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Which of the following is least likely to be an effect of global warming?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Increased frequency of hurricanes


Loss of fertile delta regions for agriculture
Decreased rate of photosynthesis in vegetation
Change in global patterns of precipitation
Shrinking of the polar ice regions
2. Of the following substances which has the greatest permeability?

A. Loam (Loam is soil composed of sand, silt, and clay in relatively even concentrations)
B.
Clay
C.
Silt
D.
Sand
E.
Humus
3. Most of the Earth's deserts are at approximately 30 deg. latitude, north & south because these locations are
characterized by:
A.
Generally warm ocean currents
B.
Descending dry air currents
C.
Slow-moving jet streams
D.
Enhanced Solar radiation
E.
Predominantly low atmospheric pressure
4. Which of the following is the best example of environmental remediation?(Generally, remediation means providing
a remedy, so environmental remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental
media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water for the general protection of human health and the
environment or from a brownfield site intended for redevelopment. Remediation is generally subject to an array of
regulatory requirements, and also can be based on assessments of human health and ecological risks where no
legislated standards exist or where standards are advisory.)
A. A species of trout becomes extinct in a *eutrophic lake
B. The annual volume of sewage flowing into a stream is decreased by 50%
C. The height of a factory smokestack is increased
D. A parcel of forest land is declared a State Park
E. PCB-consuming bacteria are sprayed on an area that has soil contaminated with PCBs
5. The presence of which contaminants would be the strongest indicator that municipal sewage sludge is unfit for
use as fertilizer?
A.
Human feces
B.
Ammonia
C.
Phosphates
D.
Heavy metals
E.
Nitrates
6. Reasons that the population of an exotic species often increases rapidly when introduced to a new environment, is
due which of the following:I. The exotic species is resistant to pesticidesII. There is usually a large, underused
food source in the new environmentIII. The exotic species has few natural predators in the new environment
A.
I only
B.
II only
C.
I and III only
D.
II and III only
E.
I, II and III
7. A country's current population is 100 million with an annual growth rate of 3.5%. If the growth rate remains
constant, what will be the population in 40 years?
A.
150 million
B.
200 million
C.
300 million
D.
400 million
E.
800 million
8. Which type of electricity-generating power plant releases radioactive as well as toxic materials such as lead and

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

9.

arsenic under normal operating conditions?


Nuclear
Hydroelectric
Solar
Coal-burning
Geothermal
Which of the following greenhouse gasses has the greatest heat-trapping ability per molecule?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

10.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Chlorofluorocarbon
Methane
Carbon dioxide
Nitrous oxide
Carbon monoxide
Of the following, which poses the greatest threat to populations of migratory North American songbirds?

Clearing of tropical forests


Predation by raptors
Sport hunting
Disease from polluted waters
International trade in pets

1. The greenhouse effect is caused by


a) Greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere absorbing solar radiation
b) Greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere absorbing radiation from the
Earth's surface, and preventing much of it escaping into space
c) Too much heat in the atmosphere
d) Too much sunshine reaching Earth
2. Which of these natural events affect the climate?
a) Thawing permafrost
b) The path of the Earth around the sun
c) Volcanic eruptions
d) All of the above3. Which of these greenhouse gases is most abundant in the

atmosphere?
a) Carbon dioxide
b) Methane
c) Nitrous oxide
d) Water vapour4. What greenhouse gas was not present in the atmosphere in
pre-industrial times (before 1750)?
a) Trichlorofluoromethane
b) Carbon dioxide
c) Nitrous oxide
d) Methane5. Which of the following changes in climate has NOT already
occurred?
a) 0.74C increase in average global temperature over the last century
b) 0.17m rise in sea level during the 20th century
c) A decrease in the sea ice around Antarctica
d) Fewer cold days and frosts, and more frequent heatwaves over the last 50
years6. Which of these countries has the highest per capita carbon dioxide
emissions?
a) United States
b) Australia
c) Saudi Arabia

d) China7. Which of the following activities contributes the most to carbon


emissions globally?
a) Agriculture
b) Transport
c) Forestry
d) Energy supply8. In research published in Nature scientists claim we have a
good chance of stabilising global warming below 2C if the world's total carbon
dioxide emissions from 2000 to 2050 don't exceed 1,000 billion tonnes. How much
carbon dioxide did we emit between 2000 and 2006?
a) 1000 billion tonnes
b) 234 billion tonnes
c) 146 billion tonnes
d) 94 billion tonnes9. Australia emitted 597 million tonnes of greenhouse gas in
2007. We could cut up to 110 million tonnes off our annual emissions by
a) Installing energy efficient lightbulbs in every home
b) Greater energy efficiency in industry and more energy efficient buildings
c) Recycling all recyclable waste at home and in industry
d) Planting one million trees10. Which of the following is NOT expected to
happen in Australia as a result of global warming?
a) Central Australia will become drier and have more frequent and severe
droughts

b) Perth will have between 29 to 38 days above 35C a year by 2030


c) Canberra will have between 26 and 29 days of extreme fire danger by 2020
d) Tasmania will become a tropical island

1. The greenhouse effect is caused by


a) Greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere absorbing solar radiation b) Greenhouse gases in the lower
atmosphere absorbing radiation from the Earth's surface, and preventing much of it escaping into space c) Too
much heat in the atmosphere d) Too much sunshine reaching Earth
Answer: B Greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere absorbing radiation from the Earth's surface, and
preventing much of it escaping into space
The greenhouse effect simply describes the fundamental role our atmosphere plays in sustaining life on Earth.
Energy from the sun in the form of sunlight passes through our atmosphere and warms the surface of the Earth
which then emits the energy back into the atmosphere in the form of infrared radiation. Greenhouse gases, which
make up only about one per cent of the atmosphere, absorb and re-emit some of this heat, preventing much of it
leaving the Earth's atmosphere. This keeps the blue planet at a comfy temperature to sustain life.
But over time, climate scientists argue, our atmosphere has accumulated more greenhouse gases, in particular
carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and fluorocarbons. This increased concentration of atmospheric gases
traps more heat close to the Earth's surface in the lower atmosphere and increases the average global
temperature. This process, called the 'enhanced greenhouse effect', is fundamental to global warming.
The IPCC assesses with very high confidence that the globally averaged net effect of human activities since 1750
has been one of warming. Computer climate models estimate that the average global temperature will rise by a
further 1.8C to 4.0C by the year 2100.
2. Which of these natural events affect the climate?
a) Thawing permafrost b) The path of the Earth around the sun c) Volcanic eruptions d) All of the above
Answer: D All of the above
Peat bogs play an important role in maintaining climate. Permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere is an important
carbon sink but when it thaws exposing peat bogs, captured carbon and methane is released into the
atmosphere. The greenhouse gases released from peat bogs can amplify climate change.
Changes in the Earth's orbit around the sun can also affect the climate. These changes, as well as changes in the
tilt of the Earth on its axis, are part of what are known as Milankovitch cycles, which are linked to the timing of ice
ages.

Volcanic eruptions have been known to greatly affect global temperatures in the past the 1815 eruption of
Tambora caused 'The year without a summer' in 1816 ash, rock and sulphur particles in the atmosphere
increased cloud cover and reflectivity (albedo), causing widespread global cooling.
3. Which of these greenhouse gases is most abundant in the atmosphere?
a) Carbon dioxide b) Methane c) Nitrous oxide d) Water vapour
Answer: D Water vapour
Water vapour is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. As the Earth's atmosphere warms, water
evaporates faster from oceans and ground sources, which in turn heats up the atmosphere further and continues
the cycle.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the next most abundant gas, followed by methane and nitrous oxide.
So if it's not the most abundant gas, why are climate change scientists so concerned about carbon dioxide? While
methane actually has a much stronger warming effect than CO2, carbon dioxide is responsible for over 60 per
cent of the enhanced greenhouse effect. It can also stay in the atmosphere a lot longer than methane, with a
lifetime of five to 200 years as opposed to methane's 12 years. Burning of fossil fuels is releasing carbon into the
atmosphere at a faster rate than it can be absorbed. Currently, atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide are rising by
over 10 per cent every 20 years.
4. What greenhouse gas was not present in the atmosphere in pre-industrial times (before 1750)?
a) Trichlorofluoromethane b) Carbon dioxide c) Nitrous oxide d) Methane
Answer: A Trichlorofluoromethane
Trichlorofluoromethane is a type of fluorocarbon. Fluorocarbons were not present in the atmosphere before 1750.
Today trichlorofluoromethane is present in the atmosphere at 242 to 244 parts per trillion (ppt).
Since the industrial revolution concentrations of pre-existing greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide,
methane and nitrous oxide have also risen significantly. For example, in 1750, the average concentration of
carbon dioxide was 280 parts per million (ppm), in 2008 it was 384.8 ppm.
5. Which of the following changes in climate has NOT already occurred?
a) 0.74C increase in average global temperature over the last century b) 0.17m rise in sea level during the 20th
century c) A decrease in the sea ice around Antarctica d) Fewer cold days and frosts, and more frequent
heatwaves over the last 50 years
Answer: C A decrease in the sea ice around Antarctica
While the Arctic has experienced sea ice losses, expected decreases of sea ice around Antarctica have not
occurred. Scientists believe this is primarily due to changes in winds linked to global warming and stratospheric
ozone depletion.
The increases in temperature, sea level and heatwave frequency have already been observed. Further increases
in these markers are projected, and in most cases the extent of the increase depends on the concentration of
greenhouse gas in the atmosphere.

6. Which of these countries has the highest per capita carbon dioxide emissions?
a) United States b) Australia c) Saudi Arabia d) China
Answer: B Australia
The bulk of greenhouse gas emissions arise from the countries at the centre of global economic activity. As
political entities, the largest emitters are China, the United States and the European Union, which between them
are responsible for more than 40 per cent of global emissions.
But on a per capita basis, Australians lead the world when it comes to carbon dioxide emissions from activities
excluding land use or forestry (forestry-related emissions are subject to large uncertainties in many of the main
emitting countries), according to the Garnaut Climate Change Review.
Each year, every Australian emits 26 tonnes of carbon dioxide. Per capita, Americans emit 24.5 tonnes,
Canadians emit 24 tonnes, Saudi Arabians emit 16.5 tonnes and the Chinese emit 5 tonnes.
7. Which of the following activities contributes the most to carbon emissions globally?
a) Agriculture b) Transport c) Forestry d) Energy supply
Answer: D Energy supply
According to the IPCC energy supply contributes over a quarter (25.9%) of carbon emissions followed by industry
(19.4%), forestry (17.4 %), agriculture (13.5%), transport (13.1%), residential and commercial buildings (7.9%),
waste and wastewater (2.8%).
8. In research published in Naturescientists claim we have a good chance of stabilising global warming
below 2C if the world's total carbon dioxide emissions from 2000 to 2050 don't exceed 1,000 billion
tonnes. How much carbon dioxide did we emit between 2000 and 2006?
a) 1,000 billion tonnes b) 234 billion tonnes c) 146 billion tonnes d) 94 billion tonnes
Answer: B 234 billion tonnes
Globally we added 234 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere between 2000 and 2006. In other
words, we've already emitted close to one quarter of our fifty year 'allocation' in less than a decade. If carbon
dioxide emissions remain at this high level, we'll have exceeded the sub 2C target before 2030.
9. Australia emitted 597 million tonnes of greenhouse gas in 2007. We could cut up to 110 million tonnes
off our annual emissions by
a) Installing energy efficient lightbulbs in every home b) Greater energy efficiency in industry and more energy
efficient buildings c) Recycling all recyclable waste at home and in industry d) Planting one million trees
Answer: B Greater energy efficiency in industry and more energy efficient buildings.
According to a 2003 study for Sustainable Energy Authority Victoria, more energy efficient electric motors could
cut 60 million tonnes of greenhouse emissions from industry each year, and more energy efficient buildings could
save a further 50 million tonnes annually.

The other three activities could only save a fraction of this amount. Energy efficient lighting in every home would
save approximately 10 million tonnes. Waste to landfill accounts for approximately 11 million tonnes per year, so
recycling everything possible could never cut emissions by more than that amount. And with a saving of one
tonne of CO2 for every four trees planted (and maintained), one million trees can only sequester 0.25 million
tonnes of CO2.
10. Which of the following is NOT expected to happen in Australia as a result of global warming?
a) Central Australia will become drier and have more frequent and severe droughts b) Perth will have between 29
to 38 days above 35C a year by 2030 c) Canberra will have between 26 and 29 days of extreme fire danger by
2020 d) Tasmania will become a tropical island
Answer: D Tasmania will become a tropical island
According to the federal Department of Climate Change's climate change impacts by region data, Tasmania will
get warmer days and less cold nights as a result of climate change. But don't go planning your tropical Tasmanian
getaway just yet the average number of days above 35C in Hobart is likely to increase from one a year to two.