Você está na página 1de 26

Chng 11.

Tnh h thanh siu tnh bng phng php lc

Chng 11. TNH H THANH SIU TNH


BNG PHNG PHP LC
I. KHI NIM C BN

H tnh nh (HT): s lin kt = s phng trnh cn bng tnh hc.


H siu tnh (HST) l h c s lin kt nhiu hn s phng trnh cn
bng tnh hc. H siu tnh l h bt bin hnh v c cc lin kt tha. Bc
siu tnh ca h c tnh bng s lin kt tha. S lin kt tha ca mt
h c th l lin kt ngoi (lin kt cn thit gi cho h c c nh)
hay lin kt ni (lin kt gia cc phn i vi nhau trong cng mt h)
So vi h tnh nh, HST c nhng c im sau:
Ni lc trong HST phn b u hn, ng sut v bin dng nh hn
so vi HT c cng kch thc v ti trng.
HST c nhc im l d pht sinh cc ng sut khi nhit thay
i, khi c ln cc gi ta, gia cng lp ghp khng chnh xc.
Khi nhng lin kt tha b h hng th h vn khng b ph loi, v
khi h vn bt bin hnh hc.
V d: Hnh 11.1a,e: h tha 2 lin kt ngoi: bc siu tnh ca h l 2.
Hnh 11.1b: h tha 1 lin kt ngoi: bc siu tnh ca h l 1. Hnh 11.1c:
h tha 3 lin kt ngoi v 3 lin kt ni: bc siu tnh l 6. Hnh 11.1d: h
tha 3 lin kt ni, bc siu tnh ca h l 3.
Khung khp kn (hnh 1.1f) siu tnh bc ba. V mun ni phn (A) v
(B), cn 3 lin kt n hoc 1 khp v 1 lin kt n hay thay ba lin kt n
bng mi hn cng (hnh 11.1g,h).

a)

e)

b)

f)

d)

c)

g)

(A)

(B)

(A)

(B)

h)

Hnh 11.1

Khi nim lin kt tha ch c tnh qui c. Bi v m bo cho h


bt bin hnh th chng l tha, nhng s c mt ca chng s to cho kt
cu c cng cao hn v do , lm vic tt hn so vi h tnh nh. Sau
y ta gii HST bng phng php lc.
11.1

Chng 11. Tnh h thanh siu tnh bng phng php lc

II. GII H SIU TNH BNG PHNG PHP LC


1. H c bn ca HST
l mt HT c c t HST cho bng cch b bt cc lin kt tha.
HST c th c nhiu h c bn (hnh 11.2).
l
l

(a)

(c)

(b)

Hnh 11.2

Cn ch rng:
l
Sau khi b cc lin
kt tha, h phi m bo
l
tnh bt bin hnh ca n.
Ch c php gim
bt cc lin kt n ch
(c)
khng c php thm
(a)
(b)
lin kt n vo mt mt
Hnh 11.3
ct bt k.
V d: h trn hnh 11.3b, c khng phi l h c bn ca h trn hnh
11.3a, v n s bin hnh.
2. HT tng ng
HT tng ng vi HST cho khi bin dng v chuyn v ca
chng hon ton ging nhau.
HT tng ng l h c bn chn ca HST: cc lin kt tha biu
din phn lc lin kt (hnh 11.4). Phn lc lin kt c xc nh vi iu
kin bin dng v chuyn v ca HT hon ton ging nh HST cho.

a)

c)

b)
Hnh 11.4

3. Thit lp h phng trnh chnh tc xc nh cc phn lc lin kt


Vi mi phn lc lin kt Xi ta c mt iu kin chuyn v:
11.2

Chng 11. Tnh h thanh siu tnh bng phng php lc

Gi i l chuyn v ca im t ca Xi theo phng ca Xi , gy ra do


ti trng Pi v tt c cc Xj (j = 1, 2, , n), vi n l bc siu tnh ta c:
i = i (i = 1, 2, , n)
(11.1)
y i l chuyn v ti im t ca Xi v theo phng Xi do ti trng
cho gy ra trong HST, du (+) ly khi chiu chuyn v ca i cng chiu
vi chiu ca lc Xi v ly du (-)khi chiu chuyn v ca i ngc chiu vi
chiu ca lc Xi. Trong cc trng hp thng gp nh gi c nh, di ng,
ngm th ta c i = 0. Tuy nhin c nhng trng hp i 0, chng hn gi
ta n hi.
Nu HST c n bc siu tnh n phng trnh (11.1) h phng
trnh chnh tc xc nh cc phn lc lin kt Xi (i = 1, 2, .., n):
1 = 11X1 + 12 X 2 + ... + 1n X n + 1p = 0

2 = 21X1 + 22 X 2 + ... + 2 n X n + 2p = 0

(11.2)
.............................................................
n = n1X1 + n2 X 2 + ... + nn X n + np = 0
trong : ip l chuyn v theo phng i ca h c bn do ti trng gy nn.
ik l chuyn v n v theo phng i ca h c bn do lc n v t theo
phng k gy nn.
Ta c th tnh c ip v ik theo cng thc Mo sau:
n li
n li
n li
N zi N zk
M xi M xk
M M
ik =
dz +
dz + ... + zi zk dz
EF
EJ x
GJ p
i =1 0
i =1 0
i =1 0
n li

N zi N zp

i =1 0

EF

ip =

n li

M xi M xp

i =1 0

EJ x

dz +

n li

M zi M zp

i =1 0

GJ p

dz + ... +

dz

Nu b qua nh hng ca ko-nn v xon so vi un, th ip v ik


tnh theo cng thc Mo sau (b qua ch s x, y trong cng thc):
n li
n li M M
Mi Mk
ik =
dz ; ip = i p dz
(11.3)
EJ
EJ
i =1 0
i =1 0
Sau khi xc nh c cc phn lc lin kt Xi, t cc phn lc lin kt
Xi cng vi ti trng ln h c bn mt HT tng ng.
Gii HST bng phng php lc ta c cc bc sau:
Bc 1. Xc nh bc siu tnh v chn h c bn
Bc 2. Xc nh HT tng ng bng cch t vo h c bn cc phn
lc lin kt tng ng vi cc lin kt tha b i.
Bc 3. Thit lp h phng trnh chnh tc
11.3

Chng 11. Tnh h thanh siu tnh bng phng php lc

V d 11.1: V biu ni lc ca khung nh hnh v 11.5a


q
B

C
H c bn

a
A

X1
(b)

(a)

qa2/2

(c)

X2

a
B

C
M1

MP

X1=1
(d)

(e)

a
M2

X2=1

(f)

Hnh 11.5

Gii: Khung c hai bc siu tnh, h c bn c chn nh hnh 11.5b.


HT tng ng nh trn hnh 11.5c. Phng trnh chnh tc c dng:
11X1 + 12 X 2 + 1p = 0

21X1 + 22 X 2 + 2p = 0
Biu mmen un do ti trng (Mp) nh hnh 11.5d.
p dng phng php nhn biu Versaghin ta c:
n li

3
M1M1
1 1
2
4a
dz =
11 =
.a.a. a + a.a.a =
EJ
EJ
3
3EJ x
x
x 2
i =1 0
n li

M1M 2
1 1
a3

dz =
.a.a.a

EJ x 2
2EJ x

i =1 0 EJ x

12 =
n li

M 2M 2
1 1
2
a3
=
dz =
.a.a.
a

EJ x 2
3 3EJ x
i =1 0 EJ x

22 =
n li

1p =
i =1 0

n li

2p =
i =1 0

M p M1
EJ x

dz =

MpM2
EJ x

dz =

1
EJ x

1
5qa 4
a2 3
a2
.aq.
.
a
q.
.a.a
+

=
3
2
4
2

8EJ x

1
EJ x

1
a2
qa 4
.aq.
.a

2
4EJ x
2
11.4

Chng 11. Tnh h thanh siu tnh bng phng php lc

Thay vo phng trnh chnh tc, ta c:


3 a3
1 a3
5 qa 4
3

=0
X1
X2 +

qa
X
2 EJ x
8 EJ x
4 EJ x
1
7

3
3
4
3
1
a
1
a
1
qa

= 0 X 2 = qa
X1 +
X2

2 EJ x
28
3 EJ x
4 EJ x

v biu M, N, Q ta t cc lc X1, X2 vo h c bn vi lc X1 c
chiu ngc li v kt qu mang du m. Biu M, N, Q nh hnh 11.6.

Hnh 11.6

III. TNH H SIU TNH I XNG


1. nh ngha : H i xng l h khi c t nht mt trc i xng.
H i xng chu ti trng i xng khi ti trng t ln phn ny l
nh ca ti trng t ln phn kia qua gng phng t ti trc i xng v
vung gc vi mt phng ca h.
Nu ti trng ca phn ny l nh ca phn kia nhng c chiu ngc
li th ta gi l h i xng chu ti trng phn i xng.
Hnh (11.7a,b,c) - HST
i xng, h chu ti trng
i xng, h chu ti trng
phn i xng.
2. Tnh cht (mnh )
Tng t, ni lc
b)
a)
c)
cng c tnh cht i xng
Hnh 11.7
hoc phn i xng.
Trong mt phng: Nz , Mx c tnh
Qy
Mx
i xng, Qy c tnh phn i xng
Trong khng gian: Nz, Mx, My l i
Mx
Qy
xng, Qx, Qy v Mz phn i xng.
Hnh 11.8

11.5

Chng 11. Tnh h thanh siu tnh bng phng php lc

Tnh cht ca HST i xng:


Nu mt h i xng chu ti trng
Mx
i xng th ni lc phn i xng
Nz
trn mt ct trong mt phng i
Mz
z z
xng ca h l bng khng. Ngc
Qx Q My
li nu ti trng l phn i xng th
y
y
x
x
y
ni lc i xng phi bng khng.
Ch cc nhn xt sau: Khi h
Hnh 11.9
l i xng chu ti trng i xng
th biu mmen l i xng, ngc li nu ti trng phn i xng th
biu mmen l phn i xng. Php nhn Vrsaghin gia biu i
xng v phn i xng l bng khng.
Chng minh. Gi s c HST i xng chu ti phn i xng (hnh
11.10b). Chn h c bn bng cch ct i khung. Phi chng minh cc
thnh phn ni lc i xng X1 v X2 trn mt ct l bng khng.
X1 , X2 , X3 l nghim ca phng trnh chnh tc:
11X 1 + 12 X 2 + 13 X 3 + 1p = 0

21X 1 + 22 X 2 + 23 X 3 + 2p = 0

31X 1 + 32 X 2 + 33 X 3 + 3p = 0
Pk=1
P

Pk=1

(11.4)
X2 X2
X3

Mk

(a)

Pl

X1

P
X3
l

Mm

(b)

Pl

Hnh 11.10

Biu M1 , M 2 l i xng cn biu M 3 l phn i xng nn:


13 = 31 = 23 = 32 =1p = 2p = 0
Do h phng trnh chnh tc trn thu gn li nh sau:
11X1 + 12 X 2 = 0

21X1 + 22 X 2 = 0
(11.5)
X + = 0
3p
33 3
Hai phng trnh u l mt h thng phng trnh thun nht 2 n s
nh thc khc khng X1 = X2 = 0.
11.6

Chng 11. Tnh h thanh siu tnh bng phng php lc

Tng t, khung chu lc i xng nh hnh v 11.10a. Lc biu


ti trng l i xng nn: 13 = 31 = 23 = 32 = 3P = 0
11X1 + 12 X 2 + 1p = 0

(11.6)
H phng trnh chnh tc: 21X1 + 22 X 2 + 2p = 0

33 X 3 = 0
T phng trnh th 3 ta c X3 = 0 pcm.
Trng hp h i xng nhng ti trng bt k tng tc dng ca h
c ti trng i xng v h chu ti trng phn i xng (hnh 11.11).
P

P/2

P/2

P/2

P/2

Hnh 11.11

IV. HST C CC LIN KT CHU CHUYN V CNG BC


tnh ton nhng HST c cc gi ta chu chuyn v cng bc ta
cng s s dng nhng l lun va m t trn. Ni lc trong h c cc
lin kt chu chuyn v cng bc l do cc gi ta chu cc chuyn v
cng bc.
p dng h phng trnh chnh tc (11.2) vo trng hp ny ta phi
ch khi chn h c bn, khng nn loi b cc lin kt c chuyn v
cng bc m phi ct cc lin kt y. Ngoi ra c th la chn h c bn
bng cch loi b cc lin kt tha khng c chuyn v cng bc.
Gi s cho mt dm nh hnh 11.12a, nu chn h c bn bng cch loi
b lin kt gi ta B c chuyn v cng bc th iu kin bin dng
theo phng ca n s X1 do cc n s Xk nu c (trn hnh 11.12a khng
ch ra nhng n s ny) v chuyn v cng bc gy ra s khng bng
khng. C th l:
X1 (X1 , X 2 ,..., X n ) = 0
By gi nu ta chn h c bn bng cch ct lin kt c chuyn v cng
bc B th iu kin chuyn v theo phng lin kt y vn bng khng. V
lc ny iu kin va ni l iu kin m ta chuyn v tng i ca hai
mt ct ca lin kt va b ct:
11.7

Chng 11. Tnh h thanh siu tnh bng phng php lc

X1 (X1 , X 2 ,..., X n ) = 0
Nu chn h c bn bng cch ct cc lin kt tha c chuyn v cng
bc th phng trnh th k c dng:
k1X1 + k 2 X 2 + ... + kk X k + ... + kn X n + k = 0 (k=1,n) (11.7)

Cc h s kj tnh nh i vi trng hp h chu ti trng.


k l chuyn v theo phng ca lc Xk do chuyn v cng bc gy ra
trong h c bn. N c xc nh theo cng thc sau:
n

i =1

i =1

k = R i i M i i

(11.8)

Trong R i ,M i l phn lc theo phng lin kt th i do lc X k = 1 gy


ra trong h c bn. i l chuyn v thng theo phng lin kt th i v
i l gc xoay ti lin kt th i trong h siu tnh cho.
1
l
2
g

A
a)

C
c)

3EJ

l2

X1 = 1

M1

M
b)

d)
X1
Hnh 11.12

V d 11.2: Tnh mmen un ln nht trong trc c cho trn hnh


11.12a, nu khi ch to tm ca lch i mt on .
Gii
H c bn chn nh hnh 11.12b. Phng trnh chnh tc c dng:
11X1 + 1 = 0

Trong 1 = R1. = 1. =
Biu M1 cho trn hnh 11.12c, nhn biu ny vi chnh n ta c:
1 1 1 2 1 l3
11 =
2 l. l. . l =
EJ 2 2 3 2 6EJ
Thay 1 v 11 va tm c vo phng trnh chnh tc ta c:
11.8

Chng 11. Tnh h thanh siu tnh bng phng php lc

6EJ

l3
Biu mmen un v gi tr mmen un ln nht trn hnh 11.12d.
X1 =

IV. TNH HST CHU NHIT THAY I


Vic tnh HST chu nhit thay i cng tng t nh tnh h chu tc
dng ca ti trng, ch khc y l s bin thin ca nhit l nguyn
nhn gy ra ni lc trong h. V th s hng kp thay bng kt l chuyn
v theo phng Xk do s bin thin nhit gy ra trong h c bn. C th
l
1 = 11X1 + 12 X 2 + ... + 1n X n + 1t = 0

2 = 21X1 + 22 X 2 + ... + 2n X n + 2t = 0

(11.9)
.............................................................
n = n1X1 + n2 X 2 + ... + nn X n + nt = 0
Trong cc h s kt c xc nh nh sau:
l

t 2 - t1
M k dZ
h
0
0
t -t
Hay
kt = ( N k ) t c + ( M k ) 2 1
h
Trong ( N k ) v ( M k ) l din tch ca biu lc dc v mmen
kt = t c N k dZ +

t1 + t 2
; l h s dn n
2
nhit ca vt liu ca h; h l chiu cao MCN; t1 v t2 l bin thin ca
nhit hai pha ca MCN.

un do lc X k = 1 gy ra trong h c bn; t c =

Cc h s kj c xc nh nh trng hp h chu ti trng.


Sau khi thit lp v gii h phng trnh chnh tc ta s tm c cc n
s X1, X2, X3, Vic v cc biu ni lc c tin hnh theo cc
phng php bit.

11.9

Chng 11. Tnh h thanh siu tnh bng phng php lc

IV. TNH DM LIN TC


1. nh ngha
q
P
a)
Dm lin tc l dm
siu tnh t trn nhiu gi
ta n, trong c mt gi
q
ta c nh (hnh 11.13a).
M3 M3
M1 M2 M2
M 0 M1
M4
b)
Khong cch gia hai gi ta
gi l nhp. Bc siu tnh ca
0
1
2
3
4
dm bng s nhp tr mt.
l
l
l
l
2. Phng trnh ba mmen
P
q
Chn h c bn ca
Mi-1 Mi-1 Mi Mi
Mi+1 Mi+1
dm bng cch t ln mi c)
gi ta mt khp chia
i-1
i
i+1
dm thnh nhiu dm n
li
li+1
(hnh 11.13b).
i
i+1
Nhng lc tc dng ln d)
Mp
C
C
mt nhp no ch nh
i
i-1
i+1
hng n chuyn v ca
b
a
bi
ai
i+1
i+1
Mi-1=1
nhp bn cnh khi xt
M i 1
chuyn v mt gi ta bt e)
1
k, ch cn xt hai nhp lin
Mi=1
tip nhau v cc n s ch l
f)
Mi
cc mmen un ni lc Mi
(hnh 11.13c) (Mi>0 lm
1
Mi+1=1
cng th di).
g)
M i +1
Phng trnh chnh
1
tc (phng trnh ba
Hnh 11.13
mmen) vit theo iu kin
gc xoay tng i gia hai mt ct ti gi ta phi bng khng.
V d ti gi ta th i:
11M1 + 12M2 ++ i,i-1Mi-1 + i,iMi + i,i+1Mi+1 ++ 1nMn + ip = 0
Cc h s i1 = i2 = = i(i-2) = = 0, do lc tc dng trn hai nhp
trn hai gi ta th i ch nh hng n gc xoay ca gi ta trn hai
nhp . Phng trnh chnh tc ca h c dng sau:
(11.10)
i,i-1Mi-1 + i,iMi + i,i+1Mi+1 + ip = 0
Cc h s v s hng t do trong (11.10) tnh theo phng php nhn
biu Vrsaghin, ta c:

11.10

Chng 11. Tnh h thanh siu tnh bng phng php lc

i,i 1 =

li 1

M i1M i
l
1 1
1
dz =
. .1.li . = i
EJ i
EJ i 2
3 6EJ i

li

Mi Mi
l
l
1 1
2
1 1
2
dz =
. .1.li . +
. .1.li +1. = i + i +1
EJ
EJi 2
3 EJ i+1 2
3 3EJ i 3EJi +1
0

i,i =

i,i +1 =

li +1

li

ip =

M i M i+1
l
1 1
1
dz =
. .1.li +1. = i +1
EJ i+1
EJi +1 2
3 6EJ i+1

M p Mi

EJ

dz =

a
b
1
1
.i . i +
.i +1. i +1
EJi
li EJ i+1
li +1

trong : li, li+1 : di ca nhp th i v th (i+1). i, i+1: Din tch ca


biu mmen do ti trng gy nn trn hai nhp th i v th (i+1). ai, bi+1:
Khong cch t trng tm ca cc din tch n gi ta th (i-1) v (i+1).
Thay cc tr s vo phng trnh chnh tc, ta c:
l

.a .b
li
l
l
Mi 1 + i + i +1 M i + i +1 M i+1 + i i + i +1 i +1 = 0 (11.11)
6EJi
6EJ i+1
3EJi 3EJi +1
li EJ i li+1EJi +1

Nu cng EJ khng i trn sut chiu di ca dm, ta c :


.a .b
li M i 1 + 2 ( li + li +1 ) M i + li+1M i+1 + 6 i i + i +1 i +1 = 0
li +1
li

(11.12)

V d :V biu lc ct, mmen un ca dm lin tc nh hnh v (11.14a)


ql2/40

d)

P=ql

M1

a)
l

M1

M1

3ql2/20

M2

e)
M0 M1

M1

M2

M2

M3

M2

b)
0

3ql2/20

ql2/8

7ql2/20

f)
Mp

c)

M2

Mx
2
3ql/8 ql /20
ql/40
13ql/20

ql2/4
g)
Hnh 11.14

Qy
5ql/8

7ql/20
11.11

Chng 11. Tnh h thanh siu tnh bng phng php lc

Gii: y l HST bc 2. H c bn nh hnh 11.14b. Biu mmen un


Mp nh hnh 11.14c.
Phng trnh ba mmen i vi gi ta th 1, 2 v 3 l:

2 ql 2 1
.l. = 0
l M 0 + 2(l + l )M1 + l M 2 + 6 0 + .
3
8
2

2
2
l M + 2(l + l )M + l M + 6 2 . ql .l. 1 + 1 . ql .l. 1 = 0

2
3
1
3 8 2 2 4 2

Trong M0 = M3 = 0 (do cc khp khng c mmen ngoi lc tp trung).


Gii h phng trnh trn ta c:
3ql 2
ql 2
M1 =
; M2 =
;
40
20
Du (-) ch cc mmen c chiu ngc vi chiu chn.
Cng cc biu Mp, M1, M2 ta c biu Mx (hnh 11.14f). Sau khi
tnh phn lc cc gi ta ca biu Mp, M1, M2 v cng cc vect phn
lc, ta thu c biu Qy nh trn hnh 11.14g.
3. Trng hp c bit
Trng hp dm lin tc c u tha v u ngm th cch gii ca
chng ta nh sau:
Tng tng b u tha v thu gn tt c ngoi lc t trn on
v gi ta cui cng. Mmen un thu gn c th xem l mmen lin kt ti
mt ct ca gi ta cui cng (mmen c tr s dng khi n lm cng
th di v c tr s m khi n lm cng th trn) hoc c xem l mmen
un ngoi lc tc ng ln dm. Cn lin kt ngm th c thay bng mt
nhp t trn mt gi ta c nh v mt lin kt n. cng EJx ca on
nhp ny c xem l ln v cng v chiu di ca nhp c xem l
bng khng (hnh 11.15).
P

l
P
M=Pl

l0=0

Hnh 11.15
Phng trnh ba mmen c p dng i vi tng nhp cnh nh phn
trn.
11.12

Chng 11. Tnh h thanh siu tnh bng phng php lc

V d: V biu ni lc ca dm chu lc nh hnh v (11.15a).


5ql2/28
d)
q

P=ql

a)
l

M0=0

M 1 M2

3ql2/28

5ql2/28 3ql2/28

M3=-ql2/2

M2

M2

e)

l/2

M1

M1

b)

ql2/2

f)
0 l0=0 1

Mx

3
11ql/14
Mp

c)
ql2/8

ql

g)

Qy
3ql/14

17ql/28

Hnh 11.15

Gii: H c bn v th t cc nhp, cc gi ta c nh s nh hnh


11.15b. Biu Mp do ti trng gy nn trn h c bn nh hnh v (11.15c).
Mmen thu gn gi ta cui cng c xem l mmen lin kt trn mt
ct ca gi ta . V vy trn biu mmen Mp khng c mmen . Vi
cc gi ta (1), (2), ta thit lp c cc phng trnh ba mmen nh sau:

2 ql 2 1
.l . = 0
l M 0 + 2(l + l )M1 + l M 2 + 6 .
3 8 2

2
l M + 2(l + l )M + l M + 6 2 . ql .l . 1 = 0
2
3
1
3 8 2
Gii h trn vi M0 = 0 v M3 = 0.5Pl = 0.5ql2 ta c:
3ql 2
5ql 2
M1 =
; M2 =
;
28
28
Mmen M1<0, chng t mmen M1 lm cng th trn, mmen M2>0 c
ngha l M2 lm cng th di. Biu mmen un v lc ct cho trn hnh
11.15f,g.

11.13

Chng 12. Ti trng ng

Chng 12. ti trng ng


I. Khi nim
1. Ti trng tnh, ti trng ng
Ti trng tnh tc l nhng lc hoc ngu lc c t ln
m hnh kho st mt cch t t, lin tc t khng n tr s
cui cng v t tr i khng i, hoc bin i khng ng k
theo thi gian. Ti trng tnh khng lm xut hin lc qun tnh.
Ti trng tc dng mt cch t ngt hoc bin i theo thi
gian, v d nhng ti trng xut hin do va chm, rung ng,
v.v... nhng ti trng ny c gi l ti trng ng.
Mt cch tng qut, ta gi nhng ti trng gy ra gia tc c
tr s ng k trn vt th c xt, l nhng ti trng ng.
2. Phn loi ti trng ng
Bi ton chuyn ng c gia tc khng i w=const, v d,
chuyn ng ca cc thang my, vn thang trong xy dng, nng
hoc h cc vt nng, trng hp chuyn ng trn vi vn tc
gc quay hng s ca cc v lng hoc cc trc truyn ng.
Bi ton c gia tc thay i v l hm xc nh theo thi
gian w = w(t). Trng hp gia tc thay i tun hon theo thi
gian, gi l dao ng. V d bn rung, m di, m bn lm
cht cc vt liu, bi ton dao ng ca cc my cng c, ...
Bi ton trong chuyn ng xy ra rt nhanh trong mt
thi gian ngn, c gi l bi ton va chm. V d phanh mt
cch t ngt, ng cc bng ba, sng p vo p chn,
3. Cc gi thit khi tnh ton. Ta chp nhn nhng gi thit sau:
a) Tnh cht vt liu khi chu ti trng tnh v ti trng ng
l nh nhau.
b) Chp nhn cc gi thit v tnh cht bin dng ca thanh
nh khi chu ti trng tnh, chng hn cc gi thit v tit din
phng, gi thit v th dc khng tc dng tng h.
S dng cc kt qu, cc rnguyn l v ng lc hc, chng hn:
r
- Nguyn l DAlembert: Fqt = mw
(12.1)
- Nguyn l bo ton nng lng: T + U = A
(12.2)
- Nguyn l bo ton xung lng: ng lng ca h trc v
sau khi va chm l mt tr s khng i.
12-1

Chng 12. Ti trng ng

II. Chuyn ng vi gia tc khng i


1. Bi ton ko mt vt nng ln cao
Xt mt vt nng P
c ko ln theo phng
thng ng vi gia tc
khng i bi mt dy
cp c mt ct F. Trng
lng bn thn ca dy
l
1 1
khng ng k so vi
trng lng P (hnh 8.1).
z
p dng nguyn l
almbe (dAlembert) v
phng php mt ct,
chng ta d dng suy ra
P
ni lc trn mt ct ca
dy cp:
N = P + Pqt
w

P
1
+
w

N = P +
=
g P = KP
g

Vi

K = 1 +

Hnh 8.1

(12.3)

w
g

Khi gia tc w = 0, th K = 1 v N = Nt = P.
Ti trng Nt (khi khng c gia tc) l ti trng tnh, ti trng
N (khi c gia tc) l ti trng ng:
N = K N t.
ng sut mt ct ca dy khi khng c gia tc t, khi c gia
tc l ng sut ng . V dy chu ko ng tm, nn:
=

N
N
= K t = K t
F
F

(12.4)

Cc cng thc (12.3) v (12.4) cho thy: bi ton vi ti trng


ng tng ng nh bi ton vi ti trng tnh ln hn K ln.
H s K c gi l h s ng hay h s ti trng ng.
Kt lun: Nh vy, ni chung, nhng yu t khc nhau gia
ti trng ng v ti trng tnh c xt n bng h s ng v
vic gii cc bi ton vi ti trng ng quy v vic xc nh cc
h s ng .
12-2

Chng 12. Ti trng ng

2. Chuyn ng quay vi vn tc khng i


Xt v lng c b dy t rt b so vi ng knh trung bnh D = 2R
quay vi vn tc gc khng i (hnh 12q (N/cm)
t
2a). V lng c din tch mt ct ngang F,
trng lng ring ca vt liu l . Tnh ng
sut ng ca v lng.
a)
R
n gin, ta b qua nh hng ca
cc nan hoa v trng lng bn thn v lng.
Nh vy, trn v lng ch c lc ly tm tc
dng phn b u q
V v lng quay vi vn tc gc =
y
& = 0. Vy gia tc
const, nn gia tc gc
ds
dP=q.ds
&

tip tuyn wt = R = 0 v gia tc php


tuyn wn = 2R
d
Trn mt n v chiu di c khi b)
x

lng F, cng ca lc ly tm l:
F
F
FR 2
N=.F N=.F

Wn = 2 R =
q =
g
g
g
Hnh 12-2
Ni lc trn mt ct ngang: tng
tng ct v lng bi mt ct xuyn tm. Do tnh cht i xng, trn mi
mt ct ngang ch c thnh phn ni lc l lc dc N, ng sut php c
coi l phn b u (v b dy t b so vi ng knh). (hnh 12-2b)
Lp tng hnh chiu cc lc theo phng y, ta c:
x
x
FR2 2
FR2 2
. sin d = 2
.
2.N = q .ds.sin d =
g
g
0
0

2 R2
ng sut ko trong v lng l: = g

(12.5)

Nhn xt: ng sut trong v lng tng rt nhanh nu tng hay R.


2 R2
iu kin bn khi tnh v lng l: = g [ ]k
trong []k: ng sut cho php khi ko ca vt liu
Ghi ch :Chu k T l khong thi gian thc hin mt dao ng (s). Tn
s f l s dao ng trong 1 giy (hertz). Tn s vng (tn s ring): s dao
2
= 2f
ng trong 2 giy: =
T
12-3

Chng 12. Ti trng ng

III. DAO NG CA H N HI
1. Khi nim chung v dao ng
Khi nghin cu v dao ng ca h n hi, trc tin ta cn c khi
nim v bc t do: bc t do ca mt
m
h n hi khi dao ng l s thng a)
y
s c lp xc nh v tr ca h.
V d: hnh 12-3a, nu b qua
trng lng ca dm th h c 1 bc
t do (ch cn bit tung y ca khi
lng m xc nh v tr ca vt m). b)
Nu k n trng lng ca dm
2
h c v s bc t do v cn bit v
s tung y xc nh mi im
trn dm.
Trc truyn mang hai puli (hnh
12-3b). Nu b qua trng lng ca
1
trc 2 bc t do (ch cn bit hai
gc xon ca hai puli ta s xc nh
v tr ca h).
Khi tnh phi chn s tnh,
da vo mc gn ng cho php
Hnh 12.3
gia s tnh v h thc ang xt.
V d: nu khi lng m >> so vi khi lng ca dm lp s
tnh l khi lng m t trn dm n hi khng c khi lng h mt
bc t do. Nu trng lng ca khi lng m khng ln so vi trng lng
dm, ta phi ly s tnh l mt h c v s bc t do bc t do ca mt
h xc nh theo s tnh chn, ngha l ph thuc vo s gn ng m
ta chn khi lp s tnh.
Dao ng ca h n hi c chia ra:
Dao ng cng bc: dao ng ca h n hi di tc dng ca ngoi
lc bin i theo thi gian (lc kch thch).
P(t) 0
Dao ng t do: dao ng khng c lc kch thch P(t)=0:
Dao ng t do khng c lc cn: h s cn
= 0; P(t) = 0
Dao ng t do c n lc cn ca mi trng: 0 ; P(t) = 0
Trng lng ca khi lng m c cn bng vi lc n hi ca dm
tc ng ln khi lng.
12-4

Chng 12. Ti trng ng

2. Dao ng ca h n hi mt bc t do
a) Phng trnh vi phn biu din dao ng
Dm mang khi lng m
z
(b qua trng lng dm). Lc
P(t)
kch thch P(t) bin i theo thi
m
gian tc dng ti mt ct ngang
z
y(t)
c honh z. Tm chuyn v
y(t) ca khi lng m theo thi
a
gian t.
Vn tc v gia tc ca khi
Hnh 12.4
lng ny l:
dy
d2 y
& = ; a = &&
v = y(t)
y(t) = 2
dt
dt
Chuyn v ca m do nhng lc sau y gy ra: Lc kch thch P(t), lc
cn ngc chiu chuyn ng v t l vi vn tc: Fc = - y& ; ( - h s cn),
lc qun tnh: Fqt = - m &y&
Gi l chuyn v gy ra do lc bng mt n v ti v tr m chuyn
& ,
v do lc P(t) gy ra l .P(t), chuyn v do lc cn gy ra l .Fc = - . y(t)
y(t)
chuyn v do lc qun tnh gy ra l -.m &&
Chuyn v do cc lc tc dng vo h gy ra l

& my(t)
&& ]
y(t) = [ P(t) y(t)

Chia (12.6) cho m. v t: 2 =

(12.6)

1
2
; =
m
m.

P(t)

& + 2 y(t) =
y(t) + 2y(t)
(12.7)
Do ta c: &&
m
y l phng trnh vi phn ca dao ng. H s biu din nh
hng ca lc cn ca mi trng n dao ng v < .
b) Dao ng t do khng c lc cn
Dao ng t do khng c lc cn: P(t) = 0, = 0.

y(t) + y(t) = 0 (12.8)


Phng trnh vi phn ca dao ng c dng: &&
Nghim ca phng trnh ny c dng: y(t) = C1cost + C2sint
Biu din C1 v C2 qua hai hng s tch phn mi l A v bng cch t:
C1 = A sin ; C2 = A cos
Ta c phng trnh dao ng t do: y(t) = A sin(t + )
(12.9)
&
= y& 0 xc nh C1 v C2
iu kin ban u t = 0 => y(0) = y0; y(0)
2

12-5

Chng 12. Ti trng ng

Phng trnh (12-9) cho thy:


Chuyn ng t do khng lc cn l mt dao ng iu ho c bin A
v chu k T =

2
. th dao ng hnh

sin nh trn hnh 12-5.


Tn s dao ng f =

1
=
.
T 2

Tn s gc hay tn s dao ng
ring: = 2f ;
1
g
g
=
=
=
m
mg
y0 (Hert = 1/s)
c) Dao ng t do c k n lc cn
V P(t) = 0, 0, khi phng trnh vi phn ca dao ng l:
&&
& + 2 y(t) = 0
y(t) + 2y(t)
(12.10)
Vi iu kin hn ch < (lc cn khng qu ln), nghim c dng:

y(t) = Ae t sin(1t + )

(12.11)

Dao ng l hm tt dn theo thi gian vi tn s gc:


1 = 2 2 <

2 2
=
1

1
Chu k dao ng:
2
1 2

Dng dao ng c biu din trn hnh 12.6, bin dao ng gim
dn theo thi gian, bi
vy ta gi l dao ng t
do tt dn. Khi lc cn
cng ln, tc l h s
cng ln th s tt dn
cng nhanh.
Sau mi chu k T1,
bin dao ng gim
vi t s:
T1 =

e t
(t + T1 )

= eT1 = const

e
tc l gim theo cp s
nhn

Hnh 12.6
12-6

Chng 12. Ti trng ng

3. Dao ng cng bc - hin tng cng hung


Dao ng cng bc: xt lc P(t) bin thin tun hon theo thi gian:
P(t) = Posint
Lc cng bc bt k c th khai trin theo chui Fourier trng
hp ring m ta nghin cu khng lm gim tnh tng qut ca kt qu.
Phng trnh vi phn dao ng c dng khng thun nht:
P
&&
& + 2 y(t) = 0 sin t
y(t) + 2y(t)
(12.12)
m
Nghim tng qut ca phng trnh ny c dng: y(t) = y1(t) + y2(t)
Nghim tng qut ca phng trnh vi phn thun nht l biu thc:
y1 = e-t C sin(1t + 1)
(12.13)
Cn nghim ring y2(t) c dng: y2(t) = C1sint + C2cost
Thay y2 vo (12.12), sau mt s bin i ta tm c:
y2 = A1sin(t + )
(12.14)

P0

=
arcos
A
=

vi k hiu 1
;
2
2 4 2 2

1 2 +
4

2
2 2 + 42 2

2 2

Nghim tng qut ca dao ng cng bc:


y(t) = e-t C sin(1t + 1) + A1sin(t + )
(12.15)
S hng th nht tt dn theo thi gian, sau mt thi gian ln h ch
cn li s hng th hai vi tn s ca lc cng bc , bin A1:
sin(t + )

y(t) = A1sin(t + ) =

4
1 2 +
4

2

P0
2

(12.16)

Lng P0 tng ng vi gi tr chuyn v gy ra bi mt lc tnh yt,


c tr s bng bin lc cng bc v c phng theo phng dao ng:
y(t) =

sin(t + )
2

4
1 2 +
4

2

y t = k (t)y t
2

(12.17)

trong k(t) l h s ng, hm ny t cc tr K khi sin(t + ) = 1.


Chuyn v cc tr tng ng, k hiu bng y: y(t) = K. yt (12.18)
K =

1
2

2 4 2 2
1 2 +

4

(12.19)

12-7

Chng 12. Ti trng ng

C th gii bi ton ng bng cch gii bi ton tnh ri nhn vi h s


ng k . ng sut c dng: = k .t ; = k .t
(12.20)
H s ng cc tr K cng ln th hiu ng ng cng ln. H s ny
ph thuc vo t s /. th quan h gia K v / ng vi cc gi tr
khc nhau ca h s cn nht c trnh by trn hnh 12.7.
tnh bn khi
ng sut thay i c th
dng v theo (12.20).
Nu trn h cn c ti trng
tnh tc dng th tp l tng
ng sut do ti trng tnh v
ng sut ng , .
+ Hin tng cng hng:
th K - (/) cho
thy: khi / 1, ngha l
khi tn s lc cng bc
trng vi tn s dao ng
ring ca h y rt ln,
c th bng v cng nu
khng c lc cn. l
Hnh 12.7
hin tng cng hng.
Thc t tn ti min cng hng, nm trong khong 0,75

1,25 ; h

s ng trong min ny t tr s kh ln.


Trnh hin tng cng hng, cn cu to h sao cho tn s dao ng
ring ca h khng gn vi tn s ca lc cng bc, chng hn thay i
khi lng ca h hoc thay i kt cu bng cch thm cc thit b gim
chn nh l xo, cc tm m n hi.
+ Kt lun chung v tnh ton kt cu chu dao ng cng bc
i vi h n hi, vt liu tun theo nh lut Hc, ta c th vit biu
thc (12.18) cho i lng nghin cu bt k:
S = K.St
(12.21)
(12.22)
v
S = S0 + S = S0 + K.St
trong S - i lng nghin cu c th l chuyn v, ng sut, bin dng
ca h, S0 - i lng tng ng trong bi ton tnh do tc ng ca trng
lng m t sn trn h, St - i lng tng ng trong bi ton tnh do tc
ng ca mt lc tnh, tr s bng bin ca lc cng bc v c phng
theo phng dao ng, K - h s ng cc tr, tnh theo biu thc (12.19).
12-8

Chng 12. Ti trng ng

V d 12.1: Mt mt trng lng 6kN t ti chnh gia dm n gin


(hnh 12.8) c chiu di nhp 4,5m lm t thp I s 30, c tc quay ca
trc n = 600 vng/ph. Trc c trng lng 50 N, c lch tm e = 0,5 cm.
B qua lc cn, tnh ng sut php ln nht pht sinh trn tit din ca dm.
P0
50N
e
B
A
l/2

l/2

N0 30

Hnh 12.8

Bi gii

2 n 2 .600
=
= 62,85rad / s .
60
60
Lc ly tm pht sinh khi trc quay lch tm:
1
1 50
P0 = me2 = .
0,5.62,852 = 5038N
2
2 9,80
Lc cng bc c dng: P(t) = P0 sint = 5,038 sin62,85 kN.
Theo bng thp nh hnh Jx=7080 cm4; Wx=472 cm3; E=2,1.104 kN/cm2.
vng ban u, do trng lng mt P t sn gy ra:
Pl 3
6.(450)3
y0 =
=
= 0,0766 cm
48EJ 48.2,1.104.7080
Tc gc ca trc quay: =

g
980
Tn s dao ng ring ca dm: = y = 0,0766 = 113 (1/s)
0
H s ng, khi b qua lc cn:
1
1
1132
2
=
= 2
=
= 1, 448
K = 2 2
1132 62,852
2
2
1 2
1 2

Mmen un ln nht ti tit din chnh gia nhp bng:

M =M0+M=M0+K Mt=

P l 6.4,5
Pl
5,038.4,5
+ K 0 =
+ 1, 448
= 14,957 kNm
4
4
4
4

ng sut php ln nht trn tit din:

max =

M 1495,7
=
= 3,17kN / cm 2
W
472
12-9

Chng 12. Ti trng ng

IV. BI TON TI TRNG VA CHM


1. Va chm ng ca h mt bc t do
Va chm: hin tng hai vt tc
Q
dng vo nhau trong thi gian rt ngn.
H
Cc gi thuyt sau:
a) Khi chu va chm vt liu vn tun
P yt
theo nh lut Hc
b- Mun n hi E ca vt liu khi
y
Q
chu ti trng tnh v khi chu va chm
P
l nh nhau.
Hnh 12.9
Cc giai on va chm:
a) Giai on th nht: trng lng Q ri va chm trng lng P: vn tc
v0 ca trng lng Q trc lc va chm b gim t ngt cho n lc c hai
trng lng P v Q cng chuyn ng vi vn tc v. Theo nh lut bo ton
Q
Q+P
Q
v
v
v
v
=

=
0
ng lng: g 0
g
Q+P
b) Giai on th hai: c hai trng lng Q v P gn vo nhau v cng
chuyn ng vi vn tc v n lc c hai dng li do sc cn ca h n hi.
on ng m Q v P va thc hin chnh l chuyn v y ln nht ti mt
ct va chm. Trong giai on ny ng nng ca h l:
2

1 Q+P 2
1 Q+P
Q 1
Q
T= .
v T= .
v0
=
v 02

2 g
2 g Q + P 2 g (1 + P / Q )

Khi P v Q cng di chuyn mt on y, th nng ca h: = (Q +P)y


Nu gi U l th nng bin dng n hi ca h nhn c do va chm
th theo nh lut bo ton nng lng ta c: U = T +
Th nng bin dng n hi c tnh nh sau: lc u trn dm c t
1
2

sn trng lng P, th nng bin dng n hi lc : U1 = P.y t

trong : yt l chuyn v tnh ti mt ct va chm do P gy ra, yt = P. (


1 y 2t
chuyn v tnh do lc bng mt n v gy ra) U1 =
2

Khi va chm, chuyn v ton phn mt ct va chm l (yt + y). Theo

cc gi thuyt trn, th nng bin dng n hi lc : U2 =

1 (y t + y )2
2

Nh vy th nng bin dng n hi do va chm l:


1 (y t + y )2 1 y 2t y 2 y t y y 2
U = U 2 U1 =

=
+
=
+ P.y
2

2 2

12-10

Chng 12. Ti trng ng

y2
1
Q
2
Do U = T + 2 + P.y = 2 g 1 + P / Q v 0 + (Q + P)y
(
)

Qv 02
=0
y 2Qy
g (1 + P / Q )
2

hay

(12.23)

Gi t l chuyn v tnh ca h n hi ti mt ct va chm do trng


lng Q c t mt cch tnh ln h gy ra th tng t nh trn ta c:
t = Q. Q =

t v 02
y 2 t y
=0
Th vo (12.23) ta c:
P

g 1 +
Q
2

t v 02
2
=

+
y
t
t
Ch ly nghim dng ca phng trnh:

P >0
g 1 +
Q

Thay v = 2gH , ta c:
2
0

y = t (1 + 1 +

2H
)

P
1 + Q t

(12.24)

H s ng k, tc l s ln ln hn ca chuyn v ng (do va chm)


i vi chuyn v tnh do trng lng Q t mt cch tnh ln h:
2H
y
k = y = k .y t k = 1 + 1 + P
(12.25)
yt
1
+

Q t

Cc trng hp t bit:
1. Nu trn dm khng c khi lng P t sn th h s ng:
2H
k = 1 + 1 +
(12.26)
t
2. Nu trng lng Q tc dng t ngt vo h, tc l: H = 0, th k = 2,
tc l chuyn v ng, ng sut ng ln gp hai ln so vi bi ton tnh.
ng sut php v tip do ti trng va chm: = k.t ; = k.t
Nu trn h cn c ti trng tnh th ng sut ng v chuyn v ng:
= (Q) + t(P); y = y(Q) + yt(P);
Nhn xt: trong cng thc ca h s ng, ta thy nu chuyn v tnh yt
ln, tc l h c cng nh th h s ng k nh. Vy mun gim h s
12-11

Chng 12. Ti trng ng

ng ta phi gim cng ca h hay t ti mt ct va chm nhng b phn


c cng nh nh l xo, ... tng yt.
Khi xc nh h s ng k ta b qua trng lng bn thn ca h
n hi. Ngi ta chng minh c rng nu k n trng lng bn thn
ca h th h s ng cng khng thay i nhiu. Do trong khi tnh vi ti
trng va chm, ta khng xt n trng lng bn thn ca h.
2. Va chm ngang ca h mt bc t do
Va chm ngang nh hnh 12.10. Qu trnh va chm
vn thc hin qua hai giai on nh trong va chm ng.
V cc khi lng u di chuyn theo phng ngang nn
th nng = 0. vy theo nh lut bo ton nng lng:
T=U
Q
P
1
Q
2
T=
v0
ng nng T:
2
P
g 1 +
Q
Th nng bin dng n hi m h nhn c sau
va chm c tnh nh sau: tuy c trng lng P t
trc trn dm, nhng P khng lm dm bin dng
ngang nn: U1 = 0. Khi va chm, chuyn v ca mt ct
Hnh 12.10
va chm l y nn lc th nng bin dng n hi:
1
Q
1 y2
Q
2
2
1 y2
v
y
v 02
=

=
0

U2 =
(12.27)
2
P

2 2 g 1 + P
g
1
+
Q
Q

Nu gi yt l chuyn v tnh theo phng ngang mt ct va chm do


lc c gi tr bng trng lng va chm Q tc dng tnh ln phng ngang:
t
Q
=
t = Q.

t
y2 =
v 02
Do ta c th vit biu thc (12.27) li nh sau:
P

g 1 +
Q

Gi tr y ch ly du dng, do y = k.t
Vi

v 02
k =
P
g 1 + t
Q

(12.28)

12-12

Chng 12. Ti trng ng

V d 12.2: Xc nh ng sut php ln nht trn tit din mt ct chu va


chm theo phng thng ng cho trn hnh 12.11. B qua trng lng ca
ct. Cho bit Q = 600 N; H = 6cm; E = 103 kN/cm2.
Gii
Q
Chuyn v tnh bng bin dng di ca ct do
6 cm
trng lng Q t tnh trn ct l:
yt = t = l =

Q.l1 Q.l2
+
= 3, 4.103 cm
EF1 EF2

H s ng: k = 1 + 1 +

2H
=

P
1 + Q t

F1=30cm2

80 cm

2H
2.6
= 60, 41
= 1+ 1+ = 1+ 1+
3
F2=20cm2
60 cm
3,
4.10
t
ng sut pht ln nht trn tit din:
Q
0,6
= k . t = k . = 60, 41.
= 1,82kN / cm 2
Hnh 12.11
F2
20
V d 12.3: Xc nh h s ng ca dm thp ch I s 14 (hnh 12.12)
chu va chm bi vt c trng lng 100 N chuyn ng theo phng ngang
vi vn tc v0 = 20km/h khi khng k v khi c k n trng lng ca dm.
Gii
Thp ch I s 14 ta c cc c trng:
trng lng trn 1m di l 137N, Jx = 572
Q
cm4, E = 2,1.104 kN/cm2. Chuyn v tnh:
Q
y t=

Ql 3
0,1.4003
=
= 1,1.102 cm
4
48EJ x 48.2,1.10 .572

- Khi khng k n trng lng bn thn

v0

l=4m

yt

N0 14

v 02
555,52
k =
=
= 169
gy t
980.1,1.102

Hnh 12.12

Khi k n trng lng bn thn, ta thu


gn trng lng v tit din va chm chnh gia dm vi h s thu gn l
17/35 v c trng lng thu gn l P = (17/35).137.4 = 266 N
v 02
555,52
=
= 88
k =

266
P
2
980. 1 +
g 1 + yt
.1,1.10
100
Q

Nh th trng lng bn thn lm gim nh hng ca va chm. Vic


khng k n trng lng bn thn khin php tnh thin v an ton.
12-13