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Institute of Human Resource Advancement

University of Colombo

Masters Degree in Human Resource Management

Course No.05/ Batch I

Assignment on Psychology & Counseling


Scientific Aspect of
Human Behavior and Psychology

Student Name

: U.G. Shriyani Chandralatha

Student Number

: MHRM/05/B1/38

Date :


Psychology can be defined as both a natural science and a social science. On the other
hand, Psychology is the study of mental processes, behaviour and the relationship
between them.
Mental processes include skills, reasoning, emotions, and motivation. In psychology, we
learn how humans and other organisms think, understand, learn, feel, perceive, act and
interact with others. As the psychology encompasses human and social issues as well as
biological and physiological issues, it is considered as both a natural and social science.
As a Natural Science, it is concerned with the laws of nature.
As a social science, psychology deals with the study of the laws of thought, feelings, and
behaviours of humans and other living things.
The focus of psychology is generally on the individual, whether alone or interaction with
others and the environment. Psychology shares a focus on human behavior with other
social-scientific disciplines such as sociology and anthropology.
Sociology is an exciting and illumination field of study analyzes and explain important
matters in our personal lives, our societies, our environment and the world.
Anthropological study and training provide the knowledge, skills and tools to work with
people, study the past, and shape the future.
Who are Psychologists ?
Psychologists are experts in human behavior and emotion with practical skills and
research skills that can be applied to a variety of fields such as health, education and
management. Clinical psychologists help the patients with the diagnosis and treatment of
mental illnesses across life span. Psychologists help people to overcome their troubles
and find ways of functioning better. Moreover, they train people to handle stress and
family problems. Today, the new generation is very anxious to study psychology a as
subject for their higher education.

Counseling :
Counseling focuses on clients concerns and difficulties

Mental Health:
Mental Health is defined as a state of well-being in which every individual realizes his or
her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and
fruitfully and is able to make a contribution to her or his community.
Mental Health refers to a broad array of activities directly or indirectly related to the
mental well-being component included in the WHOs definition of health. A state of
complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease
According to WHO, it is related to the promotion of well-being, the prevention of mental
disorders and the treatment and rehabilitation of people affected by mental disorders.
WHO stated that, mental disorders comprise a broad range of problems with different
symptoms and however they are generally characterized by some combination of
abnormal thoughts, emotions, behavior and relationships with others. They have given
some examples as Schizophrenia, depression, mental retardation and disorders due to
drug abuse. However, most of these disorders can be successfully treated. (Source:

World Mental Health Day

WHO has introduced a World Mental Health Day and it is on 10 th October every year
with the overall objective of raising awareness of mental health issues around the world
and mobilizing efforts in support of mental health.
The day provides an opportunity for all stakeholders working on mental health issues to
talk about their work and what more needs to be done to make mental health care a
reality for people worldwide.

The theme for year 2014 is Living with Schizophrenia. According to the WHO the
focus will be living a healthy life with schizophrenia.

10 Facts on Mental Health

According to World Health Organization, there are 10 facts relating to mental health.
Fact 1 :

Around 20% of the worlds children and adolescents have mental

disorders or problems.

Fact 2 :

Mental and substance use disorders are the leading cause of disabilith

Fact 3 :

About 800,000 people commit suicide every year.

Fact 4 :

War and disasters have a large impact on mental health and psychosocial

Fact 5 :

Mental disorders are important risk factors for other disease, as well as
unintentional and intentional injury.

Fact 6 :

Stigma and discrimination against patients and families prevent people

from seeking mental health care.

Fact 7 :

Human rights violations of people with mental and psychosocial disabilith

are routinely reported in most countries.

Fact 8 :

Globally there is huge inequity in the distribution of skilled human

resources for mental health.

Fact 9 :

There are five key barriers to increasing mental health services


Fact 10:

Financial resources to increase services are relatively modest.

Mental Health in Sri Lankans

One in ten people suffer from some type of mental illness or trauma in Sri Lanka
according to the statistics of WHO. The study of WHO had found that the causes for
mental illness in Sri Lanka were both varied and complex, though most professionals
believe that the thirty year conflict and the 2004 tsunami were among the more
significant events that had been the causes for mental health issues in the country.

According to national mental health data, two in every 100 people in Sri Lanka will
experience a serious mental illness such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However
mental problems can be treated so and that people can recover from them in full and
hopefully lead normal lives, officials said. Nearly 80% of these patients, once treated,
will go on to make a full recovery they said, although social stigma was one of the
biggest barriers faced by such persons. The stigma faced by mental patients can make it
awfully difficult for them to motivate themselves to get better.

A mental disorder (also known as psychological disorders) are illnesses that affect the
mind and reduces a persons ability to function, to adjust to change, or to get along with
Mental disorders are diseases that affect cognition, emotion and behavioural control and
substantially interfere both with the ability of children to learn and with the ability of
adults to function in their families, at work, and in the broader society.
Mental experts see abnormal thoughts, feelings, or behaviours as signs of symptoms of a
mental disorder.

Causes of Mental Disorders

Some factors that can cause mental disorders are:

Physical factors
Early experiences
Recent experiences

Physical Factors

: Damage to the brain may cause a mental disorder.


: A person may inherit a tendency towards a mental disorder.

Early Experiences

: Extremely negative experiences that occur early in life can lead to

mental illnesses.

Recent experiences

: Some mental health experts think that recent experiences are

more likely than early experiences to trigger a mental disorder.

Common Mental Disorders among Teenagers

Many teenagers today face a great deal of problems and often develop serious mental
health problems. Adolescence is one of the most troublesome periods of ones life and
with very less or limited experience in the life span, they have to move into the society.
When they have to cope with unusual situations with individuals or group, sometimes
without proper guidance, they will not be able to succeed. Mental disorders among teens
are very common now and for past few years, it has been reported that some teenagers,
especially schoolchildren have committed suicide due to various situations, which are
identified as unbearable to them.
School Counselors, professional counselors and psychiatrists help teens to overcome their
problems and aide them in coping with their surroundings.
In the Sri Lanka context, there are competitive examinations for year five scholarship,
and Advanced Level. On the other hand, teens have to face for the ordinary level
examination for 09 subjects including 05 compulsory subjects and 04 optional subjects.
Now there is a self-competition among ordinary level students for achieving grade As
for all subjects or more subjects. Parents also have hopes for highest results of their
children and teachers and close relations have a great demand on highest results of their
belonging ones. Due to the competition and the high desires in the education, teen
students are burning with high stress.