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Levels of Organization

_____________ - Smallest part of matter

____________ -

2 or more bonded atoms

Form compounds


- Very large molecules

- Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids
- NON-living

______________ - Tiny organs Made of macromolecules


Made of organelles

Basic unit of structure & function


The same kind cell working together
cell, red blood cell)

______________ ______________ -

Tissues that work together
Organs that work together
Entire living things (organisms)
Usually made of systems
May be a single cell


_____________ -

Same type of organism living together

Several populations living together

Population interact

( cartilage cell, bone


- A biotic (living) community plus the abiotic (nonliving) features


______________ -

Similar ecosystems on earth together

Whole living layer around the globe
Includes abiotic

______________ the study of living things

Characteristics of Living Things

1. ______________________
Unicellular (one cell)
- ex. Bacteria
Multicellular (many cells)
- ex. Animals, plants



- get energy from sun

- get energy by consuming nutrients from their


Stimuli - factors in the environment that living things react to
(ex. Light, temperature, sound, etc.)
Stimuli - factors in the environment that living things react to
3. ___________________________________
Sexual - two sex cells required (sperm and egg)
Asexual - only one parent cell is needed
4. _________________________________
Each cell divides to make new cells (cell division) results in growth
Some cells become specialized and perform different jobs than others
5. ____________________________
Homeostasis a relatively stable internal environment (within a certain
- (ex. Human body temperature (approximately 98.6 degrees F)
7. _______________________________

All living things have DNA

DNA passes on genetic information from one generation to the next
8. _________________________________
Evolution - gradual change in a population of organisms over time
Individuals DO NOT evolve

_____________the scientific study of interactions between different organisms and

between organisms and
their environment or surroundings
1. The presence of predators in the preys habitat
2. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
3. Genetic modification of crops (GMOs)
4. Bacteria living in the soils
5. Mining
6. Use of biodiesel fuels
7. Biodegradable plastic bags
8. Conversion of forest land into agricultural areas to provide more food to more

_____________ living factors that influence an ecosystem

______________ non-living factors that influence an ecosystem

A. _________ - is the main energy source for life on earth
B . Also called autotrophs
C. Use light or chemical energy to make food
1. __________________

2. ___________________
3. ________________
D. _________________use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into
oxygen and carbohydrates

E. __________________performed by bacteria, use chemical energy to produce


A. Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply
B. Also called heterotrophs
____________ obtain energy by eating only plants
____________ eat only animals
____________ eat both plants and animals
____________ breaks down dead organic matter

Feeding Interactions
A. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one directionfrom the sun or
inorganic compounds to autotrophs (producers) and then to heterotrophs
B. Food Chainseries of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and
being eaten
1. Arrows go in the direction of how energy is transferred
2. Start with producer and end with top consumer or carnivore
C. Food Webnetwork of food chains within an ecosystem
D. Trophic Levelseach step in a food chain or food web
1. Level 1Producers (autotrophs)
2. Level 2Primary Consumers (herbivores)
3. Level 3Secondary Consumers
(carnivores or omnivores)
4. Level 4Tertiary Consumers

(carnivoreusually top carnivore

Ecological Pyramids

A. Diagram that shows the relative amount of energy or organisms contained

within each trophic level of a food chain or web.
B. Energy Pyramid shows relative amount of energy available at each trophic

1. Organisms in a trophic level use the available energy for life processes
(such as growth,
photosynthesis, cellular respiration, metabolism,
etc.)and release some energy as heat
Remember: Every chemical process that happens in your body releases
heat as a byproduct
(ex: burning calories).
2. Rule of 10only about 10% of the available energy within a trophic level
is transferred to the next higher trophic level
C. Biomass Pyramidrepresents the amount of living organic matter at each
trophic level.

Energy and Biomass Pyramid (together)

Represents amount of energy available at each level as well as amount of
living tissueboth decrease with each increasing trophic level

. Ecological Interactions between organisms

A. Competitionwhen two organisms of the same or different species attempt

to use an ecological resource in the same place at the same time.

Ex: food, water, shelter

Monkeys compete with each other and other animals for food.
B. _______ the ecological niche involves both the place where an organism
lives and the roles that an organism has in its habitat.
Example: The ecological niche of a sunflower growing in the backyard
includes absorbing light, water and nutrients (for photosynthesis), providing
shelter and food for other organisms (e.g. bees, ants, etc.), and giving off
oxygen into the atmosphere.
C. _________ - one organism captures and feeds on another organism



_________ - one that does the killing


_________ - one that is the food

_________any relationship in which two species live closely together

1. ______________ both species benefit (WIN-WIN)
a. Ex: insects and flowers

Ecological Relationships
How do biotic factors influence each other
1. ___________ = the number of species in an ecosystem
2. ___________ = space claimed by an individual organism
3. _________________ = state of balance in an ecosystem

Ecological Relationships
____________ - Role of organism in the ecosystem (job)
A niche is the sum of all activities and relationships a species has while obtaining
and using resources needed to survive and reproduce
_____________ Number of niches in an ecosystem; often determined by abiotic
_____________ -When species or individuals fight for the same resources.
E.g., Food, shelter.

- KEYSTONE PREDATOR/SPECIES -A predator that causes a large increase in diversity

of its habitat.
____________ -

A primary consumer feeds on a producer.

____________ -

A consumer feeds on another consumer

____________ - A long-term relationship where two species live closely together and
at least one benefits directly from the relationship
_____________- Both organisms benefit from the relationship.
Win-Win situation!
_____________ - One organism benefits, the other one is unaffected.
Win-Neutral relationship
_____________ - One organism benefits, the other one is harmed!
Win-Lose relationship
_____________ - One organisms lives on or inside another organism (host) and harms
The parasite obtains all or part of its nutritional needs from the host.
Example: fleas on a dog Parasites rarely kill their hostsit would require
them to get another one!
Mosquito biting a human.

Wasp eggs on back of caterpillar.

Ecological Relationships
_________________ - Increasing concentration of poisons in organisms in higher
trophic levels in a food chain or web.
__________________ - accumulation of increasing amounts of toxin within tissues of