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Objectives:

o Specific gravity

o Density

o Absorption and surface moisture

o Bulking of sand

o Unsoundness due to volume changes

Specific Gravity

The specific gravity also called as "relative density" of an aggregate is the ratio of

its weight to the weight of an equal volume of water (water displaced on

immersion)

S.G = density of solid

density of water

the specific gravity in two ways:

(i)

(ii)

ASG = weight of aggregate (solid only) . 1 .

BSG = weight of aggregate (solid +pores) . 1 .

= weight of aggregate (solid +pores)

weight of water displaced

The BSG volume is the realistic one to use since the effective volume that

aggregate occupies in concrete includes its internal pores

Most natural aggregates have specific gravities between 2.4 and 2.9. BSG value is

used in certain computations for mixture proportioning and control

Density

Bulk Density

."Bulk density", also called as the unit weight, is defined as the weight per unit

total volume (i.e., volume of solids + volume of voids between the particles) of

aggregate

Bulk Density =

Weight

Volume of solids +Volume of voids

Bulk density of both fine and coarse normal aggregates varies within the range of

1450 to 1750 kg/m3 (90 to 110 lb/ft3)

quantities by mass to quantities by volume

Bulk density depends on how densely the aggregate is packed (i.e. whether less or

more voids) and, consequently, on the size distribution and shape of the particles

Loose and compacted bulk densities of aggregate are determined in the laboratory

The ratio of loose bulk density to the compacted bulk density lies usually between

0.87 and 0.96

Knowing the bulk density (1b) and bulk specific gravity of the aggregate in SSD

condition (p), the voids ratio of aggregate (e) can be calculated as:

e = Volume of voids = 1-

Volume of solids

b

.

x l000kg/m3

Thus, the voids ratio (e) indicates the volume of mortar required to fill the space

between the coarse aggregate particles. More will be the e more will be the paste

requirement.

The bulk density of the mixture of FA and CA varies with the percentage of FA in

the mixture, as shown in the following figure:

Figure 6.6

As can be observed from the above figure, the maximum bulk density of a mixture

of fine and coarse aggregates is achieved when the mass of the fine aggregate is

around 35 to 40% of the total mass of the mixture

aggregates, there is minimum cement paste requirement (because of minimum

remaining volume of voids in the mixture) and therefore there would be economy

in the production of concrete

The analysis of the mixture of FA and CA, for determination of the volume of

void in the mixture (Vv) or ratio of the volume of fine aggregate to volume of

coarse aggregate (VFA/VCA), can be carried out, as follows:

Let

Vm, VFA, VCA, Vv = volume of mixture, FA, CA, and voids, respectively

m, FA, CA = bulk density of mixture, FA, and CA, respectively

We have:

VFA+VCA+Vv=Vm

Eq.l

and

WFA+WCA =Wm

or

FA VFA + CA VCA = m V m

Eq.2

By solving Eq. 1 and Eq. 2, we can determine VFA/VCA if Vv is given, and vice-versa.

Problem:A mixture of sand and gravel has a unit weight of 2000 kg/m 3. If the bulk specific gravity

of sand is 2.3 and gravel is 2.5, and the volume percent of void ratio is 18%. Calculate the

volume ratio of sand and gravel.

Solution:m = 2000 kg/m3

We have,

CA = 2.5 x 1000 = 2500 kg/m3

Vv = 18%

Considering total volume of mixtures, Vm= 1 m3

Vv = 0.18 m3

VFA + VCA + Vv = Vm

We have,

Also,

(1)

FA VFA + CA VCA = m V m

2300 VFA + 2500 VCA= 2000

=>

We get,

VCA= 0.57 m3

and VFA= 0.25 m3

= VFA = 0.25 = 0.438 = 1

VCA 0.57

2.28

VFA : VCA = 1 : 2.28

(2)

Problem:A mixture of 35% sand 65% gravel has a unit weight of 1900 kg/m 3. If the bulk specific

gravity of the sand is 2.4 and of the gravel is 2.6. Calculate the volume percent of void

space in the mixture.

Solution:Considering total volume of mixture, Vm = 1m3

Total weight of mixture

Wm = m Vm = 1900 x 1 = 1900 kg

We have,

WFA = 35 x 1900 = 665 kg

100

WCA = 65 x 1900 = 1235 kg

100

FA = 2.4 x 1000 = 2400 kg/m3

CA = 2.6 x 1000 = 2600 kg/m3

VFA = WFA = 665 = 0.2770 m3

FA 2400

and,

CA 2600

We have,

VFA + VCA + VV = Vm

0.277 + 0.475 + Vv = 1

Vv = 0.248 m3

% Volume of void space

= 0.248 m3 x 100 = 24.8%

1 m3

Absolute Density

"Absolute density" is defined as the weight per unit volume of solid particles of

aggregate (i.e. absolute volume) excluding the volume of voids in aggregate

Absolute Density =

Weight

.

Volume of solids (i.e. absolute volume)

Absolute density is used when mix design is carried by "absolute volume

method", in which total volume of concrete is equated to the sum of absolute

volumes of water, cement, aggregates, admixtures, and air.

Due to porosity of aggregates water can be absorbed into the body of particles

(Absorption), and also water can be retained on the surface of the particle as a

film of moisture (Surface Moisture)

Absorption and surface moisture both affect the w/c ratio of the concrete

significantly. The absorption reduces the w/t ratio whereas surface moisture

increases the w/c ratio

Figure 6.4

an oven at

105C to constant weight (overnight heating usually suffices). All pores

are empty.

2. Air-dry (AD): All moisture removed from surface, but internal pores

partially full.

3. Saturated-surface-dry (SSD): All pores filled with water, but no film of

water on

the surface.

4. Wet: All pores completely filled with water with a film of water on the

surface.

Out of the above four states, only two, the OD and SSD states, corresponds to

the specific moisture contents

The SSD condition is the better choice as reference state, for the following

reasons

that is, the aggregate will neither absorb water nor give up water to the

paste.

The moisture content of aggregates in the field is much closer to the SSD

state than the OD state.

determined by the displacement method in the SSD condition.

apparent BSG using the displacement method.

However, a major disadvantage of using the SSD is that it is not easy to obtain a

true SSD condition and therefore many people prefer to use OD state as a

reference point

The expressions for calculating the absorption capacity (AC), effective absorption

(EA), surface moisture (SM), and moisture contents are as follows

AC = WSSD WOD x 100%

WOD

The absorption capacity is used in mix proportion calculations and can be

converted from the SSD to OD system, or vice versa.

EA = WSSD WAD x 100%

WSSD

The effective absorption is used to calculate the weight of water absorbed (W abs)

by the weight of aggregate (Wagg) in the concrete mix:

Wabs = (EA) Wagg

SM = Wwet WSSD x 100%

WSSD

It is used to calculate the additional water (Wadd) added to the concrete with the

aggregate.

Wadd = (SM) Wagg

MC = Wstock WSSD x 100%

WSSD

Where Wstock is the weight of the aggregate in the stockpiled condition. If the

moisture content is positive, it is surface moisture; if negative, it is effective

absorption. Thus,

Bulking is the increase in total volume of moist fine aggregate over the same

weight dry

Reason: Surface tension in the moisture holds the particles apart, causing an

increase in volume, as shown in the following Fig.

As shown in the above graph, the amount of bulking of FA depends on the moisture

content and grading. At a same moisture content finer grading has more bulking than

coarser grading

Due to bulking the FA should not be batched by volume unless correction for the

bulking is made

Following are the causes of unsoundness (i.e. volume changes) of aggregate:

o

o

o

Thermal changes at temperature above freezing

Alternate wetting and drying

local scaling (so-called pop-outs) and even extensive surface cracking

BS and ASTM Codes:

o Alternate immersion of aggregate in sulfate solution and drying

o Subjecting the aggregate to cycles of freezing and thawing

its particle size after subjecting it to the exposures.

concrete:

o Coefficient of thermal expansion

o Specific heat

o conductivity

which insulation is applied, but usually not in ordinary structural work

cement paste is important for the durability of concrete

cement paste is smaller, durability of concrete is not adversely affected within a

temperature range of 4 to 60 C

cement paste is more than 5.5 x 10-6/oC , durability of concrete subjected to

freezing and thawing may be adversely affected

o hydrated cement paste lies between 11 and 16 x 10-6/oC

o rocks commonly used for aggregate lies between 5 and 13 x 10-6/oC

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