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# Regression Models Course Project

Chinta Patanjali
July 27, 2015
First, we load dataset MTCARS, in R base package.
library(datasets) data(mtcars)
We note first what variables are in the dataset, and what they measure. mpg = Miles/(US) gallon cyl =
Number of cylinders disp = Displacement (cu.in.) hp = Gross horsepower drat = Rear axle ratio wt =
Weight (lb/1000) qsec = 1/4 mile time vs = V/S am = Transmission (0 = automatic, 1 = manual) gear =
Number of forward gears carb = Number of carburetors

## Exploratory data analysis

We generate scaled boxplots for all the continuous variables, and report tables for the five categorical variables
in the Appendix.
par(mfrow = c(1, 2))
with(mtcars, boxplot(mpg/10, disp/50, hp/50, drat, wt, qsec/5, main = "Scaled boxplots; mtcars"),
xlab = "Continuous variable", ylab = "Scale (adjusted to allow simultaneous display")
axisnames <- c("MPG/10", "DISP/50", "HP/50", "drat", "wt", "qsec/5")
axis(1, at = c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), labels = axisnames, las = 2, cex.axis = 0.9,
tck = -0.01)
pairs(mtcars)

4 6 8

50

qsec/5

wt

drat

HP/50

DISP/50

MPG/10

## Scaled boxplots; mtcars

300

2 4

0.0

0.8

3.0 4.5

4 8

10

mpg
cyl

100

disp
50

hp
3.0

drat
2

wt
16

qsec
0.0

vs
0.0

am

carb
10

30

100

3.0

5.0

16

22

0.0

0.8

1 8

3.0

gear

We see from scaled boxplots that the continuous variables are skew, and outlying values for horsepower,
weight, and quarter mile speed. Transformations may be required, but we leave this for after we have looked
at bivariate data. We note from the Appendix that categorical variables have sufficient frequencies in all cells
for regression models and are ordinal, so usable in linear models.
We also examine bivariate plots of variables. We see a relationship between (automatic vs manual) transmission
and fuel consumption ; manual transmissions yielding higher values of MPG. However, there are relationships
between fuel consumption and other variables (cylinders, engine displacement, weight). Transmission seems to
be correlated with some of these potential predictors, so an important question is to what extent transmission
independently affects fuel economy. We now ascertain whether fuel consumption differs between manual and
automatic transmission cars, and quantify this.

## Regression model of transmission on fuel efficiency

We construct a simple regression model with transmission as predictor (coded as 1 or 0, where 1 is manual
transmission), and fuel economy as outcome (miles achieved per gallon of fuel, MPG).
mtcarsmodel1 <- lm(mpg ~ am, data = mtcars)
summary(mtcarsmodel1)
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Call:
lm(formula = mpg ~ am, data = mtcars)
Residuals:
Min
1Q Median
-9.3923 -3.0923 -0.2974

3Q
3.2439

Max
9.5077

Coefficients:
Estimate Std. Error t value
(Intercept)
17.147
1.125 15.247
am
7.245
1.764
4.106
--Signif. codes: 0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01

Pr(>|t|)
1.13e-15 ***
0.000285 ***
'*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1

## Residual standard error: 4.902 on 30 degrees of freedom

Multiple R-squared: 0.3598, Adjusted R-squared: 0.3385
F-statistic: 16.86 on 1 and 30 DF, p-value: 0.000285

Transmission accounts for 36% of the variance in fuel consumption, which is statistically significantly better
than chance (p < .0003). The intercept and slope coefficients show that automatic transmissions achieve
17.147 miles per gallon fuel economy (the reference group), on average, and that manual transmission cars
achieve 17.147 + 7.245 = 24.39 miles per gallon fuel economy, on average. These are point estimates, and
would be better expressed as 95% Confidence Intervals, for which we use the t.test method in R
attach(mtcars)
y1 <- mpg[am == 0]
y2 <- mpg[am == 1]
x1 <- t.test(y1, mu = 0)
x2 <- t.test(y2, mu = 0)
x1\$conf.int

## ##  15.29946 18.99528

## attr(,"conf.level")
##  0.95
x2\$conf.int
##  20.66593 28.11869
## attr(,"conf.level")
##  0.95
from which we can see that the 95% CI for automatic transmission is (15.3, 19), and for manual transmission
is (20.67, 28.12). This is evidence that manual transmission yields better fuel economy, but this proposition
needs to be tested

## Regression models to test unique effect on fuel efficiency

We have the difficult task of choosing additional variables that might account for the difference we have
observed between manual and automatic transmissions. This should be done on theoretical grounds: we argue
that automatic transmissions may be found in cars that are heavier in weight, or that have greater engine
displacement. We test the relationship between transmission and fuel economy by constructing two baseline
regression models with weight or engine displacement as a predictor, and then an augmented model that adds
automatic/manual transmission as a variable. We note from the scatterplots, however, that weight and engine
displacement appear to be related to MPG in a non-linear manner, and we will therefore inverse-transform
fuel efficiency when modeling it.
mtcarsbasemodel1 <- lm(1/mpg ~ wt, data = mtcars)
mtcarsaugmodel1 <- lm(1/mpg ~ wt + am, data = mtcars)
anova(mtcarsbasemodel1, mtcarsaugmodel1)
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## Analysis of Variance Table

Model 1:
Model 2:
Res.Df
1
30
2
29

1/mpg ~ wt
1/mpg ~ wt + am
F Pr(>F)
0.0017402
0.0016465 1 9.3699e-05 1.6504 0.2091

## mtcarsbasemodel2 <- lm(1/mpg ~ disp, data = mtcars)

mtcarsaugmodel2 <- lm(1/mpg ~ disp + am, data = mtcars)
anova(mtcarsbasemodel2, mtcarsaugmodel2)
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## Analysis of Variance Table

Model 1:
Model 2:
Res.Df
1
30
2
29

1/mpg ~ disp
1/mpg ~ disp + am
F Pr(>F)
0.0018892
0.0018842 1 4.9936e-06 0.0769 0.7836

Each of these analyses suggests that whether a car has automatic or manual transmission does not affect fuel
consumption AFTER one controls for eitherweight or engine displacement. Specifically, we enter weight of
car as a predictor as a preliminary model, and then create a second model that has both weight of car and
automatic/manual transmission as a second predictor. The second model does not improve (F = 1.65, df=1,30,
p > .20) A similar analysis for engine displacement and transmission shows that adding the transmission
variable does not improve the model (F < 1)

## Further regression models of fuel efficiency

We pursue the question a little further and see whether we can build a model that accounts for fuel consumption
on the basis of the observed variables in the dataset mtcars. We reason as follows: cylinders and engine
displacement are related, so we consider only engine displacement. Horsepower is likely to be a function of
engine displacement, weight, and number of carburetors, so we add number of carburetors but not horsepower
(it is an outcome, not a physical property of the engine). A similar argument can be made to reject qsec. We
start by testing whether there is evidence to include both weight and displacement in a model, with a test of
model difference in a hierarchical sequence.
mtcarsbasemodel3 <- lm(1/mpg ~ wt, data = mtcars)
mtcarsaugmodel3 <- lm(1/mpg ~ wt + disp, data = mtcars)
anova(mtcarsbasemodel3, mtcarsaugmodel3)
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## Analysis of Variance Table

Model 1: 1/mpg ~ wt
Model 2: 1/mpg ~ wt + disp
Res.Df
F Pr(>F)
1
30 0.0017402
2
29 0.0014226 1 0.00031754 6.4731 0.01654 *
--Signif. codes: 0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1

This result tells us that we can include weight, and displacement as predictors, they each contribute uniquely
to the model.
We now add all remaining variables in our analysis above as a block to our new base model. If the block
improves model fit significantly, we will check individual regression coefficients to see if other variables are
worth retaining.
mtcarsbasemodel4 <- lm(1/mpg ~ wt + disp, data = mtcars)
mtcarsaugmodel4 <- lm(1/mpg ~ wt + disp + drat + vs + gear + carb, data = mtcars)
anova(mtcarsbasemodel4, mtcarsaugmodel4)
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## Analysis of Variance Table

Model 1:
Model 2:
Res.Df
1
29
2
25

1/mpg ~ wt + disp
1/mpg ~ wt + disp + drat + vs + gear + carb
F Pr(>F)
0.0014226
0.0011914 4 0.00023122 1.213 0.3302

The augmented model does not improve the degree of fit (F = 1.21, df = 4,25, p > .33). We therefore accept
the baseline model with weight and displacement as predictors, and we look more carefully at it.
5

summary(mtcarsbasemodel4)
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Call:
lm(formula = 1/mpg ~ wt + disp, data = mtcars)
Residuals:
Min
1Q
-0.017062 -0.003494

Median
0.001582

3Q
0.004440

Coefficients:
Estimate Std. Error t
(Intercept) 1.353e-02 5.198e-03
wt
8.622e-03 2.796e-03
disp
5.615e-05 2.207e-05
--Signif. codes: 0 '***' 0.001 '**'

Max
0.010852

value Pr(>|t|)
2.604 0.01439 *
3.084 0.00445 **
2.544 0.01654 *
0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1

## Residual standard error: 0.007004 on 29 degrees of freedom

Multiple R-squared: 0.8299, Adjusted R-squared: 0.8181
F-statistic: 70.73 on 2 and 29 DF, p-value: 7.013e-12

The model explains 83% of the variance, and each of the coefficients for weight and engine displacement is
statistically significantly greater than 0. We need to consider some model diagnostics, and compute these,
which are reported in the Appendix. There may be problems with this model. Standardized residuals do not
exhibit a cumulative distribution that matched the Normal distribution (there are some points clearly lower
than the diagonal line). There also appear to be potential outliers in the various residual plots. However, the
dataset is very small (only 32 cases), and it does not seem justified to drop any of the cases for this analysis.
An examination of the dfFits and dfBeta statistics might tell us something, but with such a small dataset it
does not seem warranted.

## APPENDIX - additional data displays

with(mtcars, table(cyl))
## cyl
## 4 6 8
## 11 7 14
with(mtcars, table(am))
## am
## 0 1
## 19 13
with(mtcars, table(gear))
## gear
## 3 4
## 15 12

5
5
6

with(mtcars, table(carb))
## carb
## 1 2
## 7 10

3 4
3 10

6
1

8
1

with(mtcars, table(vs))
## vs
## 0 1
## 18 14

Chrysler
Imperial
Pontiac
Firebird

0.03

0.05

0.07

Normal QQ
2

0.020 0.005

Residuals

Residuals vs Fitted

Standardized residuals

## par(mfrow = c(2, 2))

plot(mtcarsbasemodel4)

Chrysler
Imperial
Pontiac
Firebird

0.05

0.07

Fitted values

Residuals vs Leverage
Lincoln Continental

1.0

Pontiac
Firebird
Chrysler
Imperial

Cook's distance

0.5
Chrysler
Imperial
Pontiac
Firebird

Standardized residuals

ScaleLocation

0.03

Theoretical Quantiles

0.0

Standardized residuals

Fitted values

0.00

0.05

0.10
Leverage

0.15

0.20