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Fragments associated with explosive volcanic eruptions range from microns to meters in diameter, with
the largest ones following ballistic trajectories from the eruptive vent. Recent field observations suggest
that bombs ejected during Strombolian eruptions may collide while airborne. We developed a Discrete
Event Simulator to study numerically the impact of such collisions on hazard assessment. We show that
the area where bombs can land might be significantly increased when collisions occur. As a consequence,
if collisions are dominant, the deposition distance cannot be used to estimate important eruption
parameters, such as exit speed

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/cageo

in a volcanic setting

Kae Tsunematsu a,c,n, Bastien Chopard b, Jean-Luc Falcone b, Costanza Bonadonna c

a

Department of Computer Science, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

c

Section of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

b

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 1 July 2013

Received in revised form

19 October 2013

Accepted 23 October 2013

Available online 30 October 2013

Fragments associated with explosive volcanic eruptions range from microns to meters in diameter, with

the largest ones following ballistic trajectories from the eruptive vent. Recent eld observations suggest

that bombs ejected during Strombolian eruptions may collide while airborne. We developed a Discrete

Event Simulator to study numerically the impact of such collisions on hazard assessment. We show that

the area where bombs can land might be signicantly increased when collisions occur. As a consequence,

if collisions are dominant, the deposition distance cannot be used to estimate important eruption

parameters, such as exit speed.

Crown Copyright & 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Volcanic eruption

Ballistic transport

Discrete Event Simulation (DES)

1. Introduction

When a volcano erupts explosively, volcanic particles of various

sizes and shapes are ejected from the vent. Large particles

( 4 64 mm) are transported in the air, decoupled from the gas

phase at the early stage of transport, and follow independent

parabolic trajectories. These large particles are called ballistic

blocks or bombs, or simply ballistics. Their study is crucial as the

kinetic energy and high temperature associated with ballistics can

signicantly damage infrastructures in proximal areas. In addition,

the behavior of bombs allows a better understanding of the

dynamics of ejection because their velocity is more strongly

related to the jet phase than to the convective phase of a

volcanic plume.

There are many numerical models describing the trajectory of

the individual particles. A numerical model of volcanic bombs was

rst suggested by Wilson (1972) which accounted for the effect of

drag forces. It was further developed by Fagents and Wilson (1993)

with realistic conditions including the coupling between the

explosion and surrounded air for Vulcanian eruptions. Bower

and Woods (1996) considered ballistic trajectories which were

accelerated by the gas phase, while taking into account the

particle motion through the crater and the atmosphere.

n

Corresponding author at: Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya

University, Nagoya, Japan.

E-mail address: kae.tsunematsu@gmail.com (K. Tsunematsu).

Alatorre-Ibargengoitia and Delgado-Granados (2006) measured drag force of ballistic particles due to the shape difference

in laboratory experiments. The effect of fragmentation on the

initial velocity of ballistics in Vulcanian eruptions has been

included. The results were applied to the hazard map of Popocatpetel volcano (Alatorre-Ibargengoitia et al., 2012).

Mastin (2002) proposed a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with

which researchers can investigate their own scenario. Saunderson

(2008) suggested equations of motion with the resistance and total

centrifugal terms by using plural particles. Recently, de'Michieli

Vitturi et al. (2010) suggested a Lagrangian model of large volcanic

particles subject to a drag force and the background ow eld of

the plume. However none of these models consider the effect of

inter-particle collisions.

Recently Vanderkluysen et al. (2012) reported collisions

between particles. Particle trajectories were extracted from thermal video images of Strombolian eruptions. According to these

trajectories, 12% of the analyzed particles experienced a collision

with another particle. This suggests that inter-particle collisions

should be implemented in numerical models aimed at predicting

the trajectories of bombs.

In this paper, we propose a numerical model that includes

inter-particle collisions. We investigate their effect on pyroclast

travel distances, which is directly related to hazard assessment.

In order to highlight the role of collisions in the ballistic process,

we neglect the drag force. This allows us to use a Discrete Event

Simulation (DES) method, which is a fast numerical approach.

The parameters of our model are based on observations of

Strombolian eruptions. In addition to the thermal video images

0098-3004/$ - see front matter Crown Copyright & 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2013.10.016

63

their ejection angles and the frequency of bursts can be extracted

from the work of Chouet et al. (1974), Blackburn et al. (1976),

Ripepe et al. (1993) and Patrick et al. (2007) where photos of short

exposure time are analyzed to obtain the trajectory of particles.

Ejection velocity, maximum height of particle during the ight and

eruption durations can be obtained from Patrick et al. (2007)

where thermal video (Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer)

studies are reported.

In the present work, we consider a sensitivity analysis of the

ballistic process with respect to collisions. We study which

parameters affect most the probability of collision, and which

parameters inuence the travel distance of the bombs when

collisions are taken into account. Our main result is that the area

in which bombs are likely to fall may signicantly increase when

collisions occur.

2. The model

is given by three angles, (rotation), (inclination) and

(azimuth), as shown in Fig. 1. The rotation angle accounts for

the fact that the vent orientation, or the conduit shape, may depart

from the vertical direction. Assuming that the x-axis is chosen so

that the xz-plane contains the vector normal to the vent, the

!

velocity vector v e is obtained as

0

10

1

cos

0 sin

v sin cos

! B

B

C

0

1

0 C

1

ve @

A@ v sin sin A

sin

cos

v cos

simulation, their value, for each event and each particle, is chosen

from a probability distribution to reect their uncertainty. The

types of distributions are shown in Table 2 and have been

determined from the observations reported in Vanderkluysen

et al. (2012), Chouet et al. (1974), Blackburn et al. (1976) and

Patrick et al. (2007).

successive bursts. A burst is the simultaneous ejection of Np

spherical particles of radius R and density p. Bursts are events

that are instantaneous and repeat every time interval t b , as

illustrated in Fig. 1. During a burst, Np particles are ejected at once.

The time of the rst burst is dened as t 0. The time of the last

burst is denoted Tl, an input parameter of the model. The number

of bursts Nb is then given by T l =t b . The total number of particles

N that are ejected during the full simulated eruption is therefore

N Nb Np .

!

Each ejected particle is characterized by its offset position r e

!

with respect to the center of the vent, and its initial velocity v e .

!

with a given initial velocity, it follows a parabolic trajectory r t,

due to gravity, until it reaches the ground or collides with another

airborne particle. In the present study we disregard the effect of

the drag force. One reason is to better highlight, in a simple

situation, the role of collisions compared to the situation without

collisions. Secondly, neglecting the drag force allows us to signicantly speed up the simulations by using the DES approach

discussed in Section 2.3. Computation speed is important as we

need to perform a large number of simulations to sample the

space of possibilities.

The landing position of a particle on the ground is obtained by

!

solving the equation G r t 0, where Gx; y; z 0 is the relation

describing the ground prole. If Gx; y; z is a simple function (e.g.

Gx; y; z z z0 as we use here), the time of the impact and its

location can be computed analytically.

To solve the collision process, we use standard classical

!

mechanics. Let us denote by r i t the trajectory of particle i, with

radius Ri. The pair of particles (i, j) that will collide rst is

determined. This is the pair for which the solution of

!

!

j r i t r j tj rRi Rj yields the smallest time t which is not

smaller than current time.

This time t can be computed analytically for any pair of

parabolic trajectories. For instance, let us consider particles

1 and 2:

!

!0 !0

r 1 t r 1 v 1 t

!

t 1 12 g t

t 1 2

!

!0 !0

r 2 t r 2 v 2 t

!

t 2 12 g t

t 2 2

!0

where ti is the time at which particle i is ejected from position r i

!0

!

with velocity v i , and g 0; 0; 9:81 is the gravity. It is then

!

!

easy to show that r 1 t r 2 t is a linear function in time:

!

r 1 t

! !

!

r 2 t a b t

with

Fig. 1. Input parameters. (a) Rotation angle (), inclination angle () and azimuth

angle (). (b) Displacement of ejection point from the vent center r e x0 ; y0 ; 0.

(c) Parameters related to bursts such as number of bursts (Nb) and number of

particles per burst (Np). Burst time interval t b is the time between tb0 and tb1

(t b t b1 t b0 ). Time of last burst Tl is given deterministically and the number of

bursts Nb is controlled by burst time interval t b .

! !0

a r1

!0

r2

!0

!0

!

v 1 t 1 v 2 t 2 12 g t 21

!0

v2

!

g t 1

t 22

and

! !0

b v1

t2

64

Table 1

Parameter notation, distributions and inputs. represents average and s represents standard deviation. N ; s indicates normal ( Gaussian) distribution dened by the

mean and the standard deviation s. Note that when a value out of range (e.g. p o 0) is generated, it is re-drawn. U(min, max) indicates uniform distribution between the

minimum min and the maximum max.

Parameter

Notation

3

Distribution

Input

p , sp

p N p ; s2p

D 2R

!

v j v ej

D N D ; s2D

N 0; s

U0; 2

x0 N 0; s2r

Rotation angle (deg., rotation from vertical axis)

Inclination angle (deg.), from vertical axis)

Azimuth angle (deg.)

Displacement of ejection points from the vent center (m)

D , sD

v , s v

v N v ; s2v

h

Deterministic A 0;

sr

x0

!

B C

r e @ y0 A

0

Np

N p N Np ; s2Np

N p , s N p

Number of bursts

Total number of particles

Burst time interval (s)

Nb

N

t b

N b T l =t b

N Np Nb

t b N t b ; s2t b

t b , stb

Tl

Deterministic T l A 0; 1

Tl

Table 2

Values of input parameters for our analysis (from Vanderkluysen et al., 2012;

Chouet et al., 1974; Blackburn et al., 1976; Patrick et al., 2007).

Parameter

Unit

3

Input

Value

1450

Particle density

kg/m

Particle diameter

m/s

sP

sD

Rotation angle

Displacement of ejection points

from the vent center

Number of particles per burst

deg.

deg.

m

sv

s

sr

N p

sN p

t b

st b

Tl

!

r 1 t

!

r 2 t

2

500

0.5

0.3

40

10

5

0

10

20

0

0.1

0

10

R1 R2 2 becomes

!2

a

! ! !2

R1 R2 2 2 a b t b t 2 0

Note that since we do not discretize the time variable t, the

probability to have a triple collision, or several simultaneous pair

collisions, can be neglected.

The collision between the two selected particles is supposed to

be instantaneous. Conservation of momentum, combined with the

fraction of energy lost in the collision (given by the restitution

coefcient CR), is needed to compute the new velocity of the two

particles after collision.

!

!

Let us call v 1 and v 2 the pre-collision velocities of the two

particles. It is then well known (Landau and Lifshitz, 1976) that the

problem can be solved by projecting the velocities on the unit

!

vector e connecting the center of the two particles and the

perpendicular direction. It can be shown that the following

!

!

relations denes the post-collision velocities v 1 and v 2 :

!

! !

v 1 V 1 e v 1

! !!

v1 ee

!

! !

v 2 V 2 e v 2

! !!

v2 ee

y0 N 0; s2r

with

! ! ! !

v1 e v2 e ! !

v1 e

m1 =m2 1

! ! ! !

1 C R v 2 e v 1 e ! !

v2 e

V2

m2 =m1 1

V 1

1 C R

The above model can be efciently implemented using a DES

method (Banks and Nelson, 2010). The DES approach is very

commonly used in the modeling and simulation of systems

characterized by events that occur at well dened moment in

time. Once such an event has occurred, the time of the next one

can be computed precisely from the knowledge of the current

situation.

Technically, a DES simulator consists of a state and a queue

of future events. A state consists of the current simulation time t

and the values of the variables describing the system at this time.

Events in the queue are processed until the queue becomes

empty. When an event is processed, all states are updated and the

events in the queue are modied by removing existing events or

creating and inserting new events. Simulation time jumps from

the time of one event to the time of next event. The list of events in

the queue is always kept sorted by increasing time of occurrence,

so that the next event to be processed is the rst in the queue.

In our ballistic model, the state of the system is composed of

(1) the current time, (2) the list of airborne particles, and (3) the

list of deposited particles. Within these lists, each particle includes

its density, diameter, position and velocity.

There are three types of events in our model: Burst (ejection of

Np particles), Collision and Deposition. Between events, trajectories are calculated analytically and new collision and deposition

events can be obtained.

At the initialization, the event queue is lled with exogenous

events, i.e. events which are caused by the external effects (here

the burst). On the contrary, events which are caused by the

internal evolution of the system are called endogenous events

(here the collision and deposition).

At the beginning of the simulation all the particle ejections

(burst events) are inserted in the event queue. Then all the

collision and deposition times are computed according to the

analytical formulas. All these events are added to the event queue

while preserving the time ordering.

65

airborne list to the deposition list, with the proper time and

location of the event. The event is discarded from the list. The

simulation jumps to the next event.

When collisions take place, the position and velocities of the

two colliding particles are modied according to the momentum

conservation law and the value of the restitution coefcient. Based

on these new velocities, the collision and deposition events

involving the two particles are updated. This means discarding

the collisions which were planned if these two particles had not

collided, and adding new collisions that may occur between these

two particles and all the others.

3.1. Impact of collision on the deposition area

Our model can simulate ballistic transport with or without

collisions. Fig. 2(a) shows an example where collisions are ignored,

even if particles get close enough. Fig. 2(b) shows a similar

situation where collisions are enabled. We can observe that, with

collisions, the traveled distance of the particles is increased.

This is conrmed by Fig. 3 which shows the spatial distribution

of the deposited particles on a at ground prole. The black circles

divide the area around the crater into two regions where 75% and

99% of the particles have landed when collisions are enabled (red

triangle). Green squares correspond to the ground deposition of

the particles when collisions are disabled. The parameters of this

simulation are those in Table 2, except for the particle diameter

which is xed to 1 m and the total number of particles is N 2000.

A typical scenario that explains the increase of the traveled

distance is shown in Fig. 4. A small particle from a previous burst is

falling back to the ground when it is hit by a larger particle just

ejected during a more recent burst. As a result, the small particle is

strongly deviated from its initial trajectory. Similar situations may

also occur between particles of the same mass, as is the case in

Fig. 3, but yet with a lesser effect than shown in Fig. 4.

3.2. Parameter study

The distribution of impacts on the ground when collisions are

allowed depends on the parameters of the simulation. In this

section we investigate the reasons that make particles y farther

away when collisions occur. We consider simulations with the

parameters given in Table 2, except for the parameter whose

importance is investigated.

Total number of particles: The role of the total number N of

particles is considered in Fig. 5. To modify N, the number of bursts

is increased but Np, the number of particles per burst, is still given

by the normal distribution of mean Np and standard deviation

sNp . Fig. 5 shows, for each value of N, the distance to the crater

where a given percentage of the particle has been deposited. The

cases with and without collisions are indicated. In the latter case,

the spatial distribution of the particle is independent of N as

expected.

As already noticed, when collisions are allowed, the spatial

distribution of the ballistic impacts is expanded. A reason is that

the total number of collision increases with N and the traveled

distance tends to increase with the total number of collisions.

However, this is not so simple and we will see below that a particle

experiencing too many collisions does not travel very far. What is

important to enlarge the deposition area is to have many particles

that experience only one or two collisions while airborne.

Burst time interval: The deposition distance of the collisionallowed case is sensitive to the time interval between bursts. This

Fig. 2. Illustrations of the ballistic trajectories of 1000 particles for (a) an eruption

without collisions and (b) an eruption with collisions. Different particles are shown

with different colors. (For interpretation of the references to color in this gure

caption, the reader is referred to the web version of this paper.)

(a) indicates the spatial distribution of the deposits. For short time

interval t b , the total number of collisions is important, as shown in

Fig. 6(b), thus explaining the increase of the deposition range.

If t b is increased to about 10 s, the deposition distances

observed with and without collisions become almost the same.

The number of inter-burst collisions also goes to zero for such

values of t b . This suggests that the important events to increase

the travel distance are the collisions between particles ejected

with a time lag, as in the scenario of Fig. 4.

It is easy to explain why, for time intervals larger than 10 s, the

inter-burst collisions disappear. In our simulation we choose the

average ejection speed to be ve 40 m=s. Thus, the expected

deposition time td of a particle with such an initial velocity is

t d 2ve =g 8:15 s, where g is the gravity acceleration. Therefore, if

bursts are separated by about 10 s, almost all particles will have

landed before the next burst.

In Ripepe et al. (1993) the change of mass ux as a function of

time is reported for a Strombolian eruption. If the frequency of the

change of mass ux is interpreted as the frequency of the bursts,

the burst time interval of ballistics in the 19851986 Stromboli

eruption is around 0.52.0 s. This is clearly shorter than the travel

time of a particle ejected with an initial velocity of 40 m/s.

Therefore, it is possible to have collisions between particles in

successive bursts of a Strombolian eruption.

Additionally, Vanderkluysen et al. (2012) reported that 12% of

particles experienced inter-particle collisions in Stromboli 2008

eruption. It means that bursts occurred from 0.5 to 1.0 s of time

interval according to the results shown in Fig. 6(b). This number

agrees with Ripepe et al. (1993) as discussed above.

66

collisions and travel distance is demonstrated in Fig. 7. The

number of collisions increases monotonically with the particle

diameter (see Fig. 7(a)). As the particle size increases, the travel

distance increases until a diameter of 150 cm. Then, the travel

distance decreases (see Fig. 7(b)). We suggest that as the particle

diameter increases, the number of collisions each particle experiences increases. As shown below, this is a factor limiting the

traveled distance.

Restitution coefcient: The restitution coefcient CR is a parameter that changes the velocity after the collision due to the

Symbols correspond to the deposition of single particles. Green squares indicate

particle deposition when collisions are ignored. Blue circles indicate deposition for

particles which did not collide even when collisions are allowed. Red triangles

indicate deposition of particles having experienced a collision. Contours indicate

the percentage of deposited particles within the contour: solid lines correspond to

the case where collisions are allowed, and dashed lines for the case where

collisions are ignored.

work. For this reason, we study all possible values of CR from CR 0

(totally inelastic collision) to CR 1 (totally elastic collision).

According to the travel distances shown in Fig. 8 for various

restitution coefcients, one observes that particles travel farther

in the collision-enabled case than in collision-disabled case, even

when the restitution coefcient goes to zero. The travel distance is

observed to increase almost linearly with CR.

Relation between collisions and travel distance: As a general rule,

we have observed that a particle which travels far collides only a

few times before landing. Note that the total number of collisions

(M) and the average number of collisions per particle (m) have to

be distinguished. The relation between them is typically as

follows: with a small total number of collisions M, one has a small

number of particles that experience only one collision, thus m o 1.

As M increases, more particles will experience one collision

(m-1), up to the point where many particles experience many

collisions (m 4 2). That is why we argue that the deposition area

rst increases with M, and then decreases.

total number N of particles ejected by the volcano. Cases with and without collision

are shown.

Fig. 4. Illustration of the trajectories of a two-particle collision. The light particle (white circle) has a mass of 3 kg, and is ejected at time t 1 0 with speed 56 m/s. The heavy

one (black disk) has a mass of 81 kg and is ejected at time t 2 4:8 s, with speed 68 m/s. Panel (a) shows the trajectories before collision (solid lines) and the trajectories that

would be followed if collision is ignored (dashed lines). Panel (b) shows the positions of the particles at the moment of the collision, at time t 7.6 s. The dashed lines show

their trajectories after collision. Just before collision, the light particle has a velocity of 16.6 m/s and the heavy one a velocity of 41.1 m/s. After collision, the speed of the light

particle is 72.2 m/s and the speed of the heavy one is 38.7 m/s.

Fig. 6. (a) Deposition distance versus burst time interval. (b) Number of different

group collisions versus burst time interval.

small particle is likely to increase the deposition distance of the

small particle. Accordingly, we have analyzed the relationship

between the number of collisions that a single particle experiences

and its deposition distance. We have also studied this relationship

as a function of the particle mass.

As shown in Fig. 9(a) the deposition distance decreases as a

given particle is subject to an increasing number of collisions. The

most favorable event to travel far is to experience one or two

collisions. Particles that collide more than 10 times do not go

farther than 200 m. Particles that deposit farther than 500 m

typically experienced less than 6 collisions.

The relationship between particle mass and deposition distance

for each particle is shown in Fig. 9(b). The deposition distance

decreases as the particle mass increases. The particle that traveled

the farthest has collided only once and has a mass 1.9 kg. Its travel

distance is 1900 m. In addition, we observe that the particles which

travel more than 500 m have a mass smaller than 50 kg. Particles

with a mass larger than 500 kg typically stay within 100 m of the

vent. This supports the interpretation that light particles travel

farther by receiving the large momentum from the heavy ones.

Without collisions, and provided that all particles are ejected

from the crater with the same speed, the mass distribution in the

landing area would be uniform. Therefore, if a non-uniform spatial

distribution of the mass of particles is observed around the crater,

as in Fig. 9(b), this could be a sign of the occurrence of airborne

collisions.

67

Fig. 7. (a) Number of collisions versus particle diameter. (b) Changes in deposition

distance of collision-allowed cases and no-collision-allowed cases as a function of

the particle diameter.

Fig. 8. Changes in deposition distance for the cases with and without collisions as a

function of the restitution coefcient.

Note that some papers (e.g. Rosi et al., 2006; Wright et al.,

2007) proposed to estimate the velocities of ballistics from the

deposition distance. If collisions may occur during the ight in the

air, such a calculation can no longer be considered. Direct

measurement of the ejection speed is therefore recommended

unless one can exclude the presence of collisions.

68

experience pulsating activity at vent. As an example, Ripepe

et al. (2013) have shown how the eruptive plume generated

during the Eyjafjallajkull 2010 eruption (Iceland) was characterized by discrete pulses injected into the atmosphere every 20 s for

56 s each. Pulsating eruptive behavior at source has already been

observed during other volcanic eruptions of various magma

compositions (e.g. Ruapehu, Bonadonna et al., 2005; Cerro Negro,

Hill et al., 1998; Etna, Vergniolle and Ripepe, 2008; Andronico

et al., 2008). However, it is expected that Strombolian particles

may experience a signicant drag force due to their vesicular

nature. Therefore, our model may well overestimate the actual

travel distance.

4. Conclusions

We have implemented three-dimensional ballistic simulations

taking into account the collisions between particles. As much as

possible, the parameters of the model are taken from eld

observations reported in the literature for Strombolian eruptions

at Stromboli volcano.

From this model, the particle distribution on the ground can be

computed and hazard maps, which accounts for inter-particles

collisions, can be produced.

To our knowledge, this is the rst study which investigates the

effect of collisions on the size of the deposition area around the crater

and performs a sensitivity analysis. As we assume parabolic trajectories for the bombs, we can compute analytically the collision

events and efciently implement our model with a DES method.

From our analysis of the simulation results, we conclude that

Fig. 9. (a) Deposition distance versus the number of collisions experienced by each

particle during a simulation. (b) Deposition distance versus the mass of each

particle. The results of ten simulation runs are merged in the plot.

Although we neglected the drag force in this study, some

comments can be made. By using the same simulation conditions

as before (see Table 2), we have computed that the travel distance

of a particle subject to a drag force is reduced by about 2050%,

depending on its size. On the other hand, the present study

(Figs. 58) demonstrated that collisions extend the travel distances

by a factor of two to six. From these gures, we can conclude that

collisions have a larger potential to modify the travel distance than

the drag force. When both collisions and drag affect the trajectories of the particles, we can argue that collisions will increase

the travel distance with respect to the situation where only the

drag force is present. However, this distance cannot be quantied

without performing detailed simulations. This will be considered

in a forthcoming paper.

3.4. Applicability of the model to various types of eruption

As discussed in Section 3.2, the most relevant parameter that

governs the collision rate is the time interval between bursts.

Consequently, Strombolian eruptions are the most likely explosive

events to be subject to inter-particle collisions. However, it is

expected that Strombolian fragments may experience a signicant

drag force due to their vesicular nature, in which case, our model

would overestimate the actual travel distance. Recently, it has

interval. The most efcient collisions happen between particles

ejected in different bursts.

2. Effects of inter-particle collisions is most important for explosive volcanic eruptions characterized by pulsating behavior at

source (e.g. Strombolian, violent Strombolian, long-lasting

Vulcanian eruptions).

3. The travel distance of the particles increases with the total

number of collisions up to the point where individual particles

experience more than a few of them. Too many collisions per

particles have a neutralizing effects.

4. The mechanism that makes a particle travel farther when it

experiences a collision is the transfer of momentum that occurs

during the impact. The favorable events are those where the

speeds of the colliding particles form an angle close to 1801.

The effect is enhanced when the mass of the particle going up

is larger than the mass of the particle going down.

5. The spatial distribution of the mass of deposited particles is

affected by the presence of collisions. This distribution can then

be studied to assess the existence of collision during the

eruption. As a consequence, if collision is dominant, the

deposition distance cannot be used to derive important eruption parameters, such as the exit speed.

6. The increase of the travel distance is visible for any value of the

restitution coefcient. However, the increase is more pronounced when the kinetic energy is conserved (CR 1).

7. The effect of collisions on the travel distance of the particles is

as signicant in magnitude as the drag effect, but in an opposite

direction.

References

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