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1.transmisi0n media und.

A transmission medium (plural transmission media) is a material substance (solid, liquid or gas) which
can propagate energy waves. For example, the transmission medium for sound received by the ears is
usually air, but solids and liquids may also act as transmission media for sound.

The absence of a material medium (the vacuum of empty space) can also be thought of as a transmission
medium for electromagnetic wavessuch as light and radio waves. While material substance is not
required for electromagnetic waves to propagate, such waves are usually affected by the transmission
media through which they pass, for instance by absorption or by reflection or refraction at
the interfaces between media.

The term transmission medium can also refer to the technical device which employs the material
substance to transmit or guide the waves. Thus an optical fiber or a copper cable can be referred to as a
transmission medium.

A transmission medium can be classified as a:

 Linear medium, if different waves at any particular point in the medium can be superposed;
 Bounded medium, if it is finite in extent, otherwise unbounded medium;
 Uniform medium or homogeneous medium, if its physical properties are unchanged at different
 Isotropic medium, if its physical properties are the same in different directions.

Coaxial Cable, one example of atransmission medium

Electromagnetic radiation can be transmitted through an optical media, such as optical fiber, or
throughtwisted pair wires, coaxial cable, or dielectric-slab waveguides. It may also pass through any
physical material which is transparent to the specific wavelength, such as water, air, glass,
or concrete. Sound is, by definition, the vibration of matter, so it requires a physical medium for
transmission, as does other kinds of mechanical waves and heat energy. Historically, various aether
theories were used in science and thought to be necessary to explain the transmission medium. However,
it is now known that electromagnetic waves do not require a physical transmission medium, and so can
travel through the "vacuum" of free space. Regions of the insulative vacuum can
become conductive for electrical conduction through the presence offree electrons, holes, or ions.


b.input impedance The input impedance, load impedance, or external impedance of a circuit or electronic
device is the Thévenin equivalent impedance looking into its input.


• 1 Termination requirements
o 1.1 Audio systems
o 1.2 Video and high frequency
signal systems
o 1.3 Radio frequency power
• 2 See also
• 3 External links

• 4 Sources
[edit]Termination requirements

[edit]Audio systems

Generally in audio and hi-fi, components have input impedance several times higher than the output
impedance connected to them. This is called voltage bridging or impedance bridging. In this case,

Zload >> Zsource

In general, this configuration will be more resistant to noise (particularly power line hum). The best
circuits are created by using a voltage follower in the source with the pull-up (load) resistor at the
signal receiver.

[edit]Video and high frequency signal systems

In video and other systems the impedance of inputs, transmission lines, and outputs are designed to
be the same. This is known asreflectionless impedance matching or a matched connection. In this
case, one must match the impedances in order to prevent reflected waves from the signal receiver.
In video circuits these reflections can cause "ghosting", where the time-delayed echo of the principle
image appears as a weak and displaced image (typically to the right of the principal image).

Zload = Zline = Zsource

[edit]Radio frequency power systems

In circuits carrying high power, matching the impedances is important for at least two reasons:

1. The maximum power at maximum efficiency will be transferred when the

impedances are complex conjugate matched throughout thepower chain, from
the transmitter output, through the transmission line (a balanced pair, a coaxial cable,
or a waveguide), to the antennasystem, which consists of an impedance matching
device and the radiating element(s). For maximum power, Zload = Zsource* (where *
indicates the complex conjugate)
2. Failure to match impedances will create standing waves on the transmission line
due to reflections. These will be periodic regions of higher than normal voltage. If this
voltage exceeds the dielectric breakdown strength of the insulating material of the line
then an arc will occur. This in turn can cause a reactive pulse of high voltage that can
destroy the transmitter's final output stage. For reflectionless
matching Zload = Zsource (no complex conjugate).

In the case of purely resistive impedances (no reactive components), the two types of
impedance matching are identical.

c.0utput impedance The output impedance is the impedance on the output of a circuit. This is sometimes
also referred to as the internal resistance of the circuit.

The output impedance Z is measured by first measuring the voltage U across the output terminals of the
circuit without a load, and then by measuring the voltage UL over a known load RL. Voltage division gives

Solve this for Z, and we get

A practical source (any linear electric or electronic circuit or device which generates a voltage) may be
represented as an ideal voltage source in series with an impedance. This impedance is termed
the Internal resistance of the source.


• 1 Batteries
• 2 Battery
• 3 References

• 4 External links

Internal resistance is a concept that helps model the electrical consequences of the complex chemical
reactions inside a battery. When a current is flowing through a cell, the measured e.m.f. (voltage output)
is lower than when there is no current delivered by the cell.

The internal resistance of a battery can not be measured using the "resistance" or "ohms" setting on a
conventional multimeter, since it requires a current to be observed. However, it can be calculated from
current and voltage data measured from a test circuit containing the battery and a load resistor RL. Since
both the internal resistance and load resistor are in series with the ideal voltage source, Kirchhoff's

Lawsand Ohm's law give . This equation can be solved for internal resistance:


 RB is the internal resistance of the battery

 VB is the battery voltage without a load L
 IL is the current supplied by the battery with this load L
 RL is the resistance of this load L.

Internal resistance increases with the age of a battery, but for most commercial batteries the internal
resistance is on the order of 1 ohm.

It should be noted that the above only applies to ideal batteries under ideal load conditions and does
not directly relate to real world internal resistance of batteries due to the chemical nature of the cells.
d.frequency rep0nse

e.b0ndwidth In computer networking and computer science, digital bandwidth, network bandwidth or
justbandwidth is a measure of available or consumed data communication resources expressed in bit/s or
multiples of it (kbit/s, Mbit/s etc).

Bandwidth may refer to bandwidth capacity or available bandwidth in bit/s, which typically means the net
bit rate, channel capacity or themaximum throughput of a logical or physical communication path in a
digital communication system. For example, bandwidth test implies measuring the maximum throughput
of a computer network. The reason for this usage is that according to Hartley's law, the maximum data
rate of a physical communication link is proportional to its bandwidth in hertz, which is sometimes
called frequency bandwidth, radio bandwidth oranalog bandwidth, the last especially in computer
networking literature.

Bandwidth may also refer to consumed bandwidth (bandwidth consumption), corresponding to

achieved throughput or goodput, i.e. average data rate of successful data transfer through a
communication path. This meaning is for example used in expressions such as bandwidth
shaping, bandwidth management, bandwidth throttling, bandwidth cap, bandwidth allocation (for
example bandwidth allocation protocol anddynamic bandwidth allocation), etc. An explanation to this
usage is that digital bandwidth of a bit stream is proportional to the average consumed signal bandwidth
in Hertz (the average spectral bandwidth of the analog signal representing the bit stream) during a studied
time interval.

Digital bandwidth may also refer to: average bitrate (ABR) after multimedia data compression (source
coding), defined as the total amount of data divided by the playback time.

Some authors prefer less ambiguous terms such as gross bit rate, net bit rate, channel
capacity and throughput, to avoid confusion between digital bandwidth in bits per second and analog
bandwidth in hertz.

f.phase shift Phase (waves)

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Simple harmonic motion; A is the amplitude and T is the period

The phase of an oscillation or wave is the fraction of a complete cycle corresponding to an offset in the displacement
from a specified reference point at time t = 0. Phase is a frequency domain or Fourier transform domain concept, and
as such, can be readily understood in terms of simple harmonic motion. The same concept applies to wave motion,
viewed either at a point in space over an interval of time or across an interval of space at a moment in time. Simple
harmonic motion is a displacement that varies cyclically, as depicted to the right.

It is described by the formula:

where A is the amplitude of oscillation, f is the frequency, t is the elapsed time, and θ is the phase of the oscillation.
The phase determines or is determined by the initial displacement at time t = 0. A motion with frequency f has


Two potential ambiguities can be noted:

• One is that the initial displacement of is different from the sine function, yet
they appear to have the same "phase".

• The time-variant angle or its modulo 2π value, is also commonly referred to as

"phase". Then it is not an initial condition, but rather a continuously-changing

The term instantaneous phase is used to distinguish the time-variant angle from the initial condition. It also has a
formal definition that is applicable to more general functions and unambiguously defines a function's initial phase at
t=0. I.e., sine and cosine inherently have different initial phases. When not explicitly stated otherwise, cosine should
generally be inferred. (also see phasor)


• 1 Phase shift
• 2 Phase difference
o 2.1 In-phase and quadrature (I&Q) components
• 3 Phase coherence
• 4 See also

• 5 External links

[edit] Phase shift

Illustration of phase shift. The horizontal axis represents an angle (phase) that is increasing
with time.

θ is sometimes referred to as a phase-shift, because it represents a "shift" from zero phase. But a change in θ is also
referred to as a phase-shift.

For infinitely long sinusoids, a change in θ is the same as a shift in time, such as a time-delay. If is delayed

(time-shifted) by of its cycle, it becomes:

whose "phase" is now It has been shifted by .

[edit] Phase difference

In-phase waves

Out-of-phase waves

Left: the real part of a plane wave moving from top to bottom. Right: the same wave after a
central section underwent a phase shift, for example, by passing through a glass of different
thickness than the other parts. (The illustration on the right ignores the effect of diffraction
whose effect increases over large distances).

Two oscillators that have the same frequency and different phases have a phase difference, and the oscillators are
said to be out of phase with each other. The amount by which such oscillators are out of step with each other can be
expressed in degrees from 0° to 360°, or in radians from 0 to 2π. If the phase difference is 180 degrees (π radians),
then the two oscillators are said to be in antiphase. If two interacting waves meet at a point where they are in
antiphase, then destructive interference will occur. It is common for waves of electromagnetic (light, RF), acoustic
(sound) or other energy to become superposed in their transmission medium. When that happens, the phase
difference determines whether they reinforce or weaken each other. Complete cancellation is possible for waves
with equal amplitudes.

Time is sometimes used (instead of angle) to express position within the cycle of an oscillation.

• A phase difference is analogous to two athletes running around a race track at the
same speed and direction but starting at different positions on the track. They pass a
point at different instants in time. But the time difference (phase difference) between
them is a constant - same for every pass since they are at the same speed and in the
same direction. If they were at different speeds (different frequencies), the phase
difference is undefined and would only reflect different starting positions. Technically,
phase difference between two entities at various frequencies is undefined and does
not exist.
• We measure the rotation of the earth in hours, instead of radians. And therefore time
zones are an example of phase differences.

[edit] In-phase and quadrature (I&Q) components

The term in-phase is also found in the context of communication signals:


where represents a carrier frequency, and

and represent possible modulation of a pure carrier wave, e.g.: The modulation alters the original

component of the carrier, and creates a (new) component, as shown above. The component that is in
phase with the original carrier is referred to as the in-phase component. The other component, which is always 90° (

radians) "out of phase", is referred to as the quadrature component.

[edit] Phase coherence

Coherence is the quality of a wave to display well defined phase relationship in different regions of its domain of

In physics, quantum mechanics ascribes waves to physical objects. The wave function is complex and since its
square modulus is associated with the probability of observing the object, the complex character of the wave
function is associated to the phase. Since the complex algebra is responsible for the striking interference effect of
quantum mechanics, phase of particles is therefore ultimately related to their quantum behavior.

2.data cables type

a.c0axial cable Coaxial cable, or coax, is an electrical cable with an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular
insulating layer typically of a flexible material with a high dielectric constant, all of which are surrounded by a
conductive layer called the shield (typically of fine woven wire for flexibility, or of a thin metallic foil), and finally
covered with a thin insulating layer on the outside. The term coaxial comes from the inner conductor and the outer
shield sharing the same geometric axis. Coaxial cable was invented by English engineer and mathematician Oliver
Heaviside, who first patented the design in 1880.[1]

Coaxial cable is used as a transmission line for radio frequency signals, in applications such as connecting radio
transmitters and receivers with their antennas, computer network (Internet) connections, and distributing cable
television signals. One advantage of coax over other types of transmission line is that in an ideal coaxial cable the
electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists only in the space between the inner and outer conductors. This
allows coaxial cable runs to be installed next to metal objects such as gutters without the power losses that occur in
other transmission lines, and provides protection of the signal from external electromagnetic interference.

Coaxial cable should not be confused with other shielded cable used for carrying lower frequency signals such as
audio signals. Shielded cable is similar in that it consists of a central wire or wires surrounded by a tubular shield
conductor, but it is not constructed with the precise conductor spacing needed to function efficiently as a radio
frequency transmission line.

b.shielded pair

c.unshield pair

d.cat 3 Category 3 cable, commonly known as Cat 3, is an unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable designed to reliably
carry data up to 10 Mbit/s, with a possible bandwidth of 16 MHz. It is part of a family of copper cabling standards
defined jointly by the Electronic Industries Alliance and the Telecommunications Industry Association.

Category 3 was a popular cabling format among computer network administrators in the early 1990s, but fell out of
popularity in favor of the very similar, but higher performing, Cat 5 standard. Presently, most new structured cable
installations are built with Cat 5e or Cat 6 cable. Cat 3 is currently still in use in two-line telephone systems, and can
easily be adapted to run VoIP as long as a dedicated LAN for the VoIP telephone sets is created. While Cat 5 or
higher is often recommended for VoIP, the reality is that the 10 Mbit/s bandwidth a Cat 3 network can provide is far
more than the 0.08 Mbit/s a VoIP phone needs at full load, and Cat 3 is even compatible with 802.3af PoE.

Note that unlike Cat 1, 2, 4, and 5 cables, Cat 3 is still recognized by TIA/EIA-568-B, its defining standard.

The seldom used 100BASE-T4 standard, which achieves speeds of 100 Mbit/s by using all 4 pairs of wires, allowed
older Cat 3 based infrastructures to achieve a much higher bandwidth.

-4 Category 4 is a description of a cable that consists of four unshielded twisted-pair (UTP)

wires with a data rate of 16 Mbit/s and performance of up to 20 MHz. It was used in token
ring networks, 10BASE-T, 100BASE-T4, and is no longer common or used in new
installations. It was quickly superseded by Category 5/5e cable, both of which have 100±15
ohm impedance.

-5Category 5 cable is a twisted pair high signal integrity cable type often referred to as Cat5.
Most cables are unshielded, relying on the twisted pair design for noise rejection, and some
are shielded. Category 5 has been superseded by the Category 5e specification structured
cabling for computer networks such as Ethernet, and is also used to carry many other
signals such as basic voice services, token ring, and ATM (at up to 155 Mbit/s, over short

Category 5e

Cat 5e cable is an enhanced version of Cat 5 that adds specifications for far end crosstalk. It was formally defined in
2001 as the TIA/EIA-568-B standard, which no longer recognizes the original Cat 5 specification. Although
1000BASE-T ("GigE") was designed for use with Cat 5 cable, the tighter specifications associated with Cat 5e cable
and connectors make it an excellent choice for use with 1000BASE-T. Despite the stricter performance
specifications, Cat 5e cable does not enable longer cable distances for Ethernet networks: cables are still limited to a
maximum of 100 m (328 ft) in length (normal practice is to limit fixed ("horizontal") cables to 90 m to allow for up
to 5 m of patch cable at each end, this comes to a total of the previous mentioned 100 m maximum). Cat 5e cable
performance characteristics and test methods are defined in TIA/EIA-568-B.2-2001.

-6- Category 6 cable, commonly referred to as Cat-6, is a cable standard for Gigabit Ethernet and other network
protocols that are backward compatible with the Category 5/5e and Category 3 cable standards. Compared with Cat-
5 and Cat-5e, Cat-6 features more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise. The cable standard
provides performance of up to 250 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet), 1000BASE-T
/ 1000BASE-TX (Gigabit Ethernet) and 10GBASE-T (10-Gigabit Ethernet). Category 6 cable has a reduced
maximum length when used for 10GBASE-T; Category 6a cable, or Augmented Category 6, is characterized to
500MHz and has improved alien crosstalk characteristics, allowing 10GBASE-T to be run for the same distance as
previous protocols. Category 6 cable can be identified by the printing on the side of the cable sheath.[1]

The latest standard from the TIA for enhanced performance standards for twisted pair cable systems was defined in
February 2008 in ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.2-10. Category 6a (or Augmented Category 6) is defined at frequencies up
to 500 MHz—twice that of Cat 6.

Category 6a performs at improved specifications, particularly in the area of Alien Cross-talk (AXT) as compared to
Cat6 UTP which exhibited high alien noise in high frequencies.

The global cabling standard ISO/IEC 11801 will soon be extended by the addition of amendment 2. This
amendment defines new specifications for Cat. 6A components and Class EA permanent links. These new global
Cat. 6A / Class EA specifications require a new generation of connecting hardware offering far superior
performance compared to the existing products which are based on the American TIA standard.

The most important point is a performance difference between ISO/IEC and EIA/TIA component specifications for
the NEXT transmission parameter. At a frequency of 500 MHz, an ISO/IEC Cat. 6A connector performs 3 dB better
than a Cat. 6A connector that conforms with the EIA/TIA specification. 3 dB equals 100% increase of Near-End
Crosstalk noise reduction when measured in absolute magnitudes.

TIA comp. Cat. 6A ≠ ISO/IEC Cat. 6 A comp.[clarification needed]

7Category 7 cable (Cat 7), (ISO/IEC 11801:2002 category 7/class F), is a cable standard for Ethernet and other
interconnect technologies that can be made to be backwards compatible with traditional Cat 5 and Cat 6 Ethernet
cable. Cat 7 features even more strict specifications for crosstalk and system noise than Cat 6. To achieve this,
shielding has been added for individual wire pairs and the cable as a whole. Category 7 is not recognized in
EIA/TIA standards but it is used and marketed in industry.

The Cat 7 cable standard has been created to allow 10 Gigabit Ethernet over 100 m of copper cabling (also, 10-
Gbit/s Ethernet now is typically run on Cat 6a). The cable contains four twisted copper wire pairs, just like the
earlier standards. Cat 7 can be terminated either with 8P8C compatible GG45 electrical connectors which
incorporate the 8P8C standard or with TERA connectors. When combined with GG45 or TERA connectors, Cat 7
cable is rated for transmission frequencies of up to 600 MHz.

Category 7a (or Augmented Category 7) is defined at frequencies up to 1000 MHz, suitable for multiple applications
in a single cable (just like all other categories) including CATV (862 MHz) .[1][2][3] Simulation results have shown
that 40 Gigabit Ethernet is possible at 50 meters and 100 Gigabit Ethernet is possible at 15 meters.[1] Mohsen
Kavehrad and researchers at The Pennsylvania State University believe that either 32 nm or 22 nm circuits will
allow for 100 Gigabit Ethernet at 100 meters.[4][5]

However, similar studies in the past have shown that Cat5e could support 10G, so these should be read with caution.
Furthermore, the IEEE is currently not looking into 40G or 100G for Cat7a. It may in the future, but there is
absolutely no guarantee that such applications will ever exist.

Cat7a is currently a draft in ISO standards for channel and permanent link. Component performance is yet to be
looked into. TIA/EIA currently is not working on any Cat7a standard.

e.0ptical fiber An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length. Fiber
optics is the overlap of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of
optical fibers. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission
over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communications. Fibers
are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss, and they are also
immune toelectromagnetic interference. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles
so they can be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in tight spaces. Specially designed fibers are
used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers.

Light is kept in the core of the optical fiber by total internal reflection. This causes the fiber to act as
awaveguide. Fibers which support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode
fibers(MMF), while those which can only support a single mode are called single-mode fibers (SMF).
Multi-mode fibers generally have a larger core diameter, and are used for short-distance communication
links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Single-mode fibers are used for most
communication links longer than 550 meters (1,800 ft).

Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable. The ends of the fibers
must be carefully cleaved, and then spliced together either mechanically or by fusing them together with
anelectric arc. Special connectors are used to make removable connections.

3.serial interface

a.serial data transmissi0n In telecommunication and computer science, serial communication is the
process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over acommunication channel or computer bus.
This is in contrast to parallel communication, where several bits are sent together, on a link with several
parallel channels. Serial communication is used for all long-haul communication and most computer
networks, where the cost of cableand synchronization difficulties make parallel communication
impractical. Serial computer buses are becoming more common even at shorter distances, as
improved signal integrity and transmission speeds in newer serial technologies have begun outweigh the
parallel bus's advantage of simplicity (no need for serializer and deserializer, or SerDes) and to outstrip its
disadvantages (clock skew, interconnect density). The migration from PCI to PCI Express is an example.
b.serial i/0 device