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Trng i hc Bch khoa H Ni

B mn Vt liu hc, x l nhit v b mt

Bi tp vn dng mn hc:
Kim loi hc v nhit luyn (Vt liu kim loi)
H v tn sinh vin: Nguyn Thnh Nam
Lp:
C in t 2 K49
Ngnh: C in t
Khoa: C kh.
Cu 1. Chi tit: Chy ci dp ngui kch thc nh.
- iu kin lm vic:
+ dp phi, chy ci phi chu p lc rt ln, ngoi ra
khun dp cn chu ng sut un ln, lc va p v lc ma
st.
+ Din tch tip xc ln nn khun dp khng b nng ln
nhiu (< 200 C).
- Vi iu kin lm vic nh vy, chi tit trn phi t c
cc yu cu sau:
+ cng cao: Phi t n gii hn di ca n l khong
HRC 58 62 (tu vo loi khun, chiu dy, cng ca
thp em bin dng). Nu dp cc l thp cng nh thp k
thut in (tn silic) hay c chiu di ln phi yu cu
cng HRC ti trn 60, thm ch l 62; cn i vi thp l
mng, khi dp un, vi cng thp, ch cn d cng HRC
56. Khng nhit luyn HRC qu 62, v lc khun
lm vic d b nt m.
+ Tnh chng mi mn cao: m bo c hng ngn, vn
ln dp. Nu khun c tnh chng mi mn km s to ra
khe h gia chy v ci, khng m bo cho chi tit lm
vic tt.
+ bn v dai bo m: chu c ti trng ln v
chu va p. i vi khun dp ln cn phi c thm yu cu
v thm ti v t thay i th tch khi ti.
Cu 2.
1

- Ta la chn vt liu theo nguyn tc: Vt liu c chn


sau khi p dng cc quy trnh cng ngh thch hp c y
cc yu cu lm vic ca chi tit. Ngoi ra vt liu
cn phi ph bin, khng qu t tin, c kh nng gia
cng c kh tt v khng yu cu phi p dng cc quy
trnh cng ngh qu c bit.
- Cng ngh c la chn trn nguyn tc: Cng ngh phi
lm cho vt liu t c cc ch tiu k thut t ra,
khng qu phc tp, t ; c th thy i, ci tin
trong tng lai v phi thc hin c trn nhiu loi thit b.
Ngoi ra, trong iu kin hin nay, phi l cng ngh
sch. Kh nng la chn vt liu v cng ngh do vy rt
phong ph v c th c nhiu phng n cho cc yu cu
trn.
- Di y, ta chn ra phng n chnh v ra cc phng
n thay th (vt liu) khi cn thit.
- Chn mc thp: lm khun dp ngui nh, n gin,
chu ti trng nh c th dng thp dng c cacbon vi cc
mc CD100, CD120. y ta chn 01 mc thp in hnh
ch to chi tit trn, l CD120.
a) Thnh phn ho hc ca mc thp CD120:
1.15 1.24 %C, 0.17 0.33 %Si, 0.17 0.33 %Mn
%P 0.035, %S 0.030,
%Cr 0.20, %Ni 0.25, %Cu 0.25.
C s l lun chn mc thp CD120: Cc thnh phn
trn gip chi tit m bo c nhng iu kin ban u
sau ny nhit luyn s m bo cng cho lm vic
chu va p cng nh cc thnh phn khc gip d x l
nhit.
b) Lp bng k hiu v thnh phn ca cc mc thp t ng
ng vi thp CD120 ca tiu chun Vit Nam (TCVN):
Nc

Tiu
chun
Mc

Vit Nam

Nga

Nht Bn

TCVN

ASTM

JIS

TCVN 182276
CD120

ASTM A68692
W1A-111/2

OCT
OCT

1435-90
y12-1

JIS G4410
(1983)
SK2

Trung
Quc
GB
GB 1298-86
T12

thp
C

1.15 1.24

1.15 1.25

1.15 1.24

1.10 1.30

1.15 1.24

Si

0.17 0.33

0.10 0.40

0.17 0.33

0.35

0.35

Mn

0.17 0.33

0.10 0.40

0.17 0.33

0.50

0.40

0.035

0.030

0.030

0.030

0.035

0.03

0.030

0.028

0.030

0.030

Cr

0.20

0.15

0.20

0.20

0.25

Ni

0.25

0.20

0.25

0.25

0.20

Cu

0.25

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.30

0.10

0.15

Mo

0.10

Nhn xt:
- Gia cc tiu chun ca cc nc nhn chung tng i
ging nhau, ch c vi im khac bit: Tiu chun ASTM
(M) c thm thng s thnh phn ca V, W, Mo; tiu chun
ca Nht v Trung Quc khng yu cu cao v hm lng Si,
Mn (khong % rng hn cc nc cn li).
- Nguyn nhn ca s khc nhau : Do cng ngh nhit
luyn khc nhau, do yu cu s dng, s dng vt liu trong
nhng mi trng c iu kin khc nhau
* Mt s tiu chun tng ng khc:

Nc
Tiu
chun
Mc
thp

Quc t

ISO
4975:19
80

DIN

TC120
1.101.29

Si

0.35

Mn
P
S
Cr

0.35
0.03
0.03
0.2

Php
W-Nr.

C125W 1.156
2
3
1.20 1.35
0.10 0.30
0.10 0.35
0.03
0.03

Anh

Thu in

Tip

BS
4965
(1989)

SS

CSN

0.10 - 0.30

0.3

0.10 - 0.40
0.025
0.025
0.025

0.35

1885
1.10 1.25
0.10 0.30
0.20 0.40
0.03
0.02

19221

1.10 - 1.29

BW1C
1.10 1.30

AFNOR

XC120

NF
A35-390
(1992)
C120
E3U

0.15

Ni
Cu
V
W
Mo

0.25
0.25

0.025
0.025

0.2

0.1

Cu 3. Vai tr ca cacbon v cc nguyn t tp cht trong


thp i vi c tnh v cng ngh nhit luyn ca thp
cacbon dng c CD120:
Bng tnh
a) Cacbon:
Trong thp, nguyn t cacbon l nguyn t quan trng
nht, quyt nh n c tnh cng nh i vi cng ngh
nhit luyn thp do t chc v tnh cht ca thp ch yu
do cacbon quyt nh. Ccbon tn ti trong thp di hai
dng: dung dch rn xen k trong mng tinh th st ( -Fe
nhit thp v -Fe nhit cao) v dng lin kt
trong hp cht Fe3C (xmentit). Cc pha dung dch rn c
do cao, bn thp trong khi xmentit l pha cng v
gin. S kt hp cc pha ny s cho cc t chc khc nhau
ca thp tng ng vi tng thnh phn v trng thi c th.
Khi lng ccbon tng th lng xmentit cng tng v ngc li.
T chc ca thp trng thi cn bng ph thuc hm lng
ccbon nh sau:
- C < 0,8%: Thp trc cng tch, t chc l ferit-pclit,
- C = 0,8%: Thp cng tch, t chc l pclit,
- C > 0,8%: Thp sau cng tch, t chc la peclitxmentit.
Hm lng ccbon cng quyt nh n tnh cht ca
thp, cn nh hng ca hm lng ccbon n c tnh ca
thp c trnh by trn hnh v di y:

Nhn xt:
- Theo hnh v ta c th nhn thy khi hm lng ccbon tng
ln, bn, cng tng theo; do, dai gim i;
ring bn c tng cc i vo khong 0,9% C.
- Ccbon c nh hng bc nht (theo quan h ng thng)
n cng HB, mt cch nh lng, c tng 0,1% C,
cng tng khong 20 25 HB, bn tng khong 60 80
Mpa, dn di tng i v tht t i gim ln lt l
2 - 4% v 1 - 5%, dai va p gim 200 kJ/m2.
- Do c vai tr quyt nh n c tnh thp nh vy nn
hm lng ccbon s quy nh phm vi ng dng ca cc loi
thp khc nhau.
- C th gii thch nh hng ca hm lng ccbon n c
tnh thp nh sau: Khi hm lng ccbon tng, hm lng pha
xmentit cng v gin tng ln, lm cho bn v cng
tng, do v dai gim. bn ca thp gim i khi
hm lng C vt qu 1% l do c s c mt ca xmentit II
dng li, cn tr s to iu kin cho vt nt pht trin, lm
gim bn.

y l thp c hm lng cacbon cao ( 0.7%), c u im


l cng v tnh chng mi mn u cao, nn c dng
lm cng c nh dao ct, khun dp, dng c o.
Tnh hn v kh nng dp ngui, dp su ca thp ph
thuc nhiu vo hm lng ccbon: Thp cng t ccbon cng
d hn chy v dp.
Hm lng ccbon cng nh hng n tnh gia cng ct
ca thp, thp cng cng cng kh ct, nhng qu mm
cng gy kh khn cho ct gt.
Ni chung tnh c ca thp ccbon khng cao.
Cc tnh cht l ho khc: Khi tng hm lng ccbon, cc
tnh cht l ho khc ca thp cng thay i theo: khi lng
ring, t thm v kh nng chng n mn ca thp gim
i; in tr, nhit tr v lc kh t tng ln.
b) Cc nguyn t tp cht:
Cc nguyn t tp cht trong thp c phn thnh: Cc
tp cht thng c, cc tp cht ngu nhin v cc tp cht n.
- Cc tp cht thng c, gm: Phtpho, lu hunh, silic v
mangan.
+ Silic (Si): Cho vo thp di dng fer silic kh oxy trit
thp trng thi lng:
Si + FeO
Fe + SiO2
(SiO2 ni ln i vo x v b co ra khi l)
Silic ho tan vo ferit nng cao bn v cng ca
pha ferit ny, nn lm tng c tnh ca thp, song khng r
rt do lng silic cao nht trong thp cng ch t gii hn
0,20 0,40 %.
Silic khng to ccbt v c xu hng lm thot ccbon trong
thp. Si c tc dng lm tng thm ti mc trung
bnh vi h s tng thm ti l 1,7. Si c tc dng lm
tng tnh n nh ram, chng oxy ho cho thp nhit
cao v tng bn chng do cho thp crm. Si cn c tc
dng tng tnh n hi cho thp (cho nn Si thng c mt
trong cc mc thp n hi).
+ Mangan (Mn): Cho vo thp di dng fer mangan kh
oxy thp trng thi lng, loi tr c FeO rt c hi:
Mn + FeO
Fe + MnO
(MnO ni ln i vo x v b co ra khi l)

Ngoi ra mangan cng loi tr c tc hi ca lu hunh.


Mn c nh hng tt n c tnh, khi ho tan vo ferit n
nng cao bn v cng ca pha ny, do vy lm tng
c tnh ca thp, song lng mangan cao nht trong thp
ccbon cng ch nm trong khong gii hn 0.50 0.80%
nn nh hng ny khng quan trng.
+ Lu hunh (S): i vo thp t qung hay t than. y l tp
cht c hi cho thp v trong thp, n to thnh cng tinh
(Fe + FeS) nm bin gii ht c nhit nng chy : 990
C. Khi gia cng p lc thp nhit cao, cng tinh ny
chy ra lm cho thp b t bin gii ht, gy ra hin tng
gin nng (hay b nng). Hm lng S trong thp phi khng
ch mc cng thp cng tt.Thng thng trong thp, S <
0,06%. Thp cht lng cng tt, hm lng ny cng thp (tr
thp d ct, hm lng S c th ln n 0,08 0,30%).
+ Phtpho (P): Tng t nh lu hunh, phtpho i vo thp t
qung v than. Phtpho tn ti trong thp c dng ho tan
v dng lin kt Fe3P. D dng no, n cng lm cho thp
b gin trng thi ngui, cn gi l hin tng gin ngui (b
ngui), rt c hi cho thp (v d nh phi d b nt v d lc
khng ln). Do hm lng P trong thp phi c khng ch
cht ch, thng thng, P < 0.06%, cn vi thp d ct, P c
th ln ti 0.08 0.15%.
- Cc tp cht ngu nhin: Cc tp cht ny i vo thp t
st thp vn ti sinh. Cc nguyn t Cr, Ni, V l cc
nguyn t c th gp trong trng hp ny. Vai tr ca chng
vi mt lng nh (ngu nhin) khng r nt trong thp. Khi
c cho vo thp vi mc ch c th, chng ng vai tr
cc nguyn t hp kim, chng c th ho tan trong mng tinh
th ca -Fe v -Fe to thnh ferrit hp kim v austenit
hp kim. Mt s nguyn t nh Ni, Mn, N, Cu, khi ho tan
vo trong Fe s c tc dng m rng vng n nh v lm
cho nhit chuyn bin - h xung (mt s thp vi
hm lng Mn (> 10%) v Ni (>20%) ln s c t chc
austenit ngay nhit thng).

Mt s nguyn t khc nh Cr, V, Ti, Mo, Si, li c tc dng


thu hp vng n nh ca v nng cao nhit chuyn
bin - . Chng c gi l cc nguyn t m rng .
+ Crm: Trong thp, Cr lin kt vi C to thnh ccbit phc
tp d ho tan vo austenit khi nung ln trn 900C. Ging
nh Mn v Si, Cr cng c tc dng tng thm ti vi h s
3,2. Do to cc loi ccbit phn tn nh mn nn Cr c tc
dng chng ram, nng cao bn nng (red-hardness:
cng nng) cho thp. Cng vi nguyn nhn ny, Cr c tc
dng lm tng mnh kh nng chng mi mn (wear
resistance) cho thp.
+ Mlpen: Mo l nguyn t thu hp mnh vng , l
nguyn t to ccbit mnh, kh tan vo austenit khi nung ln
c tc dng gi nh ht thp. Mo cn c tc dng tng mnh
thm ti vi h s 3,8. Mo ci thin tnh chng ram do
to ra cng th hai khi ram (to pha Mo 2C) v c tc dng
lm gim s nhy cm i vi gin ram.
C th (1):
+ Chromium: lm tng thm ti trong x l nhit
(Chromium produces deeper hardness penetration in heat treatment and contributes wear
resistance and toughness) gp phn chng mi mn v tnh dai,
tnh bn.
+ Manganese: Vi mt lng nh c dng gip cho thp bn
hn v thm v lm cho thp cng hn v nhanh hn
trong x l nhit. N cng gip h thp nhit ti cn
thit ti thp cng hn(Manganese in small amounts is used to aid in
making steel sound and further additions help steel to harden deeper and more quickly in
heat treatment. It also helps to lower the quenching temperature necessary to harden
steels. Larger amounts of manganese in the 1.20-1.60% range allow steels to be oil
quenched rather than water quenched) Lng ln Mn trong khong 1.20

1.60%C cho php thp c lm ngui tt hn l lm ngui


bng nc.
+ Molybdenum: Tng thm ti trong x l nhit v lm
gim nhit ti. N cng gip tng cng nng v tnh
chng mi mn. (Molybdenum increases the hardness penetration in heat
treatment and reduces quenching temperatures. It also helps increase red hardness and
wear resistance)

+ Nickel lm tng thm cng v tnh chng mi mn cho


thp v c dng chung vi nhng nguyn t tng cng
8

khc.(Nickel adds toughness and wear resistance to steel and is used in conjunction
with hardening elements)
+ Vnfram: c thm vo thp lm tng tnh chng mi mn
v cung cp nhng c im cng nng, mt lng khong
1.5% lm tng tnh chng mi mn v khong 4% trong s
kt hp vi cacbon cao s lm tng thm tnh chng mi mn.
W vi mt lng ln cng Cr cn cho kh nng cng nng.
(Tungsten added to the steel increases its wear resistance and provides red hardness
characteristics. Approximately 1.5% increases wear resistance and about 4% in
combination with high carbon will greatly increase wear resistance. Tungsten in large
quantities with chromium provides for red hardness)

+ Vanadium vi mt lng nh lm tng dai, bn v


lm gim ht. V vi mt lng trn 1% tng kh nng chng
mi mn rt tt c bit l thp gi. Lng V nh hn kt
hp vi Cr v W gip tng c tnh cng nng( Vanadium in small
quantities increases the toughening effect and reduces grain size. Vanadium in amounts
over 1% provides extreme wear resistance especially to high-speed steels. Smaller
amounts of vanadium in conjunction with chromium, and tungsten, aid in increasing red
hardness properties)

- Cc tp cht n: l cc tp cht kh H2, O2, N2, Chng


c mt trong thp vi lng cha rt nh m cc phng php
phn tch thng thng khng th pht hin ra. V vy,
chng c gi l cc tp cht n, v ni chung l c hi.
Cu 4.
a) Cc nhit quan trng:
- Nhit chy hon ton: 1460 C
- Nhit thng ho:
- Nhit :

904 1104 C
750 770 C

- Nhit ti:
760 790 C
b) Dng gin pha Fe-C, xc nh trn thp C c cng
thnh phn C vi mc thp CD120:

Fig.1. The Iron-Carbon Equilibrium Diagram.


c) i vi thp C 1,2% ( trn hnh v), ta tnh theo cng
thc tm cc nhit thng ho, , ti:
Tth = Ac (cm)

+ (30 50C) = 900 1100 C

T = Ac1 + (20 30C) = 750 760 C


Tti = Ac1 + (30 50C) = 760 780 C.
Ta nhn thy so vi thp ccbon dng c, thp C ny c
c 3 nhit u khc t 4-10C (khong nhit v
ti ca thp C hp hn CD120 l 10C, trong khi , nhit
10

thng ho ch chnh nhau 4C v cng khong bin thin


(200C).
d) T chc t vi t c khi lm ngui chm qua cc im
ti hn, % cc pha thnh phn, c im c tnh ca t
chc nhn c:

Cu 5.
a) Phng php gia cng c kh thng dng ch to chi
tit:
11

- c bng khun.

b) Sau khi gia cng c kh phi nhit luyn:


- khng hon ton 750 760C (bi v sau khi c,
vic lm ngui chi tit thng khng c ng u cc lp
dy khc nhau trn chi tit; b mt thng cng hn, tn ti
nhng ng lc d bn trong kim loi)
- Ti 760 780C, v chi tit l chy ci dp ngui, i
hi cng cao nn phi ti tng cng v bn.
- Sau ti, ram thp 150 300C, bi v rng, sau khi ti,
ng lc d trong thp tng ln lm cho thp b gin, phi
tin hnh ram ci thin tnh cht, lm tng tui th v lm
gim ng lc d. V ram thp nn khng nh hng n

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cng, ng thi va gim c ng lc d bn trong, va tng


dai.
c) Nhng nguyn cng v t chc t vi, c tnh t ng ng:

d) Nu cn thay th, ta c th la chn vt liu khc


Gii thch:

Tool steel
Thermotherapy treatment
(1)
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Cac vi du trich trong cun an thit k xng nhi t luy n cac loai chi tit lp xit
cng cao. Cac ban co th truy c p:
http://www.esnips.com/doc/30308986-1509-4cbd-9c2a-aedaefa9f95a/Ban_in.mdi

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tai v ban Fulltext cua an nay. Chu y la ban cn co Font ting Vi t vi an c


vit bng VNTimes va ban cn google .mdi reader tai v chng trinh oc file
.mdi.

====================================
==================
Handbook of Comparative World Steel Standards, 2 nd Edition,
John E. Bringas, Editor (ASTM DS67A) 660p.

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