origin of the excited singlet states in O2 lies
in the arrangement of electrons in the antibonding
*2py and *2pz molecular orbitals, and is shown
below.
Second excited
state (electrons
have opposite
spins

*py*pz

State
singlet

First excited
state (electrons
paired )

singlet

Ground state
(electrons have
parallel spins)

triplet

Energy /kJ
157

92

Singlet O2 is excited, and is much more reactive than


normal ground state triplet dioxygen. Singlet
dioxygen can be generated photochemically by
irradiating normal dioxygen in the presence of a
sensitizer such as fluorescein, methylence blue or
some polycyclic hydrocarbons. Singlet dioxygen can
also be made chemically :
H2O2 + OCl EtOH
O2(1g) + 2 + Cl

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

36

SEPTEMBER 2009

resonance hybrid involving p p S O bonding,


with additional bonding via overlap of filled
oxygen p orbitals with empty sulfur d orbitals, to
account for the very short S O distance of 1.41

:O:

:O :
O

6S2Cl2 + 4NH4Cl S4N4 + 8S + 16HCl

:O:
O

O
O
A more stable, asbestos-like phase (-SO3) has
infinite helical chains of linked SO4 tetrahedra and
the most stable form, -SO3, which also has an
asbestos-like appearance, presumably has similar
chains crosslinked into layers.
O
O
O

SOSOSO
O

Liquid -SO3, which is a monomer-trimer mixture,


can be stabilized by the addition of boric acid. In the
pure state it is readily polymerized by traces of water.
Compounds of Sulphur and Nitrogen :
A number of ring and chain compounds containing S
and N exist. The elements N and S are diagonally
related in the periodic table, and have similar charge
densities. Their electronegativities are close (N 3.0, S
2.5) so covalent bonding is expected. The compounds
formed have unusual structures which cannot be
explained by the usual bonding theories.
Attempting to work out oxidation states is unhelpful
or misleading.
The best known is tetrasulphur tetranitride S4N4, and
this is starting point for many other S N
compounds. S4N4 may be made as follows :

S4N4 + 6NaOH + 3H2O Na2S2O3 + 2Na2SO3 + 4NH3


If S4N4 is treated with Ag2F in CCl4 solution then
S4N4F4 is formed. This has an eight-membered S N
ring, with the F atoms bonded to S. This results from
breaking the S S bonds across the ring. Similarly
the formation of adducts such as S4N4.BF3 or
S4N4.SbF5 (in which the extra group is bonded to N)
breaks the S S bonds and increases the mean S N
distance from 1.62 to 1.68 . This is presumably
because the electron attracting power of BF3 or SbF5
withdraws some of the electron density.
Reduction of S4N4 with SNCl2 in MeOH gives
tetrasulphur tetraimide S4(NH4). Several imides can
be made by reacting S4N4 with S, or S2Cl2 with NH3.
These imides are related to an S8 ring in which one or
more S atoms have been replaced by imide NH
groups, for example in S7NH, S6(NH)2, S5(NH)3 and
S4(NH)4.

6SCl2 + 16NH3 S4N4 + 2S + 14NH4Cl


4
6S2Cl2 + 16NH3 CCl

S4N4 + 8S + 12NH4Cl

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

S4N4 is a solid, m.p. 178C, It is thermochromic, that


is it changes colour with temperature. At liquid
nitorgen temperatures it is almost colourless, but at
room temperature it is orange-yellow, and at 100C it
is red. It is stable in air, but may detonate with shock,
grinding or sudden heating. The structure is a
heterocylic ring. This is cradle shaped and differs
structurally from the S8 ring, which is crown shaped.
The X-ray structure shows that the average S N
bond length is 1.62 . Since the sum of the covalent
radii for S and N is 1.78 , the S N bonds seem to
have some double bond character. The fact that the
bonds are of equal length suggest that this is
delocalized. The S.....S distances at the top and
bottom of the cradle are 2.58 . The van der waals
(non-bonded) distance S ... S is 3.30 , and the single
bond distance S S is 2.08 .
This indicates weak S S bonding, and S4N4 is thus a
cage structure.
Many different sizes of rings exist, for example
cyclo-S2N2, cyclo-S4N2, cyclo-S4N3Cl, cycloS3N3Cl3. In addition bicyclo compounds S11N2,
S15N2, S16N2,S17N2 and S19N2 are known. The last
four may be regarded as two heterocyclic S7N ring,
with the N atoms joined through a chain of 1 5S
atoms.
S4N4 is very slowly hydrolysed by water, but reacts
rapidly with warm NaOH with the break-up of the
ring:

N
S

In view of this affinity of S in SO3 for electrons, it is


not surprising that SO3 functions as a fairly strong
Lewis acid toward the bases that it does not
preferentially oxidize. Thus the trioxide gives
crystalline complexes with pyridine, trimethylamine,
or dioxane, which can be used, like SO3 itself, as
sulfonating agents for organic compounds.
The structure of solid SO3 is complex. At least three
well-defined phase are known. -Sulfur trioxide,
formed by condensation of vapors at 80C or
below, is an icelike solid containing cyclic trimers
with structure.
O
O
O

37

SEPTEMBER 2009

If S4N4 is vaporized under reduced pressure and


passed through silver wool, then disulphur dinitrogen
S2N2 is formed.
S4N4 + 4Ag S2N2 + 2Ag2S + N2
S2N2 is a crystalline solid, which is insoluble in water
but soluble in many organic solvents. It explodes
with shock or heat. The structure is cyclic and the
four atoms are very nearly square planar.
The most important reaction of S2N2 is the slow
polymerization of the solid or vapour to form
polythiazyl (SN)x. This is a bronze coloured shiny
solid that looks like a metal. It conducts electricity
and conductivity increases as the temperature
decreases, which is typical of a metal. It becomes a
superconductor at 0.26 K. The crystal structure shows
that the four-membered rings in S2N2 have opened
and polymerized into a long chain polymer. The
atoms have a zig-zag arrangement, and the chain is
almost flat. Conductivity is much greater along the
chains than in other directions, and so the polymer
behaves as a one-dimensional metal. The resistivity is
quite high at room temperature.
Ortho and Para Hydrogen :
The hydrogen molecule H2 exists in two different
forms known as ortho and para hydrogen. The
nucleus of an atom has nuclear spin, in a similar way
to electrons having a spin. In the H2 molecule, the
two nuclei may be spinning in either the same
direction, or in opposite directions. This gives rise to
spin isomerism, that is two different forms of H2 may
exist. These are called ortho and para hydrogen. Spin
isomerism is also found in other symmetrical
molecules whose nuclei have spin momenta, e.g. D2,
N2, F2, Cl2. There are considerable differences
between the physical properties (e.g. boiling points,
specific heats and thermal conductivities) of the ortho
and para forms, because of differences in their
internal energy. There are also difference in the band
spectra of the ortho and para forms of H2.
The para form has the lower energy, and at absolute
zero the gas contains 100% of the para form. As the
temperature is raised, some of the para form changes
into the ortho form. At high temperatures the gas
contains about 75% ortho hydrogen.
Para hydrogen is usually prepared by passing a
mixture of the two forms of hydrogen through a tube
packed with charcoal cooled to liquid air
temperature. Para hydrogen prepared in this way can
be kept for weeks at room temperature in a glass
vessel, because the ortho-para conversion is slow in
the absence of catalysts. Suitable catalysts include
activated charcoal, atomic hydrogen, metals such as
Fe, Ni, Pt and W and paramagnetic substances or ions
(which contain unpaired electrons) such as O2, NO,
NO2, Co2+ and Cr2O3.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Chemistry Facts

38

At 0 degress Celsius and 1 atmospheric


pressure, one mole of any gas occupies
approximately 22.4 liters.

Atomic weight is the mass of an atom


relative to the mass of an atom of carbon12 which has an atomic weight of exactly
12.00000 amu.

If the atom were the size of a pixel (or the


size of a period), humans would be a
thousand miles tall.

It would require about 100 million


(100,000,000) atoms to form a straight line
one centimeter long.

The weight (or mass) of a proton is


1,836.1526675 times heavier than the
weight (or mass) of an electron.

The electron was first discovered before


the proton and neutron, in 1897 from
English physicist John Joseph Thomson.

The neutron was discovered after the


proton in 1932 from British physicist James
Chadwick, which proved an important
discovery in the development of nuclear
reactors.

Carbon dioxide was discovered by Scottish


chemist Joseph Black.

When silver nitrate is exposed to light, it


results in a blackening effect. (Discovered
by Scheele, which became an important
discovery for the development of
photography).

SEPTEMBER 2009

UNDERSTANDING

Inorganic Chemistry

1.

A green coloured metallic chloride (A), when treated


with NaOH and H2O2, gives a yellow solution due to
the formation of compound (B). The colour of this
solution changes to orange when dil. H2SO4 is added
to it. It is due to the formation of compound (C).
When KCl is heated along with (C) in presence of
conc H2SO4, a red volatile liquid (D) is produced.
The compound (C) when reacted with NH4Cl gives
compound (E) which decomposes on heating giving a
colourless gas (F), water and a green residue (G).
When Mg is burnt in the presence of gas (F), a white
solid (H) is produced. The latter on hydrolysis forms
a gas (I) which give white fumes with HCl gas.
Identify (A) to (I) giving the reaction involved.
Sol. The observations are given below :
(i) (A) + NaOH + H2O2 Yellow solution of (B)

(v) 3Mg + N2
Mg 3 N 2
(H)

Mg3N2 + 3H2O 3MgO + 2 NH 3


( I)

NH3 + HCl NH 4 Cl

White fumes

A substance (X) is soluble in conc. HCl. When to this


solution NaOH solution is added, a white precipitate
is produced. This precipitate dissolves in excess of
NaOH solution giving a strongly reducing solution.
Heating of (X) with sulphur gives a brown powder
(Y) which is soluble in warm yellow ammonium
sulphide solution. When HCl is added to the latter, a
grey precipitate is produced. Heating of (X) in air
gives a water soluble compound gives white
gelatinous precipitate. Identify the compounds giving
the reactions involved.
Sol. The reaction sequence is as follows :
2.

4
(ii) Yellow solution of (B) H2SO

Orange solution of (C)

(iii) (C) + KCl + H 2SO 4

(D)

. HCl
(1) X Conc

Dissolves NaOH
White ppt.

Volatile red liquid

conc.

(iv) (C) + NH3 (E)

(F)

Excess

+ H2O

NaOH

Colourless gas

Dissolves and the solution is strongly reducing.

( D)

S
(2) X

Green residue

(v) Mg + (F) Burnt

2O
H

( H)

Brown

NH 4 ) 2 Sx
(

Dissolves

HCl

Grey ppt.

White solid

( I)

2
(3) X

Heat

White fumes with HCl

The observations of (ii) and (iii) indicate that the


compound (A) should be chromium chloride. With
this fact, all the above reactions are as follows :
(i) 2CrCl 3 + 10NaOH + 3H2O2

Soluble in
conc. H 2SO 4

NaOH
Soluble H
Fused

White gelatinous ppt.


(a) According to step (2), (X) appears to be tin.
Sn + 2S SnS2
(X)

( A)

(Y)

SnS2 + (NH4)2Sx ( NH 4 ) 2 SnS3

2 Na 2 CrO 4 + 6NaCl + 8H2O

Amm. thiostannate

( B)
yellow solution

(NH4)2SnS3 + 2HCl SnS 2 + 2NH4Cl + H2S

(ii) 2Na2CrO4 + H2SO4


Na 2 Cr2 O 7 + Na2SO4 + H2O

Grey ppt .

(b) Step (1) and (3) can also be explained, if (X) is tin
Sn + 2HCl SnCl2 + H2

( C)
Orange solution

(X)

(iii) Na2Cr2O7 + 4KCl + 6H2SO4


2CrO 2 Cl 2

SnCl2 + 2NaOH Sn(OH)2 + 2NaCl


SnCl2 + 2NaOH Na 2SnO 2 + 2HCl

(D)

+ 2NaHSO4 + 4KHSO4 + 3H2O

Strongly reducing

(iv) Na2Cr2O7+ 2NH4Cl


( NH 4 ) 2 Cr2 O 7 + 2NaCl

Fuse

(c) Sn + O2
SnO 2

(E )

(Z)

(NH4)2Cr2O7 N 2 + Cr2 O 3 + 4H2O


( F)

Fuse

SnO2 + 2NaOH
Na2SnO3 + H2O
Na2SnO3 + 2HCl H 2SnO 3 + 2NaCl

(G )

White gelatinous ppt.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

39

SEPTEMBER 2009

A colourless, poisonous liquid (A) gives the


following reactions :
(i) It responds to chromyl chloride test and Marsh's
test.
(ii) When H2S gas is passed into HCl solution of (A),
a lemon yellow solid (B) gets ppt. and HCl is
liberated.
(iii) Compound (B) is soluble in yellow ammonium
sulphide to give (C). (B) does not dissolve in dil. and
conc. HCl.
(iv) Compound (C) on heating with dil. HCl
regenerates (B).
(v) Compound (B) dissolves in conc. HNO3 and the
solution on treatment with ammonium molybdate
gives a yellow ppt. (D).
Identify (A) to (D) and give equations of sets (ii) to
(v).
Sol. Since compound (A) responds to chromyl chloride
test, hence it contains chlorine. Further, it gives
Marsh test hence, it also contain Arsenic. Thus, (A) is
AsCl3. The different reactions are :
(i) 2AsCl3 + 3H2S
+ 6HCl
As 2S3

Sol. Observation (ii) shows that (A) contains sulphate


(SO42) ions because it gives white ppt. of BaSO4.
Since (A) gives chocolate colour with K4[Fe(CN)6],
hence it also contains Cu2+ ions, hence (A) is
CuSO4.5H2O.

3.

(A)

5H 2O

(i) CuSO 4 .5H 2 O


CuSO 4
CuSO 4 .5H 2 O
Blue ( A )

White ppt .

2CuSO4 + K4[Fe(CN)6] Cu 2 [Fe(CN ) 6 ] + 2K2SO4


( C ) Chocolate colour

(iii) CuSO 4 + 2KI CuI 2 + K2SO4


(A)

(D) ppt.

Cu 2 I 2 + 2KI
(D)

Yellow unstable

2Cu(CN)2 Cu 2 (CN) 2 + (CN)2


(F) white ppt.

Cu2(CN)2 + 6KCN 2K 3 [Cu (CN ) 4 ]


(G) Soluble

(v) 2CuSO4 + 2NH4OH CuSO 4 .Cu (OH ) 2

(C)

(H) Pale blue

+ (NH4)2SO4
CuSO4.Cu(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 6NH4OH
2[Cu ( NH 3 ) 4 ] SO 4 + 8H2O

(C)

As 2S3 + 6NH4Cl + 3H2S + 2S


(B)

(I) Deep blue

As 2S3 + 5(O) As2O5 + 3S

(vi) CuSO4 + 2NaOH Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO4

(B)

Cu(OH)2

As2O5 + 3H2O 2H3AsO4


12(NH4)2MoO4 + 21HNO3 + H3AsO4
( NH 4 ) 3 AsO 4 .12MoO 3 +21NH4NO3 + 12H2O

CuO

( J ) Black ppt.

+ H2O

CH2OH(CHOH)4CHO + 2CuO
CH2OH(CHOH)4COOH + Cu 2 O

Ammonium arseno molybdate


(yellow ppt.) (D)

( K ) Re d ppt .

(i) A blue compound (A) when heated, loses its water


of crystallization and becomes white (B), When (B)
absorbs moisture again becomes blue.
(ii) Aqueous solution of (A) gives white ppt. with
BaCl2 solution and on reaction with K4[Fe(CN)6]
gives a brown chocolate colour (C).
(iii) A reacts with KI to give I2 and a white ppt. (D)
which dissolves in excess of KI to give a brown
coloured complex salt (E).
(iv) (A) reacts with KCN to give a white ppt. (F)
which dissolves in excess of KCN to give soluble (G).
(v) (A) reacts with NH4OH to give a pale blue ppt.
(H) which dissolves in excess of NH4OH in presence
of (NH4)2SO4 to give a deep blue colour (I).
(vi) (A) reacts with NaOH to give an insoluble ppt.
which on boiling gives a black ppt (J). The black ppt.
reacts with glucose to give a red ppt. (K).
What are (A) to (K) ? Give balanced equations for all
the observations.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

2K[CuI 2 ]
(E) Pot. cuprous iodide

(iv) CuSO4 + 2KCN Cu (CN ) 2 + K2SO4

(iii) 2( NH 4 ) 3 AsS4 + 6HCl Boil

4.

Green

2CuI2 Cu 2 I 2 + I2

(ii) As 2S3 + 3( NH 4 ) 2 S 2 2( NH 4 ) 3 AsS4 + S


Yellow ammonium
sulphide

( A ) Blue

(ii) CuSO4 + BaCl2 BaSO 4 + CuCl2

Lemon yellow ppt. ( B)

( B)

Moisture

( B) White

5.

40

A green coloured compound (A) gave the following


reactions :
(i) (A) dissolves in water to give a green solution.
The solution on reaction with AgNO3 gives a white
ppt. (B) which dissolves in NH4OH solution and
reappears on addition of dil. HNO3. It on heating with
K2Cr2O7 and conc. H2SO4 produced a red gas which
dissolves in NaOH to give yellow solution (C).
Addition of lead acetate solution to (C) gives a
yellow ppt. which is used as a paint.
(ii) The hydroxide of cation of (A) in borax bead test
gives brown colour in oxidising flame and grey
colour in reducing flame.
(iii) Aqueous solution of (A) gives a black ppt. on
passing H2S gas. The black ppt. dissolves in
aquaregia and gives back (A).
(iv) on boiling with NaHCO3 and Br2 water gives a
black ppt (D).
SEPTEMBER 2009

(v) (A) on treatment with KCN gives a light green


ppt. (E) which dissolves in excess of KCN to give
(F). (F) on heating with alkaline bromine water gives
the same black ppt. as (D).
Identify compounds (A) to (F) and give balanced
equations of the reactions.
Sol. Reaction (i) indicates that (A) contains Cl ions
because, it gives white ppt. soluble in NH4OH. It is
again confirmed because, it gives chromyl chloride
test. The colour of oxidising and reducing flames
indicate that (A) also contains Ni2+ ions. Hence, (A)
is NiCl2, The different reactions are :
(i) NiCl2 + 2AgNO3 2AgCl + Ni(NO3)2
AgCl + 2NH3 [Ag( NH 3 ) 2 ]Cl

Know about Pie


3.14
= Perimeter / Diagonal, of any circle.
Pi expanded to 45 decimal places:
3.14159 26535 89793 23846 26433 83279 50288 41971
69399
Pi expanded to 52 binary places:
11.0010010000111 1110110101010 0010001000010
1101000111001
You cannot square a disc using just a ruler and
compasses because is a transcendental number.
= 4(1/1 - 1/3 + 1/5 - 1/7 + 1/9 - 1/11 + ... )
= 2(2/1 x 2/3 x 4/3 x 4/5 x 6/5 x 6/7 x 8/7 x 8/9 x ... )
355/113 (a real good rational approximation of )
(6 2)/5
In the late 18th century, James Stirling, a Scottish
mathematician, developed an approximation for factorials
using the transcendental numbers 'Pi' and 'e':
n! (2 n)1/2 (n/e)n
The most famous formula for calculating Pi is Machin's
formula:
/4 = 4 arctan(1/5) arctan(1/239)
This formula, and similar ones, were used to push the
accuracy of approximations to Pi to over 500 decimal
places by the early 18th century (this was all hand
calculation!).
Interestingly, there are no occurrences of the sequence
123456 in the first million digits of Pi. - posted by George
Pantazis
Bamboozlement with Pi
Does Pi equal 3? No? Then have a look on the algebraic
equation below:
x = ( + 3)/2
2x = + 3
2x( - 3) = ( + 3)( - 3)
2 x - 6x = 2 - 9
9 - 6x = 2 - 2 x
9 - 6x + x2 = 2 - 2 x + x2
(3 - x)2 = ( - x)2
3-x= -x
3=
We use Pi to:
Describe the DNA double helix,
Determining the distribution of primes - the probability
that two randomly selected integers are relatively prime
(i.e. have no common factors) is 6 / p2,
Analyzing the ripples on water
Checking for accuracy - as there are now millions upon
millions of known decimal places of Pi, by asking a super
computer to compute this many figures its accuracy can
be tested.

Soluble

Ag(NH3)2Cl + 2HNO3 AgCl + 2NH4NO3


(B) white ppt

The equations of chromyl chloride tests are :


NiCl2 + Na2CO3 2NaCl + NiCO3
4NaCl + K2Cr2O7 + 6H2SO4 4NaHSO4
+ 2KHSO4 + 3H2O + 2CrO 2 Cl 2
Red gas

CrO2Cl2 + 4NaOH

Na 2 CrO 4
(C) yellow solution

+ 2NaCl + 2H2O

Na2CrO4 + (CH3COO)2Pb PbCrO 4 + 2CH3COONa


yellow ppt.

(ii) Na2B4O7.10H2O Na2B4O7 + 10H2O

Na2B4O7

NiO + B2O
3

2 NaBO 2 +
Transparent bead

Ni(BO 2 ) 2
Nickel meta borate (Brown)

B2O3

[Oxidising flame]

Ni(BO2)2 + C
Ni + B2O3 + CO [Reducing flame)
Grey

(iii) NiCl2 + H2S 2HCl + NiS


Black ppt.

NiS + 2HCl NiCl 2 + H2S


(A)

(iv) NiCl 2 + 2NaHCO3 NiCO3 + 2NaCl


(A)

+ CO2 + H2O

2NiCO3 + 4NaOH + [O]


Ni 2 O 3 + 2Na2CO3 + 2H2O
(D) Black ppt.

(v) NiCl 2 + 2KCN Ni(CN ) 2 + 2KCl


(A)

(E) Green ppt.

Ni(CN)2 + 2KCN K 2 [ Ni(CN) 4 ]


(F)

NaOH + Br2 NaOBr + HBr

2K2[Ni(CN)4] + 4NaOH + 9NaOBr


Ni 2 O 3 + 4KCNO + 9NaBr
(D)

+ 4NaCNO + 2H2O

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

41

SEPTEMBER 2009

Set

`t{xt|vt V{txzx

This section is designed to give IIT JEE aspirants a thorough grinding & exposure to variety
of possible twists and turns of problems in mathematics that would be very helpful in facing
IIT JEE. Each and every problem is well thought of in order to strengthen the concepts and
we hope that this section would prove a rich resource for practicing challenging problems and
enhancing the preparation level of IIT JEE aspirants.
By : Shailendra Maheshwari
S ol ut i o ns wi l l be p ubl i s he d i n ne x t i s s ue
Joint Director Academics, Career Point, Kota
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Show that the conics through the intersection of two


rectangular hyperbolas are also rectangular
hyperbolas. If A, B, C & D be the four points of
intersection of these two rectangular hyperbolas, then
find the orthocentre of the triangle ABC.

9.

10. Let A = {1, 2, 3, ....., 100}. If X is a subset of A


containing exactly 50 elements then show that
p min = 101C51.

Find the area of a right angle triangle if it is known


that the radius of circle inscribed in the triangle is r
and that of the circumscribed circle is R.

p x

Q is any point on the line x = a. If A is the point (a, 0)


and QR, the bisector of the angle OQA, meets OX in
R, then prove that the locus of the foot of the
perpendicular from R to OQ has the equation
(x 2a) (x2 + y2) + a2x = 0

Pi Day
On Pi Day (March 14 or 3-14) in 1879, a baby was
born in Ulm, Germany to a German couple whose

Show that the equation


z4 + 2z3 + 3z2 + 4z + 5 = 0 with (z C) have no
purely real as well as purely imaginary root.

name meant "one stone". That baby was Albert


Einstein!

Prove that

occurs naturally in tables of death, in what is


known as a Gaussian distribution of deaths in a

a x ln x
a x dx
f +
dx = lna f +
x a x
x a x
0
0

6.

7.

population; that is, when a person dies, the event


'feels' Pi.

A straight line moves so that the product of the


perpendiculars on it form two fixed points is a
constant. Prove that the locus of the foot of the
perpendiculars from each of these points upon the
straight line is a circle, the same for each.

The symbol for Pi was introduced by the English


mathematician William Jones in 1706.
Mathematician John Conway pointed out that if you

Prove the identity :


x

zx z 2

x2 x
e4

dz =
x

function f(x) =

break down the digits of Pi into blocks of ten, the


z2 / 4

probability that one of those blocks will contain ten

dz, deriving for the

distinct digits is about one in 40,000. Curiously, this

zx z 2

first happens in the 7th block of ten digits.

dz a differential equation and

There is the little rhyme to help the memorisation

solving it.
8.

of twenty-one digits of

Let , be the roots of a quadratic equation, such

Now, I wish I could recollect pi. "Eureka," cried the


great inventor. Christmas Pudding; Christmas Pie

a2 7

+
= 2
Find the set
that = 4 and
1
1
a 4
of values of a for which , (1, 4)

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Investigate the function f(x) = x5/3 5x2/3 for points


of extremum and find the values of k such that the
equation x5/3 5x2/3 = k has exactly one positive root.

Is the problem's very center.

42

SEPTEMBER 2009

MATHEMATICAL CHALLENGES
SOLUTION FOR AUGUST ISSUE (SET # 4)

1.

2.

Let x2 + y2 = a2
....(1)
and x2 + y2 + 2gx + c = 0
....(2)
are two circles they cut orthogonally.
Hence c a2 = 0
so from (2) x2 + y2 + 2gx + a2 = 0
...(3)
Let P (a cos , a sin ) be any point on 1st circle. Its
polar w.r.t. 2nd circle is
a x cos + a y sin + g(x + a cos ) + a2 = 0 ....(4)
other end of diameter of 1st circle through P is
Q( a cos , a sin )
This satisfies eqn. ..(4)
Hence proved.

3.

ln (1 2u cos x + u

) dx ;

I ( u) = ln (1 + 2u cos x + u 2 ) dx
0

Use

f ( x ) dx =

f (a x) dx
0

I (u) = I (u)
I (u) + I ( u)

ln (1 2u cos x + u

) (1 + 2u cos x + u 2 ) dx

Let A be at origin & position vectors of B, C, D are ,


r r
r
b , c & d respectively. Perpendicular from B and C
to the faces ACD and ABD meet at H with position
r
vector h ,
A
b

I (u) =

ln [(1 u

2 2

) 4u 2 cos 2 x ] dx

ln[1 + u

+ 2u 2 4u 2 cos 2 x ] dx

ln[1 2u

cos 2 x + u 4 ] dx

Now let 2x = y

C
r r r
r r
r r
so BH AC ( h b).c = 0 h . c = b . c
r r r
r r
r r
BH AD ( h b).d = 0 h . d = b . d
r r r
r r r r
( h c).b = 0 h . b = c . b
CH AB
r r r
r r r r
and CH AD ( h c).d = 0 h . d = c . b
r r
r r r
r r
so b . d = c . d (b c) . d = 0
...(1)
so BC AD , proved.

(u) + I ( u) =

1
I (u2) +
2

2 ln[1 2u

cos y + u 4 ] dy

Now let y = 2 t
0

I (u) + I ( u) =

Now, let any point M (with position vector m ) be


on BCD such that AM plane BCD then
r r
r r
. m . ( c b ) = 0 = m . (d c )
r
r
r
so m . b = m . c = m . d
...(2)
Now, let P be any point on AM with position vector

1
1
I (u2) +
ln[1 2u 2 cos t + u 4 ] ( dt)
2
2

1
1
= I (u2) + I (u2)
2
2
2I (u) = I (u2) as I(u) = I ( u)
(or using f (2a x) = f (x) Prop).
1
so I (u) = I(u2)
2

t m such that DP is perpendicular to ABC, then


r r
r r
r r r
(t m d ). b = 0 = (t m d ). c so t m . b = b . d &
r r
r
t m . c = d . c which are same equations using (1)
and (2) in them. So such a scalar t can be obtained as
r r
b.d
t=
r
m.b

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

1
ln[1 2u 2 cos y + u 4 ] dy
2

similarly find 3ln[1 2u 2 cos x + u 2 ] dx


0

& show I (u) = I ( u) =

43

n
1
1
I (u2) = n I(u 2 )
2
2

SEPTEMBER 2009

4.

Let f(x) = (x ) (x )
so f(n) f (n + 1) = (n ) (n ) (n + 1 )(n + 1 )
= (n ) (n + 1 ) (n ) (n + 1 )
= [n (n + 1) n( + ) + ] [n(n + 1)
n ( + ) + ]
= [n (n + 1) + na + b ] [n (n + 1) + an + b ]
= (m ) (m ) ; let m = n(n + 1) + an + b
= f (m)

5.

Let xy = c2 be rectangular hyperbola.


Let A (ct1, c/t1) and b (ct2, c/t2) be two fixed points on
it. and P (ct, c/t) be any variable point.
Line AP : x + y t1t = c (t1 + t)
Line BP : x + y t2 t = c (t2 + t)
These lines intersect with x- axis at M (c(t1 + t), 0)
and N(c(t2 + t), 0). Length MN = |c (t1 t2) | which is
a constant.
Similarly intercept on y- axis can be obtained as

It it passes through origin, then


...(2)
m1m2 a2 e2 = 0
Solving (1) with x- axis
x2
m1m2 (x a e)2 + 2 1 = 0
a

using (2) in it
(x ae)2 + e2 (x2 a2 ) = 0
(1 + e2) x2 2ae x = 0
2ae
x=0&x=
1+ e2
so other point on x- axis through which this conic
2ae
passes is
,0 which is a fixed point.
1+ e2
Hence proved.
8.

( x y) 2

f (c h ) f (c)
h 0
h
h
f c 1 f (c)
c
;c0
= lim
h 0
h
f ( 2c )
f (1 + h / c) f (c)
2
= lim
h 0
h
h
f ( 2c ) f 1 2 f ( c )
c
= lim
h 0
2h

y
. d(x/y) +
x
x ( x dy + y dx ) y ( ydx + x dy) xy(dx dy)

h
f (2c) f 1 f (2c)f (1)
c
;
= lim
h 0
2h

f (c) = lim

1 1
c . Hence proved.
t1 t 2
6.

y dx x dy
x 2 dy y 2 dx
+
=0
xy
( x y) 2

y ( y dx x dy)
y2

x 2 dy + xy dx xy dx y 2 dx xydy + xydy

( x y) 2

=0

d ( x / y) x. d ( xy) y d ( xy) xy d ( x y)
+
=0
x/y
( x y) 2

d ( x / y) ( x y) d ( xy) xy d ( x y)
+
=0
x/y
( x y) 2

xy f ( x ). f ( y)
)
(using x = 2c & y = 1 in f =
2
2
h
f 1 f (1)
f (2c) f ' (1)
c
= f (2c) lim
=
2h
h 0
2c

.c
c
f (2c) f ' (1)
=
; as given f(1) = f(1)
2c
x f (c)
f (c ) =
2c
So f(x) is differentiable for x R except x = 0
f (x)
Now f(x) =
x
f ' (x )
1

=
f (x )
x

xy
d ( x / y)
= 0
+ d
x/y
xy
xy
ln (x/y) +
=c
xy

7.

Let x = c R

Let

x2

y2

= 1 be the ellipse and


a2
b2
y = m1 (x ae) and y = m2 (x ae) are two chords
through its focus (ae, 0). Any conic through the
extremities of these chords can be defined as
{y m1 (x ae)} {y m2 (x ae)} +
x 2 y2
2 + 2 1 = 0
...(1)
a

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

so ln f(x) = ln x + ln c
f(x) = cx
xy f ( x ) f ( y)
Now as f =
2
2
44

SEPTEMBER 2009

let y = 1 in it
2. f(x/2) = f(x) (f(1)
cx
2
=cx f(1)
2
so f(1) = 1 as c 0
so f(x) = x
9.

10.

Puzzle : Marble Mix Up

Let i lines are there, no two of which are parallel and


no three of which are coincident. Introduction of
(i + 1)th line will introduce (i + 1) new parts. Let Pi
denotes the number of parts in which plane is being
divided by i lines, then
Pi + 1 = Pi + (i + 1)
Pi + 1Pi = i + 1
using i = 1, 2, 3, ......, n 1
P2 P1 = 2,
P1 P2 = 3
M
M
Pn Pn1 = n
Add these equation
Pn Pi = 2 + 3 +.....+ n
Pn = Pi + 2 + 3 + ....+ n
n (n + 1)
= 2 + 2 + 3+ .....+ n = 1 +
2
1 2
(n + n + 2)
Pn =
2

1
1
sin x
sin 3x
sin 9x
tan x +
+
+
= tan 27 x
2
2
cos 3x cos 9x
cos 27 x
L.H.S. : Consider on
1
1 sin x
sin x
sin x
=
+
tan x +
2
cos 3x 2 cos x
cos 3x
sin x cos 3x + 2 sin x cos x
=
2 cos x cos 3x
2 sin x cos 3x + 2 sin 2x
=
4 cos x cos 3x
sin 4x sin 2x + 2 sin 2x
4 cos x cos 3x
sin 4 x + sin 2x
=
4 cos x cos 3x
2 sin 3x cos x 1
=
=
tan 3x
4 cos x cos 3x 2
1
1
sin 3x
similarly tan 3x +
= tan 9x
2
cos 9x 2
1
1
sin 9 x
= tan 27
and tan 9x +
2
cos 27 x 2
on adding all these we get
1
sin 3x sin 3x
sin 9x
+
+
=
(tan 27x tan x)
cos 3x cos 9x
cos 27 x 2
Proved.

Years ago, to puzzle his friends, a


scientist gave one of four containers
containing
blue
and/or
yellow
marbles to each of the friends; Tom,
Dick, Harry, and Sally.

There were 3 marbles in each


container, and the number of blue
marbles was different in each one.
There was a piece of paper in each
container telling which color marbles
were in that container, but the papers
had been mixed up and were ALL in
the wrong containers.

He then told all of his friends to take


2 marbles out of their container, read
the label, and then tell him the color
of the third marble.

So Tom took two blue marbles out of


his container and looked at the label.
He was able to tell the color of the
third
marble
immediately.

Dick took 1 blue marble and 1 yellow


marble from his container. After
looking at his label he was able to tell
the color of his remaining marble.

Harry took 2 yellow marbles from his


container. He looked at the label in
his container, but could not tell what
color the remaining marble was.

Sally, without even looking at her


marbles or her label, was able to tell
the scientist what color her marbles
were. Can you tell what color marbles
Sally had? Can you also tell what
color marbles the others had, and
what label was in each of their
containers?

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

45

SEPTEMBER 2009

Students' Forum
Experts Solution for Question asked by IIT-JEE Aspirants

MATHS

Given a point P on the circumference of the circle


|z| = 1, and vertices A1, A2, ......, An of an inscribed
regular polygon of n sides. Prove using complex
numbers that
(PA1)2 + (PA2)2 + ......... + (PAn)2 is a constant.
Sol. Without loss of generality we can take P as
1 + 0i.
i.e., P C is 0
1.

2.

If a, b, c and n are positive integers such that


a + b + c = n, show that
(aabbcc)1/n + (abbcca)1/n + (acbacb)1/n n.
Sol. Since a, b, c are integers, from A.M. G.M.
inequality we can write
(a + a + ....a times) + (b + b + ...b times) + (c + c + ...c times)
a+b+c
[(a.a....a times)(b.b....b times)(c.c...c times)]1/a +b+c

A2

A3

A1
1

Similarly,

(PA )
r

= 2n 2

In a class of 20 students, the probability that exactly x


students pass the examination is directly proportional
to x2 (0 x 20). Find out the probability that a
student selected at random has passed the
examination. If a selected students has been found to
pass the examination find out the probability that
he/she is only student to have passed the
examination.
Sol. Let
Ex : event that exactly x out of 20 students
pass the examination
and
A : event that a particular student passes
the examination

P(Ex) = kx2 (k is the proportionality constant)


Now, E0, E2, ....., E20 are mutually exclusive and
exhaustive events.
P(E0) + P(E1) + P(E2) + ... + P(E20) = 1
0 + k(1)2 + k(2)2 + .... + k(20)2 = 1
(20)( 20 + 1)( 40 + 1)
k
=1
6

= Re [e i1 + e i 2 + ....... + e i n ]
n

2
e i1 1 e i n

= Re

2
i

n
1 e

2
n

i1

e (1 1)
= Re
=0
2

i
1 e n
n

Hence,

(PA )
r

= 2n = constant.

k=

r =1

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

3.

Q 2 1 = 3 2 = ..... = n n1 =

1
a +b+c

(a + b + c) 2
a +b+c
= a + b + c Hence proved

cos r = Re Cis r
r =1
r =1

where LHS =

r =1

Now,

cos

a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca


(aabbcc)1/n
a+b+c
+ (acbacb)1/n + (abbcca)1/n

r =1

1
a +b+c

b.a + c.b + a.c


a b b c c a b+ c+a
b+c+a
Adding these three inequalities, we get

Let Ar C is r, r = 1, 2, ......, n.
PAr = |Cis r Cis 0| = |(cosr 1) + i(sinr)|
PAr2 = (cos r 1)2 + (sinr)2
= 2 2cos r

c.a + a.b + b.c


a cb a cc
c+a +b

and

An

a.a + b.b + c.c


a a bbcc
a +b+c

46

1
2870
SEPTEMBER 2009

a c = ae2
Thus required area = b (ae2)
= abe2

20

Now, P(A) =

P(E x ).P(A / E x )

x =0

20

kx 2 .

x =0

20

x
k
=
x3
20 20 x = 0

2
= 9 = 4 sq. units.
3

1
63
20(20 + 1)
= 82
20 2870
2

and

P(E1/A) =

5.

Find the set of values of a for which minimum


value of x3 6ax2 + 9a2x + 7, x [1, 2] is 3.
Sol. Let f(x) = x3 6ax2 + 9a2x + 7
a 0, otherwise f(x) = x3 + 7, which is always
increasing and hence min f = f(1) = 6 3.
Now f(x) = 3x2 12ax + 9a2 = 0 for stationary points
x = a, 3a
CaseI : a > 0
1 is always in the left of a.
Case I. (a) : 2 a, then
3 = min f = f(1) = 1 6a 9a2 + 7
3a2 + 2a 1 = 0, no admissible value of a is
obtained.
(a,f(a))

P(E1 ).P(A / E1 )
P(A)

1
1
(1) 2 .
1
20 =
= 2870
63
44100
82
4.

An ellipse of eccentricity 2/3 is inscribed in an ellipse


of equal eccentricity and area equals to 9 square units
in such a way that both the ellipses touch each other
at one end of their common major axis. If length of
major axis of smaller ellipse is equal to length of
minor axis of bigger ellipse, find the area of the
bigger ellipse outside the smaller ellipse.
Sol. The required figure will be drawn as follows

(3a,f(3a))
Case I. (b) : 1 < a < 2 < 3a
2
i.e.,
< a < 2, then
3
3 = min f = min{f(1), f(2)}
= min {1 6a 9a2 + 7, 8 24 a + 18a2 + 7}
= 1 6a 9a2 + 7
as 1 6a 9a2 + 7 < 8 24a + 18a2 + 7
i.e., 3a2 2a + 1 > 0, which is true
Hence 3 = 1 6a 9a2 + 7
1
a = 1 or , none of which is possible.
3
Case I(c) : 3a 2
3 = min f = min{f(1), f(3a)}
= {1 6a 9a2 + 7, 18a3 + 7}
= 1 6a 9a2 + 7,
as 18a3 + 77 1 6a 9a2 + 7
i.e., 18a3 + 9a2 + 6a + 170
1
which is true as a > 0. Hence a = 1 or ,
3
1
in which a =
is permissible.
3
Case II : a < 0
2 is always in the right of a
Case II (a) a 1
3 = min f = f(1)
1
a = 1, as a =
3
Hence a = 1 is one possibility

and we can redraw the figure for our purpose (i.e.


keeping the area out side the smaller ellipse and
inside the bigger ellipse same) as

y
(b, 0)
(c, 0)
(a, 0) (b, 0)

(b, 0) (a, 0)

(c, 0)
(b, 0)
Therefore, we can let the ellipses be

x2

a2

y2
b2

= 1

y2

=1
b
c2
Required area = ab bc
= b (a c)
Now b2 = a2 (1 e2) and c2 = b2 (1 e2) (1 e2)2
c = a (1 e2)
and

x2

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

47

SEPTEMBER 2009

(3a,f(3a))

1
5
= , we get
10
2
1
h 10
h=
+ 53
2
2

Putting cot =

4h = h 10 + 106
3h = 96
h = 32 m

(a,f(a))
Case II (b) 3a 1 < a
1
1, as a =
3
3 = min f = f(a) = a3 6a3 + 9a3 + 7
4a3 = 4 a = 1, not possible
Case II(c) 1 < 3a 3 = min f = min {f(1), f(a) }
= min {1 6a 9a2 + 7, 4a3 + 7}
= 4a3 + 7,
as 4a3 + 7 < 1 6a 9a2 + 7
as (a + 1)2 (4a + 1) < 0. Hence a = 1, not possible
Hence a = 1 or a = 1/3

Birth of New Red Spot is the


Thunderstorm on Jupiter
During the past few months, the astronomers have
tracked an emerging second red spot on Jupiter, a
growing rival about one-half the diameter of the
planet's Great Red Spot. The Hubble Space
Telescope has snapped the first detailed pictures of
what some observers now call Red Spot Jr.

6.

A man standing at a distance 5m in front of the base


of a building 10m high on which a flagstaff is
mounted observes that the top of the building and the
top of a mountain behind the building are along the
same straight line. When he recedes by a distance of
48 m he observes that now the top of the flagstaff and
the top of the mountain are along the same straight
line. If at both the locations, the flagstaff subtends the
same angle at the mans eye, find the height of
mountain.
Sol. CD : Flagstaf
DE : Building
KF : Mountain (height = h say)
The figure illustrates the situation.
Since, CBD = CAD = say, points A, B, C and
D are concyclic.
ABD = ACD = 90 ( + )
ABC = 90 ( + ) + = 90 = KCH
K
90
C
H

G
D

90

Astronomers at the Space Telescope Science


Institute in Boltimore said this was the first time
scientists have witnessed the birth of these huge
oval spots, presumably a convective phenomenon
like a powerful thunderstorm. The Great spot was
already present when the observers first looked
with telescope at the planet some 400 years ago.
Red Spot Jr. appeared in near-infrared images to be
as bright in Jupiter's cloudy atmosphere as its big
companion. The size of Red Spot Jr. is half the size
of its big companion. The scientists say the new
storm might rise higher above the main cloud deck
than the older spot.

10

In a New Light: Jupiter, with its second


red spot, in a picture released by NASA.

Current observations, including Hubble pictures


taken on May 12 and 18, show that the smaller red
spot is drifting eastward in the Jovian Southern
hemisphere and the Great Red Spot is moving
westward. They should pass one another in early
July. The pictures of the Red Spots are contrastenhanced images taken in visible light and at nearinfrared wave lengths. But the red spots, new and
old, are really red.

F
B
A 5 E
48
Now, h = KH + HF
= (CH) tan (90 ) + (BE) tan(90 )
(Q HF = CE)
= [DG + (BA + AE) cot
= [KG cot + (48 + 5)] cot

h = [(h 10)cot + 53] cot


(Q KG = KF GF)

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

48

SEPTEMBER 2009

MATH

PROBABILITY
Mathematics Fundamentals
Probability :
In a random experiment, let S be the sample space
and E S, then E is an event.
The probability of occurrence of event E is defined as

Some Definitions :
Experiment : A operation which can produce some
well defined outcomes is known as an experiment.
Random experiment : If in each trail of an
experiment conducted under identical conditions, the
outcome is not unique, then such an experiment is
called a random experiment.
Sample space : The set of all possible outcomes in
an experiment is called a sample space. For example,
in a throw of dice, the sample space is {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6}. Each element of a sample space is called a sample
point.
Event :
An event is a subset of a sample space.
Simple event : An event containing only a single
sample point is called an elementary or simple event.
Events other than elementary are called composite or
compound or mixed events.
For example, in a single toss of coin, the event of
getting a head is a simple event.
Here S = {H, T} and E = {H}
In a simultaneous toss of two coins, the event of
getting at least one head is a compound event.
Here S = {HH, HT, TH, TT} and E = {HH, HT, TH}
Equally likely events : The given events are said to
be equally likely, if none of them is expected to occur
in preference to the other.
Mutually exclusive events : If two or more events
have no point in common, the events are said to be
mutually exclusive. Thus E1 and E2 are mutually
exclusive in E1 E2 = .
The events which are not mutually exclusive are
known as compatible events.
Exhaustive events : A set of events is said to be
totally exhaustive (simply exhaustive), if no event out
side this set occurs and at least one of these event
must happen as a result of an experiment.
Independent and dependent events : If there are
events in which the occurrence of one does not
depend upon the occurrence of the other, such events
are known as independent events. On the other hand,
if occurrence of one depend upon other, such events
are known as dependent events.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

P(E) =
=

n(E)
number of distinct elements in E
=
n(S)
number of distinct element in S

number of outocomes favourable to occurrence of E


number of all possible outcomes

Notations :
Let A and B be two events, then
A B or A + B stands for the occurrence of at
least one of A and B.
A B or AB stands for the simultaneous
occurrence of A and B.
A B stands for the non-occurrence of both A
and B.
A B stands for "the occurrence of A implies
occurrence of B".
Random variable :
A random variable is a real valued function whose
domain is the sample space of a random experiment.
Bays rule :
Let (Hj) be mutually exclusive events such that
P(Hj) > 0 for j = 1, 2, ..... n and S =

U H j . Let A be
j=1

an events with P(A) > 0, then for j = 1, 2, .... , n

Hj
=
P

P(H j )P(A / H j )
n

P(H k ) P(A / H k )

k =1

Binomial Distribution :
If the probability of happening of an event in a single
trial of an experiment be p, then the probability of
happening of that event r times in n trials will be nCr
pr (1 p)n r.
Some important results :
(A)

P(A) =
=

49

Number of cases favourable to event A


Total number of cases
n(A)
n(S)
SEPTEMBER 2009

P(A) =
=

Number of cases not favourable to event A


Total number of cases

(i) Probability of happening none of them

n(A)
n(S)

(ii) Probability of happening at least one of them

= (1 p1) (1 p2) ........ (1 pn)


= 1 (1 p1) (1 p2) ....... (1 pn)
(iii) Probability of happening of first event and not
happening of the remaining

(B) Odd in favour and odds against an event : As a


result of an experiment if a of the outcomes are
favourable to an event E and b of the outcomes are
against it, then we say that odds are a to b in favour
of E or odds are b to a against E.
Thus odds in favour of an event E
=

= p1(1 p2) (1 p3) ....... (1 pn)


If A and B are any two events, then
B
P(A B) = P(A) . P or
A

Number of favourable cases


a
=
Number of unfavourable cases
b

B
P(AB) = P(A) . P
A

Similarly, odds against an event E


=

Number of unfavourable cases


b
=
Number of favorable cases
a

B
Where P is known as conditional probability
A
means probability of B when A has occured.

Note :
If odds in favour of an event are a : b, then the
probability of the occurrence of that event is
a
and the probability of non-occurrence of
a+b
b
.
that event is
a+b
If odds against an event are a : b, then the
probability of the occurrence of that event is
b
and the probability of non-occurrence of
a+b
a
.
that event is
a+b
(C)

Difference between mutually exclusiveness and


independence : Mutually exclusiveness is used
when the events are taken from the same
experiment and independence is used when the
events are taken from the same experiments.
(E)

P(AB) + P( AB ) = 1
P( A B) = P(B) P(AB)
P(A B ) = P(A) P(AB)
P(A + B) = P(A B ) + P( A B) + P(AB)

Some important remark about coins, dice and playing


cards :
Coins : A coin has a head side and a tail side. If
an experiment consists of more than a coin, then
coins are considered to be distinct if not otherwise
stated.

P(A) + P( A ) = 1
0 P(A) 1

(D)

P() = 0
P(S) = 1
If S = {A1, A2, ..... An}, then
P(A1) + P(A2) + .... + P(An) = 1
If the probability of happening of an event in one
trial be p, then the probability of successive
happening of that event in r trials is pr.
If A and B are mutually exclusive events, then
P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) or
P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B)
If A and B are any two events, then

Dice : A die (cubical) has six faces marked 1, 2,


3, 4, 5, 6. We may have tetrahedral (having four
faces 1, 2, 3, 4,) or pentagonal (having five faces
1, 2, 3, 4, 5) die. As in the case of coins, If we
have more than one die, then all dice are
considered to be distinct if not otherwise stated.
Playing cards : A pack of playing cards usually
has 52 cards. There are 4 suits (Spade, Heart,
Diamond and Club) each having 13 cards. There
are two colours red (Heart and Diamond) and
black (Spade and Club) each having 26 cards.

P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A B) or


P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) P(AB)
If A and B are two independent events, then

In thirteen cards of each suit, there are 3 face cards or


coart card namely king, queen and jack. So there are
in all 12 face cards (4 kings, 4 queens and 4 jacks).
Also there are 16 honour cards, 4 of each suit namely
ace, king, queen and jack.

P(A B) = P(A) . P(B) or


P(AB) = P(A) . P(B)
If the probabilities of happening of n independent
events be p1, p2, ...... , pn respectively, then

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

P(A A ) = 0

50

SEPTEMBER 2009

MATH

BINOMIAL THEOREM
Mathematics Fundamentals

Binomial Theorem (For a positive Integral Index) :


If n is a positive integer and x, a are two real or
complex quantities, then

Along , Tr + 1 = Tr

(x + a)n = nC0 xn + nC1xn 1 a + nC2 xn 2 a2 +


... + nCrxnr ar + .... + nCn 1x an1 + nCnan ..(1)

In this case there are two greatest terms Tk and


Tk+1.

Properties of Binomial Expansion :


There are (n + 1) terms in the expansion of
(x + a)n, n being a positive integer.

(n + 1)a
is not an integer. Let [k] be the
a+x
greatest integer in k. We have

(ii) k =

In any term of expansion (1), the sum of the


exponents of x and a is always constant = n.

Tr+1 > Tr

The binomial coefficients of term equidistant


from the beginning and the end are equal, i.e.
n
Cr = nCn r (0 r n).

r [k]
In this case there is exactly one greatest term viz.
([k] + 1)th term.

The middle term in the expansion of (x + a)n

Term independent of x in the expansion of


(x + a)n Let Tr + 1 be the term independent of x.
Equate to zero the index of x and you will find the
value of r.

(a) If n is even then there is just one middle term, i.e.


th

term.

The number of term in the expansion of


(n + 1)(n + 2)
(x + y + z)n is
, where n is a positive
2
integer.

(b) if n is odd, then there are two middle terms, i.e.


th

th

n +3
term and
term.
2

The greatest term in the expansion of (x + a)n,


x, a R and x, a > 0 can be obtained as below :

or

Pascal Triangle
In(x + a)n when expanded the various coefficients
which occur are nC0, nC1, nC2, .... The Pascal triangle
gives the values of these coefficients for n = 0, 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, ....
n=0
1

Tr +1
n r +1 a
=
Tr
r
x

Tr +1
(n + 1)a r (a + x )
1=
Tr
rx
=

where

k=

a+x
(a + x ) (n + 1)a
|k r|,
r =

rx
rx a + x

(n + 1)a
a+x

Now, suppose that


(i) k =

(n + 1)a
is an integer. We have
a+x

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Tr +1
r < k = [k] + (fraction)
Tr

i.e. T1 < T2 < T3 < ..... < T[k] 1 < T[k] < T[k] + 1

The general term of the expansion is (r + 1)th term


usually denoted by Tr + 1 = nCr xn r ar (0 r n).

n
+ 1
2

Tr +1
= 1 r = k,
Tr

i.e. Tk + 1 = Tk > Tk1 > .... > T3 > T2 > T1

The coefficient nC0, nC1, ......, nCn are called binomial


coefficients.

n
+ 1
2

Tr +1
> 1 r < k (i.e. 1 r < k)
Tr

Tr + 1 > Tr

51

n=1

1 1

n=2

1 2 1

n=3

1 3 3 1

n=4

1 4 6 4 1

n=5

1 5 10 10 5 1

n=6

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

n=7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

n=8

1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1

SEPTEMBER 2009

C02 C12 + C22 C32 + ...

Rule : It is to be noted that the first and least terms in


each row is 1. The terms equidistant from the
beginning and end are equal. Any number in any row
is obtained by adding the two numbers in the
preceding row which are just at the left and just at the
right of the given number, e.g. the number 21 in the
row for n = 7 is the sum of 6 (left) and 15 (right)
which occur in the preceding row for n = 6.

0,
if n is odd

=
n/2 n
(1)
.
C
,
if
n is even
n/2

Binomial Theorem for Any Index :


The binomial theorem for any index states that
(1 + x)n = 1 +

Important Cases of Binomial Expansion :

nx
n ( n 1) 2
+
x
1!
2!

If we put x = 1 in (1), we get

(1 + a)n = nC0 + nC1a + nC2a2 + ..................


+ nCrar + ........... nCnan

...(2)

Where n is any index (positive or negative)

If we put x = 1 and replace a by a, we get

The general term in expansion (7) is

(1 a)n = nC0 nC1a + nC2a2 ..................

Tr + 1 =

+ (1)r nCrar + .... + (1)n nCnan ...(3)


Adding and subtracting (2) and (3), and then
dividing by 2, we get

This expansion is valid for |x| < 1 and first term


unity.
When x is small compared with 1, we see that the
terms finally get smaller and smaller. If x is very
small compared with 1, we take 1 as a first
approximation to the value of (1 + x)n or 1 + nx as
a second approximation.

...(4)

1
{(1 + a)n (1 a)n} = nC1a + nC3a3
2
+ nC5a5 + ......

n (n 1)......(n r + 1) r
x
r!

In this expansion there are infinitely many terms.

1
{(1 + a)n + (1 a)n} = nC0 + nC2a2
2
+ nC4a4 + ....

...(5)

Replacing n by n in the above expansion, we get

Properties of Binomial Coefficients :

(1 + x)n = 1 nx +

If we put a = 1 in (2) and (3), we get


2n = nC0 + nC2 + ...... + nCr + ....+ nCr + ..... nCn1 + nCn
and 0 = nC0 nC1 + nC2 ...... + ...... + (1)n nCn

+ ... + (1)r

1 n
[2 0]
2

nC0 + nC2 + .... = nC1 + nC3 + .... =


n1

=2

...(6)

n ( n + 1) 2 n (n + 1)(n + 2) 3
x +
x +
2!
3!

....... +

n ( n + 1)(n + 2)...(n + r 1) r
x + ....
r!

and C0 + C1 + C2 + C3 + ...... + Cn = 2

n!
r !( n r ) !

Important expansions for n = 1, 2 are :


(1 + x)1 = 1 x + x2 x3 + ...+ (1)rxr + .... to
(1 x)1 = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + ..... + xr + .... to

n ( n 1)(n 2)...(n r + 1)
=
r!

(1 + x)2 = 1 2x + 3x2 .... + (1)r(r + 1)xr +


....to

Some other properties to remember :

(1 x) = 1 + 2x + 3x + ..... + (r + 1)xr + .... to

C1 + 2C2 + 3C3 + ... + nCn = n . 2n 1


C0 + 2C1 + 3C2 + ... + (n + 1)Cn = (n + 2) 2n 1
C0Cr + C1Cr+1 + ... + Cn rCn =

+ (1)r

( 2n ) !
(n r ) !. (n + r ) !

(r + 1)(r + 2) r
x + .....
2!

(1 x)3 = 1 + 3x + 6x2 + 10x3 + ...

(2n ) !
( n !)

(1 + x)3 = 1 3x + 6x2 10x3 + ...

C1 2C2 + 3C3 .... = 0

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

n ( n + 1)(n + 2)...(n + r 1) r
x + ...
r!

(1 x)n = 1 + nx +

C0 + C2 + C4 + ... = C1 + C3 + C5 + .... = 2n 1

C02 + C12 + C22 + .... + Cn2 =

n ( n + 1) 2 n (n + 1)(n + 2) 3
x
x
2!
3!

Replacing x by x in this expansion, we get

Due to convenience usually written as

Where nCr Cr =

n ( n 1)(n 2) 3
x + ..... ...(7)
3!

...... +

52

(r + 1)(r + 2) r
x + ....
2!
SEPTEMBER 2009

Based on New Pattern

IIT-JEE 2010
XtraEdge Test Series # 5

Time : 3 Hours
Syllabus : Physics : Laws of motion, Friction, Work Power Energy, Gravitation, S.H.M., Laws of Conservations of Momentum,
Rotational Motion (Rigid Body), Elasticity, Fluid Mechanics, Surface Tension, Viscosity, Refl. At Plane surface, Ref. at Curved
surface, Refraction at Plane surface, Prism (Deviation & Dispersion), Refraction at Curved surface, Wave Nature of Light:
Interference. Chemistry : Gaseous state, Chemical Energetics, Oxidation-Reduction, Equivalent Concept, Volumetric Analysis,
Reaction Mechanism, Alkane, Alkene, Alkyne, Alcohol, Ether & Phenol, Practical Organic Chemistry, Aromatic Hydrocarbons,
Halogen Derivatives, Carboxylic Acid & Its Derivatives, Nitrogen Compounds, Amines, Carbohydrates, Amino Acid, Protein &
Polymers. Mathematics : Logarithm & Modulus Function, Quadratic Equation, Progressions, Binomial Theorem, Permutation &
Combination, Complex Number, Indefinite Integration, Definite Integration, Area Under the Curve, Differential Equations.

Instructions :
Section - I
Question 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions with only one correct answer. +3 marks will be awarded for correct
answer and -1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 7 to 10 are multiple choice questions with multiple correct answer. +4 marks and no negative marking for
wrong answer.
Question 11 to 14 are Reason and Assertion type questions with only one correct answer in each. +3 marks will be
awarded for correct answer and -1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 15 to 23 are passage based single correct type questions. +4 marks will be awarded for correct answer and
-1 mark for wrong answer.

PHYSICS

2m
1m

Questions 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions. Each


question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct.

4 Kg

1.

2.

3.

Two equal spheres A and B lie on a smooth


horizontal circular groove at opposite ends of
diameter. A is projected along the groove and at the
end of time t impinges on B. If e is coefficient of
restitution, the second impact will occur after a time :
2t
t
t
2t
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
e
e
e
e

5 Kg
(A) 2.1 rad/s2
(C) 1.2 rad/s2

4.

Which of the following is the evidence to show that


there must be a force acting on earth and directed
towards the sun ?
(A) Deviation of the falling bodies towards east
(B) Revolution of the earth round the sun
(C) Phenomenon of day and night
(D) Apparent motion of sun round the earth
The moment of inertia of the pulley system is 4 kg
m2. The radii of bigger and smaller pulleys are 2m
and 1m, respectively. The angular acceleration of the
pulley system is :

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

53

(B) 4.2 rad/s2


(D) 0.6 rad/s2

A stream line body with relative density d1 falls into


air from a height h1 on the surface of a liquid of
relative density d2, where d2 > d1. The time of
immersion of the body into the liquid will be :
(A) t =

2h1
d1


g
d

2 d1

(B) t =

2h1

(C) t =

2h1
d

1
g
d

(D) t =

2h1
d

2
g
d1

SEPTEMBER 2009

5.

6.

9.

A beaker containing liquids is placed on the table


underneath a microscope which can be moved along
a vertical scale. The microscope is focused, through
the liquid onto a mark on the table when the reading
on the scale is 'a'. It is next focused on the upper
surface of liquid and the reading is 'b'. More liquid is
added and the observations are repeated. The
corresponding reading are c and d. The refractive
index of liquid is :
db
dcb+a
(B)
(A)
dcb+a
db
bd
dcb+a
(C)
(D)
dcb+a
bd

10. If white light is used in a Young's double-slit


experiment :
(A) bright white fringe is formed at the centre of the
screen
(B) fringes of different colours are observed clearly
only in the first order
(C) the first order violet fringes are closer to the
centre of the screen than the first-order red fringes
(D) the first-order red fringes are closer to the centre
of the screen than the first-order violet fringes

Y and Z are two partially reflecting thin glass sheets,


a distance t apart in air. White light falls normally on
Y; the light emerging from Z is analysed by a
spectrometer. A dark band is observed in the
spectrum at wavelength .
Possible values of l is/are :
Y
Z
To Spectometer
White Light

(A)

n
2

(B) n

This section contains 4 questions numbered 11 to 14,


(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.

1
1

(D) n +
(C) n +
2
2 2

Questions 7 to 10 are multiple choice questions. Each


question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE) is correct.
7.

8.

The potential energy in joule of a particle of mass 1


kg, moving in the XY plane, obeys the law
= 3x + 4y, where (x, y) are the co-ordinates of the
particle in meter. If the particle is at rest at (6, 4) at
time t = 0, then :
(A) the particle has constant acceleration
(B) the work done by the external force from the
position of rest of the particle and the instant of
the particle crossing X-axis is 25 joule
(C) the speed of the particle when it crosses the
Y-axis is 10 ms1
(D) the co-ordinates of the particle at time t = 4s are
(18, 28)

11

Assertion (A) : For the graph (given) force (F)


versus distance (x) the graph of kinetic energy versus
distance is a hyperbola :
Fmax
F
x
Fmax
Reason (R) : Force is equal to kinetic energy
gradient F = dk/dx.

At two particular closest instant of time t1 and t2, the


displacement of a particle performing S.H.M. are
equal. At these instants :
(A) instantaneous speeds are equal
(B) instantaneous accelerations are equal
(C) phases of the motion are unequal
(D) kinetic energies are equal

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

An astronomical telescope in normal adjustment


receives light from a distant source S. The tube
length is now decreased slightly :
(A) a virtual image of S will be formed at a finite
distance
(B) no image will be formed
(C) a small, real image of S will be formed behind the
eyepiece, close to it
(D) A large, real image of S will be formed behind the
eyepiece, far away from it

12. Assertion (A) : A uniform solid cylinder rolling with


angular velocity along a plane surface strikes a
vertical rigid wall. Angular velocity of cylinder when
it begins roll up a wall is less than the initial Angular
velocity ().
Reason (R) : After striking the vertical wall angular
velocity increases.
54

SEPTEMBER 2009

13. Assertion (A) : Rise of water level in capillary tube


should be accounted vertically and not on the length
of the pipe in which it has rised.
Reason (R) : More the radius, the rise will decrease
for different liquids tested.

16. In the above question, if a liquid of refractive index 2


is filled in lens as shown in fig. its focal length
becomes
= 1.5

14. Assertion (A) : Hollow prism forms no spectra as a


solid equilateral prism of glass.
Reason (R) : Neglecting the thickness of the hollow
glass surface, the media is same. So dispersion is not
to take place.

= 1.5
=2
(A) 15 cm divergent (B) 20 cm divergent
(C) 15 cm convergent (D) 20 cm convergent

This section contains 3 paragraphs, each has 3 multiple


choice questions. (Question 15 to 23) Each questions
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct.

17. Two plano-convex lenses of glass of refractive index


1.5 have radii of curvature of 20 cm and 30 cm. They
are placed in contact with curved surfaces towards
each other and the space between them is filled with
a liquid of refractive index (4/3) as shown in fig. The
focal length of this system is

Passage : I (No. 15 to 17)


Suppose g = refractive index of the material of lens
say glass and m is that of the medium in which lens
is placed. Let fa be the focal length of lens in air and
fm be that in medium. Here we assume the refractive
index of air a = 1. We consider the following cases :
(a) If m < g, then nature of the lens does not change
but fm > fa
(b) If m > g, then the nature of the lens changes.
The focal length may increase or decrease depending
g m
as compared to (g 1)
on the value

g m
fm increase if
m

1
2
3
(A) 70 cm divergent
(C) 72 cm divergent

Passage : II (No. 18 to 20)


When an incompressible and non-viscous fluid flows
in streamline motion from one place to another, then
at every point in its path, the total energy per unit
volume (pressure energy + kinetic energy + potential
energy) is constant.
According to Bernoulli's theorem
1
P+
v2 + g h = constant
2
1
1
i.e.,
P1 + v12 + g h1 = P2 + v22 + gh2
2
2
where P refers to pressure, v for speed and h for
height of the fluid 1 and 2 are used for different
points in the system.
The equation of continuity expresses the law of
conservation of mass in a fluid dynamics. If a1, v1 and
be the area of cross section of the tube, velocity of
flow of the fluid particles and density of fluid
respectively at one point and a2, v2 and the similar
quantities at another point, then according to
continuity equation
a1v1 = a2v2
therefore, the equation of continuity states that as the
area of cross-section of the tube of flow becomes
larger, the liquid speed becomes smaller and vice
versa.

> (g 1)

g m
fm decreases if
m

< (g 1)

g m
= (g 1)
and fm = fa if

m
(c) If m = g, the lens is invisible and behaves as a
plane glass.

15. As shown in fig. a spherical air lens of radii


R1 = R2 = 10 cm is cut in glass = 1.5 cylinder.

= 1.5
= 1.5

=1
The focal length of the lens is
(A) 15 cm divergent (B) 20 cm divergent
(C) 15 cm convergent (D) 20 cm convergent

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

(B) 70 cm convergent
(D) 72 cm convergent

55

SEPTEMBER 2009

18. A tank is filled with water upto a height H. Water is


allowed to come out of a hole P in one of the walls at
a depth h below the surface of water (see fig.)
Express the horizontal distance x in terms of H and h
h

speed of the cylinder about an axis passing through P


is given by = vcm/R. The velocity of a point at Q is
therefore given by
. 2R = vcm
at that instant. The point P is instantaneously at rest.
So from the point of view of the pure rotation about
P, the situation is shown in fig. (1)
Q
2vcm

H
x
(A) x =

h (H h )

(B) x =

(C) x = 2 h (H h )

[h (H h ) / 2]

(D) x = 4 h (H h )

Fig. (1)
The rolling of a cylinder as a combination of the
centre of mass and rotation of centre of mass about
its axis is shown in fig. (2)
Q vcm = R
Q
Q
vcm
2vcm

19. As shown in the fig. water squirts horizontally out of


two small holes in the side of the cylinder and the
two streams strike the ground at the same point. If the
hole Q is at a height h above the ground and the level
of water stands at height H above the ground, then
the height of P above ground level is

C v
cm

P
H

(B) H/h

A
a

(C) H h

(2gh )

(C)

[2gh (H1 H 2 )]

(D)

A g
[ H1
a 2

(D) H/2

Pure rotation

Combined motion

v
C

(A) v,v and v

(B) 2v,

2 v and zero

(C) 2v, v and zero

(D) 2v,

2 v and

2v

22. A disc is rolling (without slipping) on a horizontal


surface. C is its centre and Q and P are two points
equidistant from C. Let vp, vQ and vC be the
magnitude of velocities of points P, Q and C
respectively, then

H2 ]

Passage : III (No. 21 to 23)


The combined effect of translation of centre of mass
ans rotation about an axis through the centre of mass
are equivalent to pure rotation with the same angular
speed about an axis through the point of contact of
rolling body.
To illustrate the above result, let us represent the
instantaneous velocities acting at various points on
the cylinder when it is rolling. Let vcm be the speed of
centre of mass as observed by an observer fixed with
respect to surface. Then the instantaneous angular

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

C v
cm

21. A solid disc rolls clockwise without slipping over a


horizontal path with a constant speed v. Then the
magnitude of the velocities of points A, B and C (see fig.)
with respect to standing observer are respectively
A

2
[ H1 H 2 ]
g

(B)

C
P
R = vcm
Fig (2)

20. The vessel of area of cross-section A has liquid to a


height H. There is a hole at the botom of vessel
having area of cross-section a. The time taken to
decrease the level from H1 to H2 will be
(A)

vcm

Pure translation

(A) 2h

vcm

Q
P

(A) vQ > vC > vP

(B) vQ < vC < vP


1
(C) vQ = vP, vC = vP (D) vQ < vC > vP
2
56

SEPTEMBER 2009

23. A cylinder is pulled by a force F acting at a point


above the centre of mass of the cylinder as shown in
fig. The direction of friction force (f) acting on the
cylinder pushed on a rough surface will be
represented by
F

(A) 600 K
(C) 200 K

10 moles of Fe3O4 is treated with excess of KI


solution in presence of dilute H2SO4, the products are
2+
Fe and I2 (g). What volume of 0.1 (M) Na2S2O3
will be needed to reduce the liberated I2 (g)?
(A) 50 ml
(B) 100 ml
(C) 200 ml
(D) 400 ml

(A)

5.

An alkene (A) C16H16 on ozonolysis gives only one


product (B) (C8H8O). Compound (B) on reaction with
NH2OH/H2SO4, gives N-methyl benzamide the
compound 'A' is H
C
=
C
(A) CH3
CH3
H

(B)

F
C
f

F
(D) Cannot be interpreted

(C)

f=0

CHEMISTRY

(B)

C=C
CH3

Questions 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions. Each


question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct.

1.

C
F

(C)

CH3

CH2CH=CHCH2

Most stable free radical is


CH3
(A)

(B) 400 K
(D) 120 K

CH3
(D)

(B)

CH=CH
CH3

(D)

(C)

6.

CH3

2.

(CH3)3CO

CH2 CH CH CH3 t-BuOH


OTs
pre dominant product A is
(A)

A,

CH2 CH2 C = CH2

Questions 7 to 10 are multiple choice questions. Each


question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE) is correct.

CH3
(B)

CH = CH CH CH3

7.

CH3
(C)

When one mole of monoatomic ideal gas at T K


undergoes adiabatic change under a constant external
pressure of 1 atm changes volume from 1 litre to 2
litre. The final temperature in Kelvin would be
T
2
(B) T + 0.0821
(A) ( 2 / 3)
3
2
2
(C) T
(D) T
0.0821
3

CH2 CH = C CH3

Refer to the figure given :


Which of the following statements is wrong ?

CH3

gas C

(D) None of these

3.

Z
1

A gas is present in a cylinder fitted with movable


piston. Above and below of the piston there is equal
number of moles of gas. The volume above is two
times the volume below at a temperature of 300K. At
what temperature will the volume above be four
times the volume below-

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

gas A
Ideal gas
gas B

P
57

SEPTEMBER 2009

(A) For gas A, a = 0 and Z will linearly depend on


pressure
(B) For gas B, b = 0 and Z will linearly depend on
pressure
(C) Gas C is a real gas and we can find 'a' and 'b' if
intersection data is given
(D) All van der Waal gases will behave like gas C and
give positive slope at high pressure.

8.

(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.
11. Assertion (A) : The heat absorbed during the
isothermal expansion of an ideal gas against vacuum
is zero.
Reason (R) : The volume occupied by the molecules
of an ideal gas is zero.

When nitrobenzene is treated with Br2 in presence of


FeBr3, the major product formed is mbromonitrobenzene. Statements which are related to
obtain the m-isomer are
(A) The electron density on meta carbon is more than
that on ortho and para positions
(B) The intermediates carbonium ion formed after
initial attack of Br+ at the meta position is least
destabilished
(C) Loss of aromaticity when Br+ attacks at the ortho
and para positions and not at meta position
(D) Easier loss of H+ to regain aromaticity from the
meta position than from ortho and para positions

12. Assertion : The value of van der Waals constant 'a' is


larger for ammonia than for nitrogen.
Reason : Hydrogen bonding is present in ammonia.
13. Assertion : 3-hydroxy - butan-2-one on treatment
with [Ag(NH3)2] cause precipitation of silver.
Reason : [Ag(NH3)2] oxidises 3-hydroxy butan-2one to butan-2-3-dione
14. Assertion : HBr adds to 1,4-pentadiene at a faster
rate than to 1,3-pentadiene
Reason : 1,4-pentadiene is less stable than
1,3-pentadiene.

HBr / Boiling
OH product.

9.

Which of the following are possible products (in


significant amount) (A)

(C)

(B)

Br

Br

This section contains 3 paragraphs, each has 3 multiple


choice questions. (Question 15 to 23) Each questions
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct.

(D)

Passage : I (No. 15 to 17)


10. Which of the following are possible products from
aldol condensation of 6-oxoheptanal ?
CH3
O
O
H
C
C
(B)

(A)

O
(C)

(D)

The temperature dependence of the dissociation


constant for the formic acid in aqueous is given by
1400
+ 5 0.01 T
log Ka =
T
The enthalpy of neutralisation between strong acid
and strong base at 27C is equal to 56 kJ/equal.

CH3

CH3

15. What is the enthalpy of neutralisation of HCOOH


against NaOH at 27C ?
(A) 56 kJ/mol
(B) + 56 kJ/mol
(C) 46.427 kJ/mol
(D) 9.573 kJ/mol

This section contains 4 questions numbered 11 to 14,


(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

16. What is the standard entropy change for the


dissociation of HCOOH at 300 K ?
(A) 19.147 J K1 mol1
(B) +19.147 kJ K1 mol1
(C) 73 J K1 mol1
(D) 40 JK1 mol1

58

SEPTEMBER 2009

17. At what approximate temperature the dissociation for


formic acid is maximum ?
(A) 300 K
(B) 374 K
(C) 474 K
(D) There is no maximum temperature for dissociation

reactivity is significant. The more common reaction


of ether is cleavage of CO bond by strong acids.
This may occure by SN1 of E1 mechanism for 3 alkyl
groups or by SN2 mechanism for 1 alkyl groups.

21. Which of the following reaction is not assumed to


proceed-

Passage : II (No. 18 to 20)


OH

CH3

P HCN/NH4Cl
H3O+/ (R) -amino acid
CHCl3 + NaOH
(zwitter ion)
O

(A) CH3CH2OCH2CH3 PCl


5
MgX
(B) CH3CH2OCH2CH3 CH
3

O2
(C) CH3CH2OCH2CH3
h

H
Isomerisation

Al2 O 3 /

(D) CH3CH2OCH2CH3

CH3 CHCl2
OH Q

18. Product P is OH

22. If 2 alkyl group is supposed to prefer SN2 path of


cleavage. Which of the following is correct order of
reactivity towards conc. HI ?
CH3 CH3
CH3
|
|
|
CH3CHOCCH3
CH3OCHCH3
|
(II)
CH3
(I)

OH

(A)

CHO

(B)

CHO

OH

OH

OHC

CHO

(C)

CH3
|
CH3CH2OCHCH3

CHO
(D)

(III)

CH3

CH3

(A) IV > II >I > III


(C) II > I > IV > III

19. Product R is OH
OH
CHCH2COO
CHCOO
(B)
(A)

NH3
NH3
CH3
CH3
O

OH

CHCOOH
(C)

CH3

(D)

CHO

CHO

CHCl2

A. Product molecule A is -

(C) CH3CH=C
|
CH3

(D)

CH3 CHO

CH3
|
(D) CH3CH2C
|
OSO3H

Passage : III (No. 21 to 23)


Ethers are widely used as solvents due to their
relatively unreactive nature. In the acidic medium the

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

OH
|
(B) CH3CH2C
|
CH3

CH3

Conc.H SO

2

4

CH3
|
(A) HOCHCH
|
CH3

CH3

CH3
OH
(C)

CHCOO

OH
(B)

(B) I > III > IV > II


(D) IV > II > III > I

OH

NH3

20. Product Q is OH
(A)

23.

NH3

CH3
|
OCHCH
|
CH3

CH3
|
CH3CH2OCCH3
|
(IV)
CH3

59

SEPTEMBER 2009

Questions 7 to 10 are multiple choice questions. Each


question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE) is correct.

MATHEMATICS
Questions 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct.
1.

2.

7.

dx
4

1 1
1
(A) 4
a2 + x2 3
a x
3x
(B)

8.

, then I equals

a2 + x2

1 1
1
a2 + x2 3 a2 + x2
4
a x
3x

1 1 2
1
a + x2
a2 + x2
4 x
a
2 x
(D) None of these

(C)

9.

a +x +C

3/ 2

+C

( x a )( x b)
will assume
xc

all real values provided


(A) a > b > c
(B) a < b < c
(C) a > c > b
(D) a < c < b

Reflection of the line az + az = 0 in the real axis is


(A) az + az = 0
z
a
=
(B)
z
a
(C) (a + a ) (z + z ) = 0
(D) None of these
If I =

For real x, the expression

3/ 2

+C

cos 8x cos 7 x
dx is expressed as
1 + 2 cos 5x
K sin 3x + M sin 2x + C then
(A) K = 1/3
(B) K = 1/3
(C) M = 1/2
(D) M = 1/2
If

dx
A
=
+ B (a 0). Then
1 cos cos x
sin
possible values of A and B are

(A) A = , B = 0
(B) A = , B =
2
4
4 sin

(D) A = , B =
(C) A = , B =
6
sin
sin
If

10. The solution of y1(x2y3 + xy) = 1 is


2

(A) 1/x = 2 y2 + C e y / 2
(B) the solution of an equation which is reducible to
linear equation
(C) 2/x = 1 y2 + ey/2

3.

x + 20

If I =

(x sin x + 5 cos x)

(A)

x
+ tan x + C
cos x ( x sin x + 5 cos x )

(B)

dx, then I equals

(D) e y

x
+ cot x + C
sin x ( x sin x + 5 cos x )

If I =

1/ 3

1 1

sin x dx, then I equals


x x

(B) + 3 / 2
(D) None of these

(A) 3 / 2
(C) 0

5.

The orthogonal trajectories of the family of curve


y = cxk are given by
(A) x2 + cy2 = const. (B) x2 + ky2 = const.
(C) kx2 + y2 = const. (D) x2 ky2 = const.

6.

The sum

10

C j ) (jCi) is equal to

11

0 i < j10

10

(A) 2 1
(C) 310 1

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

/ 2 1 2x

+ y2 = C

This section contains 4 questions numbered 11 to 14,


(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.

(C) (x sin x 5 cos x)1 sin x + 7x + C


(D) None of these

4.

10

(B) 2
(D) 310

60

Assertion (A) : The number 1000 is not divisible


500
by 11.

SEPTEMBER 2009

Reason (R) : If p is a prime, the exponent of p in n!


n
n
n
is + 2 + 3 + ....
p
p
p
where [x] denote the greatest integer x.
12. Assertion (A) : F(x) =

log t

1+ t + t 2

(A) 0
(C) 1

Passage : II (No. 18 to 20)


The average value of a function f(x) over the interval,
[a, b] is the number
b
1
=
f ( x ) dx
ba a

dt then

F(x) = F(1/x).

13. Assertion (A) : The derivative of


F(x) =

1/ x

18. The average ordinate of y = sin x over the interval


[0, ] is
(A) 1/
(B) 2/
(C) 4/2
(D) 2/2

3
cos t 2 dt (x > 0) at x = 1 is cos 1
2

Reason (R) :

d
dx

( x )

(x)

f ( t ) dt = f((x)) f((x))

19. The average value of pressure varying from 2 to 10


atm if the pressure p and the volume v are related by
pv3/2 = 160 is
10
20
(A)
(B)
3
3
3
3
10 + 3 2
20 10 + 2

14. Assertion (A) : The solution of the equation


1
dy
x
+ 6y = 3xy4/3 is y(x) =
dx
( x + Cx 2 ) 3

Reason (R) : The solution of a linear equation is


obtained by multiplying with its integrating factor.

(C)

This section contains 3 paragraphs, each has 3 multiple


choice questions. (Question 15 to 23) Each questions
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct.

ar (nCr) = k (nC[n/3])

where [x] denotes the greatest integer x, then k


equals
(A) 1
(B) 0
(C) 3
(D) 1

17. If a =

20 ( 10 + 2 )
3

(C) 6/

cos 2 x
sin 2 x + 4 cos 2 x

on

(D) 1/6

23. Solution set of the inequality

13 x 5

2k

C 2 k )( C k ) where [x] denotes the

2(13 x + 12)

(A) ( , 5)
(C) [log13 5, 1]

k =0

greatest integer x, then an a equals.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

160

22. Solution set of the inequality


2(25)x 5(10x) + 2(4x) 0 is
(A) (1, )
(B) (0, )
(C) (2, )
(D) None of these

r =0

[ n / 2]

(D)

21. Solution set of the inequality 3x(0.333 ....)x3 (1/27)x


is
(A) [3/2, 5]
(B) ( , 3/2]
(D) None of these
(C) (0, )

16. If n is not a multiple of 3, and


r

identity xy = a y log a x
where a > 0, a 1.

15. Which of the following is true ?


(A) ar = an r
(B) a2r = an r
(C) ar = a2n r
(D) None of these

20 ( 10 + 2 )

Passage : III (No. 21 to 23)


To solve equation or inequality involving exponential
expression f(x)g(x), we may use logarithm or the

r =0

(1)

40

[0, /2] is
(A) /6
(B) 4/

2n

a x

20. The average value of f(x) =

Passage : I (No. 15 to 17)


For n N, we put
(1 + x + x2)n =

1/ 2

b
1
The square root
[f ( x )]2 dx is called the
a
b
a

root mean square of f on [a, b]. The average value


is attained if f is continuous on [a, b]

log t
Reason (R) : If F(x) =
dt then
1 t +1
F(x) + F(1/x) = (1/2) (log x)2

(B) 1
(D) 2

61

13 x + 5 is

(B) [5, )
(D) [0, log13 5]

SEPTEMBER 2009

Based on New Pattern

IIT-JEE 2011
XtraEdge Test Series # 5

Time : 3 Hours
Syllabus : Physics : Laws of motion, Friction, Work Power Energy, Gravitation, S.H.M., Laws of Conservations of
Momentum, Rotational Motion (Rigid Body), Elasticity, Fluid Mechanics, Surface Tension, Viscosity.
Chemistry : Gaseous state, Chemical Energetics, Oxidation-Reduction, Equivalent Concept, Volumetric Analysis.
Mathematics : Logarithm & Modulus Function, Quadratic Equation, Progressions, Binomial Theorem, Permutation &
Combination, Complex Number.

Instructions :
Section - I
Question 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions with only one correct answer. +3 marks will be awarded for correct
answer and -1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 7 to 10 are multiple choice questions with multiple correct answer. +4 marks and no negative marking for
wrong answer.
Question 11 to 14 are Reason and Assertion type questions with only one correct answer in each. +3 marks will be
awarded for correct answer and -1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 15 to 23 are passage based single correct type questions. +4 marks will be awarded for correct answer and
-1 mark for wrong answer.

PHYSICS

3.

A stick is thrown in the air and lands on the ground at


some distance from the thrower. The centre of mass
of the stick will move along a parabolic path :
(A) in all cases
(B) only if the stick is uniform
(C) only if the stick has linear motion but no
rotational motion
(D) only if the stick has a shape such that its centre of
mass is located at some point on it and not outside it

4.

A simple pendulum of length 1m is attached to the


ceiling of an elevator which is accelerating upward at
the rate of 1 m/s2. Its frequency is approximately :
(A) 2 Hz
(B) 1.5 Hz
(C) 5 Hz
(D) 0.5 Hz

5.

The volume of an air bubble is double as it rises from


the bottom of a lake to its surface. If the atmospheric
pressure is H m of mercury and the density of
mercury is n times that of lake water, the depth of the
lake is :
(A) nH
(B) 2 n H
(C) n/H
(D) H/n

6.

A bowl made of stainless steel is floating in water,


contained in a pan. There is small hole in bottom of
the bowl. Water leaks into the bowl through the hole.
Level of free water surface in the pan :

Questions 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions. Each


question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct.
1.

A large rectangular box falls vertically with an


acceleration 'a', A toy gun fixed at A and aimed
towards C fires a particle P.
C
B

S
u

P
D
A
(A) P will hit C if a = g
(B) P will hit the roof BC if a > g
(C) P will hit the wall CD if a < g
(D) May be either (a), (b) or (c), depending on the
speed of projection of P

2.

A spacecraft of mass m describes a circular orbit of


radius r1 around the earth of mass M. Calculate the
additional energy to be imparted to the spacecraft to
transfer it to a circular orbit of larger radius r2 :
GMm(r2 r1 )
GMm(r1 r2 )
(A)
(B)
2r1r2
2r1r2
(C)

GMmr1 r2
r2 r1

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

(D)

GMmr1r2
(r2 + r1 )
62

SEPTEMBER 2009

10. A liquid flows through a horizontal tube. The


velocities of the liquid in the two section, which have
areas of cross-section A1 and A2, are v1 and v2
respectively. The difference in the levels of the liquid
in the two vertical tubes is h :

(A) always remains constant


(B) remain constant for some times then falls
suddenly and then becomes constant
(C) falls gradually for some time and then becomes
constant
(D) rises gradually for some time and then becomes
constant

Questions 7 to 10 are multiple choice questions. Each


question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE) is correct.
7.

8.

Four identical rods, each of mass m and length l, are


joined to form a rigid square frame. The frame lies in
the xy plane, with its centre at the origin and the sides
parallel to the x and y axes. Its moment of inertia
about :
2
(A) the x-axis is ml2
3
4
(B) the z-axis is ml2
3
(C) an axis parallel to the z-axis and passing through
10
m l2
a corner is
3
5
(D) one side is ml2
2

(B) v2 v1 =
2

This section contains 4 questions numbered 11 to 14,


(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.
11

U
Liquid C

Q
Liquid B

T
S

13. Assertion (A) : As the radius of earth reduces by


50% with out any change in mass, length of a day
reduces.
Reason (R) : Angular momentum conservation
provides drop in time as I decreases to 25% of the
original.

When a body is weighed in a liquid, the loss in its


weight depends upon :
(A) Volume of the body (B) Mass of the body
(C) Shape of the body (D) CG of the body

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

Assertion (A) : Two blocks of masses m1 and m2 are


at rest. They are moving towards each other under the
mutual internal force. The velocity of centre of mass
is zero.
Reason (R) : If no external force act on the system,
then velocity of centre of mass unchanged but can
never be zero.

12. Assertion (A) : For stable equilibrium force has to be


zero and potential energy should be minimum.
Reason (R) : For equilibrium, it is not necessary that
the force is not zero.

(A) Height of column of liquid A is greater than that


of C
(B) Density of liquid A is less than that of liquid C
(C) Density of liquid B is maximum among these
three liquids
(D) Pressure at R is greater than that of S

9.

2gh

(C) v2 v1 = 2gh
(D) the energy per unit mass of the liquid is the same
in both sections of the tube

Air
Liquid A

A2
v2

(A) the volume of the liquid flowing through the tube


in unit time is A1v1

A U-tube is held in a vertical plane such that its two


limbs are vertical with middle portion horizontal as
shown in fig. Three liquids A, B and C are poured
into it and in steady state their interface are as shown
in the figure. Which of the following statements (s)
is/are correct ?

Air

v1

A1

63

SEPTEMBER 2009

14. Assertion (A) : Cross-sectional area of the water


pouring out of a tap decreases as the height from the
ground decreases.
Reason (R) : Work done by gravity reduces the
cross-sectional area.

Passage : I (No. 15 to 17)

19. Which of the blocks will have received the greatest


impulse during 2 m push
(A) block A
(B) block B
(C) block C
(D) all will have the same impulse

The energy of a body is defined as the capacity of


doing work. The energy possessed by a body by
virtue of its motion is called as kinetic energy and the
energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position
or configuration in some field is defined as potential
energy. When work is done on a body, its kinetic or
potential energy increases. On the other hand, when
the work is done by the body, its potential or kinetic
energy decreases. According to work energy
theorem, the workdone is equal to change in energy,
i.e., W = E.

20. Which of the blocks would have greatest kinetic


energy at the end of 2 m push
(A) block A
(B) block B
(C) block C
(D) all will have the same kinetic energy

15. Choose the correct statement related to validity of


work-energy theorem
(A) it is valid in all inertial frames only
(B) it is valid in non-inertial frames only
(C) it is valid in both frames
(D) None of these

Passage : III (No. 21 to 23)


A tube of very small bore is called capillary. If a
glass capillary tube is dipped into a liquid such as
water, which wets the glass, the liquid rises in the
tube. However, if the glass capillary tube is dipped in
a liquid such as mercury which does not wet the
glass, the liquid falls in the tube. This phenomenon is
known as capillarity.

16. Consider the following two statements


(i) Linear momentum of a system of particles is zero
(ii) Kinetic energy of a system of particles is zero.
Then
(A) (i) implies (ii) and (ii) implies (i)
(B) (i) does not imply (ii) and (ii) does not imply (i)
(C) (i) implies (ii) but (ii) does not imply (i)
(D) (i) does not imply (ii) but (ii) implies (i)

21. A liquid rises in the capillary tube more than water


does. Which one of the following in the cause of it
(A) temperature of liquid is higher than water
(B) surface tension of water is less than the liquid
(C) density of liquid is more than water
(D) viscosity of the liquid is more than water

17. Two protons are brought towards each other. The


potential energy of the system will
(A) increase
(B) decrease
(C) remains same
(D) None of these

22. Water rises to a height of 1.25 cm in a capillary tube.


If the hight of the tube is 1 cm, then water will
(A) stay at the top of the tube
(B) continuously flow out of the tube
(C) be depressed a little below the upper end of the
tube
(D) no rise in the tube

Passage : II (No. 18 to 20)


Three blocks (A, B and C) are each pushed by equal
forces F, frictionlessly across a horizontal surface for
a distance of 2 m as shown in fig. Here the masses
are such that MA > MB > MC.
2m
F
A

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

18. Which of the block will be travelling faster after two


metre push ?
(A) block A
(B) block B
(C) block C
(D) all moving with same speed

This section contains 3 paragraphs, each has 3 multiple


choice questions. (Question 15 to 23) Each questions
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct.

2m

23. In gravity free space, the liquid in a capillary tube


will rise to
(A) same height as on earth
(B) less height as on earth
(C) slightly more height than that on earth
(D) infinite height

2m
B
64

SEPTEMBER 2009

Questions 7 to 10 are multiple choice questions. Each


question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE) is correct.

CHEMISTRY
Questions 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct.
1.

2.

Helium atom is two times heavier than a hydrogen


molecule. At 298 K, the average kinetic energy of a
helium atom is
(A) two times that of a hydrogen molecule
(B) same as that of a hydrogen molecule
(C) four times that of a hydrogen molecule
(D) half that of hydrogen molecule

(C) RT

4.

10 volume H2O2 solution is present, then it means


(A) 10 ml of H2O2 solution liberates 1 ml of oxygen
at STP
(B) 1 ml of H2O2 solution liberates 10 ml of oxygen
at STP
(C) 0.0303 g of H2O2 in 10 ml of solution liberates
10 ml O2 at STP
(D) 0.0303 g of H2O2 in 1 ml of the solution liberates
10 ml O2 at STP

8.

Silver metal in ore is dissolved by potassium cyanide


solution in the presence of air by the reaction
4Ag + 8KCN + O2 + 2H2O 4KAg (CN)2 + 4KOH
(A) The amount of KCN required to dissolve 100 g
of pure Ag is 120 g.
(B) The amount of oxygen used in this process is
0.742 g
(C) The amount of oxygen used in this process is
7.40g
(D) The volume of oxygen used at STP is 5.20 litres.

9.

Identify the intensive properties among the following:


(A) Enthalpy
(B) Temperature
(C) Volume
(D) Refractive index

In van der Waals equation of state for a nonideal gas


the term that accounts for intermolecular forces is
(A) (V b)

3.

7.

(B) p + 2
V

(D) (RT)1

White phosphorus reacts with caustic soda. The


products are PH3 and NaH2PO2. This reaction is an
example of
(A) oxidation
(B) reduction
(C) oxidation and reduction
(D) neutralization

10. During the Joule Thomson effect


(A) A gas is allowed to expand adiabatically from a
high pressure region to a low pressure region
(B) A gas is allowed to expand adiabatically at
constant pressure
(C) = 0 for ideal gas
(D) U = 0 for ideal gas

Which of the following reactions is a redox reaction?


(A) Cr2O3 + 6HCl 2CrCl3 + 3H2O
(B) CrO3 + 2NaOH Na2CrO4 + H2O
Cr2O72 + OH
(C) 2CrO42 + H+
(D) Cr2O72 + 6I + 14H+

2Cr3+ + 3I2 + 7H2O

5.

The reaction of cyanamide, NH2CN(s), with oxygen


was run in a bomb calorimeter and U at 300 K was
found to be 743 kJ mol1. The value of H at 300K
for the combustion reaction
NH2CN(s) + (3/2) O2(g) N2(g) + CO2(g) + H2O (1)
would be
(A) 741.75 kJ mol1 (B) 743 kJ mol1
(C) 744.25 kJ mol1 (D) 740.5 kJ mol1

6.

The combustion reaction occurring in an automobile


is 2C8H18(s) + 5O2(g) 16CO2(g) + 18H2O(1). This
reaction is accompanied with
(A) H = ve, S = + ve, G = + ve
(B) H = + ve, S = ve, G = + ve
(C) H = ve, S = +ve, G = ve
(D) = +ve, S = +ve, G = ve

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

This section contains 4 questions numbered 11 to 14,


(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.
11. Assertion (A) : At zero degree Kelvin the volume
occupied by a gas is negligible.
Reason (R) : All molecular motion ceases at 0 K.
65

SEPTEMBER 2009

12. Assertion (A) : Compressibility factor for hydrogen


varies with pressure with positive slope at all
pressures.
Reason (R) : Even at low pressures, repulsive forces
dominate hydrogen gas.

easily show larger deviation. Further, it is found that


higher the speed of the gas molecules, less are the
deviations. However, for every gas, there is a
particular temperature above which they show ideal
behavior over an appreciable range of pressure. This
temperature is called Boyle temperature. The plots of
compressibility factor versus pressure for a few gases
and for the same gas at different temperatures are
given below in figs (a) and (b) respectively. The ideal
gas equation has, therefore, been modified and for
real gases, we apply van der Wasl's equation,
a

P + 2 (V b) = RT for 1 mole of the gas.


V

IV
T3 T 2
III
1.4
II
T1
1.2
Z
I
Z 1.0
1.0
1.5
1.6
P
P
(a)
(b)

13. Assertion (A) : Enthalpy of graphite is lower than


that of diamond.
Reason (R) : Entropy of graphite is greater than that
of diamond.
14. Assertion (A) : The temperature of a gas change
when it undergoes an adiabatic expansion.
Reason (R) : During an adiabatic expansion of a real
gas, the internal energy of the gas remains constant.
This section contains 3 paragraphs, each has 3 multiple
choice questions. (Question 15 to 23) Each questions
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct.
Passage : I (No. 15 to 17)
Redox reactions are those in which oxidation and
reduction take place simultaneously. Oxidising agent
can gain electron whereas reducing agent can lose
electron easily. The oxidation state of any element
can never be in fraction. If oxidation number of any
element comes out be in fraction, it is average
oxidation number of that element which is present in
different oxidation states.

18. If Vo is the observed volume of a gas and Vi is the


ideal gas volume, then the compressibility factor (Z)
for the gas is
V
V
(A) o
(B) i
Vi
Vo
(C) Vo + Vi

19. In fig (b), the correct order of temperatures is


(A) T1 > T2 > T3
(B) T3 > T2 > T1
(C) T2 > T1 > T3
(D) T2 > T3 > T1

15.

N
N

NH In this compound HN3 (hydrazoic acid),

20. The gas which can be liquefied most easily is


(A) I
(B) II
(C) III
(D) IV

oxidation state of N1 N2 and N3 are


(A) 0, 0, 3
(B) 0, 0, 1
(C) 1, 1, 3
(D) 3, 3, 3

Passage : III (No. 21 to 23)

16. Equivalant weight of chlorine molecule in the


equation
3Cl2 + 6NaOH 5NaCl + NaClO3 + 3H2O
(A) 42.6
(B) 35.5
(C) 59.1
(D) 71

A student wanted to apply his knowledge of


thermodynamics to obtain practical applications. He
performed a number of experiments. In one
experiment, he took a closed vessel in which he
dissolved 28 g of iron in hydrochloric acid at 27C.
In another experiment, he dissolved the same
amount of iron but in an open vessel. However, he
compressed the gas to 10 atm pressure at 27C and
then again allowed to expand it isothermally and
reversibly until the pressure fell down to 1 atm. In
one case, he used the work obtained to lift a heavy
body of mass 20 kg till the pressure fell down to
atmospheric pressure and in another case, he used
the work obtained to heat up 1 litre of water
(Assume that hydrogen behaves like an ideal gas).

17. The oxidation number of sulphur in K2S2O8 is


(A) + 2
(B) + 4
(C) + 7
(D) + 6
Passage : II (No. 18 to 20)
Real gases show deviations from ideal behaviour.
Consequently, the observed molar volume of a gas is
found to be different from theoretically calculated
volume from ideal gas equation. The extent of
deviations is measured in terms of compressibility
factor, Z. It is found that gases which can be liquefied

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

(D) Vo Vi

66

SEPTEMBER 2009

21. In the second experiment, the work done by the


system, if the gas were not condensed, would have
been nearly
(A) 1246 J
(B) zero
(C) 2492 J
(D) 1145 J

Questions 7 to 10 are multiple choice questions. Each


question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE) is correct.
7.

If z1, z2, z3, z4 are the vertices of a square in that


order, then
(A) z1 + z3 = z2 + z4
(B) |z1 z2| = |z2 z3| = |z3 z4| = |z4 z1|
(C) |z1 z3| = |z2 z4|
(D) (z1 z3)/(z2 z4) is purely imaginary

8.

Let a and k be two natural numbers greater than 1. If


ak 1 is prime then
(A) a = 2
(B) k is prime
(C) k = 2m for some m N
(D) None of these

9.

If x satisfies log3(2x + 1) < log35 then x contains the


interval.

22. The work done by the compressed gas would be


nearly
(A) 1247 J
(B) 2500 J
(C) 4000 J
(D) 5000 J
23. The rise in temperature of the water would be
(A) 1.25
(B) 2.50
(C) 2.0
(D) 3.0

MATHEMATICS
Questions 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct.
1.

1
(A) , 0
2
(C) [1, 2)

The equation

x + 3 4 x 1 + x + 8 6 x 1 = 1 has
(A) no solution
(B) only one solution
(C) only two solution (D) more than two solutions
2.

If log30 3 = c, log305 = d then the value of log308


(A) 2(1 c d)
(B) 3(1 + c + d)
(C) 3(1 + c d)
(D) 3(1 c d)

4.

Solution set of the inequality


log3(x + 2) (x + 4) + log1/3(x + 2) <
(A) (2, 1)
(C) (1, 3)
n

5.

If an =

r =0

Cr

, then

n
an
2
(C) nan
(A)

6.

This section contains 4 questions numbered 11 to 14,


(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.

7 is

(B) (2, 3)
(D) (3, )

1
n

1
log
2

r =0

r
n

Cr

equals

11. Assertion (A) : If a, b, c R and 2a + 3b + 6c = 0,


then the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 has at least one
root in [0, 1].
Reason (R) : If a continuous function f defined on R
assumes both positive and negative values, then it
vanishes at least once.

n
an
4
(D) (n 1)an
(B)

The coefficient of xk in the expansion of


E = 1 + (1 + x) + (1 + x)2 + ... + (1 + x)n is
(A) nCk
(B) n+1Ck
n+1
(C) Ck+1
(D) None of these

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

(D) (2, 3)

1
10. Let an = 1 + . Then for each n N
n
(A) an 2
(B) an < 3
(D) an < 2
(C) an < 4

The positive integer n for which


2 22 + 3 23 + 4 24 + .... + n 2n = 2n + 10 is
(A) 510
(B) 511
(C) 512
(D) 513

3.

(B) [0, 2)

12. Assertion (A) : There exists no A.P. whose three


terms are
67

3,

5 and

7.
SEPTEMBER 2009

Reason (R) : If tp, tq and tr are three distinct terms of


tr tp
is a rational number.
an A.P., then
tq tp

Passage : II (No. 18 to 20)


If n is a natural number define polynomial Pn(x) of
degree n as follows :
cos n = Pn (cos )
For example, P2(x) = 2x2 1 and P3(x) = 4x3 3x.

13. Assertion (A) :

n (n + 1)
12
22
n2
+
+ .... +
=
(1)(3) (3)(5)
(2n 1)( 2n + 1)
2(2n + 1)

18.

Reason (R) :
1
1
1
1
+
+ ... +
=
(1)(3)
(3)(5)
(2n 1)(2n + 1)
2n + 1

19. (x + x 2 1 )n + (x x 2 1 )n equals
(A) Pn(x)
(B) Pn+1 + Pn1(x)
(C) 2Pn(x)
(D) None of these

14. Assertion (A) : The set of all x satisfying the equation


2

x log5 x + log5 x 12 = 1/x4 is {1, 25, 1/125, 1/625}


Reason (R) : A polynomial equation of degree n can
have at most n real roots.

20. P6(x) equals


(A) 36x6 45x4 + 18x2 8
(B) 32x6 48x4 + 18x2 1
(C) 36x6 48x4 + 18x2 5
(D) None of these

This section contains 3 paragraphs, each has 3 multiple


choice questions. (Question 15 to 23) Each questions
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct.

Passage : III (No. 21 to 23)


Let a, b I and n N. We write
a b(mod n)
if and only if n|(a b)
If a b (mod n) and c d (mod n),
then a c b d (mod n), ac = bd(mod n)
and ak bk (mod n) k N.

Passage : I (No. 15 to 17)


Let x0, x1 and x2 be three distinct real numbers.
Define three polynomials l0(x), l1(x), l2(x) and l(x)
as follows :
( x x 1 )( x x 2 )
l0(x) =
( x 0 x 1 )( x 0 x 2 )

and

l1(x) =

( x x 0 )( x x 2 )
( x 1 x 0 )( x 1 x 2 )

l2(x) =

( x x 0 )( x x 1 )
( x 2 x 0 )( x 2 x 1 )

21. The remainder when 10073 is divided by 7 is


(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
22. The number of solutions of the system of
congruences
x 3 (mod 49)
and
x 2 (mod 11)
is
(A) 0
(B) 1
(C) 2
(D) infinite

l(x) = (x x0)(x x1) (x x2)


15. p(x) = l0(x) + l1(x) + l2(x) equals
(A) 1
(B) x
(D) 1 + x + x2
(C) x2

23. The number of values of x I for which


2x 1 (mod 2006) is
(A) 0
(B) 1
(C) 2
(D) infinite

16. p(x) = (x1 + x2)l0(x) + (x2 + x0) l1(x) + (x0 + x1)l2(x)


then p(x) equals
1
(A) x
(B) x (x0 + x1 + x2)
2
(D) None of these
(C) x0 + x1 + x2 x
17.

Behavior

l( x )
l( x )
l( x )
+
+
( x x 0 )l(x 0 ) ( x x 1 )l(x 1 ) ( x x 2 )l(x 2 )
equals
(A) 1
(B) x
(C) x2 + x
(D) None of these

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

1
[Pn+1(x) + Pn1(x)] equals
2x
(A) Pn+2 (x)
(B) Pn1 (x) + Pn(x)
(D) Pn+1(x) Pn(x)
(C) Pn(x)

68

Behavior is a mirror in which everyone


displays his image.
Behavior is what a man does, not what he
thinks, feels, or believes.
Behave the way you'd like to be and soon
you'll be the way you behave.

SEPTEMBER 2009

XtraEdge Test Series


ANSWER KEY
IIT- JEE 2010 (September issue)
PHYSICS
Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans

1
A
11
A
21
C

2
B
12
C
22
A

3
A
13
C
23
D

4
A
14
A

5
A
15
A

6
A
16
C

7
A ,B ,C , D
17
C

8
A ,B , C , D
18
C

9
A
19
C

10
A , B ,C
20
D

C H E MI S T R Y
Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans

1
C
11
C
21
A

2
B
12
A
22
A

3
D
13
A
23
C

4
C
14
D

5
B
15
C

6
A
16
A

7
B
17
B

8
A ,D
18
D

9
B,C
19
B

10
A ,C
20
C

7
C,D
17
B

8
B,C
18
B

9
A ,B
19
C

10
A ,B , D
20
D

MATHEMATICS
Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans

1
A
11
A
21
B

2
B
12
D
22
D

3
A
13
C
23
C

4
C
14
B

5
B
15
C

6
C
16
B

IIT- JEE 2011 (September issue)


PHYSICS
Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans

1
B
11
C
21
B

2
B
12
C
22
D

3
A
13
D
23
A

4
D
14
C

5
A
15
C

6
B
16
D

7
A ,B ,C , D
17
A

8
B,C
18
C

9
A
19
A

8
A,C,D
18
A

9
B, D
19
A

10
A ,C , D
20
D

C H E MI S T R Y
Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans

1
B
11
C
21
A

2
B
12
A
22
A

3
C
13
B
23
A

4
D
14
C

5
A
15
B

6
C
16
A

7
B, D
17
D

10
A ,C , D
20
C

MATHEMATICS
Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans
Ques
Ans

1
D
11
B
21
B

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

2
D
12
A
22
D

3
D
13
C
23
A

4
B
14
D

5
A
15
A

69

6
C
16
C

7
A ,B ,C , D
17
A

8
A ,B
18
C

9
A ,B ,C
19
C

10
A,B,C
20
B

SEPTEMBER 2009