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H-07

Graz University of Technology

Institute of High Voltage Engineering and System Management

Inffeldgasse 18, 8010 Graz, Austria

surname@hspt.tu-graz.ac.at

Abstract: The dielectric response function of an circuit of an insulation system and the measured

electric insulation system can be determined by the currents during insulation resistance test according to

measurement of the polarization and depolarization [1].

current (PDC). Beside partial discharge and dissipation

factor measurements the time domain dielectric The total current of insulation resistance measurements

response function can be taken to gain information is the sum of leakage, conductance, capacitance and

about the aging process and the condition of the absorption current, according to equation {1}. The

insulation medium. The best results for the condition quantitative characteristic of each is illustrated in

evaluation can be achieved at the frequency domain figure 2.

description in the shape of the complex capacitance and

dissipation factor. For this reason the dielectric response I T = IC + IG + IL + IA …{1}

function has to be converted with the Discrete Fourier

Transformation (DFT).

determine the water content of oil-paper systems in

transformers. This paper should give a view to PDC

measurements at insulation systems for rotating

machines and the implication for the condition

evaluation. First results of the diagnosis with the PDC

method are discussed and a comparison to classical

dielectric measurements is given.

evaluate the condition of electric insulation systems,

different standards were state of the art, e.g. the testing

of the insulation resistance [1] or the dissipation factor. Figure 2: Types of currents at DC resistance

The test methods can be divided in AC tests with (0.1) measurement of insulation systems [1]

50/60 Hz or higher and DC methods.

The absorption current decays at a decreasing rate. The

current vs. time relationship is a function according to

equation {2}; it may be plotted as a straight line on a

double logarithmic scale graph.

IA = K. t –n …{2}

IA … absorption Current

K … function (insulation system, test voltage)

t … time of applied direct voltage

n … characteristic function of insulation system

Figure 1: Equivalent circuit and DC currents for

insulation systems [1] The absorption current consists of two components,

which are due to the polarization of the impregnating

The most popular dielectric measurements were materials and the gradual drift of electrons and ions

dissipation factor, insulation resistance (polarization through most organic materials. Organic molecules,

index) and partial discharge test. Beside these there such as epoxy, polyester, and asphalt, tend to change

were also the absorption (polarization) current, orientation in the presence of a direct electric field. It

conduction current, geometric capacitance current and usually takes several minutes after application of the

surface leakage current. Figure 1 shows the equivalent electric field for the molecules to become reoriented.

1

Proceedings of the XIVth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering,

Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, August 25-29, 2005

H-07

The conduction current in well-bonded polyester and behaviour depends on the geometry and insulation

epoxy-mica insulation systems normally is zero unless conditions.

the insulation has become saturated with moisture.

The time domain response function is converted to the

The surface leakage current is constant over time, where frequency domain description, the Discrete Fourier

a high level can be caused by moisture or some other Transformation (DFT) is applied [4]:

type of partly conductive contamination present in the

machine. − id (t )

f (t ) =

C0 ⋅U 0 f (ω ) = ∫ f (t ) ⋅ e − jωt dt

The quantity of each current is dependant of the used

insulation materials and factors as geometrical

arrangement. The characteristic of the total current The advantage of this mathematical procedure is that

admits statements about the condition of the insulation the frequency domain is a complex description of the

system. E.g. a low percentage of the leakage and/or response function where the parameters conductivity,

conduction current can be interpreted as cleanliness and permittivity and polarization can be described according

dryness, if the windings were wet or contaminated the to the formula:

absorption current is relatively smaller. For clean and κ + ωε 0ε r ″

dry rotating machine insulation, the insulation tan δ = tan δ L + tan δ POL =

resistance is between about 30 s and a few minutes ωε 0ε r ′

primarily determined by the absorption current.

ε r * = ε r ′ − jε r ″ {3}

Dielectric Response Function with: κ … conductivity, tan δ … dissipation factor, εr*

… complex permittivity

The measurement of dielectric response function and its

interpretation for the condition evaluation is a very old The dissipation factor can be expressed according to

method. Beginning in the year 1889 [2] physicist started {3} where the conductivity and the real part of the

to investigate the polarisation and depolarisation complex permittivity show a very low dependence to

behaviour of insulants. In 1927 a contribution about the frequency. The imaginary part has a strong dependence

anomaly of dielectrics was mathematical described. The to frequency caused of different polarization mechanism

so called Curie - von Schweidler Law [3] describes the in the insulating medium. The results of a simulation for

dependence of currents during polarization and the variation of the parameters κ, c´ and c´´ are

depolarization as linear function in double logarithmic illustrated in figure 4 and 5. The rise of the conductivity

scale. The theory and results from measurements are causes a change in the shape of the tan δ function in the

shown in figure 3. lower frequency area. The process of a rising

conductivity should be characteristic for degradation of

the insulating medium. The rise of c´ and c´´ proceeds

in the opposite way. A rising of c´, which can be

interpreted as a rise of the relative permittivity, causes a

parallel decrease of tan δ and vice versa for c´´.

system at the PDC method is measured in time domain.

The polarization and depolarization current in

Figure 4: Variation of dissipation factor in dependence

dependence of time is recorded, transformed and

evaluated. Several measurements have shown that the of conductance κ

so called Curie - von Schweidler law does not meet this

behavior in real, because dielectrics were heterogeneous Up to now there were many considerations done about

possible connection between the dielectric relaxation

2

Proceedings of the XIVth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering,

Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, August 25-29, 2005

H-07

and condition or residual disruptive strength of the higher temperature disturbs the orientation process as

insulation medium, but all this expectations could not well as the dipoles can not follow the field at high

be fulfilled, no physical parameter is known which can frequencies [5]. The parallel linked Ri and Ci describe

represents an absolute parameter. For this reason the further polarization effects, Ri delays the polarisation

dielectric parameter κ and εr´ were taken into account and depolarisation processes of the serial linked Ci.

for the evaluation of the measurements.

Test Objects and Measurements

technology. The generator bars were in operation in

different periods of time. The preparation of the test

objects and arrangement of the measuring equipment

can be seen in figure 7. The PDC measurements were

done periodically approximately all 100 h.

Test Voltage

CX Measuring Air Gap

Electrode

of parameters c´ and c´´

Grounded Electrodes

bar insulation several serial and parallel resistances and Figure 7: Preparation of generator bars and connection

capacitances can be observed (pancake model). This of power supply test lead for dielectric measurements

insulation system is built of two components: mica tape

and resin. The R0 represents the geometric resistance, The air gap was necessary to separate the geometric

C0 the vacuum capacitance and Ri, Ci the polarization resistance and vacuum capacitance of the total

mechanism. The size of these parameters is determined resistance and capacitance values (with generator bar

by the proportion of the used components. The per cent ends) on the one hand and on the other to prevent

by volume of mica at resin rich bars is about 70% and at leakage currents.

VPI bars 85-95%. The dielectric strength is mainly

destined by the electric field strength and the resulting Results

voltage distribution. Figure 6 illustrates the electric field

strength in the material components resin and mica tape For the evaluation of the test results the polarization and

(left) and the equivalent circuit with the parallel linked depolarization currents, the complex capacitance,

geometric resistances and vacuum capacitances (right). insulation resistance, dissipation factors were

investigated in detail. In diagram 1 the depolarization

currents of one generator bar in dependence of load

time was observed. The current shows an almost linear

decreasing characteristic. In dependence of load time

the Depolarization current were rising.

equivalent circuit of heterogeneous dielectrics

This equivalent circuit meets the theory of the Maxwell Diagram 1: Depolarization Currents

two-layer model: The dissipation factor is dependant on

the temperature and the power frequency for a dielectric In diagram 2 the insulation resistances of the same

with orientation polarization; a temperature rise is generator bar were shown in dependence of load and

equivalent to a decrease of the power frequency. A measuring time. The Resistances were calculated:

3

Proceedings of the XIVth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering,

Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, August 25-29, 2005

H-07

R´´ values are illustrated because of the very small

differences between R´ and R´´. From this diagram the

Polarization Index (PI) could be calculated. For all

curves the PI was within the demanded values

according to the standard [1]. According to the Current

measurements the insulation resistances had the similar

behaviour. In dependence of load time the resistances

get smaller and smaller.

Conclusions

calculation of dielectric parameters can be summarized

as follows:

Diagram 2: Insulation Resistances dissipation factor in dependence of resistivity and

complex capacitance were met very well. The resistance

In diagram 3 the real part of the complex capacitance is of the generator bars falls, the complex capacitance

shown. The c´ rises with load time in the lower raised with load time. The mathematical formulation of

frequency areas. At higher frequency there was almost dissipation factor according to equation 3 is confirmed.

no change in quantity.

It was observed that the generator bars fail out without

sudden. This behaviour can be interpreted that the

mechanism which causes the damage and finally the fall

out happens very fast.

electrical insulation system can be observed. It is an

integrative method, for this reason no absolute

statements (as a withstand voltage test or PD

measurement enables) about the condition of the

observed system can be done. It is important to do

periodical measurements.

Diagram 3: Complex Capacitances, Real Part

The PDC method can be applied at generator bars in

The processes of aging concerning the imaginary part of general. The application to measure a whole winding

the complex capacitance is shown in diagram 4. The respectively a whole generator has to be verified. Future

curves rise with load time over the whole frequency measurement should show

area. The dissipation factor in dependence of load time

is illustrated in the diagram 5. The curves show a rising References

behaviour with load time over the total frequency area. [1] IEEE Std 43-2000, Recommended Practice for

Testing Insulation Resistance of Rotating Machinery

[2] J. Curie, Recherches sur la Conductibilite des Corps

Cristallises, Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 1889

[3] E. von Schweidler, Studien über die Anomalien im

Verhalten der Dielektrika, Annalen der Physik 1907,

24, 711-770

[4] A. Helgeson, Analysis of Dielectric Response

Measurement Methods and Dielectric Properties of

Resin-Rich Insulation During Processing, Doctor

Thesis, Kungl Tekniska Högskolan Stockholm Sweden,

2000, ISSN 1100-1593

[5] A. Küchler, Hochspannungstechnik, VDI Verlag

Diagram 4: Complex Capacitances, Imaginary Part 1996, ISBN 3-18-401530-0

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