Você está na página 1de 13

300762 Fluid Mechanics

LECTURE 1
1.1 Dimensions and Units
1.2 Properties of Fluids

Lecturer:
Dr Ataur Rahman

Scope of Fluid Mechanics


Fluids: liquid (e.g.
(e g water),
water) gas (e
(e.g.
g air)
Fluid Mechanics is the study of the
mechanics of fluid flow:
Water flowing through pipes
Water flowing down rivers
Wind flowing during cyclones

Scope of Fluid Mechanics


Hydraulics: Dealing with liquid only
Experiment-based empirical relationships

Fluid Statics: Fluid in rest (e.g. in reservoir)


Fluid dynamics: Fluid in motion (flow in
pipes)

Great contributors of Fluid Mechanics


Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519): Waves, jet,
eddies,
ddi stream
t
lining
li i
Newton (1642-1727): Laws of motion, laws of
viscosity
Ludwig
L d i Prandtl:
P dtl Concept
C
t off boundary
b
d
layer
l
Still no complete theory for turbulence
Combination of theory and experiments

Dimensions and Units


Basic dimensions (SI):
Length (L): metre (m)
Mass (m): kilogram (kg)
Time ((t):
) second ((s))

Weight
W = mg,
mg where g is acceleration due to
gravity 9.81 m/s2, assumed to be constant
over the Earth.
2=
Unit
U of W = mgg = ( kg)(m/s
g)( 2) = kg.m/s
g
Newton

Properties of Fluid
Solid: Molecules are closer together

molecules generally do not move apart,


no internal friction,
surface friction is important
recall Fundamental of Mechanics Unit (1st year
unit in UWS)

Properties of Fluid
Liquid: Molecules tend to be far apart,
apart
they can flow under gravity and pressure
differences easily,
internal friction is important as well as surface
friction during flow
Imagine
g flow of water down the river (friction
(
with river bed, grass etc PLUS friction among
moving liquid particles - viscosity)

Properties of Fluid
Gas: Molecules tend to be far apart from
each other (example air)
It takes the volume of a container
Generally lighter than water

Vapo
Vapour:
r: Its temperature
temperat re and pressure
press re are
such that it is very close to liquid state
Water vapour from your cooking pot

Density, Specific Weight,


Specific Gravity
Density () is mass per unit volume
= Mass/Volume (kg/m3)
Specific weight () = Weight/Volume
= g (N/m3)

Specific gravity s of a liquid = l/w

Specific Weight
= g
l = slwg

Compressible and incompressible fluids


Incompressibility means density does not
change with pressure.
pressure
Real incompressible fluids do not exist. For
general purposes, all liquids are assumed to
be incompressible. All gases are
compressible.
ibl
For water hammer analysis, water is
considered to be compressible.

Viscosity and ideal fluid


In real fluid, when there is a motion, a shear
f
force
oppose th
the motion
ti off one particle
ti l pastt
another.
This property of real fluid is called
viscosity.
viscosity
An ideal fluid is one which has no
viscosity.

dy
Y

F, U
y

du
u

Consider two parallel plates.


The upper plate is moving at velocity U by force F.
The contact area of plate with fluid is A
The velocity of liquid in contact with upper plate will
be maximum (= U) and at lower plate minimum (= 0)

dy
Y

F, U
y

du
u

Experiment shows:

F AU
Y
F AU
Y
F U
Y
A
du
dy

where Y is distance
between two plates
is called shear stress
is coefficient of viscosity

Newtons equation of viscosity

du/ dy

This is known as coefficient of viscosity, the


absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity or simply
viscosity.
The unit of

is N.s/m2

Elastic solid
Ideal plastic

Newtonian fluid

Ideal fluid
du/dy
Non-Newtonian
Non
Newtonian fluid
A fluid for which absolute viscosity does
not change with rate of deformation is
called a Newtonian fluid.

Kinematic viscosity
Absolute viscosity divided by density is
called kinematic viscosity ()

The unit of is m2/s

Surface tension
Liquids have cohesion and adhesion which are
form of molecular attraction.
attraction
Cohesion enables a liquid to resist tensile stress.
Adhesion enables a liquid to adhere to another
body.
body
Surface tension acts at the interface of two liquids
or liquid and gas. Unit is N/m.

Surface tension
Capillarity is the property of exerting forces on fluids by
fine tubes or porous media
it is due to both cohesion and adhesion

When adhesion is predominant, the liquid will wet the


solid surface it touches and rise at the point of contact
water rise in a glass tube

When cohesion predominates, the liquid surface will


depress in the tube
mercury depress in the glass tube

10

CAPILARRITY

r = radius
h

Equating lifting force


created by surface tension
to the gravity force:

2r cos r 2h

h 2 cos
r

where h is capillary
p
y rise,,
is surface tension,
is wetting angle,
is specific weight of liquid.

Worked out Example 1


The specific weight of water at ordinary
pressure and temperature is 9.81 kN/m3.
The specific gravity of mercury is 13.56.
Compute the density of water and the
specific weight and density of mercury.
(Page 16, text book)

11

Worked out Example 2


Water at 100 C stands in a clean glass tube
of 2-mm diameter at a height of 35 mm.
What is the true static height? Data given:
At 100 C specific weight of water is 9804
N/m3 and surface tension is 0.0742 N/m
(These data can be found from Table A1
(Page 732, text book).

Summary
Weight W = mg (Newton)
Density = Mass/Volume (kg/m3)
= g (N/m3)
Specific gravity s of a liquid = l/w
l = slwg

12

Summary
We will assume all liquids are
incompressible (i.e. density does not change
with pressure/force)

A real fluid has viscosity.


y

du/ dy

Summary
Have a good rest, BUT with a serious revision!
See you next week!!

13