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Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

hsn.uk.net

I

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

Vectors

1

A scalar is a quantity with magnitude (size) only for example, an amount

of money or a length of time.

Sometimes size alone is not enough to describe a quantity for example,

directions to the nearest shop. For this we need to know a magnitude (i.e.

how far), and a direction.

Quantities with both magnitude and direction are called vectors.

A vector is named either by using the points at the end of a directed line

segment (e.g. AB represents the vector starting at point A and ending at

point B) or by using a bold letter (e.g. u). You will see bold letters used in

printed text, but in handwriting you should just underline the letter (e.g. ).

B

Throughout these notes, we will show vectors bold and underlined (e.g. u ).

Components

A vector may be represented by its components, which we write in a

column. For example,

2

3 is a vector in two dimensions.

In this case the first component is 2 and this tells us to move 2 units in the

x-direction. The second component tells us to move 3 units in the ydirection. So if the vector starts at the origin, it will look like:

y

3

O

2

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

2

with coordinates. The following diagram also shows the vector 3 , but in

this case it does not start at the origin.

y

(1,2 )

( 1,1)

In a vector with three components, the first two tell us how many units to

move in the x- and y-directions, as before. The third component specifies

how far to move in the z-direction.

z

When looking at a pair of ( x , y ) -axes, the

z-axis points out of the page from the origin.

z

A set of 3D axes can be drawn on a page as

shown to the right.

x

For example,

4

3

1

shown in the diagram, starting from the origin.

O

4

1 3

Zero Vectors

Any vector with all its components zero is called a zero vector and can be

0

written as 0 , e.g. 0 = 0 .

0

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

Magnitude

The magnitude (or length) of a vector u is written as u . It can be

calculated as follows.

a

If PQ = b then

a

If PQ = b then

c

PQ = a 2 + b 2 .

PQ = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 .

EXAMPLES

5

1. Given u = 12 , find u .

u = 52 + ( 12 )2

= 169

= 13 units.

5

2. Find the length of a = 6 .

3

a =

( 5 )

+ 6 2 + 32

= 50

= 5 2 units.

Unit Vectors

Any vector with a magnitude of one is called a unit vector. For example:

if u =

1

2

( )

0 then u = 12

3

2

= 44

( )

3

+0 + 2

= 1 unit.

So u is a unit vector.

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

The distance between the points A and B is d AB = AB units.

1

So given AB = 2 , we find d AB = ( 1)2 + 2 2 + 52 = 30 .

5

The distance d between the points ( x1 , y1, z1 ) and ( x 2 , y2 , z2 ) is

( x2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2 + ( z2 z1 )2

d=

units.

EXAMPLE

The distance is

=

( x2 x1 )

+ ( y2 y1 ) + ( z2 z1 )

( 0 ( 1) )2 + (5 4 )2 + ( 7 1)2

= 12 + 12 + ( 8 )2

= 1 + 1 + 64

= 66 units.

Equal Vectors

Vectors with the same magnitude and direction are said to be equal.

For example, all the vectors shown to

the right are equal.

If vectors are equal to each other, then

all of their components are equal, i.e.

a d

if b = e

c f

s

t

then a = d , b = e and c = f .

Conversely, two vectors are only equal if all of their components are equal.

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

Consider the following vectors:

Addition

We can construct a + b as follows:

a + b means a followed by b.

a +b

a

a +b +c

a + b + c means a followed by b

followed by c .

To add vectors, we position them nose-to-tail. Then the sum of the vectors

is the vector between the first tail and the last nose.

Subtraction

Now consider a b . This can be written as a + ( b ) , so if we first find b

we can use vector addition to obtain a b .

a b

Edmund. S .Maputi

a b means a followed by b.

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

Using Components

If we have the components of vectors, then things become much simpler.

The following rules can be used for addition and subtraction.

a d

b + e

c f

a + d

=b+e

c + f

a d

b e

c f

a d

= b e

c f

EXAMPLES

1

1

0

2

1 1

u + v = 5 + 2

2 0

1 1

u v = 5 2

2 0

0

= 7

2

2

= 3 .

2

1

4

3

2. Given p = 2 and q = 3 , calculate p q and q + p .

6

3

5

4 1

p q = 32 3

6

3 5

1 4

q + p = 3 + 32

6 3

5

5

3

= 2

21

5

3

9

= 2 .

9

5

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

Multiplication by a Scalar

A vector u which is multiplied by a scalar k > 0 will give the result ku .

This vector will be k times as long, i.e. its magnitude will be k u .

Note that if k < 0 this means that the vector ku will be in the opposite

direction to u .

For example:

3u

If

a

u = b

c

2u

then

1u

2

ka

k u = kb .

kc

EXAMPLES

1

1. Given v = 5 , find 3v .

3

1 3

3v = 3 5 = 15 .

3 9

6

2. Given r = 3 , find 4 r .

1

6 24

4r = 4 3 = 12 .

1 4

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

Negative Vectors

The negative of a vector is the vector multiplied by 1 .

If we write a vector as a directed line segment AB , then AB = BA :

B

B

AB

AB = BA

A

Position Vectors

OA is called the position vector of point A relative to the origin O, and is

written as a .

OB is called the position vector of point B, written b .

z

y

Given P ( x , y , z ) , the position vector OP or p

P

x

O

has components y .

z

x

y

back along the vector a to the origin, and

along vector b to point B, i.e.

AB = AO + OB

= OA + OB

a

B

b

O

= a + b

= b a.

For the vector joining any two points P and Q, PQ = q p .

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

10

EXAMPLE

R is the point ( 2, 2, 3 ) and S is the point ( 4, 6, 1) . Find RS .

2

4

From the coordinates, r = 2 and s = 6 .

3

1

RS = s r

Note

You dont need to write

this line down in the

exam.

4 2

= 6 2

1 3

2

= 8 .

4

Basis Vectors

A vector may also be defined in terms of the basis vectors i , j and k .

These are three mutually perpendicular unit vectors (i.e. they are

perpendicular to each other).

j

i

0

1

0

i = 0 , j = 1 and k = 0 .

0

0

1

Any vector can be written in basis form using i , j and k . For example:

2

1 0

0

v = 3 = 2 0 3 1 + 6 0 = 2i 3 j + 6 k .

6

0 0

1

There is no need for the working above if the following is used:

a

ai + b j + c k = b .

c

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

11

Collinearity

In Straight Lines (Unit 1 Outcome 1), we learned that points are collinear if

they lie on the same straight line.

The points A, B and C in 3D space are collinear if AB is parallel to BC ,

with B a common point.

Note that we cannot find gradients in three dimensions instead we use the

following.

Non-zero vectors are parallel if they are scalar multiples of the same vector.

For example:

2

u = 1 ,

4

2

6

v = 3 = 3 1 = 3u.

12

4

So u and v are parallel.

15

5

p = 9 = 3 3 ,

6

2

20

5

q = 12 = 4 3 .

8

2

So p and q are parallel.

EXAMPLE

Show that A, B and C are collinear.

BC = c b

AB = b a

8 1

= 5 2

9 5

22 8

= 11 5

17 9

7

7

14

= 6 = 2 3 .

= 3

4

4

8

BC = 2AB , so AB and BC are parallel, and since B is a common point,

A, B and C are collinear.

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

12

There is a simple process for finding the coordinates of a point which

divides a line segment in a given ratio.

EXAMPLE

The point T divides PR in the ratio 2 : 3 . Find the coordinates of T.

Step 1

Make a sketch of the line, showing the

ratio in which the point divides the line

segment.

Step 4

Rearrange to give the position vector of

the unknown point.

Step 2

Using the sketch, equate the ratio of the

two line segments with the given ratio.

Step 3

Cross multiply, then change directed

line segments to position vectors.

PT 2

=

TR 3

3PT = 2TR

3 t p = 2 (r t )

3t 3 p = 2r 2t

3t + 2t = 2r + 3 p

8 2

5t = 2 1 + 3 4

19 1

16 6

5t = 2 + 12

38 3

10

5t = 10

35

2

t = 2

7

Step 5

From the position vector, state the

coordinates of the unknown point.

Edmund. S .Maputi

So T is the point ( 2, 2, 7 ) .

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

13

The previous method can be condensed into a formula as shown below.

If the point P divides the line AB in the ratio m : n , then

p=

n a + mb

,

n+m

This is referred to as the section formula.

It is not necessary to know this, since the approach explained above will

always work.

EXAMPLE

n p + mr

t=

n+m

3 p + 2r

=

5

1 ( 3 ( 2 ) + 2 ( 8 ) )

15

= 5 ( 3 ( 4 ) + 2 ( 1) )

1 ( 3 ( 1) + 2 (19 ) )

5

2

= 2 .

7

Note

If you are confident with

arithmetic, this step can

be done mentally.

So T is the point ( 2, 2, 7 ) .

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

14

Further Examples

EXAMPLES

E

F

H

D

A

G

B

O

C

The point A has coordinates ( 0,0,5 ) , C ( 8,0,0 ) and G ( 8,12,0 ) . The

point H divides BF in the ratio 4 :1. Find the coordinates of H.

OH = OA + AB + 54 BF

= OA + OC + 54 CG

h = a + c + 54 g c

Note

BH 4

= , so BH = 45 BF.

BF 5

= a + c + 54 g 54 c

= a + 15 c + 54 g

0

8

8

1

4

= 0 + 5 0 + 5 12

5

0

0

8

.

= 48

5

5

So H has coordinates 8, 48

5 ,5 .

the ratio in which Q divides PR.

Since the points are collinear PQ = k QR for some k. Working with the

first components:

8 6 = k (9 8)

k = 2.

Therefore PQ = 2QR so Q divides PR in the ratio 2 :1.

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

Note

The ratio is 2 : 1 since

PQ 2

= .

QR 1

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

15

divides AC in the ratio 3 : 2 , find the coordinates of C.

3

AB = 5 AC

Note

A sketch may help you

to see this:

2

C

3

B

A

b a = 35 ( c a )

b a = 35 c 35 a

3c =b 2a

5

5

c = 53 b 23 a

13

= 53 5 32 4

4

7

17

= 11 .

9

So far we have added and subtracted vectors and multiplied a vector by a

scalar. Now we will consider the scalar product, which is a form of vector

multiplication.

product) and can be calculated using the formula:

a .b = a b cos ,

This is given in the exam.

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

16

The definition above assumes that the vectors a and b are positioned so

that they both point away from the angle, or both point into the angle.

a

However, if one vector is pointing away from the angle, while the other

points into the angle,

a

EXAMPLES

are at an angle of 60 to each other as shown below.

b

60

a.b = a b cos

= 7 3 cos 60

= 21 12

= 21

2.

between u and v is 30 , as shown below.

v

30

u.v = u v cos

= k 2k cos30

= 2k 2 23

Remember

When one vector points

in and one points out,

u.v =| u || v |cos .

= 3k 2 .

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

17

The scalar product can also be calculated as follows:

b1

a1

where a = a2 and b = b2 .

b

a

3

3

EXAMPLES

1

2

3

3

p.q = p1q1 + p2q2 + p3q3

= (1 2 ) + ( 2 2 ) + ( ( 3 ) 3 )

=2+49

= 3.

AB.AC .

C ( 1, 3, 6 )

B (1, 4, 2 )

points:

AB = b a

AC = c a

1 2

= 4 3

2 9

1

= 1

11

A ( 2, 3, 9 )

1 2

= 3 3

6 9

3

= 0 .

15

AB.AC = ( ( 1) ( 3 ) ) + (1 0 ) + ( ( 11) ( 15 ) )

= 3 + 0 + 165

= 168.

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

18

The formulae for the scalar product can be rearranged to give the following

equations, both of which can be used to calculate , the angle between two

vectors.

cos =

a .b

a b

or

cos =

.

a b

Look back to the formulae for finding the scalar product, given on the

previous pages. Notice that the first equation is simply a rearranged form of

the one which can be used to find the scalar product. Also notice that the

second simply substitutes a .b for the component form of the scalar

product.

These formulae are not given in the exam but can both be easily derived

from the formulae on the previous pages (which are given in the exam).

EXAMPLES

q = 4i + j + 3k .

4

3

p = 4 and q = 1

3

2

cos =

=

p q

( 3 4 ) + ( 4 1) + ( ( 2 ) 3 )

32 + 4 2 + ( 2 )2 42 + 12 + 32

10

=

29 26

10

= cos 1

29 26

= 68.6 (to 1 d.p.)

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

19

.

2. K is the point (1, 7, 2 ) , L ( 3, 3, 4 ) and M ( 2, 5,1) . Find KLM

L ( 3, 3, 4 )

M ( 2, 5,1)

K (1, 7, 2 )

Now find the vectors pointing away from the angle:

1 3 4

LK = k l = 7 3 = 10 ,

2 4 2

2 3 5

LM = m l = 5 3 = 2 .

1 4 3

Use the scalar product to find the angle:

LK.LM

=

cos KLM

LK LM

( 4 5) + ( 10 2 ) + ( 2 ( 3 ) )

4 2 + ( 10 )2 + ( 2 )2 52 + 22 + ( 3 )2

6

=

120 38

6

= cos 1

KLM

120 38

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

20

T

z

S

V

P

O

R

(a) Write down the coordinates of T and U.

(b) Find the components of RT and RU .

0 4 4

(b) RT = t r = 4 0 = 4 ,

4 0 4

4 4 0

RU = u r = 4 0 = 4 .

4 0 4

RT.RU

=

(c) cos TRU

RT RU

=

( 4 0 ) + ( 4 4 ) + ( 4 4 )

( 4 )2 + 42 + 42 02 + 42 + 42

32

3 16 2 16

2

=

6

= cos 1 2

TRU

6

= 35.3 (to 1 d.p.)

=

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

21

13 Perpendicular Vectors

If a and b are perpendicular then a.b = 0 .

= a b cos90

( = 90 since perpendicular)

=0

EXAMPLES

Show that a and b are perpendicular.

a.b = a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3

= ( 4 2 ) + ( 2 1) + ( ( 5 ) 2 )

= 8 + 2 10

= 0.

Since a.b = 0, a and b are perpendicular.

4

2

2. PQ = a and RS = 3 where a is a constant.

7

a

Given that PQ and RS are perpendicular, find the value of a.

Since PQ and RS are perpendicular,

PQ .RS = 0

4 2 + ( 3 a ) + 7 a = 0

8 3a + 7 a = 0

8 + 4a = 0

a = 2.

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

22

Some useful properties of the scalar product are as follows:

a.b = b.a

a. ( b + c ) = a.b + a.c

(Expanding brackets)

a.a = a .

Note that these are not given in the exam, so you need to remember them.

EXAMPLES

Calculate p. q + r .

45

15 q

p. ( q + r ) = p.q + p.r

= p q cos 1 + p r cos 2

= 3 2 cos 60 + 3 4 cos 45

= 6 12 + 12 1

= 3 + 6 2.

2. In the diagram below, a = c = 2 and b = 2 3 .

a

30

Calculate a. ( a + b + c ) .

30

a. ( a + b + c )

2

= a + a b cos 1 a c cos 2

= 22 + 2 2 3 cos30 2 2 cos120

= 4 + 4 3 23 + 4 12

Remember

a. c = a c cos 2

since a points into 2

and c points away.

=4+6+2

= 12.

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

23

Mechanics

15.1

The four fundamental concepts used in mechanics are space, time, mass and force1. It is

not easy to define what these concepts are. Rather, one knows what they are, and they

take on precise meaning when they appear in the principles and equations of mechanics

discussed further below.

The concept of space is associated with the idea of the position of a point, which is

described using coordinates (x, y, z) relative to an origin o as illustrated in Fig. 14.1.

y

particle p

The time at which events occur must be recorded if a material is in motion. The concept

of mass enters Newtons laws (see below) and in that way is used to characterize the

relationship between the acceleration of a body and the forces acting on that body.

Finally, a force is something that causes matter to accelerate; it represents the action of

one body on another.

15.2

The fundamental laws of mechanics are Newtons three laws of motion. These are:

Newtons First Law:

if the resultant force acting on a particle is zero, the particle remains at rest (if originally

at rest) or will move with constant speed in a straight line (if originally in motion)

By resultant force, one means the sum of the individual forces which act; the resultant is

obtained by drawing the individual forces end-to-end, in what is known as the vector

1

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

24

polygon law; this is illustrated in Fig. 2.1.2, in which three forces F1 , F2 , F3 act on a

single particle, leading to a non-zero resultant force2 F.

F1

F1

F3

(a)

F2

F3

F1

F2

F2

F3

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 15.2: the resultant of a system of forces acting on a particle; (a) three

forces acting on a particle, (b) construction of the resultant F, (c) an alternative

construction, showing that the order in which the forces are drawn is

immaterial, (d) the resultant force acting on the particle

In Fig. 15.3 is shown a floating boat. It can be assumed that there are two forces acting on

the boat. The first is the boats weight Fg . There is also an upward buoyancy force

Fb exerted by the water on the boat. If these two forces are equal and opposite, the

resultant of these two forces will be zero, and therefore the boat will remain at rest (it will

not move up or down).

Fg

Fb

The resultant force acting on the particle of Fig. 15.2 is non-zero, and in that case one

applies Newtons second law:

2

the construction of the resultant force can be regarded also as a principle of mechanics, in that it is not

proved or derived, but is taken as given and is borne out by experiment

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

Applied Mechanics 1

Introduction to Statics

25

if the resultant force acting on a particle is not zero, the particle will have an acceleration

proportional to the magnitude of the resultant force and in the direction of this resultant

force:

F ma

(15.1)

where3 F is the resultant force, a is the acceleration and m is the mass of the particle. The

units of the force are the Newton (N), the units of acceleration are metres per second

squared (m/s2), and those of mass are the kilogram (kg); a force of 1 N gives a mass of 1

kg an acceleration of 1 m/s2.

If the water were removed from beneath the boat of Fig. 15.3, a non-zero resultant force

would act, and the boat would accelerate downward4.

each force (of action) has an equal and opposite force (of reaction) Again,

considering the boat of Fig. 15.3, the water exerts an upward buoyancy force on

the boat, and the boat exerts an equal and opposite force on the water. This is illustrated

in Fig. 15.4.

Fb

Fb

surface of water

(a)

(b)

Figure 15.4: Newtons third law; (a) the water exerts a force on the

boat, (b) the boat exerts an equal and opposite force on the water

Newtons laws are used in the analysis of the most basic problems and in the analysis of

the most advanced, complex, problems. They appear in many guises and sometimes they

appear hidden, but they are always there in a Mechanics problem.

3

vector quantities, that is, quantities which have both a magnitude and a direction associated with them, are

represented by bold letters, like F here; scalars are represented by italics, like m here. The magnitude and

direction of vectors are illustrated using arrows as in Fig. 14.2

4

if we set F to be zero in Newtons Second Law, we get a 0 , which seems to be saying the same thing as

Newtons First Law, and in fact it appears to imply that Newtons First Law is redundant. For this reason,

Newtons First Law is not actually used in analyzing problems (much); it is necessary only to deal with

different frames of reference. For example, if you stand in an accelerating lift (your frame of reference) with

glass walls, it appears to you that you are stationary and it is the outside (a different reference frame)

which is accelerating, even though there is no force acting on the outside, which appears to be a

contradiction of Newtons Second Law. Newtons First Law discounts this option: it says that when the

force is zero, the body remains at rest or at uniform velocity. Newtons First Law implies that Newtons

Laws only apply to Inertial Frames, i.e. frames of reference in which a body remains at rest or uniform

velocity unless acted upon by a force

Edmund. S .Maputi

esmaputi@gmail.com, esmaputi@hit.ac.zw

I.M.E 2015

References

1. www.HSN.uk.net

2.http://homepages.engineering.auckland.ac.nz/~pkel015/SolidMechanicsBooks/Part_I/BookS

M_Part_I/02_Statics_of_Rigid_Bodies/02_Statics_of_Rigid_Bodies_01_Concepts.pdf

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