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Application Notes for

KCGG High Impedance Protection

Application Notes for


KCGG High Impedance Protection
Introduction
The application of the KCGG
numerical overcurrent relay as
differential protection for machines,
power transformers and busbar
installations is based on the high
impedance differential principle,
offering stability for any type of fault
occurring outside the protected zone
and satisfactory operation for faults
within the zone.
A high impedance relay is defined
as a relay or relay circuit whose
voltage setting is not less than the
calculated maximum voltage which
can appear across its terminals
under the assigned maximum
through fault current condition.
It can be seen from Figure 1 that
during an external fault the through
fault current should circulate
between the current transformer
secondaries. The only current that
can flow through the relay circuit is
that due to any difference in the
current transformer outputs for the
same primary current. Magnetic
saturation will reduce the output of a
current transformer and the most
extreme case for stability will be if
one current transformer is
completely saturated and the other
unaffected. This condition can be
approached in busbar installations
due to the multiplicity of infeeds and
extremely high fault level. It is less
likely with machines or power
transformers due to the limitation of
through fault level by the protected
units impedance, and the fact that
the comparison is made between a
limited number of current
transformers. Differences in current
transformer remanent flux can,

CTA

CTB

Protected
unit

Z MA

Z MB
R CTA

R CTB

RL

RL
R RELAY CIRCUIT

RL

RL

Figure 1: Principle of high impedance protection

however, result in asymmetric


current transformer saturation with
all applications.
Calculations based on the above
extreme case for stability have
become accepted in lieu of
conjunctive scheme testing as being
a satisfactory basis for application.
At one end the current transformer
can be considered fully saturated,
with its magnetising impedance ZMB
short circuited while the current
transformer at the other end, being
unaffected, delivers its full current
output. This current will then divide
between the relay and the saturated
current transformer. This division will
be in the inverse ratio of
RRELAY CIRCUIT to (RCTB + 2RL) and, if
RRELAY CIRCUIT is high compared with
RCTB + 2RL, the relay will be
prevented from undesirable
operation, as most of the current will
pass through the saturated current
transformer.

To achieve stability for external


faults, the stability voltage for the
protection (Vs) must be determined
in accordance with formula 1.
The setting will be dependent upon
the maximum current transformer
secondary current for an external
fault (If) and also on the highest
loop resistance value from the
relaying point (RCT + 2RL).
The stability of the scheme is also
affected by the characteristics of the
differential relay and the value of K
in the expression takes account of
this. One particular characteristic
that affects the stability of the
scheme is the operating time of the
differential relay. The slower the
relay operates the longer the spill
current can exceed its setting before
operation occurs and the higher the
spill current that can be tolerated.
For the KCGG relay I> element the
value of K is 0.5 as shown in
formula 2.

Vs > KIf(RCT + 2RL)

(1)

Vs > 0.5If(RCT + 2RL)

(2)

where RCT = current transformer


secondary winding
resistance
RL

= maximum lead
resistance from the
current transformer to
the relaying point

If

= maximum secondary
external fault current

= a constant affected by
the dynamic response
of the relay

Note: When high impedance


differential protection is
applied to motors or
reactors, there is no external
fault current. Therefore, the
locked rotor current or
starting current of the motor,
or reactor inrush current,
should be used in place of
the external fault current.
To obtain high speed operation for
internal faults, the knee point
voltage, VK , of the CTs must be
significantly higher than the stability
voltage, Vs. This is essential so that
the operating current through the
relay is a sufficient multiple of the
applied current setting. Ideally a
ratio of VK 5Vs would be
appropriate, but where this is not
possible refer to the Advanced
Application Requirements for
Through Fault Stability.
This describes an alternative method
whereby lower values of Vs may be
obtained.
Typical operating times for different
VK/Vs ratios are shown in the
following table:
VK/Vs

12

Typical
operating
time (ms)

30

40

50

60

These times are representative of a


system X/R ratio of 40 and a fault
level of 5Is to 10Is. Lower values of
X/R and higher fault currents will
tend to reduce the operating time.

The kneepoint voltage of a current


transformer marks the upper limit of
the roughly linear portion of the
secondary winding excitation
characteristic. This is defined exactly
in British practice as that point on
the excitation curve where a 10%
increase in exciting voltage
produces a 50% increase in exciting
current.
The current transformers should be
of equal ratio, of similar
magnetising characteristics and of
low reactance construction. In cases
where low reactance current
transformers are not available and
high reactance ones must be used,
it is essential to use the reactance of
the current transformer in the
calculations for the voltage setting.
Thus, the current transformer
impedance is expressed as a
complex number in the form
RCT + jXCT. It is also necessary to
ensure that the exciting impedance
of the current transformer is large in
comparison with its secondary
ohmic impedance at the relay
setting voltage.
In the case of the high impedance
relay, the operating current is
adjustable in discrete steps.
The primary operating current (Iop)
will be a function of the current
transformer ratio, the relay
operating current (Ir), the number of
current transformers in parallel with
a relay element (n) and the
magnetising current of each current
transformer (Ie) at the stability
voltage (Vs). This relationship can be
expressed as follows:

Iop = (CT ratio) x (Ir + nIe)

(3)

In order to achieve the required


primary operating current with the
current transformers that are used, a
current setting (Ir) must be selected
for the high impedance relay, as
detailed above. The setting of the
stabilising resistor (RST) must be
calculated in the following manner,
where the setting is a function of the
relay ohmic impedance at setting
(Rr), the required stability voltage
setting (Vs) and the relay current
setting (Ir).
RST =

Vs

Ir

Rr

(4)

Note: The auxiliary powered


KCGG ohmic impedance
over the whole setting range
is small, 0.06 (1A) and
0.006 (5A) and so can be
ignored. Therefore:
V
RST = s

Ir

(5)

Use of Metrosil
Non-linear Resistors
When the maximum through fault
current is limited by the protected
circuit impedance, such as in the
case of generator differential and
power transformer restricted earth
fault protection, it is generally found
unnecessary to use non-linear
voltage limiting resistors (Metrosils).
However, when the maximum
through fault current is high, such as
in busbar protection, it is more
common to use a non-linear resistor
(Metrosil) across the relay circuit
(relay and stabilising resistor).
Metrosils are used to limit the peak
voltage developed by the current
transformers, under internal fault
conditions, to a value below the
insulation level of the current
transformers, relay and
interconnecting leads, which are
able to withstand 3000V peak.
The following formulae should be
used to estimate the peak transient
voltage that could be produced for
an internal fault. This voltage is a
function of the current transformer
kneepoint voltage and the
prospective voltage that would be
produced for an internal fault if
current transformer saturation did
not occur. Note, the internal fault
level, I'f , can be significantly higher
than the external fault level, If , on
generators where current can be fed
from the supply system and the
generator.
Vp = 2 2VK (Vf VK)

(6)

Vf = I'f (RCT + 2RL + RST + Rr) (7)


where Vp = peak voltage
developed by the CT
under internal fault
conditions.
Vk = current transformer
knee-point voltage.

Vf = maximum voltage that


would be produced if
CT saturation did not
occur.

I'f = maximum internal


secondary fault
current.
RCT = current transformer
secondary winding
resistance.
RL = maximum lead burden
from current
transformer to relay.
RST = relay stabilising
resistor.
Rr = Relay ohmic
impedance at setting.
When the value of Vp is greater
than 3000V peak, non-linear
resistors (Metrosils) should be
applied. These Metrosils are
effectively connected across the
relay circuit, or phase to neutral of
the ac buswires, and serve the
purpose of shunting the secondary
current output of the current
transformer from the relay circuit in
order to prevent very high
secondary voltages.
These Metrosils are externally
mounted and take the form of
annular discs, of 152mm diameter
and approximately 10mm thickness.
Their operating characteristics
follow the expression:
0.25

V = CI

(8)

where V = Instantaneous voltage


applied to the
non-linear resistor
(Metrosil)
C = constant of the nonlinear resistor
(Metrosil)

I = instantaneous current
through the non-linear
resistor (Metrosil)
With a sinusoidal voltage applied
across the Metrosil, the RMS current
would be approximately 0.52x the
peak current. This current value can
be calculated as follows:

I(rms) = 0.52

Vs(rms) x 2 4
(9)
C

This is due to the fact that the current


waveform through the Metrosil is not
sinusoidal but appreciably distorted.
For satisfactory application of a
non-linear resistor (Metrosil), its
characteristic should be such that it
complies with the following
requirements:
At the relay voltage setting, the nonlinear resistor (Metrosil) current
should be as low as possible, but no
greater than approximately 30mA
rms for 1A current transformers and
approximately 100mA rms for 5A
current transformers.
The metrosil units normally
recommended for use with 1A CTs
are as follows:

Stability voltage

Recommended metrosil type

Vs (V) rms

Single pole

Triple pole

Up to 125V

600A/S1/S256
C = 450

600A/S3/I/S802
C = 450

125-300V

600A/S1/S1088
C = 900

600A/S3/I/S1195
C = 900

The metrosil units normally


recommended for use with 5A CTs and
single pole relays are as follows:
Secondary

Recommended metrosil type

internal fault

Relay stability voltage, Vs (V) rms

Current
(A) rms
50A

Up to 200V

250V

275V

300V

600A/S1/S1213
C = 540/640

600A/S1/S1214
C = 670/800

600A/S1/S1214
C = 670/800

600A/S1/S1223
C = 740/870

100A

600A/S2/P/S1217 600A/S2/P/S1215 600A/S2/P/S1215 600A/S2/P/S1196


C = 470/540
C = 570/670
C = 570/670
C = 620/740

150A

600A/S3/P/S1219 600A/S3/P/S1220 600A/S3/P/S1221 600A/S3/P/S1222


C = 430/500
C = 520/620
C = 570/670
C = 620/740

The single pole Metrosil units


recommended for use with 5A CTs
can also be used with triple pole
relays and consist of three single
pole units mounted on the same
central stud but electrically insulated
from each other. A triple pole
Metrosil type and the reference
should be specified when ordering.
Metrosil units for higher stability
voltage settings and fault currents
can be supplied if required.

where Vs(rms) = rms value of the


sinusoidal voltage applied across
the Metrosil.
4

The KCGG
The KCGG142 is a numerical 3
phase overcurrent and earth fault
relay with 3 stages of phase and
earth fault protection, I>/Io>, I>>/
Io>> and I>>>/Io>>> which can
be used for 3 phase differential
protection or restricted earth fault
(REF) protection. The KCGG122 is a
numerical single phase overcurrent
and earth fault relay with the same
3 stages of phase and earth fault
protection, which can be used for
REF protection only. It is
recommended that the I> element is
used as the main protection element
for 3 phase differential protection
and the Io> element for restricted
earth fault applications. This is
because the I>/Io> elements have
increased through fault stability
compared to the I>>/Io>> and
I>>>/Io>>> elements. The I>/Io>
elements operate when the Fourier
value exceeds the threshold setting
and the positive and negative peak
values exceed 90% of the threshold
setting. The I>>/Io>> and I>>>/
Io>>> elements operate when the
Fourier derived values exceeds the
threshold setting or where the peak
of any half cycle exceeds twice the
set threshold. Since the differential
spill current is likely to contain a dc
offset level, the positive and
negative peaks will have different
amplitudes and so the I>/Io>
element is more stable. The time
delay characteristic should be
selected to be definite time and with
a setting of zero seconds.
The output relay that is to trip the
circuit breakers must be allocated in
the relay masks for t>A, t>B and
t>C. Any relay allocated in these
relay masks will dwell in the closed
state for a minimum of 100
milliseconds, even if fleeting
operation of the protection should
occur, ensuring positive operation of
the circuit breaker, or trip relay. It is
not advised that the start outputs
from I> are used because they do
not have this in-built minimum
contact dwell.
Separate output relays may be
allocated to each phase trip if it is
required to have phase segregated
outputs. However, the three relay

masks, t>A, t>B and t>C must also


be assigned to relay RLY3, for fault
records to be generated. Phase
information will be included in the
fault flags.
The Io>>/Io>>>/I>>/I>>>
elements not being used should be
disabled by setting the phase and
earth fault function links PF1, PF2,
EF1 and EF2 to 0.
Setting ranges of I>/Io> elements
are:

I> 0.08 3.2In


Io> 0.005 0.8In
The ohmic impedance (Rr) of the
auxiliary powered KCGG over the
whole setting range is 0.06 for 1A
relays and 0.006 for 5A relays ie.
independent of current. To comply
with the definition for a high
impedance relay, it is necessary, in
most applications, to utilise an
externally mounted stabilising
resistor in series with the relay.
The standard values of the
stabilising resistors normally
supplied with the relay, on request,
are 220 and 47 for 1A and 5A
relay ratings respectively. In
applications such as busbar
protection, where higher values of
stabilising resistor are often required
to obtain the desired relay voltage
setting, non-standard resistor values
can be supplied. The standard
resistors are wire wound,
continuously adjustable and have a
continuous rating of 145W.

Applying the KCGG


The recommended relay current
setting for restricted earth fault
protection is usually determined by
the minimum fault current available
for operation of the relay and
whenever possible it should not be
greater than 30% of the minimum
fault level. For busbar protection, it
is considered good practice by
some utilities to set the minimum
primary operating current in excess
of the rated load. Thus, if one of the
current transformers becomes open
circuit the high impedance relay
does not maloperate.
The Io> earth fault element in the
KCGG142 with its low current
5

settings can be used for busbar


supervision. When a CT or the
buswires become open circuited the
3 phase currents will become
unbalanced and residual current will
flow. Hence, the Io> earth fault
element should give an alarm for
open circuit conditions but will not
stop a maloperation of the
differential element if the relay is set
below rated load. Whenever
possible the supervision primary
operating current should not be
more than 25 amps or 10% of the
smallest circuit rating, whichever is
the greater. The earth fault element
(Io>) should be connected at the
star point of the stabilising resistors,
as shown in Figure 9. The time
delay setting for the supervision
elements (to>) should be at least 3
seconds to ensure that spurious
operation does not occur during any
through fault. This earth fault
element will operate for an open
circuit CT on any one phase, or two
phases, but not necessarily for a
fault on all three when the currents
may sumate to zero. The supervision
may be supplemented with a spare
phase protection stage (I>>>) set to
the same setting as the Io> element
or its lowest setting, 0.08In, if the
Io> supervision setting is less than
0.08In. Note that the Io current
should be checked when the busbar
is under load. This can be viewed in
the Measurements 1 menu in the
relay. It is important that the Io>
threshold is set above any standing
Io unbalance current.
The supervision element should be
used to energise an auxiliary relay
with hand reset contacts connected
to short circuit the buswires.
This renders the busbar zone
protection inoperative and prevents
thermal damage to the Metrosil.
Contacts may also be required for
busbar supervision alarm purposes.
It is recommended that the dual
powered KCEG242 relay is not
used for differential protection
because of the start-up time delay
when powered from the CTs alone,
approximately 200ms. Also, the
minimum setting of the phase
overcurrent elements, 0.4In, would
limit its application for differential
protection.

Figures 3 to 9 show how high


impedance relays can be applied in
a number of different situations.
Advanced application
requirements for through fault
stability

When Vs from formula 2 becomes


too restrictive for the application, the
following notes should be
considered. The information is
based on the transient and steady
state stability limits derived from
conjunctive testing of the relay.
Using this information will allow a
lower stability voltage to be applied
to the relay, but the calculations
become a little more involved.

Typical Setting Examples


Restricted earth fault
protection

The correct application of the


KCGG as a high impedance relay
can best be illustrated by taking the
case of the 11000/415V,
1000kVA, X = 5%, power
transformer shown in Figure 10, for
which restricted earth fault
protection is required on the LV
winding. CT ratio is 100/5A.
Stability voltage

The power transformer full load


current

1000 x 103
3 x 415
= 1391A
Maximum through fault level
(ignoring source impedance)

Transient stability limit

Required relay stability voltage


(assuming one CT saturated)

Vs = 40 + 0.05RST +
0.04If(RCT + 2RL)

(10)

If this value is lower than that given


by formula 2 then it should be used
instead.
Vs and RST are unknowns in
equation (10). However, for a relay
current setting Ir, the value of RST
can be calculated by substituting for
Vs using equation (5), Vs = Ir RST.
RST

Ir = 40 + 0.05RST +
0.04If(RCT+ 2RL)

(11)

Steady state stability limit

To ensure through fault stability with


non offset currents:
(RCT+ 2RL) must not exceed
(VK + Vs)/If.

(12)

To ensure that internal faults are


cleared in the shortest possible time
the knee point voltage of the current
transformers should be at least 5
times the stability voltage, Vs.
VK = 5Vs
= 5 x 17.6
= 88V
The exciting current to be drawn by
the current transformers at the relay
stability voltage, Vs, will be:

Ie <
where

There are two factors to be


considered that affect the stability of
the scheme. The first is saturation of
the current transformers caused by
the dc transient component of the
fault current and the second is
steady state saturation caused by
the symmetrical ac component of
fault current only.

To ensure through fault stability with


a transient offset in the fault current
the required voltage setting is given
by:

Current transformer
requirements

Is Ir
n

Is = relay effective setting


=

5
30
x 1391 x
1500
100

= 1.4A

Ir (Io>) = relay setting

100
=
x 1391
5

= 1A
n = number of current
transformers in parallel
with the relay

= 27820A

= 4

= 0.5If (RCT + 2RL)


= 0.5 x 27820
5
x
(0.3 + 0.08)
1500
= 17.6V
Stabilising resistor

Assuming that the relay effective


setting for a solidly earthed power
transformer is approximately 30% of
full load current, we can choose a
relay current setting, Io> = 20% of
5A ie. 1A. On this basis the
required value of stabilising resistor
is:
V
RST = s

Ir

= 17.6
1
= 17.6 ohms
5A rated KCGG relays can be
supplied, on request, with stabilising
resistors that are continuously
adjustable between 0 and 47.
Thus, a stabilising resistance of
17.6 can be set using the
standard supplied resistor.

Ie @ 17.6V <

1.4 1
4

< 0.1A
The time delay setting of the to>
element should be set to 0s.
The Io>>/Io>>>/I>>/I>>>
elements not used should be
disabled by setting the phase and
earth fault function links PF1, PF2,
EF1 and EF2 to 0. Note, the phase
overcurrent elements not used for
restricted earth fault protection could
be used to provide normal
overcurrent protection.
Metrosil non-linear resistor
requirements

If the peak voltage appearing


across the relay circuit under
maximum internal fault conditions
exceeds 3000V peak then a
suitable non-linear resistor
(Metrosil), externally mounted,
should be connected across the
relay and stabilising resistor, in
order to protect the insulation of the
current transformers, relay and
interconnecting leads. In the present

case the peak voltage can be


estimated by the formula:

Vp = 2 2VK (Vf VK)


where VK = 88V (In practice this
should be the actual current
transformer kneepoint voltage,
obtained from the current
transformer magnetisation curve).
Vf =

If(RCT + 2RL RST + Rr)

5
= 27820 x
x
1500
(0.3 + 0.08 + 17.6)
= 92.7 x 17.98
= 1667V
Therefore substituting these values
for VK and Vf into the main formula,
it can be seen that the peak voltage
developed by the current
transformer is:
Vp = 2 2VK (Vf VK)
= 2 2 x 88 x (1667 88)
= 1054V
This value is well below the
maximum of 3000V peak and
therefore no Metrosils are required
with the relay. If, on the other hand,
the peak voltage VP given by the
formula had been greater than
3000V peak, a non-linear resistor
(Metrosil) would have to be
connected across the relay and the
stabilising resistor.
The recommended non-linear
resistor type would have to be
chosen in accordance with the
maximum secondary internal fault
current and the voltage setting.

Busbar Protection
A typical 132kV double bus
generating station is made up of
two 100MVA generators and
associated step-up transformers,
providing power to the high voltage
system, by means of four overhead
transmission lines, shown in
Figure 2. The main and reserve
busbars are sectionalised with bus
section circuit breakers.
The application for a high
impedance circulating current
scheme having 4 zones and an
overall check feature, is as follows:
The switchgear rating is 3500MVA,
the system voltage is 132kV solidly
earthed and the maximum loop lead
resistance is 4 ohms. The current
transformers are of ratio 500/1
amp and have a secondary
resistance of 0.7 ohms.
Stability voltage

The stability level of the busbar


protection is governed by the
maximum through fault level which
is assumed to be the switchgear
rating. Using the switchgear rating
allows for any future system
expansion.
=

3500 x 10
= 15300A
3 x 132 x 103

Required relay stability voltage


(assuming one CT is saturated)
= 0.5

If (RCT + 2RL)

0.5 x 15300 (0.7 + 4)


500
= 72V

Current setting

The primary operating current of


busbar protection is normally set to
less than 30% of the minimum fault
level. It is also considered good
practice by some utilities to set the
minimum primary operating current
in excess of the rated load. Thus, if
one of the CTs becomes open circuit
the high impedance relay does not
maloperate.
The primary operating current
should be made less than 30% of
the minimum fault current and more
than the full load current of one of
the incomers. Thus, if one of the
incomer CTs becomes open circuit
7

the differential protection will not


maloperate. It is assumed that 30%
of the minimum fault current is more
than the full load current of the
largest circuit.
Full load current
=

100 x 103 = 438A


3 x 132

Discriminating zone

Magnetising current taken by each


CT at 72V = 0.072A
Maximum number of CTs per
zone = 5
Relay current setting,
Ir(I>) = 400A = 0.8In
Relay primary operating current,
Iop = CT ratio x (Ir + nIe)
= 500 x (0.8 + (5 x 0.072))
= 500 x 1.16
= 580A (132% full load
current)
Check zone

Magnetising current taken by each


CT at 72V = 0.072A
Maximum number of circuits = 6
Relay current setting, Ir (I>)
= 0.8A
Relay primary operating current,

Iop = 500 x (0.8 + (6 x 0.072))


= 500 x 1.232
= 616A
(141% full load current)
Therefore, by setting Ir (I>) = 0.8A,
the primary operating current of the
busbar protection meets the
requirements stated earlier.
Stabilising resistor

The required value of the stabilising


resistor is:
RST =

Vs

Ir

72
0.8
= 90
=

Therefore the standard 220


variable resistor can be used.

Current transformer
requirements

To ensure that internal faults are


cleared in the shortest possible time
the knee point voltage of the current
transformers should be at least 5
times the stability voltage, Vs.
Vk/Vs = 5
Vk

= 360V

Metrosil non-linear resistor


requirements

If the peak voltage appearing


across the relay circuit under
maximum internal fault conditions
exceeds 3000V peak then a
suitable non-linear resistor
(Metrosil), externally mounted,
should be connected across the
relay and stabilising resistor, in
order to protect the insulation of the
current transformers, relay and
interconnecting leads. In the present
case the peak voltage can be
estimated by the formula:
Vp = 2 2VK (Vf VK)

where VK = 360V (In practice this


should be the actual current
transformer kneepoint voltage,
obtained from the current
transformer magnetisation curve).
Vr = I'f(RCT + 2RL + RST + Rr)
= 15300 x

1
x (0.7 + 4 + 90)
500

= 30.6 x 94.7
= 2898V
Therefore substituting these values
for VK and Vf into the main formula,
it can be seen that the peak voltage
developed by the current
transformer is:
Vp = 2 2VK (Vf VK)
= 2 2 x 360 x (2898 360)
= 2704V
This value is below the maximum of
3000V peak and therefore no
Metrosils are required with the
relay. If, on the other hand, the peak
voltage VP given by the formula had
been greater than 3000V peak, a
non-linear resistor (Metrosil) would
have to be connected across the

relay and the stabilising resistor.


The recommended non-linear
resistor type would have to be
chosen in accordance with the
maximum internal fault current and
the voltage setting.

Transient stability limit

Busbar supervision

The relay current setting,

Whenever possible the supervision


primary operating current should
not be more than 25 amps or 10%
of the smallest circuit, whichever is
the greater.

0.8 RST = 45.753 + 0.05 RST

The Io> earth fault element in the


KCGG142 with its low current
settings can be used for busbar
supervision.
Assuming that 25A is greater than
10% of the smallest circuit current.

Io> = 25/500 = 0.05In


Using the I>>> element for 3 phase
busbar supervision

I>>> = 0.08In (minimum setting)


The time delay setting of the to> and
t>>> elements, used for busbar
supervision, is 3s.
The Io>>/Io>>>/I>> elements not
used should be disabled by setting
the phase and earth fault function
links PF1, EF1 and EF2 to 0.
Advanced application
requirements for through fault
stability

The previous busbar protection


example is used here to demonstrate
the use of the advanced application
requirements for through stability.
To ensure through fault stability with
a transient offset in the fault current
the required voltage setting is given
by:
Vs = 40 + 0.05RST +
0.04IF(RCT+ 2RL)
If this value is lower than that given
by formula 2 then it should be used
instead.
To ensure through fault stability with
non offset currents:
(RCT+ 2RL) must not exceed
(VK + Vs)/If.

Vs = 40 + 0.05 RST + 0.04 x


15300/500 (0.7 + 4)
Vs = 45.753 + 0.05 RST
Vs =

Ir RST
Ir = 0.8In

RST = 61
Vs = 0.8 x 61 = 48.8V
Steady state stability limit
(RCT + 2RL) < (VK + Vs)/IF.
Assuming VK = 5 Vs
(0.7 + 4) <

(6 x 48.8)
(15300/500)

4.7 < 9.57


Thus, the steady state stability
requirement is met.
VK = 5 Vs = 244V
Using the advanced application
method the knee point voltage
requirement has been reduced to
244V compared to the conventional
method where the knee point
voltage was calculated to be 360V.

100MVA 15kV

100MVA 132/15kV

132kV
Main
reserve

Figure 2: Double busbar generating station.

A
B

P1

P2

P1

P2

S1

S2

S1

S2

Protected
plant

Figure 3:

A
B
C

21 R A
Protective
relays 22
v
R ST

Phase and earth fault differential


protection for generators, motors or
reactors.

23 R B
v
R ST

24

P1

P2

S1

S2

25 R C
26

v
R ST

A
B
C

28

27
Figure 4:

Restricted earth fault protection for


3 phase, 3 wire system-applicable to
star connected generators or power
transformer windings.

P2

S2

R
v

P1

S1

R ST

P1

P2

S1

S2

A
B
C

Figure 5:

28

27

Balanced or restricted earth fault


protection for delta winding of a
power transformer with supply
system earthed.

R R ST

P2

P2

S2

S2

A
B
C

Figure 6:

Restricted earth fault protection for


3 phase, 4 wire system-applicable to
star connected generators or power
transformer windings with neutral
earthed at switchgear.

P2

P2

S2

S2

27

28
R R ST
v

P2

P1

S2

S1

A
B
C

P2

P1

S2
Figure 7:

Restricted earth fault protection for


3 phase, 4 wire system-applicable to
star connected generators or power
transformer windings earthed directly
at the star point.

S1
28

27
P2

S2

P1

S1

R R ST
v

10

P1

P2

S1

S2

A
B

P1

P2

S1

S2

P2

P1

S2

S1

A
B

Figure 8:

21 R A
Protective
relays 22
v
R ST

Phase and earth fault differential


protection for an auto-transformer
with CTs at the neutral star point.

23 R B
24

P1

S1

P2

S2

v
R ST

25 R C
26

R ST

A
B
C

Figure 9:

Busbar protection simple single


zone phase and earth fault scheme.

P2

S2

P2

S2

P1

S1

P1

S1

A
B
C
21 R
A

Contacts from
buswire
supervision
auxiliary relay

11kV

Protective
relays 22

23

R ST

25 R
C

RB
v

24

R ST
27
RN
28

26

v
R ST

Buswire
supervision

1500/5A

415V

A
R CT

B
C

RL
RL
Figure 10: Restricted earth fault protection on a
power transformer LV winding.

R CT

Data
Protection:

R L = 0.04
R LC = 0.3

Transformer: X

= 5%

11

RL

Restricted
earth fault
protection

RL

ALSTOM T&D Protection & Control Ltd St Leonards Works, Stafford, ST17 4LX England
Tel: 44 (0) 1785 223251 Fax: 44 (0) 1785 212232 Email: enquiries@pcs.alstom.co.uk Internet: www.gecalsthomgpc.co.o.uk
1998 ALSTOM T&D Protection & Control Ltd
Our policy is one of continuous development. Accordingly the design of our products may change at any time. Whilst every effort is made to produce up to date literature, this brochure should
only be regarded as a guide and is intended for information purposes only. Its contents do not constitute an offer for sale or advice on the application of any product referred to in it.
ALSTOM T&D Protection & Control Ltd cannot be held responsible for any reliance on any decisions taken on its contents without specific advice.

Publication R6142A

Printed in England.