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Omicron Workshop Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

Definitions
Dielectric Losses are caused by:
Conductive losses

2.50E-03

Polarization losses

2.00E-03

Serial
Parallel
Sum

1.50E-03

Partial discharges

1.00E-03
5.00E-04
0.00E+00
0

Assessment of the Condition of


High Voltage Bushings

50

Parallel circuit

|I |
1
DF : tan = RP =
| I CP | R P C P
PF : cos =

150

200

250

300

350

400

Serial circuit

CP

| I RP |
| I tot |

100

RP

DF : tan =

UR
= RS C S
UC

PF : cos =

UR
U tot

RS
CS
PAGE 4

Capacitance Values

Power (Dissipation) Factor

Bushings:
Bushings:

Partial breakdowns between layers

Aging and decomposition of insulation

Incoming oil into cracks of solid insulation (RBP)

Water content

Between transformer windings:

Bad contacted electrodes or capacitive layers

Change of the geometry between winding

Cracks in the insulation

Between windings and tank

(Partial) discharges

Displacement of the active part within the tank

Between windings and core

Transformers:

Displacement of the winding or the core (if the core

Aging

ground can be disconnected)

Water content in the oil and in the paper

Core to tank

Contamination by particles

Movement of the core (if the core ground can be


disconnected)

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PAGE 6

Limits

Condenser Type Bushings

Typ
Insulation

RIP

OIP

RBP

Gas

Resin
impregnated
paper

Oil
impregnated
paper

Resin bonded
paper

SF6 or other
gases

<
< 0,7%
0.7%*

<
< 0,7%
0.7%*

<<1.5%
1,5% *

DF tan (RT)
(IEC 60137)
PF cos (RT)
IEEE C57.19.01

RBP Resin Bonded Paper

RIP Resin Impregnated Paper

OIP
Oil Impregnated Paper
PAGE 7

OMICRON electronics GmbH

< 0,85% *

< 0,5% *

< 2% *

Typical new values

*
<0.3-0.4%
0.3-0.4%

0.2-0.4% *
<0.2-0.4%

0.5-0.6%
*
<0.5-0.6%

Partial discharges
(IEC 60137)
Um
1.5 Um/3
1.05 Um/ 3

< 10pC
< 5cC
< 5pC

< 10pC
< 5pC
< 5pC

< 300pC

< 10pC
< 5pC
< 5pC

* at 1.05 Um/3 and 20C

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Omicron Workshop Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

Capacitive Bushings (1)

Bushing Measuring Tap

Emax= high

without
capacitive
layers

Emax=
smaller
A

with
capacitive
layers
Earthing Cap

PAGE 9

Measuring Taps

PAGE 11

Measuring Taps

ABB

MICAFIL
HSP

PAGE 12

Measuring Taps

PAGE 13

C-Tan Delta Progression of a Bushing


C Tan-Delta Progression of a 220 kV RBP (Hard Paper) Bushing
Year of Manufacturimg 1961, horizontal mounted, oil filled
Tan Delta

Change of Capacitance

30

25

20

-3

Tan Delta x 10
Change of Capacitance %

GE
15

10

0
75

77

79

81

83

85

87

89

-5
Date of Measurement

PAGE 14

OMICRON electronics GmbH

Source: RWE

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Omicron Workshop Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

Bushing Fault

RBP - Bushings
Not free of cavities Partial Discharges
possible also at rated voltage
Higher dielectric losses can feed to thermal
instability
RPB has cavities and cracks in the
paper which are normally filled
with the surrounding oil
Increase of capacitance
After a longer storage period this oil is running
out. The PD level is increasing and the
capacitance is getting smaller

Source: RWE

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PAGE 18

RBP Bushing 220kV (1971)

RBP 220kV Bushing (1971)

Guard

PAGE 19

RBP Bushing Oil-filled Cracks

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Micafil RBP Bushing 123kV

PAGE 21

OMICRON electronics GmbH

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Omicron Workshop Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

Micafil RBP Bushing 123kV

Micafil RBP Bushing 123kV

PF (f) A, B, C

PF (V) A, B, C
1.1%

2.5%

1.0%

2.0%

0.9%

1.5%

B
1.0%

PAGE 24

Micafil RBP Bushing 123kV

450.0Hz

400.0Hz

350.0Hz

300.0Hz

250.0Hz

200.0Hz

150.0Hz

0.0Hz

14000.0V

12000.0V

10000.0V

8000.0V

6000.0V

4000.0V

0.0%

2000.0V

0.5%

0.5%
0.0V

0.6%

100.0Hz

0.7%

50.0Hz

0.8%

PAGE 25

Measurement Tap O.K.

Bushing has to be
exchanged

defective contact on the


measuring tap or

defective connection between


the innermost layer and the
HV conductor or

partial breakdown between


layers

PAGE 26

Innermost Layer Was Not Properly


Connected to the HV Conductor.

123kV RBP Bushing

PAGE 28

OMICRON electronics GmbH

PAGE 27

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Omicron Workshop Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

Dissipation Factor Measurement

Measurement of the Removed Bushing

DF (f) A, B, C

8,0%
7,0%
A

6,0%
5,0%
4,0%

3,0%
2,0%
C

1,0%

450,0Hz

400,0Hz

350,0Hz

300,0Hz

250,0Hz

200,0Hz

150,0Hz

100,0Hz

0,0Hz

50,0Hz

0,0%

Page: 30

Measurement of the Removed Bushing

Page: 31

Active Part of the Bushing

DF (f)

16,0%
14,0%
12,0%
10,0%
8,0%

C1

6,0%
4,0%
2,0%

450,0Hz

400,0Hz

350,0Hz

300,0Hz

250,0Hz

200,0Hz

150,0Hz

100,0Hz

50,0Hz

0,0Hz

0,0%

Page: 32

420kV OIP Bushings

OIP Bushings

Paper of the OIP bushings ages particularly


at high temperatures

Through aging the dielectric losses will


increase
-> this increases the power factor

Temperature dependent aging decomposes


the Paper and produces additional water
-> this accellerates the aging

PAGE 34

OMICRON electronics GmbH

Page: 33

PAGE 35

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Omicron Workshop Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

33kV OIP Bushings

Tan Delta (T) at 50Hz (OIP Bushings)


10.00
0.1-0.3% Water in paper

[%]

0.4-0.6% Water in paper


1% Water in paper

Removed
bushings

1.00

New bushings
0.10
20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

C-Tan-Delta Meas.
Source: ABB, Bushing diagnostics and conditioning

PAGE 38

Tan Delta (f) at 30C (33kV OIP Bushings)

PAGE 39

123kV OIP Bushings

Tan Delta (f) A, B, C


%
1.8

A
B
C
A Removed
B Removed
C Removed

1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4

Hz

450

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0.0

0.2

PAGE 40

123kV OIP Bushings

PAGE 41

123kV OIP Bushings


PF (f) A, B, C

PF (V) A, B, C
1.3%

2.0%

1.2%

1.8%

1.1%

1.6%
1.4%

1.0%
0.9%
0.8%
0.7%

1.2%

1.0%

0.8%

0.6%

0.6%

0.4%

0.5%

0.2%

OMICRON electronics GmbH

450.0Hz

400.0Hz

350.0Hz

300.0Hz

250.0Hz

200.0Hz

150.0Hz

100.0Hz

0.0Hz
PAGE 42

50.0Hz

0.0%

14000.0V

12000.0V

10000.0V

8000.0V

6000.0V

4000.0V

2000.0V

0.0V

0.4%

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Omicron Workshop Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

123kV OIP Bushings

123kV OIP Bushings

Bushing has
to be
exchanged

PAGE 44

PAGE 45

220kV RIP Bushing Stored Outside

Aging of RIP Bushings

Partial breakdowns between capacitive layers are rather


seldom

Decrease of the power factor with increasing test voltage


can be an indicator for partial breakdowns

Also defective connections of the measurement layer to


the test tap or of the innermost layer to the high voltage
conductor may be the reason for a decrease of the power
factor with increasing test voltage

Increase of the capacitance after a partial breakdown


between two layers:

Cnew = Cold x n / (n-1)


n= number of layers approx. 4-7 kV per layer

PAGE 46

PAGE 47

Moisture in RBP and RIP Bushings

220kV RIP Bushing Stored Outside


0.85 %
0.75 %

Minimum

Tan Delta

0.65 %

The oil side of RBP and RIP bushings


doesn't need a housing

31.03.2004
15.07.2004
08.10.2004

Cellulose near to the surface can absorb


water, if bushings are not stored properly

0.55 %
0.45 %

Minimum
Incoming water, also from the ambient air
reduces the dielectric strength this causes
an increase of the dielectric dissipation factor

0.35 %
0.25 %
0.0 Hz

Minimum
100.0 Hz

200.0 Hz

300.0 Hz

400.0 Hz

500.0 Hz

PAGE 48

OMICRON electronics GmbH

PAGE 55

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Omicron Workshop Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

Micafil UTXF 24 (Drysomic)


RBP Bushings

Water in RBP and RIP Bushings

A,B,N humid
after storage
C dryed

Drying of RBP and


RIP bushings is
limited

RIP wet

RIP dry
PAGE 56

New Micafil UTXF 24 RBP Bushings A,B,N


Stored Under Wet Conditions, C Dried

PAGE 57

Drying of a 145kV RBP Bushing


PF Measurement

Messung bei 20C

DF (f) A, B, C, N
6.0%
5.0%

4.0%

humid

3.0%

C
N

2.0%
1.0%

450.0Hz

400.0Hz

350.0Hz

300.0Hz

250.0Hz

150.0Hz

100.0Hz

50.0Hz

0.0Hz

200.0Hz

dryed

0.0%

PAGE 58

Drying of a 145kV RBP Bushing

PAGE 60

PD
Measurement

TanDelta (V)
2.5%
2.0%

1. Measurement before drying

Drying:

1.5%

1200h at 90C / 200F

1.0%

2. Measurement after drying

0.5%
0.0%
0

10

12

14

kV

TanDelta (f)
3.5%
3.0%
2.5%

1. Measurement before drying

2.0%
1.5%
1.0%

2. Measurement after drying

0.5%
0.0%
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

Hz

PAGE 61

OMICRON electronics GmbH

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Omicron Workshop Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

PD Measurement - Phase Resolved


Pattern @ 157kV

PD Measurement

Quadrupole
Measuring
Tap
OMICRON
mtronix
MPD 600

PAGE 63

PAGE 64

Separation of PD Sources in 3CFRD


3CFRD

PD Measurement Cluster 1

A(fL)>A(fC)>A(fR)

fL

fL

500 kHz
fC

8 MHz

500 kHz

fC

8 MHz
2.8 MHz

timeframe
1 s

8 MHz

2 MHz

500 kHz

fR

2.8 MHz

fR

3CFRD = 3 Center Frequency Relation Diagram


PAGE 66

PAGE 67

PD Measurement Cluster 3

PD Measurement Cluster 2

500 kHz

8 MHz
2.8 MHz

PAGE 68

OMICRON electronics GmbH

8 MHz

500 kHz

2.8 MHz

8 MHz

500 kHz

2.8 MHz

500 kHz

8 MHz
2.8 MHz

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Omicron Workshop Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

50 Hz Tan dependent on the Temp.

Assessment and Interpretation

PAGE 75

Indication

RBP

OIP

RIP

increase of
capacitance

oil in cracks
or partial breakdowns

partial breakdowns

partial breakdowns

high dissipation
factor

partial breakdowns;
insulator surface wet or
dirty (clean the insulator);
ageing of the inner
insulation;
water in the inner
insulation;

partial breakdowns;
insulator surface wet or
dirty (clean the insulator);
ageing of the inner
insulation;
water in the inner
insulation;

partial breakdowns;
insulator surface wet or
dirty (clean the insulator);
ageing of the inner
insulation;
water in the inner
insulation;

dissipation factor is
decreasing with
increasing voltage

bad potential connections;


partial breakdowns

bad potential connections;


partial breakdowns

bad potential connections;


partial breakdowns

dissipation factor is
strongly increasing
with
increasing
temperature

high moisture in the


insulation;
high degree of ageing

high moisture in the


insulation;
high degree of ageing

high moisture in the


insulation;
high degree of ageing

partial discharges

normal, if constant

Discharges produce
gasses;
Errosion of the cellulose;
production of x-wax

partial breakdowns;
cracks or voids after
electrical or mechanical
PAGE 76
stress;

Conclusions

Periodical on-site measurements are essential to get a


picture of the aging status.

With beginning of on-site measurements the fault rate


could be continously reduced.

A lot of information is necessary to assess the


reliability of bushings.

The tan delta measurement is an important tool.


Particularly the tan delta sweep over a wide frequency
range give a better indication of many kinds of faults.

RIP- bushings have become very common due to the


long life time expectation and a minimum of
maintenance.

Thank you for your interest !

PAGE 77

OMICRON electronics GmbH

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