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MacDermid Offshore Solutions

Fluid Cleanliness
Awareness Training
GE Australia, November 2010
Presented by

Mohammed Ali

Ken McKenzie

Regional Technical Services

Country Manager

Introduction
Particle Analysis & Contamination Control
Why Particle Counting is Carried Out?
What are Particles?
Automatic Particle Counters vs Optical
Microscopes
Fluid Cleanliness Testing
Review & Conclusion

Introduction
Particle Analysis & Contamination Control
Why Particle Counting is Carried Out?
What are Particles?
Automatic Particle Counters vs Optical
Microscopy
Fluid Cleanliness Testing
Review & Conclusion

Why Particle Counting is Carried Out?


Particles are Contamination
50% of Components replaced due to Wear
55% Hydraulic System problems attributed to Dirt

Time is Money !

Why Particle Counting is Carried Out?


Preventive Maintenance
Examination & Identification of dirt
Prediction of Component (Seals, Pumps,
Valves...) Failure & Filter Blockage

What are Particles?


An Individual Unit of Particulate Matter
Size & Shape Vary Greatly
Group Exercise
What are Particles Made From?
How Do Particles Form?
What Impact do Particles have on
Equipment?

Damage Caused By Particles


Soft Particles
(Grease, Paste, Fibres, Filter Media, Seals...)
Block Filters
Hard Particles
(Sand, Silica, Rust, Swarf...)
Cause Abrasion & Wear
Increase Contamination Level.
Block Filters (to a Lesser Extent).

Soft Particles - Polymers and Fibres

Hard Particles - Silica

Hard Particles - Rust

Hard Particles - Bright Metal

Hard Particles - Black Metal

Introduction
Particle Analysis & Contamination Control
Why Particle Counting is Carried Out?
What are Particles?
Automatic Particle Counters vs Optical
Microscopes
Fluid Cleanliness Testing
Review & Conclusion

Automatic Particle Counters vs


Optical Microscopy
Automatic Particle Counters (APCs)
Two Types:
Laser Light Scattering or Obstruction
Use Light Reactive Electronics to Size the
Shadow of Particles (e.g. PAMAS)
Pressure Differential
Use Set Size Mesh Filters and
Pressure Differential recorded across
them (e.g. PALL)

Automatic Particle Counters vs


Optical Microscopy
APCs require little Training to Use
Light Scattering APCs See Gas Bubbles and
Insoluble Liquids as Particles
APCs Round Irregular Particles to an Average
Size
APCs See Long Fibres as a String of Small
Particles
APCs have Problems with Oceanic HW500
Fluids

Automatic Particle Counters vs


Optical Microscopy
Optical Microscopy requires Training to Use
Optical Microscopy Allows Qualitative and
Quantitative Analysis of Particles
Optical Microscopy Seeing is Believing
Conclusion
MacDermid Favour Optical Microscopy

Introduction
Particle Analysis & Contamination Control
Why Particle Counting is Carried Out?
What are Particles?
Automatic Particle Counters vs Optical
Microscopes
Fluid Cleanliness Testing
Review & Conclusion

Fluid Cleanliness Testing

Fluid Sampling & Handling


Slide Preparation
Particle Counting
Cleanliness Classes

Fluid Sampling & Handling

Taking a Clean Fluid Sample


Open Sample Valve to Obtain Steady Flow
Allow ~ litre Fluid to Flush Valve and Line
Flush Sample Bottle & Lid Twice in the Fluid
Stream
Do Not Touch Valve until Sample has been
Taken

Fluid Sampling & Handling


Fluid Sampling & Handling Always Increases
Contamination Levels
Contamination Level in the System is Always
Lower than the Count
Error Should be Kept to a Minimum

ARP598B Particle Count Basics


Filter 100 ml Fluid Sample through Gridded
Membrane
Prepare Microscope Slide
Examine Slide Under Microscope.
Particle are counted according to size:
5, 15, 25, 50 & >100 m

Slide Preparation
Slides Prepared in a Clean Room
Ensure that all Equipment making contact
with the Fluid Sample is Flushed Clean
Do Not Breath on or Lean Over Fluid Sample
or test Equipment

Optical Microscope

Upright Binocular, Transmitted light


10x Eyepiece, Min 4x/5x & 10x Objectives
Graticule in Eyepiece for Particle Size
Graticule must be Calibrated (using Stage
Micrometer)
Calibration Not Always Possible in Reality !

Sizing Particles with a Graticule


Total Area on Standard Filter Membrane is
960mm2
Width of One Grid Square is 3.08mm or
3080m.

Sizing Particles with a Graticule


50x Magnification
1 Division = 20 m

100x Magnification
1 Division = 10 m

Photos Courtesy of PALL

Sizing Particles with a Graticule


500x Magnification
1 Division = 2 m

Particle Size = 40 m

Photos Courtesy of PALL

Particle Counting
Count is Performed to ARP 598 with Class
reported by as either AS or NAS Level
Examine Areas Over Whole Membrane Do
Not Concentrate on the Middle Few Squares
Particle Size
>100 m
>50 m
>25 m
>15 m
> 5 m

Count Particles
Whole Membrane
20 Grid Squares
20 Grid Squares
10 Grid Squares
10 Unit Areas

Magnification
x50
x50
x100
x100
x200

Particle Counting
Particle Distribution should be Uniform,
Uneven Distribution Will Invalidate the Count
Particle Size guided by its Largest Dimension
i.e. Fibre Length can be more than 10x its
Width
Error in Counting Should not be Greater than
10% between Operators or Laboratories

Particle Counting
Count for 100ml Fluid & Whole membrane
Factor needed to convert Count from Area
Examined to Whole membrane
Area Examined Area mm2
Factor
Whole Membrane
960
x1
1 Grid Square
~9.5
x100
10 Grid Squares
~95
x10
20 Grid Squares
~190
x5
1 Unit Area
Microscope dependent

Particle Counting
Count for 100ml Fluid & Whole membrane.
Factor needed to convert Count from Volume
tested to 100ml.
Fluid Volume
100
50
25

Factor
x1
x2
x4

Cleanliness Classes
NAS1638 (Old Industry Standard)
Particles Counted according to Size Ranges:
5-15, 15-25, 25-50, 50-100 & >100 m
Cleanliness Class generally dictated by larger
particles

AS4059
Cumulative Count based on Particle Size:
>1, >5, >15, >25, >50 & >100 m
Numeric Class qualified by Letter Code based on
Particle Sizes counted

NAS 1638
Size
Optical Count
Class
00
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

5-15 m
125
250
500
1000
2000
4000
8000
16000
32000
64000
128000
256000
512000
1024000

Maximum Contamination Limits


15-25m
25-50m
50-100m
22
44
89
178
356
712
1425
2850
5700
11400
22800
45650
91200
182400

4
8
16
32
63
126
253
506
1012
2025
4050
8100
16200
32400

1
2
3
6
11
22
45
90
180
360
720
1440
2880
5760

> 100m
0
0
1
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
256
512
1024

AS4059
Size
Optical Count
Size Code
000
00
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

> 1m
A
195
390
780
1560
3120
6520
12,500
25,000
50,000
100,000
200,000
400,000
800,000
1,600,000
3,200,000

Maximum Contamination Limits


> 5m
> 15m
> 25m
> 50m
B
C
D
E
76
14
3
1
152
27
5
1
304
54
10
2
609
109
20
4
1220
217
39
7
2430
432
76
13
4860
864
152
26
9730
1730
306
53
19,500
3460
612
106
38,900
6920
1220
212
77,900
13,900
2,450
424
156,000
27,700
4,900
848
311,000
55,400
9,800
1,700
623,000 111,000
19,600
3,390
1,250,000 222,000
39,200
6,780

> 100m
F
0
0
0
1
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
256
512
1,020

Troubleshooting
Poor or Erratic Cleanliness Results?
Is Your Room Clean?
Is Your Technique Good Enough?
Has a Background/Blank Contamination Count
been made?
Fluid Transport Issues?

Blank Analysis
Prepare a Blank Membrane Slide Using 100
5ml Filtered Water
Total Count should be <10% of Test Fluid
Sample Levels

Fluid Sample Care for Transport


Pack Fluid Samples with Care
Avoid Mica, Sawdust...
Avoid Bottles with Paper/Cardboard inserts in
Lids
Pack in Plastic bag or use Cling Film over lid
to prevent dirt ingress

Review & Conclusion


50% of Components replaced due to Wear
Good Cleanliness extends Operational Life
Fluid Sampling/Handling increases
contamination. System should be Cleaner
Cleanliness Class dictated by Large Particles
Best Results Keep Labware Clean
Optical Microscopy requires Training to Use
Optical Counts Seeing is Believing

Any More Questions?


Thank You