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INSTRUCTION MANUAL.

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHAGER


SET UP
DESCRIPTION
SPECIFICATIONS
INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
INSTALLATION AND CONNECTIONS
PRECAUTIONS
TROUBLE SHOOTING

EXPREMENTATION
THEORY
OPERATING PROCEDURE
SYSTEM CONSTANTS
OBSERVATION TABLE
CALCULATIONS

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER.


AIM:
To determine the overall and individual heat transfer coff. In 1.2 shell &
tube heat exchanger.
INTRODUCTION:
Shell & tube heat exchangers are mostly used in chemical industries as
a condenser, cooler and heater. When the heat transfer are becomes
more than 10 m, one has to go for shell & tube heat exchanger, which
occupies less space, offers reasonable pressure drop, compared to
other types of heat exchangers. Because of its wide utility. Mechanical
design has been standardized.

Standards of TEMA are available

covering in details of materials, methods of construction, technique of


design, and determinations for exchangers.
THEORY:
The film heat transfer coff.

Is a function of cross-sectional area of the

fluid path. Thus, decreasing the cross sectional area could increase the
fluid velocity. This is achieved in multi pass heat exchangers at the
cost of pressure drop & temperature gradient affecting due to
concurrent flow. The temperature profile for 1-2-pass heat exchangers
is shown in the fig. 1.

The factor Ft is the temperature difference

correction factor, when it is multiplied by the counter flow LMTD; the


product is correct mean temperature difference. Fig.2 shows the factor
Ft as a function of two dimentionsless numbers h & z, which are
defined as
Tco - Tci
Z =

Thi - Tho
Tho - Thi

Tci - Tco

The factor h is the heating effectiveness of the ratio of the actual


temperature

rise

of

the

cold

fluid

to

the

maximum

possible

temperature rise if the warm end approach were zeros. (Based on


counter current flow.) The factor Z is the ratio of fall in temperature of
the hot fluid to the rise in temperature of the cold fluid. Interpolation is
permitted I using fig.2.
By keeping the flow rate and physical properties constant in the shell
side fluid and varying the flow rate of the tube side fluid, and applying
Wilsons plot it is possible to get the outside (shell side) film heat
transfer coff. As subsequently the inside (tube side) film heat transfer
coff.
EXPERIMENTAL SET UP
A standard 1-2 pass shell and tube heat exchanger consist of
(A) Shell :
1) I.D. = 154 mm
2) Thickness = 6 mm
3) Material = MS
4) Baffle = 25% cut.
5) Baffle spacing = 57mm.
(B) Tube :
1) OD =12.5 mm
2) Thickness = 1.5 mm
3) Pitch 20 mm triangular
4) No. Of tubes = nos.
5) Length 1000 mm
The hot water tank (200 ltrs cap.) is provided with 6 kWh. Heaters and
hot water is pumped by centrifugal pump. The flow rates of the fluids
are known by pre calibrated rotameters. The cold water tank is of 200
ltrs, Capacity with centrifugal pump.

Thermometers are provided at

inlet & outlets of the heat exchanger to know temperature of the shell
& tube sides by pass valves are provided to vary flow rates.

PROCEDURE:
1. Admit water into hot & cold water tanks and keeps heater on.
2. When the temperature of hot water reaches to 60 to 70 C, admit it
into tube side of the exchanger at fixed known flow rate.
3. Admit cold water into shell side of the heat exchanger. At steady
state. Note down temperature and flow rates of the shell and tube
side fluids.
4. Keep the flow rate and temp. Of hot fluid constant and vary flow
rate of cold water at uniform intervals. Repeat the above procedure
and note down readings.
Sr.

Shell side fluid

tube side fluid

Flow

Flow rate

outlet Inlet

rate
temp
Kg/hr.Mc C t2

temp.
C t1

Kg/hr.Mc

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
ENERGY BALANCE:
Q = mh. Cph (T1 T2) = mc .Cpc (t2 t1)

outlet Inlet
temp
C T2

temp.
C T1

Tlm = (T1 t2) ( T2 t1)


ln (T1 t2)
(T2 t1)
R = (T1 T2)
(T2 - t1)
S = ( T2 t1)
( t2 t1).
Find out factor Ft from graph (Process heat transfer by KERN page no.
828)
t = Ft X Tlm.
COLD FLUID ( SHELL SIDE)
As = ID X CB /Pt.
Gs = W/As.
At Ta ( average temp. of cold fluid t1 +t2/2) find out .
To find out equivalent dia. De refer fig. 28 page 828.
Res = De. Gs/.
To find out factor Jh i.e. factor for heat transfer (dimentionless) refer
fig. 28 page 828.
At Ta = t1+ t2/2 find out specific heat of fluid, k-cal/kg-c.
Hence thermal conductivity k= k-cal/kgc.
1/3
(c/k).
ho = jh X k/De X (c/k).

1/3
X 1.

HOT FLUID (TUBE SIDE)


Flow Area per tube At = /4 di m.
Flow area of fluid = no of tubes X flow area per tube/no. of passes.
m.
Now mass velocity Gt = mass flow/ area = w/at. Kg/hr.m.
Velocity = Gt/3600. Where = density kg/m.
At ta = T1+T2/2 , = .KG/m.hr.

D = inside dia. Of tube = m.


Re = DGt/.
Calculate Hi from fig. 25 page 828 . Hio = Hi X ID/OD.
Now CLEAN OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COFFICIENT Uc =
HioX Ho
HioxHo.
Design overall heat transfer coff.Ud =
= Q/At. here A = external surface /m.
dirt factor = Rd = Uc Ud/Uc X Ud.
PRESSURE DROP.
SHELL SIDE.
Find out factor f, for shell side Re.
f = m/cm.
No. of crosses = N+1 = 12L/B where L= tube length m , B = baffle
spacing m.
Ds= inside dia. Of shell. M .
Ps = 8jf(Ds/de)(L/lb)/2.
Tube side pressure drop.
= Pt = 8jf (L/di). t/2. N/m.
DISCUSSION:
Energy balance gives
Q = mh Cph ( t hi t ho ) = mc Cpc ( t co t ci )
Which is related with overall heat transfer coefficient by,
Q = Uo Ao tlm X FT.
Flow area per tube = at = /4 dt, m.
at = flow area of fluid = no. of tubes X flow area/tube
No. of passes.
= Nt at /n m.
Now mass velocity of the tube side fluid,
= Gt = mc/at,
and get Rei = dt Gt/.

Now

Gt = Vi/.

Vi = Gi/ m/hr.

plot the graph of 1/Uo Vs 1/Vi