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mica e Propulsa

o
Hidrodina
Engenharia de M
aquinas Martimas

Jorge Trindade

ENIDH
2012

Indice
1 Introdu
c
ao
1.1 Geometria do navio . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.1 Principais dimens
oes dos navios .
1.1.2 Coeficientes de forma do navio .
1.2 Comportamento hidrodin
amico do navio
1.3 Metodos empricos . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Metodos experimentais . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 Simulac
oes numericas . . . . . . . . . .

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1
1
1
3
6
6
7
8

2 Resist
encia
2.1 An
alise dimensional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Leis da semelhanca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 Semelhanca geometrica . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 Semelhanca cinem
atica . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3 Semelhanca din
amica . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Decomposic
ao da resistencia . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 Resistencia de onda . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2 Resistencia de atrito . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.3 Resistencia viscosa de pressao . . . . . .
2.4 Ensaios de resistencia em tanques de reboque .
2.5 C
alculo da resistencia . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.1 Metodos de extrapolacao . . . . . . . .
2.5.2 Resistencias adicionais . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 Previs
ao com dados sistem
aticos ou estatsticos
2.7 Ensaios `
a escala real . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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13
13
14
14
15
15
18
19
24
25
26
27
27
31
32
34

3 Propuls
ao
3.1 Sistemas de propuls
ao . . . . . . . .
3.1.1 Helices . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2 Outros meios de propulsao .
3.2 Helices propulsores . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Geometria do helice . . . . .
3.2.2 Valores caractersticos . . . .
3.3 Teoria da quantidade de movimento
3.3.1 Forca propulsiva . . . . . . .

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35
35
35
37
40
40
41
42
42

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i

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INDICE

ii

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.3.2 Coeficiente de carga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.3.3 Rendimento ideal do helice . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ensaios com modelos reduzidos de helices . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1 Diagrama em
aguas livres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2 Rendimento . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.3 Indice de qualidade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Series sistem
aticas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1 Serie sistem
atica de Wageningen . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.2 Outras series sistem
aticas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.3 Diagrama de 4 quadrantes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cavitac
ao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.1 Origem da cavitac
ao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.2 Controle da cavitac
ao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.3 Considerac
ao da cavitacao na seleccao do helice . . .
3.6.4 Ensaios experimentais . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecc
ao do helice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.1 Vari
aveis de optimizacao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.2 Tipos de problema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interacc
ao entre casco e helice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.1 Ensaios de propuls
ao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.2 Potencia e velocidade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.3 Extrapolac
ao dos resultados do ensaio de propulsao

4 Instala
c
oes Propulsoras
4.1 Introduc
ao . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Propuls
ao diesel-mec
anica . . . . . .
4.2.1 Accionamento de auxiliares .
4.2.2 Engrenagens redutoras . . . .
4.2.3 Configurac
ao pai-e-filho . .
4.3 Propuls
ao diesel-electrica . . . . . .
4.3.1 Propuls
ao por motor electrico
4.3.2 Propulsores azimutais . . . .
4.4 Selecc
ao do motor . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1 Turbinas e motores electricos
4.4.2 Motores diesel . . . . . . . .

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44
45
45
46
46
47
47
48
49
51
53
53
54
55
56
58
58
60
60
61
62
66

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67
67
69
70
71
73
74
74
77
78
79
79

Indice Remissivo

83

A Previs
ao Baseada nos Ensaios de Propuls
ao

87

B Provas de velocidade e Pot


encia

121

C Condi
c
oes das Provas de Velocidade e Pot
encia

133

D Selec
c
ao de Motores Propulsores

141

E Derating

175

Lista de Figuras
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14

Plano de flutuac
ao, longitudinal e transversal de um navio. . . . .
Plano geometrico de um navio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Principais dimens
oes dos navios. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marcac
ao no costado das linhas de carga do navio. . . . . . . . . .
Tanque de provas utilizado por W. Froude. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tanque de testes actual. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bacia para testes com ondulacao. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bacia para testes com
aguas geladas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Escoamento num helice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Malha colocada `
a esquerda e desfasada `a direita. . . . . . . . . . .
Representac
ao esquem
atica de um PC-cluster. . . . . . . . . . . .
Um PC-cluster com 24 n
os computacionais. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decomposic
ao 1D, 2D ou 3D do domnio espacial de um problema.
Troca de valores nas fronteiras dos sub-domnios. . . . . . . . . . .

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2
2
4
5
7
7
8
8
8
9
10
10
11
11

Decomposic
ao da resistencia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sistema de ondas gerado por um ponto de pressao em movimento. . . . . .
Sistemas de ondas da proa e da popa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interacc
ao entre os dois sistemas de ondas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Curva da resistencia de onda. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Variac
ao do coeficiente da resistencia de atrito com o n
umero de Reynolds
com a rugosidade da superfcie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 Distribuic
ao de press
ao num escoamento ideal, invscido. . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8 Modelo `
a escala reduzida para ensaios de resistencia. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
cT
F r4
2.9 Representac
ao gr
afica da dependencia de
com
. . . . . . . . . . . .
cF 0
cF 0
2.10 Reduc
ao de velocidade (%) em aguas pouco profundas. . . . . . . . . . . . .

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19
20
21
22
23

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

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2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

Helice com tubeira. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Helices de passo fixo e de passo controlavel.
Helices em contra-rotac
ao. . . . . . . . . . .
Helices supercavitante. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Propuls
ao por jacto de
agua. . . . . . . . .
Propulsores azimutais. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Propulsores cicloidais. . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii

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. 25
. 26
. 27

. . 29
. . 33
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36
36
37
38
38
39
39

iv

LISTA DE FIGURAS
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17
3.18
3.19
3.20
3.21

Geometria do helice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distribuic
ao espacial de velocidade e pressao para a teoria da quantidade de
movimento. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagrama de
aguas livres. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aspecto geometrico das p
as da serie B de Wageningen . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagrama em
aguas livres de um helice da serie sistematica de Wageningen. . .
Notac
ao do diagrama com 4 quadrantes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagrama em
aguas livres de 4 quadrantes para os helices Wageningen B-4.70.
Efeito da cavitac
ao no valor dos parametros relativos a aguas livres. . . . . . .
Press
ao de vapor da
agua em funcao da temperatura. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagrama de Burrill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instalac
oes de ensaio do RINA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Imagem da cavitac
ao num helice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modelo para ensaios de propulsao. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resultados dos ensaios de propulsao. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Variantes de instalac
oes propulsoras diesel-mecanicas lentas e de media velocidade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Instalac
oes propulsoras diesel-mecanica (em cima) e diesel-electrica (em baixo).
4.3 Acoplamento com relac
ao variavel de velocidades. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Convers
ao da frequencia da energia electrica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 Instalac
ao propulsora com quatro motores, engrenagens redutoras e dois helices.
4.6 Instalac
ao com dois motores diesel diferentes, engrenagens redutoras, embraiagens e geradores acoplados aos veios. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7 Motor electrico de propuls
ao. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8 Instalac
ao diesel-electrica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9 Representac
ao esquem
atica de uma instalacao diesel-electrica. . . . . . . . . . .
4.10 Propulsores azimutais. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11 Diagrama de carga de um motor diesel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41
43
47
48
50
51
53
54
55
56
57
58
61
66

4.1

68
69
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
80

Lista de Tabelas
1.1

Valores de K na f
ormula de Alexander.

2.1

Valores do coeficiente de correccao cA em funcao do comprimento do navio. . . 29

3.1
3.2
3.3

Series sistem
aticas de propulsores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Coeficiente para atribuic
ao do diametro maximo do helice pela Eq. (3.34). . . . 59
Constante para o c
alculo do diametro equivalente em agua livres pela Eq. (3.35). 59

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vi

LISTA DE TABELAS

Captulo

Introducao
1.1

Geometria do navio

A variacao da proporc
ao relativa das dimensoes principais de um navio tem um importante
efeito nas suas caractersticas operacionais. Afecta as suas caractersticas hidrodinamicas, a
sua resistencia estrutural e, naturalmente a capacidade de carga.
Os navios existentes, em particular as unidades de construcao mais recente, constituem
uma boa fonte de inspirac
ao para o pre-dimensionamento de um navio novo. No que diz
respeito `a informac
ao mais detalhada, estas bases de dados sao, regra geral, bem resguardadas
pelos gabinetes de estudo e projecto, bem como pelos estaleiros construtores. No entanto,
alguns destes dados est
ao disponveis nos registos publicados pelas sociedades classificadoras
e por alguns gabinetes de estudo.
Depois de um processo iterativo de dimensionamento do navio, durante o qual sao tidas
em considerac
ao as vari
aveis de optimizacao seleccionadas, a solucao final da forma do navio
constitui o plano geometrico do navio. Na pratica, este plano geometrico e gerado por uma
das seguintes vias:
- deformac
ao de um navio de referencia;
- modelo matem
atico para definicao de forma em funcao de parametros do navio;
- utilizac
ao das series sistem
aticas.

1.1.1

Principais dimens
oes dos navios

O casco de um navio e uma forma tridimensional, na maior parte dos casos simetrica relativamente a um plano vertical longitudinal do navio. O contorno do casco fica definido pela
sua intersecc
ao com tres planos ortogonais (Fig. 1.1):
- o plano de flutuac
ao de projecto;
- o plano longitudinal;
- o plano transversal.
1

CAPITULO 1. INTRODUC
AO

Figura 1.1: Plano de flutuacao, longitudinal e transversal de um navio.

O plano longitudinal, u
nico plano de simetria do navio, e o plano de referencia. A forma
do navio cortada por este plano e o perfil. O plano de flutuacao de projecto e um plano
perpendicular ao plano longitudinal, escolhido como plano de referencia. Os planos paralelos
ao plano de flutuac
ao de projecto s
ao conhecidos como planos de agua, ou de flutuacao, e as
linhas de intersecc
ao como linhas de
agua. Os planos de flutuacao sao simetricos relativamente
ao plano longitudinal. Os planos perpendiculares ao plano longitudinal e ao plano de flutuacao
de projecto s
ao os planos transversais. As seccoes transversais exibem simetria relativamente
ao plano longitudinal.
A secc
ao do navio equidistante das perpendiculares e normal aos planos de flutuacao de
verao e longitudinal e designada por seccao de meio-navio, ou seccao mestra. Na Fig. 1.2
esta representado um plano de linhas do navio, que inclui o plano do casco, no qual, por
convencao, sempre que o navio e simetrico, se exibem metades das seccoes. Do lado direito
representam-se metades das secc
oes avante de meio-navio e do lado esquerdo metades das
seccoes a re. O plano de linhas do navio inclui ainda o plano da metade da boca, no qual sao
representados os planos de flutuac
ao.

Figura 1.2: Plano geometrico de um navio.

1.1. GEOMETRIA DO NAVIO

Na Fig. 1.3 est


ao representadas as dimensoes mais frequentemente utilizadas para definir
o navio. Quanto ao comprimento do navio, sao tres as definicoes a considerar:
- o comprimento entre perpendiculares, Lpp , distancia medida ao longo do plano de flutuac
ao de ver
ao entre a perpendicular da popa e a perpendicular da proa;
- o comprimento na linha de
agua, Lwl , distancia na linha de flutuacao que se verifique, se
nada for referido dever
a entender-se a linha de flutuacao de verao, entre as interseccoes
da proa e popa com a mesma linha de flutuacao;
- o comprimento fora a fora, Loa , distancia entre os pontos extremos a vante e a re do
navio, medida numa direcc
ao paralela `a linha de flutuacao de verao.
Designa-se por boca, a m
axima distancia entre as faces interiores das chapas de costado
nos dois bordos do navio, na secc
ao mestra, se outra seccao nao for indicada. O pontal e a
distancia na vertical, medida a meio navio, entre a face inferior do conves e a face superior
da chapa da quilha. O calado de um navio em qualquer ponto do seu comprimento e a
distancia na vertical entre a quilha e a linha de agua. O calado varia nao so com o estado de
carregamento do navio mas tambem com a densidade da agua em que este se encontra.
A altura desde a linha de flutuacao e o conves e designada por bordo livre. Pode ser
calculado pela diferenca entre o pontal e o calado.
Um aspecto importante relativamente `a seguranca de um navio mercante prende-se com
a alocacao regulamentar de um valor mnimo do bordo livre, como forma de garantir uma
reserva de estabilidade suficiente para a seguranca da navegacao. Este valor mnimo do bordo
livre depende do local de navegac
ao e da epoca do ano. No costado do navio estao marcadas
as linhas de carga por forma a permitir verificar facilmente se as condicoes de seguranca sao
verificadas. O valor de referencia e a linha de Verao que e marcada no centro de um crculo,
Fig. 1.4. Ao lado deste crculo, s
ao marcadas na horizontal linhas adicionais que correspondem
ao:
- bordo livre de Inverno, superior em 1/48 avos do bordo livre de Verao;
- bordo livre de Inverno no Atl
antico Norte, ainda superior em 50 mm;
- bordo livre tropical, inferior em 1/48 avos do bordo livre de Verao;
- bordo livre em
agua doce, inferior em / (40 t) cm, sendo o deslocamento em ton e
t as ton por cm de imers
ao;
- bordo livre tropical em
agua doce e inferior em 1/48 avos do bordo livre de Verao ao
bordo livre em
agua doce.

1.1.2

Coeficientes de forma do navio

O deslocamento do navio e o peso do volume de agua que o navio desloca quando a flutuar
em aguas tranquilas,
= g

(1.1)

em que e a massa vol


umica da
agua em que o navio se encontra a flutuar, g e a aceleracao
da gravidade e o volume deslocado.
A partir das principais dimens
oes da navio, definem-se os seguintes coeficientes de forma:


CAPITULO 1. INTRODUC
AO

Figura 1.3: Principais dimensoes dos navios.

- o coeficiente de finura total (block coeficient):


Cb =

Lpp BT

(1.2)

onde:
- e o volume do deslocamento;
- Lpp o comprimento entre perpendiculares;
- B a boca (m
axima abaixo da linha de agua);
- e T e o calado medio do navio.
- o coeficiente de finura da flutuacao:
Cwp =

Awp
Lwp B

em que:
- Awp e a
area do plano de flutuacao;

(1.3)

1.1. GEOMETRIA DO NAVIO

Figura 1.4: Marcac


ao no costado das linhas de carga do navio.

- Lwp o comprimento na linha de flutuacao;


- e B a boca (m
axima na linha de flutuacao).
- o coeficiente de finura da secc
ao mestra:
Cm =

Am
BT

(1.4)

representando por:
- Am a
area imersa na secc
ao mestra;
- B a boca na secc
ao mestra;
- e T o calado a meio navio.
- o coeficiente prism
atico longitudinal:
Cp =

Am Lpp

(1.5)

em que novamente:
- e o volume da querena;
- Am a
area imersa a meio navio;
- e Lpp o comprimento entre perpendiculares.
Como exemplo da utilizac
ao dos coeficientes de forma no estabelecimento de relacoes
empricas para incio do projecto de um navio, pode-se indicar a formula de Alexander,
V
Cb = K 0.5
L

(1.6)

em que K apresenta os valores da Tab. 1.1 de acordo com o tipo de navio. A formula de
Alexander estabelece uma relac
ao emprica entre o coeficiente de finura total do navio, a sua
velocidade e o comprimento. Pela especificidade de cada caso, o coeficiente de finura total
Cb do navio poder
a depois desviar-se do valor inicialmente previsto durante o processo de
optimizacao das caractersticas do navio.


CAPITULO 1. INTRODUC
AO

6
Tipo de Navio
Petroleiro
Graneleiro
Carga geral
Navio de linha
Ferry
Rebocador

K
1.13
1.11
1.10
1.05
1.08
1.18

Tabela 1.1: Valores de K na formula de Alexander.

1.2

Comportamento hidrodin
amico do navio

A analise do comportamento hidrodinamico do navio pode ser decomposta em diversas areas,


de entre as quais se pode salientar:
- a resistencia;
- a propuls
ao;
- o comportamento do navio no mar;
- a capacidade de manobra.
O calculo do escoamento e o projecto de helices pode ser considerado como um sub-topico do
tema resistencia e propuls
ao.
As metodologias para o c
alculo ou para a previsao dos parametros relevantes do comportamento do navio podem ser classificadas como:
- empricas e estatsticas;
- experimentais em modelos `
a escala reduzida, ou `a escala real;
- numericas, atraves de soluc
oes analticas ou com recurso `a mecanica de fluidos computacional.
Os princpios fundamentais destas metodologias sao sumariamente descritos nas seccoes
seguintes.

1.3

M
etodos empricos

Os metodos empricos baseiam-se num modelo fsico relativamente simples e na analise por
regressao para a determinac
ao dos coeficientes relevantes, a partir de um so navio ou de uma
serie de navios. Os resultados assim obtidos sao depois expressos sob a forma de constantes,
formulas, tabelas, gr
aficos, etc.
Numerosos estudos realizados entre 1940 e 1960 permitiram criar series de boas formas
de carenas. O efeito da variac
ao dos principais parametros do casco, como por exemplo o
coeficiente de bloco, foi determinado por alteracao sistematica daqueles parametros.


1.4. METODOS
EXPERIMENTAIS

Figura 1.5: Tanque de provas utilizado


por W. Froude.

1.4

Figura 1.6: Tanque de testes actual.

M
etodos experimentais

Esta abordagem baseia-se no teste de modelos em escala reduzida para extrair informacao que
possa ser extrapolada para a escala do navio. Apesar dos grandes esforcos de investigacao e
normalizac
ao, a correlac
ao modelo-navio esta sujeita a algum grau de empirismo. Cada uma
das principais instalac
oes de teste (t
uneis, bacias, etc.) tende a adoptar os metodos de ensaio
e tratamento da informac
ao que melhor se adaptam `a experiencia ja incorporada nas suas
bases de dados. Esta n
ao uniformidade de processos dificulta, se nao mesmo em muitos casos
impossibilita, o aproveitamento estatstico dos dados de uma forma agregada.
Embora a metodologia base para a avaliacao da resistencia de um modelo num tanque de
testes se mantenha praticamente inalterada desde os tempos de Froude (1874), varios aspectos
tecnicos sofreram grande evoluc
ao. De entre estes, podem-se salientar:
- as tecnicas experimentais n
ao-intrusivas, como a Laser-Doppler Velocimetry, que permitem a medic
ao do campo de velocidades na esteira do navio para melhorar o projecto
do helice;
- a an
alise do padr
ao da formacao ondosa gerada pelo modelo para estimar a resistencia
de onda;
- nos testes de modelos com propulsao autonoma, e possvel agora medir grandezas relacionadas com o propulsor como o impulso, binario, rpm, etc.
Instalac
oes com caractersticas bem diferentes surgiram entretanto para possibilitar outro
tipo de estudos. Trata-se de bacias equipadas com geradores de ondas, para ensaios de modelos
com o objectivo de estudar as quest
oes de manobrabilidade e de comportamento do navio no
mar, Fig. 1.7.
Outro tipo de bacias para ensaios de modelos de navios, Fig. 1.8, dedica-se preferencialmente a estudos e ensaios relacionados com a presenca de gelo no mar.
Por u
ltimo, um outro tipo de instalacao de teste nesta area dedica-se ao estudo do desempenho de helices propulsores. Neste tipo de instalacao, que iremos abordar com um pouco
mais de detalhe no Cap. 3, para alem da determinacao de varias caractersticas de desempenho
do helice, pode-se vizualizar o padr
ao de cavitacao no helice.


CAPITULO 1. INTRODUC
AO

Figura 1.7: Bacia para testes


com ondulac
ao.

Figura 1.8: Bacia para testes com


aguas geladas.

Figura 1.9: Escoamento num helice.

1.5

Simula
c
oes num
ericas

As simulac
oes de escoamento obtidas pela mecanica de fluidos computacional sao ainda consideradas pela ind
ustria como pouco precisas para a previsao da resistencia de um casco ou da
forca propulsiva de um helice. No entanto, o contributo da mecanica de fluidos computacional
esta a tornar-se cada vez mais importante em determinados passos do processo de projecto.
Casos tpicos de aplicac
ao s
ao, por exemplo:
- a simulac
ao de escoamento invscido, com superfcie livre, para analise do comportamento da proa, interacc
ao com o bolbo, formacao ondosa, etc.
- as simulac
oes de escoamento viscoso na zona da popa, desprezando a formacao ondosa
para avaliac
ao do comportamento de apendice ou analise do escoamento de aproximacao
ao helice.
No caso mais geral, o escoamento de fluidos incompressveis em regime nao-estacionario e
modelado pelas seguintes equac
oes:

1.5. SIMULAC
OES
NUMERICAS

- Equac
ao da continuidade,
ui
=0
xi

(1.7)

- Equac
ao de conservac
ao da quantidade de movimento,
ui
p
2 ui

(ui uj ) =
+
+ bi
+
t
xj
xi
xj xj

(1.8)

- Equac
ao de conservac
ao da energia (forma simplificada),
(uj )
2
=
+
t
xj
c xj xj

(1.9)

em que xi e a coordenada na direccao i, ui e a componente da velocidade na direccao i,


e sao a massa especfica e a viscosidade do fluido, respectivamente, p e a pressao, e a
condutividade termica, c e o calor especfico, e a temperatura, b e a componente na direccao
i das forcas exteriores por unidade de massa e t e o tempo.
As equac
oes s
ao discretizadas no espaco de acordo com uma malha colocada ou desfasada.
Na Fig. 1.10 est
a indicada a localizacao das variaveis, no caso bi-dimensional, para cada
uma daqueles tipos de malhas. Cada um daqueles tipos de malha de discretizacao apresenta

Figura 1.10: Malha colocada `a esquerda e desfasada `a direita.

algumas vantagens e desvantagens. As mais importantes estao relacionadas com:


- a complexidade da programacao;
- o tratamento das fronteiras do problema;
- a soluc
ao para o acoplamento pressao-velocidade (formato xadrez na solucao da pressao).
Selecionado o tipo de malha a utilizar, outras opcoes ha a tomar para desenvolver o metodo
de solucao. Algumas das mais comuns sao:


CAPITULO 1. INTRODUC
AO

10

Figura 1.11: Representac


ao esquematica
de um PC-cluster.

Figura 1.12: Um PC-cluster


com 24 nos computacionais.

- SIMPLE / metodo de projecc


ao;
- volume finito / diferencas finitas;
- aproximac
ao dos termos convectivos/difusivos das equacoes;
- upwind;
- diferencas centrais de ordem 2;
- diferencas centrais de ordem 4;
- o metodo de integrac
ao para a evolucao temporal;
- Euler;
- Crank-Nicolson;
- Adams-Bashforth;
- Runge-Kutta.
Tratando-se de c
alculos complexos, o tempo de calculo podera ser reduzido, sem acrescimo
significativo de custos, com recurso de um PC-cluster, Fig. 1.11.
Este tipo de estruturas computacionais caracterizam-se por dispor de:
- 20 a 1000 CPU;
- 2 a 8 GB RAM por n
o;
- comunicac
ao em rede com velocidade superior a 1 Gbps;
- elevada capacidade para armazenamento de dados;
- sistema operativo est
avel.

1.5. SIMULAC
OES
NUMERICAS

11

Para a soluc
ao de um problema de mecanica de fluidos num PC-cluster e necessario proceder `a decomposic
ao do domnio espacial do problema (Fig. 1.13) e recorrer a rotinas de uma
das varias bibliotecas disponveis para efectuar a troca de dados entre os nos computacionais,
como por exemplo a biblioteca Message Passing Interface, necessaria para a continuacao do
calculo. Na Fig. 1.14 est
ao representados esquematicamente aquelas comunicacoes de dados
relativos `as fronteiras dos sub-domnios de calculo.

Figura 1.13: Decomposic


ao 1D, 2D ou 3D do domnio espacial de um problema.

Figura 1.14: Troca de valores nas fronteiras dos sub-domnios.

12

CAPITULO 1. INTRODUC
AO

Captulo

Resistencia
2.1

An
alise dimensional

A resistencia do navio a uma velocidade constante e a forca necessaria para rebocar o navio
a essa velocidade em
aguas tranquilas. Se a querena nao tiver apendices, a resistencia diz-se
da querena simples. Designaremos por potencia efectiva, ou potencia de reboque, a potencia
necessaria para vencer a resistencia do navio a uma dada velocidade,
Pe = V RT

(2.1)

em que V e a velocidade do navio e RT a sua resistencia total.


A resistencia do navio RT = f (V, L, , , g) depende:
- da velocidade do navio V ;
- das dimens
oes do navio, representadas aqui por uma dimensao linear L;
- da massa especfica do fluido ;
- da viscosidade cinem
atica do fluido ;
- da acelerac
ao da gravidade g.
Assim, a resistencia do navio devera ser uma funcao da forma
RT = V a Lb c d g e

(2.2)

Ao estudar a resistencia de um navio e importante calcular nao o seu valor absoluto, mas
tambem a sua relac
ao com outro valor, dimensionalmente semelhante, tomado como referencia. Vamos dar o nome de coeficientes especficos a estas relacoes. No caso da resistencia
total do navio, o valor do coeficiente e obtido por
cT =

RT

(2.3)

1
SV 2
2

em que e a massa especfica do fluido, S a superfcie molhada do navio e V a sua velocidade.


13


CAPITULO 2. RESISTENCIA

14

Resolvendo o sistema de equac


oes gerado pela Eq. (2.2) em ordem a a, b e c, e considerando
a definicao do coeficiente em 2.3 dada pela Eq. (2.3), temos


V L gL
2 2
(2.4)
RT = V L f
,
V2
Ou seja, a an
alise dimensional mostra que o coeficiente de resistencia total do navio,


V L gL
ct = f
(2.5)
,
V2
depende dos grupos adimensionais designados por n
umero de Froude,
V
Fr =
gL

(2.6)

e por n
umero de Reynolds,
Re =

VL

(2.7)

calculados para o navio.

2.2

Leis da semelhan
ca

No caso dos ensaios de modelos para avaliacao da resistencia de uma querena, podemos
considerar tres formas de semelhanca:
- semelhanca geometrica;
- semelhanca cinem
atica;
- semelhanca din
amica.

2.2.1

Semelhanca geom
etrica

Verificar-se semelhanca geometrica significa a existencia de uma razao constante entre qualquer dimens
ao linear na escala real do prototipo (comprimento, boca, calado do navio, etc.)
Ls e o dimens
ao linear na escala do modelo Lm . Aquela razao e a escala geometrica do modelo
,
Ls = Lm

(2.8)

Consequentemente, temos para as areas,


As = 2 Am

(2.9)

e para os volumes,
s = 3 m

(2.10)

2.2. LEIS DA SEMELHANCA

2.2.2

15

Semelhanca cinem
atica

A semelhanca cinem
atica significa a existencia de uma razao constante entre o tempo na
escala real, ts e o tempo na escala do modelo tm , a escala cinematica :
ts = tm

(2.11)

A verificac
ao simult
anea das condicoes de semelhanca geometrica e cinematica resulta nos
seguintes factores de escala:
- para a velocidade:

Vm

Vs =

(2.12)

- e para a acelerac
ao:
as =

2.2.3

am
2

(2.13)

Semelhanca din
amica

Obter semelhanca din


amica significa que a razao entre cada uma das forcas actuantes no navio
`a escala real e as correspondentes forcas actuantes no modelo e constante, escala dinamica do
modelo ,
Fs = Fm

(2.14)

As forcas presentes, actuantes sobre o navio e sobre o modelo, podem ser classificadas de
acordo com a sua natureza como:
- as forcas de inercia;
- as forcas gravticas;
- as forcas de atrito.
For
cas de in
ercia
As forcas de inercia regem-se pela lei de Newton, expressa por
F = ma

(2.15)

em que F e a forca de inercia, m a massa do corpo, e a a aceleracao a que ele e sujeito.


Considerando o volume deslocado pelo navio , a massa do navio e
m =

(2.16)

sendo a massa vol


umica da
agua.
Entao, a raz
ao entre as forcas de inercia e uma equacao que incorpora os tres factores de
escala, lei da Semelhanca de Newton, e dada por
=

Fs
s s as
s 4
=
=

Fm
m m am
m 2

que pode ser re-escrita como


 2


Fs

Vs 2
s
s As
2
=
=

=

Fm
m

m Am
Vm

(2.17)

(2.18)


CAPITULO 2. RESISTENCIA

16

For
cas de origem hidrodin
amica
As forcas de origem hidrodin
amica sao normalmente descritas recorrendo a um coeficiente
adimensional c na seguinte forma, semelhante `a Eq. (2.3),
F = c

1
V 2A
2

(2.19)

em que V e uma velocidade de referencia, por exemplo a velocidade do navio e A uma area de
referencia como, por exemplo, a
area das obras vivas com mar calmo. Aplicando a Eq. (2.19)
ao navio e ao modelo e combinando as duas equacoes, obtem-se


cs s Vs2 As
cs s As
Vs 2
Fs
=

(2.20)
=
Fm
cm m Vm2 Am
cm m Am
Vm
Daqui resulta que igualando o valor dos coeficientes no navio e no modelo, cs = cm , fica
garantida a verificac
ao da lei da semelhanca de Newton.
For
cas Gravticas
As forcas gravticas podem ser descritas de forma semelhante `as forcas de inercia, para o
navio
Gs = s g s

(2.21)

e para o modelo
Gs = s g s

Gm = m g m

(2.22)

daqui resultando uma nova escala,


g =

Gs
s s
s
=

=
3
Gm
m m
m

(2.23)

Para que se possa verificar a semelhanca dinamica, os factores de escala devem apresentar
o mesmo valor, ou seja, = g . Se
=

s 4

m 2

e
g =

s
3
m

entao, para que = g e necess


ario verificar-se

(2.24)

Esta nova relac


ao permite eliminar a escala temporal em todas as relacoes apresentadas,
ficando a proporcionalidade apenas dependente de como, por exemplo, na Eq. (2.12), fazendo

Vs
=
Vm

(2.25)

2.2. LEIS DA SEMELHANCA

17

N
umero de Froude
A Eq. (2.25) pode ainda assumir a forma de uma relacao entre a dimensao linear e a
velocidade do modelo e do navio,
V
V
s = m
Ls
Lm

(2.26)

Adimensionalisando a raz
ao entre a velocidade V e a raiz quadrada do comprimento L
com a acelerac
ao da gravidade, g = 9.81 m/s2 , obtemos o n
umero de Froude
Fr =

V
gL

(2.27)

Na ausencia de forcas viscosas, igual n


umero de Froude assegura semelhanca dinamica.
Para igual n
umero de Froude, as ondulacoes no modelo e `a escala real, desde que de pequena
amplitude, podem considerar-se geometricamente semelhantes.
A lei de Froude e verificada em todos os ensaios de modelos de navios, ensaios de resistencia, propuls
ao, comportamento no mar e manobrabilidade. A aplicacao da lei de Froude
impoe os seguintes factores de escala para a velocidade,

Vs
=
Vm

(2.28)

Fs
s
=
3
Fm
m

(2.29)

forca,

e potencia,
Fs Vs
s
Ps
=
=
3.5
Pm
Fm Vm
m

(2.30)

For
cas de atrito
As forcas viscosas R, com origem no atrito entre camadas de fluido, sao modeladas por
R =

u
A
n

(2.31)

u
em que e a viscosidade din
amica do fluido, A a area sujeita ao atrito e
o gradiente de
n
velocidade, avaliado na direcc
ao normal ao escoamento.
A razao das forcas de atrito no navio e no modelo e dada por
Rs
f =
=
Rm

us
As
s 2
ns
=
um
m
m
Am
nm
s

(2.32)

Na presenca das forcas de atrito, para verificar a condicao de semelhanca dinamica, ser
a
necessario que f = , ou seja:
s 2
s 4
=
m
m 2

(2.33)


CAPITULO 2. RESISTENCIA

18

Se introduzirmos a viscosidade cinematica, como = /, obtem-se:


2
s
V s Ls
=
=
m

Vm Lm
ou seja,
Vs Ls
Vm Lm
=
s
m

(2.34)

N
umero de Reynolds
Entao, de acordo com a Eq. (2.34), se apenas estiverem presentes forcas de inercia e de
atrito, a igualdade do n
umero de Reynolds,
Re =

V L

(2.35)

assegura semelhanca din


amica entre o modelo e o navio.
Para o c
alculo do n
umero de Reynolds, a viscosidade cinematica da agua do mar (m2 /s)
pode ser estimada, em func
ao da temperatura ( C) e da salinidade s (%), por
= (0.014 s + (0.000645 0.0503) + 1.75) 106
Semelhan
ca din
amica
O n
umero de Froude e o n
umero de Reynolds estao relacionados por,
p

gL3
Re
V L gL
=
=
Fr

(2.36)

(2.37)

A semelhanca de Froude e facilmente obtida para testes em modelos porque para modelos
mais pequenos a velocidade de teste diminui. A semelhanca de Reynolds e mais difcil de
obter pois modelos mais pequenos exigem superior velocidade de teste para igual viscosidade
cinematica.
os navios de superfcie est
ao sujeitos a forcas gravticas e de atrito. Assim, nos testes de
modelos `a escala reduzida ambas as leis, de Froude e de Reynolds, deveriam ser satisfeitas;
s
Res
m
L3s
m 1.5
=

=
= 1
(2.38)
Rem
s
L3m
s
No entanto, n
ao existem, ou pelo menos nao sao economicamente viaveis, fluidos que permitam
satisfazer esta condic
ao. Para diminuir os erros de extrapolacao dos efeitos viscosos, a agua em
que sao realizados os testes pode ser aquecida para aumentar a diferenca entre as viscosidades.

2.3

Decomposi
c
ao da resist
encia

A resistencia do navio tem origem complexa e, para facilidade de analise, e tradicionalmente


decomposta em v
arios termos. No entanto, nao existe uniformidade nos diversos textos quanto
`a forma como realizar aquela decomposicao. Uma das abordagens a este assunto consiste
em considerar as decomposic
oes constantes na Fig. 2.1. De acordo com a figura, podemos
considerar a seguinte decomposic
ao da resistencia total:

DA RESISTENCIA

2.3. DECOMPOSIC
AO

19

- a resistencia de onda;
- a resistencia de atrito;
- a resistencia viscosa de press
ao.

Figura 2.1: Decomposicao da resistencia.

Para alem dos termos relativos a uma querena simples em aguas tranquilas, outras componentes adicionais da resistencia deverao ser consideradas:
- a resistencia aerodin
amica, resistencia ao avanco no ar da parte emersa do casco e
superestruturas do navio;
- a resistencia adicional em mar ondoso, resistencia resultante da accao de ondas incidentes sobre a estrutura do navio;
- a resistencia adicional devida aos apendices da querena.

2.3.1

Resist
encia de onda

Quando o navio avanca na superfcie tranquila do mar e rodeado e seguido por uma formacao
ondosa. Esta formac
ao e quase imperceptvel a baixa velocidade. No entanto, a partir de
uma dada velocidade torna-se claramente visvel e, a partir da, tem dimensao crescente
com a velocidade. Para alem da dependencia com a velocidade, a formacao ondosa depende
tambem da forma da querena.


CAPITULO 2. RESISTENCIA

20

Nos estudos de resistencia de onda nao se pode afirmar que uma dada velocidade e elevada
ou baixa sem conhecermos tambem a dimensao do navio. Assim, surge frequentemente a
referencia ao conceito de velocidade relativa, como razao entre a velocidade do navio e um
parametro representativo da dimens
ao do navio,
V
vrel =
L

(2.39)

com V em n
os e L em pes, em substituicao do adimensional n
umero de Froude.
Numa perspectiva do estudo hidrodinamico do escoamanto, o navio pode ser considerado
como um campo de press
ao em movimento. Kelvin resolveu analiticamente o caso simplificado
do sistema de ondas criado pelo movimento de um ponto de pressao. Demonstrou que o padrao
da formac
ao ondosa inclui um sistemas de ondas divergentes e um outro sistema cujas cristas
das ondas se apresentam normais `
a direccao do movimento, como representado na Fig. 2.2.
Ambos os sistemas de ondas viajam `a velocidade do ponto de pressao.

Figura 2.2: Sistema de ondas gerado por um ponto de pressao em movimento.


O sistema de ondas associado ao movimento de um navio e bastante mais complicado.
No entanto, como primeira aproximacao, o navio pode ser considerado com um campo de
pressao em movimento composto por uma sobrepressao considerada pontual na proa e uma
depressao, tambem pontual, na popa. Assim, num navio que se desloque a uma velocidade
relativa elevada, a formac
ao ondosa provocada e constituda por dois sistemas principais de
ondas, Fig. 2.3:
- o sistema da proa;
- o sistema da popa.
Cada um dos sistemas de ondas formados, com origem na proa e na popa do navio, e
constitudo por dois tipos de ondas:
- as ondas transversais;
- as ondas divergentes.
Geralmente, os dois sistemas de ondas divergentes sao detectaveis apesar de o sistema da
popa ser muito mais fraco. N
ao e normalmente possvel isolar o sistema transversal da popa,
sendo apenas visvel a re do navio a composicao dos dois sistemas, transversal e divergente.

DA RESISTENCIA

2.3. DECOMPOSIC
AO

21

Figura 2.3: Sistemas de ondas da proa e da popa.

A proa produz um sistema de ondas semelhante ao descrito por Kelvin para um ponto de
pressao em movimento e, pelo contr
ario, na popa forma-se um sistema de ondas semelhante,
mas com uma depress
ao localizada na popa. Conforme representado na Fig. 2.3, se a linha
que une os pontos de maior elevac
ao das cristas das ondas divergentes fizer com a direccao
longitudinal do navio um
angulo , entao a direccao destas fara um angulo 2 com a mesma
direccao.
O comprimento de onda de ambos os sistemas transversais e igual e dado por:
=

2V 2
g

(2.40)

Existe uma interacc


ao entre as formacoes ondosa transversais dos sistemas de ondas da
proa e da popa. Se os sistemas estiverem em fase, de tal forma que as cristas das ondas
coincidam, o sistema resultante ter
a maior altura e, consequentemente, maior energia. Se,
pelo contr
ario, a cava de um dos sistemas de ondas ficar sobreposta com uma crista do outro
sistema, a energia consumida para gerar o sistema de ondas sera reduzida. A velocidade V
e o comprimento do navio L s
ao muito importantes para a determinacao da energia total do
sistema de ondas gerado e, consequentemente, para a resistencia de onda do navio.
Continuando a assumir o modelo fsico que aproxima o movimento do navio por um
campo de press
ao em movimento, a distancia entre os dois pontos de pressao, proa e popa,
e aproximada por 0, 9 L. Sabendo que uma onda gravtica com comprimento de onda se
desloca em
aguas profundas `
a velocidade
r
g
C=
(2.41)
2
para que haja coincidencia de uma crista ou cava do sistema da proa com a primeira cava
gerada na popa, dever
a verificar-se
V2
g
=
0, 9L
N

(2.42)

Tomando em considerac
ao a Fig. 2.4, verifica-se que as cavas vao coincidir para N =
1, 3, 5, ... enquanto que para N par as cristas do sistema da proa coincidem com as cavas do
sistema da popa. Se n
ao existisse esta interaccao entre os dois sistemas de ondas a resistencia
de onda apresentaria uma evoluc
ao bem comportada crescente com a velocidade do navio,

22

CAPITULO 2. RESISTENCIA

Figura 2.4: Interaccao entre os dois sistemas de ondas.

conforme representado pela linha tracejada da Fig. 2.5. Na realidade, a partir de uma dada
velocidade a partir da qual esta interaccao se torna significativa, verifica-se a existencia de
elevacoes e depress
oes na curva correspondendo aos casos extremos de interaccao entre os
de esperar que a maior elevacao se verifique para N = 1 porque a
sistemas de ondas. E
velocidade e mais elevada para esta condicao.
Como a curva de resistencia de onda exibe estes maximos e mnimos locais, o navio deve
ser projectado para operar num mnimo local da curva de resistencia de onda, a velocidade
economica.
Quando o comprimento de onda das ondas transversais e igual ao comprimento do navio, o n
umero de Froude e aproximadamente 0, 4. Ate este valor do n
umero de Froude, as
ondas transversais s
ao as principais responsaveis pelas elevacoes e depressoes na curva da
resistencia de onda. Se o n
umero de Froude aumentar, aumentara tambem a resistencia de
onda sobretudo `
a custa da influencia das ondas divergentes. O maximo da resistencia de
onda verifica-se para F r 0, 5. A velocidade correspondente designa-se por velocidade da
querena. Acima da velocidade da querena a resistencia de onda do navio decresce. Navios
rapidos que operem acima da velocidade de querena deverao naturalmente dispor de potencia
instalada suficiente para vencer aquele pico de resistencia.
Bolbo de proa
A finalidade da instalac
ao dos bolbos de proa e a reducao da resistencia de onda. O
mecanismo de reduc
ao consiste na interferencia dos sistemas de onda. O sistema de ondas
gerado pela press
ao elevada no bolbo interfere com o sistema de ondas da proa, reduzindo a
sua amplitude. A interferencia favor
avel ocorre quando a cava do sistema transversal de ondas

DA RESISTENCIA

2.3. DECOMPOSIC
AO

23

Figura 2.5: Curva da resistencia de onda.

do bolbo surgir na crista do sistema de ondas da proa do navio. Esta situacao de interferencia
favoravel sendo optimizada para uma dada velocidade, pode no entanto ser considerada como
tendo efeito favor
avel num determinado intervalo de velocidades.
Efeito da profundidade restrita
Os efeitos da profundidade finita comecam a fazer-se sentir quando a profundidade h e
menor que metade do comprimento de onda da formacao ondosa gerada pelo movimento do
navio, h < /2. Doutra forma, podemos considerar profundidade infinita sempre que,
h>

(2.43)

No caso de profundidades muito pequenas, h < 0, 05 , a velocidade de propagacao deixa


de depender do comprimento de onda, Eq. (2.41) e passa a depender apenas da profundidade
C=

p
gh

(2.44)

Neste caso, a velocidade de grupo e igual `a velocidade de propagacao, a velocidade crtica:


p
Cg = C = gh
(2.45)
Para caracterizar o efeito da profundidade e usado o n
umero de Froude baseado na profundidade h:


CAPITULO 2. RESISTENCIA

24

- se V / gh < 0, 4, o padr
ao de ondas e semelhante ao caso de profundidade infinita;

- se V / gh se aproximar de 1, o angulo da envolvente aproxima-se de 90 ;

- se V / gh > 1, sin = gh/V .

2.3.2

Resist
encia de atrito

A resistencia de atrito do navio resulta do escoamento em torno da querena com n


umero de
Reynolds elevado. Quando um corpo se move num fluido em repouso, uma fina camada de
fluido adere ao corpo em movimento, ou seja, tem velocidade nula relativamente ao corpo.
A variacao de velocidade e elevada nas proximidades da superfcie do corpo e diminui com
pratica habitual convencionar-se para a definicao da
o aumento da dist
ancia ao mesmo. E
espessura da camada limite, a dist
ancia a partir da superfcie do corpo ate que a velocidade
do fluido seja 1% da velocidade do corpo.
Desenvolve-se assim da proa para a popa do navio uma camada limite tridimensional. Esta
camada limite inicia-se em escoamento laminar e sofre transicao para o regime turbulento.
Normalmente, esta transic
ao ocorre junto `a proa do navio. Esta transicao e controlada pelo
n
umero de Reynolds do escoamento. Considerando o caso da placa lisa plana, a transicao
ocorre para valores entre Re = 3105 e Re = 106 . Em regime turbulento os efeitos dissipativos
de energia v
ao alem do atrito molecular. Com crescente n
umero de Reynolds, verificam-se
intensas trocas de quantidade de movimento em camadas adjacentes do fluido, ou seja, maior
transporte de energia.
No caso de uma placa plana, a espessura da camada limite turbulenta pode ser aproximada
por:
x
= 0, 37 (ReL )1/5
L

(2.46)

Num navio, o gradiente lontitudinal de pressao na regiao da proa e, em geral, favoravel


ao escoamento. Pelo contr
ario, este gradiente e adverso na regiao da popa e a camada limite
aumenta significativamente de espessura deixando de poder ser considerada pequena quando
comparada com o comprimento ou a boca do navio. Para todos os efeitos praticos, a camada
limite de um navio pode ser considerada completamente turbulenta.
A dependencia da resistencia de atrito com o n
umero de Reynolds e com a rugosidade da
superfcie e indicada pelo gr
afico da Fig. 2.6. Para uma superfcie rugosa, a resistencia segue
a linha da superfcie lisa ate que, para um dado valor de Re, se separa e tem a partir da
um andamento quase horizontal, ou seja, o coeficiente torna-se independente do Re. Quanto
mais rugosa for a superfcie mais cedo se evidencia este comportamento.
A resistencia de atrito de um navio e habitualmente dividida em duas componentes:
- a resistencia a que ficaria sujeita uma placa plana com area equivalente;
- o aumento de resistencia originado pela forma do navio.
A resistencia de atrito foi estimada durante decadas por expressoes empricas como, por
exemplo, a f
ormula de Froude:
RF = 1 0, 0043 ( 15) f SV 1,825

(2.47)

DA RESISTENCIA

2.3. DECOMPOSIC
AO

25

Figura 2.6: Variac


ao do coeficiente da resistencia de atrito com o n
umero
de Reynolds e com a rugosidade da superfcie.

em que e a temperatura do fluido, expressa em C e


f = 0, 1392 +

0, 258
2, 68 + L

(2.48)

Outra formula emprica muito popular para a previsao do coeficiente da resistencia de atrito e
devida a Schoenherr e conhecida como formula da ATTC (American Towing Tank Conference)
0, 242
= log (Re cF )

cF

(2.49)

Esta correlac
ao preve coeficientes de atrito excessivos quando aplicada a modelos muito
pequenos. Para ultrapassar este problema foi proposta na ITTC (International Towing Tank
Conference) de 1957 uma nova f
ormula,
cF =

0, 075
(logRe 2)2

(2.50)

designada por linha de correlac


ao modelo-navio da ITTC 1957.

2.3.3

Resist
encia viscosa de press
ao

A componente da press
ao originada pelas ondas formadas pelo movimento do navio ja foi
considerada. Resta agora considerar a resistencia originada por diferencas de pressao a actuar
no casco devida a efeitos viscosos do escoamento. Num escoamento ideal, ver Fig. 2.7, a
pressao exercida na popa do navio seria igual `a exercida na proa, ou seja forca resultante
nula. Na pr
atica, os efeitos viscosos vao reduzir a pressao exercida na popa do navio.
Parte desta resistencia ser
a devida `a geracao de vortices nas descontinuidades do casco.
Outra parte ser
a devida a um aumento de espessura da camada limite nalguns casos potenciada por fen
omenos de separac
ao do escoamento. Estes aspectos sao fundamentalmente
condicionados pela forma do casco pelo que sao normalmente considerados como uma resistencia de forma.

26

CAPITULO 2. RESISTENCIA

Figura 2.7: Distribuic


ao de pressao num escoamento ideal, invscido.

2.4

Ensaios de resist
encia em tanques de reboque

Apesar da crescente import


ancia dos metodos numericos, os ensaios com modelos `a escala
reduzida de navios em tanques de reboque sao ainda essenciais para a avaliacao hidrodinamica
dos novos projectos e para a validac
ao de novas solucoes.
Os testes devem ser realizados em condicoes que permitam considerar que o modelo e o
navio tem comportamentos semelhantes por forma a que os resultados obtidos para o modelo
possam ser extrapolados para a escala real do navio. Com este objectivo, os ensaios realizamse respeitando a igualdade do n
umero de Froude.
Os testes s
ao realizados em tanques de reboque, com agua imovel e o modelo rebocado por
um carrinho ou, em alternativa, os testes podem ser realizados em tanques de circulacao,
em que o modelo est
a im
ovel e a
agua circula.
No primeiro caso, ap
os um percurso inicial de aceleracao, a velocidade do carrinho deve
ser mantida constante para obter um regime estacionario e garantir o rigor das observacoes
efectuadas. A fase final e de desaceleracao e imobilizacao do modelo. Assim, os tanques de
reboque apresentam frequentemente centenas de metros de extensao.
O comprimento do modelo, como o exemplo representado esquematicamente na Fig. 2.8,
e escolhido de acordo com as condic
oes experimentais no tanque de reboque. O modelo deve
ser tao grande quanto possvel por forma a minimizar efeitos de escala relativos aos aspectos
viscosos, nomeadamente as diferencas relativas a escoamentos laminares e turbulentos e as
questoes relacionadas com fen
omenos de separacao do escoamento. Por outro lado, a dimensao
do modelo deve ainda permitir evitar deformacoes resultantes de esforcos no modelo e no
equipamento de teste.
A dimens
ao do modelo deve ser suficientemente pequena para permitir que o carrinho
de reboque do modelo atinja a velocidade correspondente e evitar os efeitos de aguas restritas nos testes efectuados. Estes constrangimentos conduzem naturalmente a um intervalo
pratico de comprimentos admissveis. Os modelos para ensaios de resistencia e propulsao
tem normalmente comprimentos entre 4 m < Lm < 10 m. A escala dos modelos esta entre
15 < < 45.

2.5. CALCULO
DA RESISTENCIA

27

Figura 2.8: Modelo `


a escala reduzida para ensaios de resistencia.

Durante o movimento, o modelo mantem o rumo atraves de fios-guia, sendo livre para
adoptar o caimento que resultar do seu movimento. Ainda de acordo com a Fig. 2.8, a
resistencia total de reboque do modelo e dada por,
RT = G1 + sin G2

(2.51)

Com os ensaios de resistencia com o modelo `a escala reduzida pretende-se obter dados
que permitam estimar a resistencia do navio sem o propulsor e apendices, ou seja, dita da
querena simples. Dos ensaios no tanque de reboque obtem-se a resistencia nas condicoes do
tanque, ou seja:
- aguas suficientemente profundas;
- ausencia de correntes;
- ausencia de vento;
- agua doce `
a temperatura ambiente.
O n
umero de Reynolds e normalmente superior duas ordens de grandeza na escala do navio
que na escala do modelo, tipicamente na ordem de 109 e 107 , respectivamente. O modelo tem
frequentemente uma fita rugosa para estimular artificialmente a transicao da camada limite
laminar para turbulenta mais perto da proa do modelo. Globalmente, o desvio originado
pelo facto de n
ao se manter constante o n
umero de Reynolds no ensaio e depois compensado
atraves de correcc
oes empricas.

2.5

C
alculo da resist
encia

2.5.1

M
etodos de extrapolac
ao

A resistencia do modelo tem depois de ser convertida por forma a obter-se uma estimativa
da resistencia do navio na escala real. Para tal, estao disponveis, entre outros, os seguintes
metodos:


CAPITULO 2. RESISTENCIA

28
- o metodo ITTC 1957;
- o metodo de Hughes/Prohaska;
- o metodo ITTC 1978;
- o metodo Geosim de Telfer.

Actualmente, o metodo mais frequentemente utilizado na pratica e o metodo ITTC 1978.


M
etodo ITTC 1957
Para a aplicac
ao deste metodo, a resistencia total da querena, RT , e considerada decomposta
nos seguintes termos,
RT = RF + RR

(2.52)

a resistencia de atrito, RF , e a resistencia residual, RR .


Os coeficientes de resistencia, adimensionais, sao genericamente calculados por,
ci =

Ri
1
2
2 V S

(2.53)

Na aplicac
ao deste metodo de previsao e considerado igual para o modelo e para o navio
o coeficiente de resistencia residual,
cR = cT m cF m

(2.54)

determinado a partir do coeficiente de resistencia total do modelo,


cT m =

RT m
1
2
2 m Vm Sm

(2.55)

e da formula ITTC 1957 (Eq. (2.50)) para o calculo do coeficiente de resistencia de atrito
cF ,
cF =

0.075
(log10 Re 2)2

O coeficiente de resistencia total para o navio e entao estimado por:


cT s = cF s + cR + cA = cF s + (cT m cF m ) + cA

(2.56)

em que cA e um factor de correcc


ao tradicionalmente associado `a rugosidade do casco. De
facto, embora o modelo esteja construdo a uma dada escala geometrica, a rugosidade das
superfcies do modelo e do navio n
ao respeitam esta escala. O valor de cA pode ser obtido
por correlac
oes empricas como, por exemplo,
cA = 0.35 103 2 Lpp 106

(2.57)

ou a partir de valores tabelados (Tab. 2.1).


A previs
ao da resistencia total do navio e dada por
1
RT s = cT s s Vs2 Ss
2

(2.58)

2.5. CALCULO
DA RESISTENCIA
Lpp (m)
50 - 150
150 - 210
210 - 260
260 - 300
300 - 350
350 - 400

29
cA
0,0004-0,00035
0,0002
0,0001
0
-0,0001
0,00025

Tabela 2.1: Valores do coeficiente de correccao cA em funcao do comprimento do navio.


M
etodo de Hughes-Prohaska
O metodo de Hughes-Prohaska e normalmente classificado como um metodo de factor de
considerada a decomposic
forma. E
ao da resistencia total em duas componentes, uma associada `a resistencia de onda e outra dependente da forma do casco. Considerando entao os
coeficientes adimensionais, fica
cT = (1 + k) cF 0 + cw

(2.59)

Para a determinac
ao do factor de forma, presume-se aqui a relacao
cT
F r4
= (1 + k) +
cF 0
cF 0

(2.60)

que e particularmente v
alida para valores reduzidos de velocidade.
Apos v
arios ensaios a diferentes velocidades, diferentes n
umeros de Froude, e possvel
construir um gr
afico semelhante ao representado na Fig. 2.9 e, com base naqueles valores,
obter o valor de k por regress
ao linear.

Figura 2.9: Representac


ao grafica da dependencia de

cT
F r4
com
.
cF 0
cF 0

Este factor de forma, (1 + k),e assumido como independente dos valores de F r e de Re e


igual para o navio e modelo.
O procedimento de c
alculo do metodo de Hughes-Prohaska e o seguinte:


CAPITULO 2. RESISTENCIA

30
- determinar o coeficiente de resistencia total,
cT m =

RT m
1
m Vm2 Sm
2

- determinar o coeficiente de resistencia de onda, o mesmo para o modelo e o navio,


cw = cT m cF 0m (1 + k)

(2.61)

- determinar o coeficiente de resistencia total para o navio,


cT s = cw + cF 0s (1 + k) + cA

(2.62)

- determinar a resistencia total para o navio, novamente por


1
RT s = cT s s Vs2 Ss
2
O coeficiente da resistencia de atrito, cF 0 , e neste caso obtido pela correlacao de Hughes,
cF 0 =

0.067
(log10 Re 2)2

(2.63)

Quanto ao coeficiente de correccao cA , a ITTC recomenda a aplicacao universal de


cA = 0.0004

(2.64)

na aplicac
ao deste metodo.
M
etodo ITTC 1978
uma modificac
E
ao do metodo de Hughes-Prohaska, geralmente mais preciso que os anteriormente apresentados. Ao contr
ario dos metodos anteriormente descritos, este metodo de
extrapolac
ao dos resultados obtidos nos ensaios com modelos `a escala reduzida inclui o efeito
da resistencia do ar.
A previs
ao do coeficiente de resistencia total para o navio e, tambem aqui, descrita em
termos do factor de forma, ou seja,
cT s = (1 + k) cF s + cw + cA + cAA

(2.65)

em que:
- cw e o coeficiente de resistencia de onda, igual para o navio e modelo;
- cA e o coeficiente de correcc
ao;
- e cAA a resistencia do ar, cAA = 0.001

AT
.
S

2.5. CALCULO
DA RESISTENCIA

31

O coeficiente da resistencia de atrito e determinada de forma semelhante `a preconizada


para o metodo ITTC 57, Eq. (2.50).
Para a determinac
ao da correcc
ao devida pela variacao da rugosidade da querena, e aconselhada aqui a seguinte f
ormula:
r
3

cA 10 = 105 3

ks
0.64
Loss

(2.66)

em que ks e a rugosidade do casco e Loss e o comprimento do navio no plano de flutuacao.


Para navios novos ks /Loss = 106 e cA = 0.00041.
Os detalhes sugeridos pela ITTC na aplicacao deste metodo estao indicados no Apendice
A.
M
etodo Geosim
Este metodo foi proposto por Telfer em 1927. Dos metodos aqui enunciados, e considerado
como o metodo de extrapolac
ao com previsoes mais precisas da resistencia do navio. A
grande vantagem do metodo resulta de nao recorrer a qualquer decomposicao, teoricamente
questionavel, da resistencia total.
Sao realizados v
arios ensaios com modelos geometricamente semelhantes mas a diferentes
escalas. Isto significa que os testes podem ser realizados, para a mesma velocidade equivalente,
com igual n
umero de Froude e diferente n
umero de Reynolds. O coeficiente de resistencia total,
obtido naqueles ensaios, e representado em funcao de logRe1/3 . Para cada um dos modelos,
obtem-se uma curva da resistencia, em funcao do F r, que permite fazer a extrapolacao para
a escala do navio.
Pela grande quantidade de modelos a construir e ensaios a realizar, trata-se de um metodo
muito dispendioso, utilizado sobretudo apenas para fins de investigacao.

2.5.2

Resist
encias adicionais

As condicoes de ensaio dos modelos sao substancialmente diferentes daquelas em que o navio
ira operar. As principais diferencas a considerar resultam de:
- a presenca de apendices na querena;
- a navegac
ao em
aguas pouco profundas;
- o vento;
- a crescente rugosidade do casco durante a vida do navio;
- as condic
oes de mar.
Para estimar as alterac
oes causadas por estes itens no comportamento do navio, usam-se
correccoes empricas, baseadas em pressupostos fsicos, para correlacionar os valores obtidos
no modelo, ou no navio em provas de mar, com os estimados para as condicoes normais de
servico do navio. A resistencia adicional devida a apendices e a resistencia do navio em aguas
pouco profundas s
ao os t
opicos sucintamente abordados nos paragrafos seguintes.


CAPITULO 2. RESISTENCIA

32
Resist
encia adicional dos ap
endices

Os modelos de navios `
a escala reduzida podem ser testados com apendices `a escala geometrica apropriada. No entanto, nem sempre nesta altura do projecto estes estao completamente
definidos. Por outro lado, o escoamento em torno dos apendices e predominantemente governado pelas forcas de origem viscosa. Seria entao necessario, para obter resultados fiaveis,
verificarem-se condic
oes de semelhanca de Reynolds, o que, como ja referido, nao e viavel
se, cumulativamente, pretendermos manter a igualdade do n
umero de Froude. Consequentemente, a presenca dos apendices em condicoes de semelhanca de Froude tem pouca relevancia.
Em primeira an
alise, os apendices do casco contribuem para um aumento da superfcie
molhada do navio. Por outro lado, da sua presenca surgem tambem alteracoes no factor de
forma do casco. Para a determinac
ao da resistencia de forma dos apendices pode recorrer-se a
dois ensaios, com e sem apendices, a uma velocidade superior. Se admitirmos que a resistencia
de onda e igual nos dois casos, a diferenca de resistencia verificada, tendo descontado a
diferenca de resistencia de atrito resultante da variacao da area molhada, da-nos a resistencia
de forma dos apendices.
Os valores tpicos de acrescimo de resistencia originados pela presenca de apendices sao
os seguintes:
- robaletes: 1 a 2%;
- impulsores:
- de proa: 0 a 1%;
- transversais de popa: 1 a 6%;
- aranhas de veios: 5 a 12% (twin-screw pode chegar a 20%);
- leme: 1%.
Resist
encia em
aguas pouco profundas
Quando um navio navega em
aguas pouco profundas verifica-se um aumento, quer da resistencia de atrito, quer da resistencia de onda. Em particular, a resistencia aumenta significativamente
oximos do n
umero de Froude crtico, baseado na profundidade,
para valores pr
Fnh = V / gH = 1.
O aumento da resistencia do navio quando a navegar em aguas pouco profundas foi estudado por Schlichting. A sua hip
otese de trabalho foi a seguinte: a resistencia de onda e a
mesma se o comprimento de onda da ondulacao transversal for igual.
O grafico da Fig. 2.10 permite prever a perda de velocidade do navio em aguas pouco
profundas. Correcc
oes simples n
ao s
ao possveis para aguas muito pouco profundas ja que os
fenomenos envolvidos s
ao complexos. Nestes casos, so testes em modelos ou simulacoes por
CFD poder
ao contribuir para uma melhor previsao.

2.6

Previs
ao da resist
encia com dados sistem
aticos ou estatsticos

Na fase preliminar do projecto de um navio podem ser utilizados metodos aproximados para a
previsao da resistencia baseados em ensaios de series sistematicas de navios ou, pela regressao

COM DADOS SISTEMATICOS

2.6. PREVISAO
OU ESTATISTICOS

33

Figura 2.10: Reduc


ao de velocidade (%) em aguas pouco profundas.

estatstica de dados experimentais relativos a modelos e a navios `a escala real.


Series sistem
aticas s
ao conjuntos de formas de querena em que se provocou a variacao,
sistematica, de um ou mais dos seus parametros de forma. As variacoes sistematicas sao
feitas em torno de uma forma m
ae (parent form). Os resultados dos ensaios de resistencia
dos modelos que constituem a serie permitem determinar um coeficiente adimensional de
resistencia para uma forma de querena contida ou interpolada na serie.
Taylor mediu, entre 1907 e 1914, 80 modelos obtidos por variacao sistematica de:
- a raz
ao entre o comprimento e a raiz c
ubica do deslocamento (5 valores de L/1/3 );
- a raz
ao entre a boca e o calado (B/T = 2, 25; 3, 75);
- o coeficiente prism
atico (8 valores de 0,48 a 0,86);
a partir de uma forma m
ae: o cruzador Leviathan.
Estes dados foram posteriormente re-trabalhados por Gertler em 1954, disponibilizando
diagramas de resistencia residual.
Outra serie sistem
atica, com particular interesse para os navios mercantes, e a serie 60,
devida aos trabalhos de Todd. Consta de 5 formas mae com coeficientes de finura, 0,60,
0,65, 0,70, 0,75 e 0,80. Para cada uma daquelas formas mae existem variacoes de L/B,
B/T , etc.
Como exemplo de um metodo de previsao da resistencia de navios envolvendo dados
estatsticos pode-se indicar o metodo de Holtrop e Mennen. Este metodo pode ser aplicado
para efectuar uma an
alise qualitativa do projecto de um navio no que diz respeito `a sua
resistencia. O metodo baseia-se na regressao estatstica de resultados de ensaios em modelos
e de resultados de provas de mar de navios. A base de dados e muito vasta cobrindo uma
gama muito alargada de tipos de navios. No entanto, para formas muito especficas de navio,


CAPITULO 2. RESISTENCIA

34

a precisao das previs


oes pode reduzir-se pelo menor n
umero de elementos daquele tipo na
base.

2.7

Ensaios `
a escala real

Os resultados obtidos nas provas de mar de um navio sao talvez o mais importante requisito
para a aceitac
ao deste pelo armador. A especificacao detalhada destas provas deve estar
claramente contratualizada entre o armador e o estaleiro. Entre outros organismos, a ITTC
recomenda alguns procedimentos para a realizacao destas provas. As recomendacoes para as
provas de velocidade e de potencia estao includas no Apendice B.
Os problemas surgem normalmente em consequencia de as provas se realizarem em condicoes diferentes, quer das que foram consideradas como condicoes de projecto, quer daquelas
que se verificaram nos ensaios com o modelo `a escala reduzida.
O contrato de construc
ao deve especificar uma velocidade contratual do navio, `a carga de
projecto, para uma dada percentagem da MCR do motor, em aguas tranquilas e profundas e
na ausencia de vento. S
ao raras as ocasioes em que e possvel realizar as provas de mar em
condicoes pr
oximas das condic
oes contratuais. As condicoes em que se realizam as provas de
mar incluem, frequentemente:
- condic
ao de carga parcial ou em condicao de lastro;
- presenca de correntes e ondulacao;
- aguas pouco profundas;
Para prevenir maior diversidade de resultados, e habitual definir contratualmente valores
limite para as condic
oes ambientais em que as provas de mar se realizarao. As condicoes
recomendadas pela ITTC para a realizacao das provas de velocidade e potencia estao no
Apendice C. As diferencas entre as condicoes contratuais e verificadas durante a realizacao
das provas de mar imp
oem a utilizacao de correlacoes para corrigir os resultados obtidos para
as condicoes de contrato. Para alem de todas as incertezas experimentais, todo este processo
de correcc
ao, com recurso a gr
aficos e tabelas, oferece muitas d
uvidas de aplicacao.
A prova da milha pode ser avaliada com velocidade over ground ou velocidade in
water . A velocidade na
agua exclui o efeito das correntes. A velocidade over ground
era avaliada atraves de equipamentos de navegacao mas, a disponibilidade de sistemas de
posicionamento por satelite (GPS) permitiu eliminar muitos problemas e incertezas destas
provas. Para reduzir os efeitos de ventos e correntes, as provas de velocidade, consumo, etc.
devem ser realizadas repetidamente em sentidos opostos.
De notar que as provas de mar de um navio vao muito para alem das provas de velocidade e potencia. Todas as funcionalidades do navio, operacionais e de seguranca, deverao ser
demonstradas. Para as restantes provas, nomeadamente as que dizem respeito `a manobrabilidade do navio, existem tambem recomendacoes exaustivas da ITTC para a sua realizacao.

Captulo

Propulsao
3.1

Sistemas de propuls
ao

Em qualquer tipo de navio temos presente um propulsor cuja finalidade e a geracao de uma
forca propulsiva. As soluc
oes propulsivas sao muito diversas mas predominantemente os navios
continuam a utilizar helices simples como meio de propulsao. Outros meios de propulsao com
expressao significativa em aplicac
oes especficas sao:
- os helices especiais, com particular destaque para os helices com tubeira e os helices
contra-rotativos;
- os sistemas de jacto de
agua (water-jets ou pump-jets);
- os propulsores azimutais (AziPods);
- e os propulsores cicloidais (Voith-Schneider ).
Na escolha da soluc
ao propulsiva devera ser sempre considerado o seu rendimento e a
interaccao com a querena. Outro aspecto generico a considerar durante o projecto da solucao
propulsiva e o fen
omeno da cavitacao originada pela velocidade elevada do movimento das
pas do helice na
agua.

3.1.1

H
elices

O helice e colocado tradicionalmente `a popa do navio para recuperar parte da energia dispendida para vencer a resistencia da querena. Na forma mais tradicional da popa dos navios,
a esteira nominal e muito n
ao-uniforme. A uniformidade da esteira da querena e uma das
condicoes necess
arias para o bom funcionamento do helice. A utilizacao da popa aberta ou
de um bolbo na popa permite melhorar a esteira.
As pas do helice, animadas de velocidade de rotacao e de avanco, funcionando como
superfcies sustentadoras, est
ao distribudas simetricamente em torno do cubo. As seccoes
das pas funcionam como perfis alares a angulo de ataque gerando uma forca de sustentacao.
Esta forca de sustentac
ao contribui para a forca propulsiva axial e para o binario resistente
ao veio.
Classificam-se com helices direitos aqueles que, quando observados de re, rodam no
sentido hor
ario. Nos navios com dois helices, sao normalmente utilizados:
35


CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

36
- um helice direito a estibordo;
- e um helice esquerdo a bombordo.

Nestes navios, a popa e relativamente plana e os veios estao expostos e suportados por
aranhas (shaft brackets). A presenca destas aranhas provoca ainda nao-uniformidades na
esteira em que, devido `
a forma da popa, o escoamento entra no helice com um certo angulo.

Figura 3.1: Helice com tubeira.

A aplicac
ao de uma tubeira aceleradora, Fig. 3.1, permite aumentar o rendimento, relativamente a um helice convencional, no caso de helices fortemente carregados como os aplicados
em rebocadores, arrast
oes, petroleiros, etc. Outro objectivo da aplicacao das tubeiras pode
ser a uniformizac
ao do escoamento de entrada no helice. Para este fim trata-se normalmente
de tubeiras assimetricas colocadas avante do helice. Frequentemente este tipo de tubeiras e
instalada depois de o navio estar em servico.

Figura 3.2: Helices de passo fixo e de passo controlavel.


3.1. SISTEMAS DE PROPULSAO

37

Para um helice de passo fixo, a velocidade do navio e a forca propulsiva sao controladas
pela velocidade de rotac
ao do helice. Para um helice de passo controlavel, a forca propulsiva
pode tambem ser controlada por variacao do passo do helice. A variacao do passo obtem-se
por rotacao das p
as em torno de um eixo, `a direita na Fig. 3.2. Utiliza-se quando a velocidade
de rotacao e constante, ou vari
avel numa gama restrita, quando o helice tem de funcionar em
mais de uma condic
ao.
Apesar de constiturem uma solucao cara, pela complicacao de chumaceiras e engranagens
necessaria, encontram-se exemplos de propulsao por helices contrarotativos. Sao dois helices,
em que o helice de tr
as tem um di
ametro ligeiramente menor que o helice da frente, a rodar
em sentidos contr
arios, permitindo ao helice de tras eliminar a perda de energia cinetica
de rotacao do helice da frente, Fig. 3.3. Em consequencia, apresentam rendimentos tpicos
superiores a um helice isolado.

Figura 3.3: Helices em contra-rotacao.


um helice para
Outro tipo particular de helice e o helice supercavitante, Fig. 3.4. E
funcionar com elevada velocidade de rotacao em que as seccoes das pas sao concebidas para
provocar uma bolsa de cavitac
ao que envolve toda a pa. O perigo de implosao e eliminado
porque a implos
ao das bolhas de cavitacao ocorre longe das faces das pas. Aplicam-se em
navios de alta velocidade com rendimento, em geral, fraco.

3.1.2

Outros meios de propuls


ao

Jacto de
agua
Nestes sistemas, a forca propulsiva e obtida pela descarga de um jacto de agua `a popa do
navio. Para transmitir a energia pretendida ao jacto podem ser utilizadas bombas axiais,
como no caso da Fig. 3.5, ou bombas centrfugas.
Os sistemas de jacto de
agua constituem actualmente um solucao comprovada para a propulsao de embarcac
oes r
apidas, com divulgacao crescente nas embarcacoes de recreio, ferries,
embarcacoes de patrulha, etc. S
ao boas solucoes quando os principais requisitos colocados
passam pela manobrabilidade do navio, bom rendimento propulsivo, bom comportamento em
aguas restritas e pouca necessidade de manutencao. Actualmente, ja estao disponveis no
mercado soluc
oes deste tipo para potencias propulsivas da ordem dos 30MW.

38

CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

Figura 3.4: Helices supercavitante.

Figura 3.5: Propulsao por jacto de agua.

Propulsores azimutais
Esta configurac
ao, ver Fig. 3.6, possibilita a geracao de forca propulsiva em qualquer direccao
por rotacao do propulsor em torno do eixo vertical. No sistema tradicional de propulsao
azimutal, o motor era colocado no interior do casco e um sistema mecanico relativamente
complexo fazia a transmiss
ao do movimento `as pas. Actualmente, o accionamento e feito
por um motor electrico colocado no veio de propulsor. Estes sistemas permitem combinar a
propulsao e o governo do navio, dispensando a presenca do leme.
Apresentam como principais vantagens um bom rendimento, justificado em grande parte
pela maior uniformidade do escoamento `a entrada do propulsor, elevada capacidade de manobra e economia de espaco. A sua aplicacao, inicialmente quase que restrita a ferries, tem-se
alargado nos tempos mais recentes a praticamente quase todos os tipos de navios.


3.1. SISTEMAS DE PROPULSAO

39

Figura 3.6: Propulsores azimutais.

Propulsores cicloidais
Esta soluc
ao propulsiva, representada na Fig. 3.7, desenvolvida pela Voight a partir duma
ideia inicial de Ernst Schneider, permite gerar impulso de magnitude variavel em qualquer
direccao. As variac
oes daquele impulso sao rapidas, contnuas e precisas, combinando assim
as funcoes de propuls
ao e governo do navio.

Figura 3.7: Propulsores cicloidais.

O propulsor, colocado no fundo do navio, e composto por um conjunto de laminas paralelas


com movimento de rotac
ao, segundo um eixo vertical, com velocidade variavel. Para gerar o
impulso, cada uma daquelas l
aminas tem um movimento oscilante em torno do seu proprio
eixo. O percurso das l
aminas vai determinar a forca impulsiva gerada, enquanto um angulo
de fase entre 0 e 360 vai definir a direccao do impulso. Desta forma, pode ser gerada a
mesma forca propulsiva em qualquer direccao. A intensidade e a direccao da forca propulsiva


CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

40

sao controladas por um conjunto cinematico de transmissao mecanica.


Pelas suas caractersticas, esta solucao apresenta bom desempenho na propulsao de rebocadores, ferries, grandes iates, navios de apoio a plataformas petrolferas e outros navios
especiais.

3.2

H
elices propulsores

O projecto do helice dever


a dar resposta `as seguintes questoes:
- sera que o helice desenvolver
a a desejada forca propulsiva `a velocidade rpm de projecto?
- qual vai ser a eficiencia do helice?
- qual vai ser o desempenho do helice em condicoes diferentes das condicoes de projecto?
- sera a distribuic
ao de press
oes favoravel `a prevencao da cavitacao?
- qual ser
a o valor das forcas e momentos gerados pelo helice sobre o veio propulsor e
chumaceiras de apoio e de impulso?
- qual a press
ao induzida pelo funcionamento do helice no casco do navio, potencialmente
respons
avel por vibrac
oes e rudo?
Os principais metodos de c
alculo disponveis para, de alguma forma, dar resposta `aquelas
questoes s
ao:
- a teoria da quantidade de movimento;
- a teoria dos elementos de p
a;
- a teoria da linha sustentadora;
- a teoria da superfcie de sustentacao;
- o metodo de painel;
- as simulac
oes RANSE.
Outro contributo importante para o projecto do helice vem das series sistematicas de
helices, para as quais s
ao j
a conhecidos os principais parametros de funcionamento em aguas
livres.
Por u
ltimo, h
a que citar o contributo importante dos ensaios experimentais em modelos
`a escala reduzida, os ensaios do helice em aguas livres e o ensaio de propulsao.

3.2.1

Geometria do h
elice

Na complexa geometria do helice, conjunto de pas distribudas uniformemente em torno do


cubo montado na extremidade do veio, representada esquematicamente na Fig. 3.8, distinguemse as seguintes
areas, linhas e pontos:
- o bordo de ataque (leading edge), a linha frontal das pas;
- o bordo de fuga (trailing edge), a aresta atras;


3.2. HELICES
PROPULSORES

41

Figura 3.8: Geometria do helice.

- a extremidade da p
a (tip) e o ponto linha ou seccao de maior raio;
- o dorso (back) e a face da p
a sao, respectivamente, a superfcie da pa do lado do veio,
aspirac
ao, e a superfcie do lado de pressao;
No cubo, com uma forma axisimetrica, unem-se as pas pela sua raiz ( blade root).
A geometria do helice propulsor e caracterizada, entre outras, pelas seguintes dimensoes,
tambem representadas naquela figura:
- diametro do helice (propeller diameter), D;
- diametro do cubo (boss (or hub) diameter), d;
- n
umero de p
as do helice (propeller blade number), Z;
- passo do helice (propeller pitch), P ;
- area do disco, A0 = D2 /4;
- area projectada,
area da projeccao das pas num plano normal ao eixo do helice, AP ;
- area expandida, soma das
areas das faces das pas, AE ;
- deslocamento circunferencial (skew);
- abatimento axial (rake), iG .

3.2.2

Valores caractersticos

Como parametros adimensionais para caracterizacao dos helices propulsores podemos apontar:
- a raz
ao entre os di
ametros do cubo e do helice, d/D;
- a raz
ao entre a
area expandida e a area do disco, AE /A0 , frequentemente designada por
blade area ratio (BAR);


CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

42
- e a raz
ao entre o passo e o di
ametro do helice, P/D.

Sao valores tpicos para a raz


ao de area expandida 0.3 < AE /A0 < 1.5. Razoes superiores a 1 significam que o helice tem pas sobrepostas o que o torna dispendioso. O valor de
AE /A0 e selecionado de tal forma que a carga das pas seja suficientemente baixa para evitar
uma situac
ao inaceit
avel de cavitac
ao. Quanto mais carregada for a condicao de funcionamento prevista para o helice maior devera ser a razao AE /A0 considerada na sua seleccao. O
rendimento do helice diminui com o aumento da razao AE /A0 .
O n
umero de p
as Z e um par
ametro muito importante para as vibracoes induzidas pelo
helice. Em geral, um n
umero mpar de pas Z proporciona melhores caractersticas no que diz
respeito a vibrac
oes. Maior n
umero de pas reduz a vibracao, devido aos inferiores picos de
pressao, mas aumenta os custos de fabrico.
Os helices propulsores para navios sao sempre adaptados `as caractersticas especficas do
navio apos exaustivo estudo hidrodinamico. O n
umero de pas esta normalmente entre 4 e 7.
Os helices propulsores para pequenas embarcacoes, regra geral com o n
umero de pas entre 2
e 4, sao produzidos em massa.

3.3

Teoria da quantidade de movimento

A teoria mais simples para representar o funcionamento de um helice propulsor e a teoria da


quantidade de movimento, tambem designda por vezes como do disco actuante. Esta teoria
permite relacionar a forca propulsiva do helice com as velocidades induzidas. Tem como
principais hip
oteses simplificativas:
- considerar o escoamento de fluido perfeito e incompressvel;
- o n
umero de p
as do helice e infinito;
- o helice propulsor exerce uma forca axial T que se distribui uniformemente sobre o disco
do helice de di
ametro D;
- o helice n
ao induz velocidade velocidade de rotacao no fluido, ou seja, nao ha velocidade
circunferencia induzida.

3.3.1

Forca propulsiva

Consideremos o escoamento axisimetrico atraves do plano do helice, representado na Fig. 3.9,


e denotar por VA a velocidade de aproximacao da agua ao helice e por p a pressao em
pontos suficientemente afastados quer a vante quer a re do helice. Conforme representado,
sendo a agua incompressvel, a seccao do escoamento reduz-se pelo aumento de velocidade
transmitido pelo helice ao escoamento de agua. Na figura podemos ainda ver que no disco
existe uma descontinuidade de press
ao p. Esta descontinuidade, como resultado do referido
disco actuante, gera uma forca propulsiva do helice dada por
T = pA0

(3.1)

Quanto `
a distribuic
ao de velocidades, vamos considerar que a velocidade no disco e VA +V0
e, no infinito, a velocidade e VA + V .

3.3. TEORIA DA QUANTIDADE DE MOVIMENTO

43

Figura 3.9: Distribuic


ao espacial de velocidade e pressao para a teoria da
quantidade de movimento.

Representando por A e A as areas no infinito, a montante e a juzante, respectivamente, do tubo de corrente que passa pelo disco actuante, para se verificar a conservacao de
massa no escoamento ser
a necess
ario que,
Va A = (Va + V0 ) A0 = (Va + V ) A

(3.2)

Entao, aquelas
areas, A e A estao relacionadas com a area do disco e com a velocidade
induzida por
Va + V0
A0
Va

(3.3)

Va + V0
A0
Va + V

(3.4)

A =
e
A =

Aplicando agora o princpio da conservacao da quantidade de movimento ao escoamento


de fluido no tubo de corrente, obtemos a equacao,
T = (Va + V )2 A Va2 A

(3.5)

Usando a equac
ao de conservac
ao da massa, Eq. (3.2), podemos dizer entao que a forca
propulsiva T e dada por,
T = (Va + V0 ) V A0

(3.6)

e, que o salto de press


ao no disco actuante vale
p = (Va + V0 ) V

(3.7)


CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

44

Por fim, vamos aplicar a equac


ao de Bernoulli ao tubo de corrente. A montante do disco
temos,
1
1
p + Va2 = p0 + (Va + V0 )2
2
2

(3.8)

e, a juzante,
1
1
p + (Va + V )2 = p0 + p + (Va + V0 )2
2
2

(3.9)

Fazendo agora a subtracc


ao das equacoes, Eq. (3.9) Eq. (3.8), temos uma nova equacao
para avaliar o valor de p


1
(3.10)
p = Va + V V
2
Naturalmente que o salto de press
ao avaliado pela u
ltima equacao nao pode ser diferente
daquele que resulta da Eq. (3.7). Logo,
(Va + V0 ) V



1
= Va + V V
2

(3.11)

e, entao, daqui resulta que a velocidade induzida no disco e metade da velocidade induzida
na esteira no infinito,
1
V0 = V
2

(3.12)

A forca propulsiva T obtida no disco actuante pode ser calculada, em funcao da velocidade
induzida no disco, por
T =

3.3.2

D2
(Va + V0 ) 2V0
4

(3.13)

Coeficiente de carga

Se definirmos para um helice propulsor como coeficiente de carga, CT ,


CT =

T
21
2
4 D 2 Va

e considerarmos a forca propulsiva resultante da teoria do disco actuante, obtem-se




V0
V0
CT = 4
1+
Va
Va

(3.14)

(3.15)

ou, em termos de velocidade induzida no disco,



p
1
V0
=
1 + 1 + CT
Va
2

(3.16)


3.4. ENSAIOS COM MODELOS REDUZIDOS DE HELICES

3.3.3

45

Rendimento ideal do h
elice

O rendimento ideal do helice e o rendimento maximo que pode ser obtido em fluido perfeito
com um helice propulsor que n
ao induza velocidade de rotacao no fluido.
Num referencial em repouso no fluido, considere-se que o helice avanca com velocidade
Va , exercendo uma forca propulsiva T . A potencia efectiva do helice e dada por
PE = T Va

(3.17)

A perda de energia cinetica axial por unidade de tempo e o fluxo de energia por unidade
de tempo atraves de um plano perpendicular `a direccao de avanco, no infinito, a juzante.
Este fluxo de energia e calculado pelo produto do caudal massico que se escoa pelo tubo de
corrente pela energia cinetica especfica,
D2
1 2
Ep =
(Va + V0 ) V
4
2
ou seja, considerando a relac
ao conhecida entre a velocidade no disco e na esteira no infinito,
2

D
Ep =
(Va + V0 ) V02
2

(3.18)

O rendimento ideal do helice propulsor sera entao dado por


i =

T Va
T Va + Ep

(3.19)

ou, considerando (3.13) e (3.18), e simplificando, ficamos com


i =

3.4

1
1 + VVa0

(3.20)

Ensaios com modelos reduzidos de h


elices

Apesar de o helice ir funcionar numa esteira nao-uniforme do navio, sao realizados ensaios
para avaliac
ao do seu desempenho numa esteira uniforme, recorrendo ao ensaio em aguas
livres de um modelo `
a escala reduzida do helice, em condicoes apropriadas de semelhanca.
Neste ensaio, o chamado open water test, um modelo do helice e deslocado com a velocidade
da avanco Va num fluido em repouso. O escoamento de aproximacao deve ser tao uniforme
quanto possvel. Durante o deslocamento do helice este e posto a rodar por um pequeno motor
electrico `a velocidade n (rps) pretendida. O ensaio realiza-se normalmente a uma velocidade
de rotacao constante, ou seja, para um dado n
umero de Reynolds.
As caractersticas propulsivas em aguas livres, nomeadamente a forca propulsiva T e o
binario Q, s
ao medidas em regime estacionario de funcionamento. Depois de adimensionalizados, os valores medidos da forca propulsiva e do binario para varios regimes de funcionamento
constituem o diagrama em
aguas livres do helice em questao.
A forca propulsiva T e o bin
ario Q disponibilizados por um helice propulsor dependem de
varias vari
aveis:
- a velocidade de avanco Va ;


CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

46
- a velocidade de rotac
ao n;
- o diametro D;
- a massa especfica do fluido ;
- a viscosidade cinem
atica do fluido .

Aplicando a an
alise dimensional, expressando a dependencia dos coeficientes de forca
propulsiva e de bin
ario dos seguintes grupos adimensionais:
- coeficiente de avanco, J =

Va
;
nD

- e n
umero de Reynolds, aqui definido como Re =

nD2
;

ou seja,
KT = KT (J, Re)

KQ = KQ (J, Re)

obtem-se os seguintes express


oes para os referidos coeficientes adimensionais:
- coeficiente de forca propulsiva KT =
- coeficiente de bin
ario KQ =

3.4.1

T
;
n2 D4

Q
.
n2 D5

Diagrama em
aguas livres

O diagrama em
aguas livres do helice integra a representacao grafica da variacao dos coeficientes da forca propulsiva, KT , e de binario, KQ , com o coeficiente de avanco, Va . Um exemplo
de diagrama em
aguas livres est
a representado na Fig. 3.10.
As curvas tracadas nestes diagramas servem principalmente para a optimizacao do helice
e determinac
ao do ponto de funcionamento. Na pratica, ja nao sao utilizadas aquelas representacoes gr
aficas no projecto de helices, mas sim os polinomios representativos daquelas
evolucoes para permitir o c
alculo computacional. As tabelas tem cerca de 50 coeficientes
para os polin
omios relativos `
a serie sistematica de helices de Wageningen. Embora o trabalho
inicial de registo destes coeficientes seja moroso e fastidioso, os processos de calculo e optimizacao posteriores ficam muito facilitados e expeditos pela utilizacao de programas ou folhas
de calculo. A import
ancia da representacao grafica esta actualmente restrita `a verificacao
da tendencia de variac
ao do desempenho do helice com a alteracao de algumas condicoes
operacionais.

3.4.2

Rendimento

Definindo o rendimento de um helice propulsor como sendo a razao entre a potencia efectiva
e a potencia fornecida pelo veio ao helice, o rendimento em aguas livres e calculado por
0 =

PE
Va T
=
PD
2nQ

(3.21)

3.5. SERIES
SISTEMATICAS

47

Figura 3.10: Diagrama de aguas livres.

a partir das medic


oes observadas durante o ensaio.
Ou, se quisermos express
a-lo em termos dos coeficientes adimensionais, podemos obter,
0 =

3.4.3

JKT
2KQ

(3.22)

Indice de qualidade

A qualidade de um propulsor n
ao fica bem caracterizada apenas pelo seu rendimento maximo.
O ndice de qualidade, que permite caracterizar melhor um helice para uma dada aplicacao
especfica, e dado por
q=

0
i

em que 0 e o rendimento em
aguas livres e i e o rendimento ideal.
8KT
, substituindo em (3.23):
Como CT =
J 2
!
r
KT
8
q=
J + J 2 + KT
4KQ

3.5

(3.23)

(3.24)

S
eries sistem
aticas

Uma serie sistem


atica de helices e um conjunto de helices obtidos por variacao sistematica de
parametros geometricos. Ao longo de decadas, por todo o mundo tem sido realizados ensaios
em series sistem
aticas de propulsores para navios. As principais caractersticas de alguns
exemplos de series sistem
aticas de helices propulsores simples de passo fixo estao includas na
Tab. 3.1.
O principal objectivo perseguido na realizacao dos ensaios sistematicos nestes conjuntos
de helices e criar uma base de dados que permita ajudar o projectista a entender os principais


CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

48
Serie
Wageningen B
Au
Gawn
KCA
Ma
Newton-Rader
KCD
Meridian

No
120
34
37
30
32
12
24
20

Z
27
47
3
3
3e5
3
36
6

AE /A0
0, 3 1, 05
0, 4 0, 758
0, 2 1, 1
0, 50 1, 25
0, 75 1, 20
0, 5 1, 0
0, 44 0, 80
0, 45 1, 05

P/D
0, 5 1, 4
0, 5 1, 2
0, 4 2, 0
0, 6 2, 0
1, 0 1, 45
1, 05 2, 08
0, 6 1, 6
0, 4 1, 2

D(mm)
250
250
508
406
250
254
406
305

Tabela 3.1: Series sistematicas de propulsores.


factores que influenciam o desempenho do helice, bem como a ocorrencia de cavitacao, em
varias condic
oes de funcionamento. Um segundo objectivo e a construcao de diagramas que
permitam ajudar `
a selecc
ao das caractersticas mais apropriadas para uma dada aplicacao `
a
escala do navio.

3.5.1

S
erie sistem
atica de Wageningen

Uma das series sistem


aticas de helices propulsores mais populares e a serie B de Wageningen.
Esta serie, em que os trabalhos iniciais datam de 1940, sera talvez a mais vasta. As principais
caractersticas destes helices s
ao:
- ter distribuic
ao radial do passo constante;
- um pequeno deslocamento circunferencial (skew);
- distribuic
ao radial do abatimento axial (rake) linear 15 ;
- contorno largo da p
a junto `
a extremidade;
- seccao das p
as NSMB, indicada na Fig. 3.11.

Figura 3.11: Aspecto geometrico das pas da serie B de Wageningen

Os par
ametros cuja variac
ao sistematica foi considerada na realizacao desta serie foram
os seguintes:

3.5. SERIES
SISTEMATICAS

49

- o n
umero de p
as: 2 Z 7;
- a raz
ao de
area expandida: 0.3 AE /A0 1.05;
- a raz
ao passo-di
ametro: 0.5 P/D 1.4.
A nomenclatura dos helices desta serie, considerando a ttulo de exemplo um helice B-4.85,
e a seguinte:
- Serie B;
- N
umero de p
as: 4;
- razao de
area expandida: 0.85.
Para cada caso existe um diagrama, ou uma tabela com os ja referidos coeficientes polinomiais, com as curvas caractersticas dos diagrams de aguas livres, para diferentes razoes
passo-diametro, P/D. Na Fig. 3.12 esta representado o caso dos helices com duas pas, razao
de area expandida 0, 3 e raz
ao passo-diametro compreendida entre 0, 5 e 1, 4.

3.5.2

Outras s
eries sistem
aticas

A serie sistem
atica de helices propulsores Au e muito popular no Japao mas, fora dele, nao
conseguiu uma divulgac
ao semelhante `a serie de Wageningen podendo, no entanto, considerarse como uma serie complementar daquela.
A serie Gawn apresenta como caracterstica distintiva o maior diametro dos helices que
a integram. Isto significa que muitos dos efeitos de escala presentes nas outras series foram
aqui evitados ou, pelo menos, reduzidos. A serie KCA, tambem designada por vezes como
Gawn-Burrill, e complementar da serie de Gawn. Sao 30 helices com 3 pas, tambem com
grande diametro, 400mm. Esta serie foi ensaiada num tanque de cavitacao, e nao num tanque
de reboque, a diferentes n
umeros de cavitacao e, consequentemente, permite verificar num
determinado projecto de aplicac
ao os aspectos relacionados com o fenomeno da cavitacao.
Os helices da serie de Lindgren, serie Ma, sao mais pequenos, 250mm, e as suas p
as
tem passo constante. Foram testados num tanque de reboque e num tanque de cavitacao e,
assim, resultou dos ensaios um extenso e integrado conjunto de dados adequado para a fase
preliminar do projecto.
A serie de Newton-Rader compreende um conjunto limitado de 12 helices com tres p
as
vocacionados para a propuls
ao de embarcacoes rapidas.
Para alem destas series sistem
aticas de helices simples, existem tambem alguns estudos
relativos a formas particulares de helices como, por exemplo, as series de helices contrarotativos do MARIN e SSPA, ou a serie de Wageningen de helices com tubeira.

Figura 3.12: Diagrama em aguas livres de um helice da serie sistematica


de Wageningen.

50

CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

3.5. SERIES
SISTEMATICAS

3.5.3

51

Diagrama de 4 quadrantes

No caso dos helices de passo fixo, a forma convencional de operacao do helice, velocidade de
rotacao positiva e velocidade de avanco nula ou positiva, corresponde ao funcionamento no
primeiro quadrante do diagrama de funcionamento.
No diagrama completo, ver Fig. 3.13, necessario por exemplo para estudar a manobrabilidade do navio ou o seu desempenho em marcha a re, estao definidos quatro quadrantes, de
acordo o angulo de avanco,


Va
1
= tan
(3.25)
0, 7 n D

Figura 3.13: Notacao do diagrama com 4 quadrantes.


Como j
a referido, o primeiro quadrante corresponde a:
- velocidade de rotac
ao do helice correspondente `a marcha a vante;
- velocidade do navio a vante;
- ou seja,
angulo de avanco 0 90 .
O segundo quadrante corresponde a:
- velocidade de rotac
ao do helice correspondente `a marcha a re;
- velocidade do navio a vante;
- ou seja,
angulo de avanco 90 < 180 .
No terceiro quadrante, as condic
oes de operacao do helice sao:
- velocidade de rotac
ao do helice correspondente `a marcha a re;


CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

52
- velocidade do navio a re;
- ou seja,
angulo de avanco 180 < 270 .
E, por fim, no quarto quadrante temos naturalmente:

- velocidade de rotac
ao do helice correspondente `a marcha a vante;
- velocidade do navio a re;
- ou seja,
angulo de avanco 270 < < 360 .
Se existirem dados experimentais suficientes torna-se possvel definir uma funcao para
estimar o desempenho do helice, no que diz respeito `a forca propulsiva e ao binario, nos
quatro quadrantes do diagrama em aguas livres. Um exemplo de um diagrama deste tipo,
multi-quadrante, est
a representado na Fig. 3.14, relativo aos helices da serie de Wageningen
B4-70 com relac
ao P/D entre 0, 5 e 1, 4.
Justifica-se a introduc
ao de uma notacao para obter maior flexibilidade para trabalhar
nestes diagramas multi-quadrante. De notar que para = 90 ou = 270 , situacoes em
que a velocidade de rotac
ao do helice e nula, o coeficiente de avanco resultaria J = . De
forma semelhante, para prevenir o mesmo tipo de situacoes, sao tambem definidos os seguintes
coeficientes:
- coeficiente de forca propulsiva modificado,
CT =

T
1 2
V A0
2 R

(3.26)

- coeficiente de bin
ario modificado,

CQ
=

Q
1 2
V A0 D
2 R

(3.27)

em que VR e a velocidade relativa de avanco para 0, 7R, ou seja,


T
i
CT = h
2
Va + (0, 7nD)2 D2
8

(3.28)

e
Q

i
CQ
= h
Va2 + (0, 7nD)2 D3
8

(3.29)

Na Fig. 3.14 pode-se ver o efeito que a razao P/D tem no coeficiente de binario CQ

para praticamente toda a gama de . Em particular, e nos intervalos 40 < < 140 e
varia mais significativamente.
230 < < 340 que a magnitude de CQ


3.6. CAVITAC
AO

53

Figura 3.14: Diagrama em aguas livres de 4 quadrantes para os helices


Wageningen B-4.70.

3.6
3.6.1

Cavita
c
ao
Origem da cavitac
ao

A velocidade elevada do escoamento de agua pelo helice provoca regioes com baixa pressao.
Se a pressao cair o suficiente, formar-se-ao cavidades preenchidas com vapor. Estas cavidades
desaparecer
ao quando a press
ao aumentar. O crescimento e o colapso destas bolhas e
extremamente r
apido.
A cavitac
ao envolve fen
omenos fsicos complexos uma vez que se trata de escoamentos a
duas fases, com modelac
ao n
ao-linear. Nos helices dos navios, a velocidade em torno das p
as
pode ser suficiente para reduzir a localmente a pressao e desencadear a cavitacao. Devido `
a
pressao hidrost
atica, a press
ao total sera superior nas imediacoes da pa que se encontre com
a maxima imers
ao (posic
ao 06:00) do que naquela que se encontra na posicao 12:00. Assim,
as pas dos helices em cavitac
ao alternadamente passarao por regioes em que tendencialmente
se formarao bolhas de cavitac
ao e regioes onde as mesmas tenderao a colapsar.
Esta r
apida sucess
ao de explos
oes e implosoes nas proximidades das pas do helice tem
varias consequencias nefastas. As principais sao:
- vibrac
ao;


CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

54

Figura 3.15: Efeito da cavitacao no valor dos parametros relativos a aguas


livres.

- rudo;
- erosao da superfcie das p
as (sobretudo se o colapso das bolhas ocorrer na proximidade);
- reduc
ao da forca propulsiva.
No diagrama em
aguas livres da Fig. 3.15 esta assinalada a reducao que e tipicamente
provocada pela cavitac
ao nos coeficientes de forca propulsiva e binario.

3.6.2

Controle da cavitac
ao

Num meio ideal,


agua sem impurezas ou ar dissolvido, a cavitacao ocorrera quando a pressao
total atingir localmente a press
ao de vapor a essa temperatura. Na pratica, a cavitacao iniciase para valores de press
ao superiores pela presenca de partculas microscopicas e da existencia
de ar dissolvido na
agua que facilitam e precipitam o incio do processo de vaporizacao.
O n
umero de cavitac
ao e um parametro adimensional que estima a possibilidade de
aparecimento do fen
omeno de cavitacao num escoamento,
=

p0 p
1
V02
2

em que:
- p0 e a press
ao ambiente de referencia;
- p e a press
ao local;
- e V0 e a velocidade de referencia correspondente.

(3.30)


3.6. CAVITAC
AO

55

Figura 3.16: Press


ao de vapor da agua em funcao da temperatura.

Para inferior a v , o n
umero de cavitacao avaliado para a pressao de vapor pv , nao
ocorrera cavitac
ao num fluido ideal. Na pratica, e necessario considerar um coeficiente de
seguranca, considerando uma press
ao limite superior `a pressao de vapor.
Para um helice e habitual definir o n
umero de cavitacao n como:
n =

p0 p
1
n2 D2
2

(3.31)

adoptando-se como velocidade caracterstica nD.

3.6.3

Considerac
ao da cavitac
ao na selecc
ao do h
elice

O fenomeno da cavitac
ao e predominantemente dominado pelo campo de pressao no escoamento da
agua pelo plano do helice. Prevenir a cavitacao passa consequentemente pelo
controlo da mnima press
ao absoluta naquele escoamento. A possibilidade de ocorrencia de
cavitacao e evitada pela distribuic
ao da forca propulsiva por uma area maior, aumentando o
diametro do helice ou a raz
ao da
area expandida AE / A0 . A forma mais usual de estimar,
ainda que de uma forma n
ao completamente rigorosa, o perigo de ocorrencia da cavitacao
passa pela utilizac
ao do diagrama de Burrill (Fig. 3.17). O diagrama indica um limite inferior
para a area projectada do helice de um navio mercante. Nos eixos do diagrama de Burrill estao o n
umero de cavitac
ao, em abcissas, e o coeficiente de Burrill nas ordenadas. O coeficiente


CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

56

Figura 3.17: Diagrama de Burrill.

de Burrill e calculado por


c =

T
q0,7R Ap

(3.32)

em que, Ap e a
area projectada do helice, e o parametro q0,7R e dado por
q0,7R =

1
VR2
2

em que VR e o valor absoluto da velocidade local a 0, 7 do raio do helice, ou seja,


q
VR = Va2 + (0, 7 nD )2
com Va a velocidade de entrada do escoamento no plano do helice.
Nos helices da serie de Wageningen, a area expandida esta relacionada com a area projectada por
AE =

3.6.4

AP
1, 067 0, 229P/D

(3.33)

Ensaios experimentais

Os ensaios de cavitac
ao, bem como frequentemente os ensaios em aguas livres, realizam-se em
instalacoes que compreendem um canal fechado na qual e imposta a circulacao da agua por
um impulsor. Na Fig. 3.18 est
a representada esquematicamente uma instalacao deste tipo.
Estes t
uneis s
ao concebidos por forma a proporcionar um escoamento tao uniforme quanto
possvel na secc
ao de teste. A secc
ao de teste, o troco horizontal superior, dispoe de visores
para inspecc
ao e vizualizac
ao do escoamento. O impulsor para a circulacao da agua est
a


3.6. CAVITAC
AO

57

Figura 3.18: Instalacoes de ensaio do RINA.

colocado no troco inferior horizontal para garantir que, mesmo quando a pressao no tanque
for reduzida, a coluna hidrost
atica vai impedir a cavitacao neste propulsor.
Normalmente, a press
ao e reduzida por bombas de vacuo para ajuste do n
umero de cavitacao e a instalac
ao disp
oe de equipamento para reduzir o ar dissolvido na agua. Podem ser
instaladas grelhas met
alicas para induzir a turbulencia desejada no escoamento.
Os helices em teste s
ao sujeitos a iluminacao estroboscopica por forma a serem vistos
sempre com as p
as na mesma posic
ao. Obtem-se assim uma visualizacao do padrao de cavitacao estacion
aria.
O funcionamento do helice tem alguns pontos caractersticos que se passa a identificar. A
primeira destas situac
oes acontece quando o motor electrico faz rodar o veio do helice a uma
velocidade n mantendo-se a velocidade de avanco nula, ou seja Va = 0. Nestas condicoes,
verifica-se J = 0 e = 0, e diz-se que o helice funciona a ponto fixo. Se em seguida se
fizer avancar o helice a uma velocidade Va , mantendo a mesma velocidade de rotacao, este
desenvolver
a um impulso T e absorvera um certo momento Q. Esta fase e a fase propulsora,
utilizada para a propuls
ao dos navios. Continuando a aumentar o coeficiente de impulso por
diminuicao da velocidade de rotac
ao n, o impulso vai diminuindo ate o helice chegar ao ponto
de impulso nulo. Inicia-se a fase de travagem, ate um ponto, no qual o helice trabalha em
concordancia com o coeficiente de avanco J, com KQ = 0, helice livre. Um helice livre opoe
resistencia ao avanco. Continuando a reduzir a velocidade de rotacao do helice e mantendo
Va , entra-se na fase motora, em que o helice poderia fornecer energia. Quando a velocidade
do helice for nula, o helice diz-se bloqueado.


CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

58

Figura 3.19: Imagem da cavitacao num helice.

3.7

Selec
c
ao do h
elice

No calculo do helice procura-se a optimizacao das principais variaveis, n


umero e area das
pas, diametro, velocidade de rotac
ao e passo, por forma a que a propulsao se faca com bom
possvel obter uma boa estimativa
rendimento em todas as condic
oes de carga do navio. E
das caractersticas de funcionamento do helice utilizando uma das varias series sistematicas
referenciadas. As vari
aveis de optimizacao do helice sao descritas sucintamente nos paragrafos
seguintes.

3.7.1

Vari
aveis de optimizac
ao

Di
ametro
O rendimento do helice aumenta o diametro do mesmo, estando no entanto a dimensao
deste limitada pela geometria da popa. Deve-se referir no entanto que o aumento do diametro
de helice provoca vibrac
oes mais fortes e a reducao do rendimento do casco. As sociedades
classificadoras tem normas pr
oprias para definir valores mnimos de folga entre o helice e o
casco do navio.
O diametro m
aximo do helice e normalmente considerado como uma fraccao do calado
maximo do navio,
Dmax = a T

(3.34)

dependente do tipo de navio, conforme indicado na Tab. 3.2.


Para compensar a n
ao uniformidade do escoamento de aproximacao ao helice quando este
se encontra atr
as da querena, o di
ametro equivalente em aguas livres e considerado como:
D0 =

D
1b

em que b toma os valores constantes na Tab. 3.3.

(3.35)

DO HELICE

3.7. SELECC
AO

59

Tipo de Navio
Graneleiros/Petroleiros
Porta-contentores

a
<0,65
<0,74

Tabela 3.2: Coeficiente para atribuicao do diametro maximo do helice pela


Eq. (3.34).
Helice
Simples
Duplo

b
0.05
0.03

Tabela 3.3: Constante para o calculo do diametro equivalente em agua


livres pela Eq. (3.35).
Velocidade de rota
c
ao
Em instalac
oes propulsoras com transmissao directa, a velocidade de rotacao do helice e
estabelecida pela velocidade do motor. Neste caso, o diametro e ajustado para se obter um
coeficiente de avanco apropriado para a velocidade pretendida e a potencia exigida. Quando
e utilizada uma caixa redutora, procura-se utilizar o maior diametro possvel, sendo depois
ajustada a velocidade de rotac
ao do helice ajustada de acordo com o coeficiente de avanco
pretendido. Devem evitar-se velocidades que multiplicadas pelo n
umero de pas do helice
sejam proximas das frequencias de ressonancia do casco e da instalacao propulsora. Do ponto
de vista da prevenc
ao da cavitac
ao, sao favoraveis as velocidades de rotacao mais baixas.
N
umero de p
as
O factor determinante na selecc
ao do n
umero de pas e a irregularidade das forcas geradas
pelo helice. Estas forcas, aplicadas com a frequencia correspondente `a velocidade de rotacao,
induzem vibrac
oes no casco e instalacao propulsora. O objectivo passa por obter um bom
compromisso entre a vibrac
ao gerada e o rendimento obtido ja que este diminui com o aumento
do n
umero de p
as do helice.
Distribui
c
ao radial da press
ao
A distribuic
ao da press
ao nas p
as esta relacionada com a susceptibilidade de ocorrencia da
cavitacao. Em particular, e normalmente vantajoso reduzir a pressao no extremo radial das
pas. Esta reduc
ao e ainda vantajosa na perspectiva do esforco estrutural das pas e da pressao
irregular induzida no casco.
Geometria das p
as
A formula de Keller permite escolher a razao de area expandida para evitar o fenomeno da
cavitacao,
Ae
(1, 3 + 0, 3Z) T
=
+k
A0
(p0 pv ) D2

(3.36)

em que k e uma margem de seguranca, que variara entre k = 0 para navios de guerra e
k = 0, 2 para navios mercantes com helices muito carregados. Quanto maior a razao de areas,
menor sera o risco de cavitac
ao mas, em compensacao menor o rendimento do helice devido
ao atrito. A soluc
ao ser
a a menor
area que garanta o criterio de cavitacao.


CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

60

No entanto, a curvatura, o
angulo de ataque e a espessura das tem tambem uma grande
importancia no controle da cavitac
ao. A maior espessura das pas favorece a cavitacao nas costas das pas enquanto que as p
as pouco espessas tem maior propensao para gerarem cavitacao
no bordo de ataque.
Quanto ao rendimento, ele e favorecido pela diminuicao da corda das pas, ou seja da sua
area, mas por raz
oes estruturais, esta reducao tem que ser acompanhada por um aumento de
espessura que vai provocar um aumento da resistencia de forma.
A utilizac
ao apropriada do desvio circunferencial das pas do helice (skew) permite controlar muito eficazmente a cavitac
ao e a vibracao induzida tendo apenas como contrapartida
uma reduc
ao do rendimento do helice em marcha a re.

3.7.2

Tipos de problema

possvel obter uma boa estimativa das caractersticas de funcionamento do helice utilizando
E
uma das v
arias series sistem
aticas referenciadas. Uma vez determinado o n
umero e a area
das pas, resta a determinar a combinacao do passo e do coeficiente de avanco que permite
optimizar o rendimento do helice. De acordo com o tipo de problema em causa, podemos
considerar v
arias situac
oes. Quando a potencia e a velocidade de rotacao sao conhecidas, da
eliminacao do di
ametro resulta a seguinte equacao:
KQ
PD n2
=
J5
2Va5

(3.37)

Quando a potencia e o di
ametro do helice estao determinados, a eliminacao da velocidade
de rotacao permite estabelecer:
KQ
PD
=
3
J
2D2 Va3

(3.38)

Sendo prescritas a forca propulsiva e a velocidade de rotacao, a eliminacao do diametro


conduz `a equac
ao:
KT
T n2
=
J4
Va4

(3.39)

Por fim, quando s


ao conhecidos o diametro do helice e a forca propulsiva, a eliminacao da
velocidade de rotac
ao permite estabelecer a seguinte relacao:
T
KT
=
2
J
D2 Va2

3.8

(3.40)

Interac
c
ao entre casco e h
elice

Os ensaios de helices `
a escala reduzida em aguas livres, conseguindo efectuar uma avaliacao
preliminar das caractersticas propulsivas de um helice, nao permitem uma previsao do seu
desempenho numa dada aplicac
ao especfica, porque, na realidade, o helice nao vai operar em
aguas livres mas sim atr
as do navio.
As caractersticas de um helice trabalhando atras de um navio a uma dada velocidade
diferem consideravelmente das caractersticas obtidas em ensaios com modelos em aguas livres,
`a velocidade correspondente, devido aos seguintes factores:

ENTRE CASCO E HELICE

3.8. INTERACC
AO

61

- a velocidade da
agua na esteira do navio e menor que a velocidade do navio;
- a nao-uniformidade da esteira do navio afecta a distribuicao das forcas aplicadas nas
pas do helice;
- a acelerac
ao da
agua pelo helice reduz a pressao sobre o casco e, consequentemente
aumentando a resistencia efectiva da querena.

3.8.1

Ensaios de propuls
ao

Os ensaios de propuls
ao tem por objectivo determinar, para cada velocidade de rotacao, a
potencia propulsiva e a consequente velocidade do navio. Os resultados dos ensaios permitem
tambem a determinac
ao dos coeficientes de deducao da forca propulsiva e da velocidade da
esteira necess
arios para a selecc
ao ou projecto do helice. O modelo e equipado com um
helice pre-seleccionado de acordo com as necessidades operacionais previstas para o navio. A
optimizacao a partir deste helice-base decorrera a partir dos resultados obtidos neste ensaio
de auto-propuls
ao. O accionamento deste helice e normalmente realizado por um pequeno
motor electrico, conforme representado esquematicamente na Fig. 3.20.

Figura 3.20: Modelo para ensaios de propulsao.


As condic
oes de realizac
ao do ensaio de propulsao contemplam:
- semelhanca geometrica;
- semelhanca cinem
atica;
- semelhanca de Froude;
- igual n
umero de cavitac
ao.
Pelas raz
oes apontadas anteriormente, nao e possvel acumular com aquelas condicionantes a igualdade do n
umero de Reynolds. Assim, existem efeitos de escala a considerar na
extrapolac
ao dos resultados para a escala do navio.
O primeiro efeito de escala a considerar no ensaio de propulsao e o efeito de escala na
resistencia. O coeficiente de resistencia total e superior no teste do modelo ao que se verificar
a
no navio porque o coeficiente de resistencia de atrito diminui com o aumento do n
umero


CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

62

de Reynolds. Este efeito resultante da variacao do n


umero de Reynolds e resolvido pela
aplicacao de uma forca de compensacao. A intensidade da forca de compensacao necessaria
FD e determinada por,
1
FD = Vm2 Sm ((1 + k) (cF m cF s ) cA cAA )
2

(3.41)

O helice tem portanto que produzir uma forca propulsiva igual `a resistencia total RT menos
a forca de compensac
ao FD .
Outro efeito de escala a considerar no ensaio de propulsao diz respeito `a esteira. A
espessura da camada limite e esteira do modelo e relativamente maior que a correspondente
espessura no navio. Ou seja, o coeficiente de esteira do modelo e maior que o do navio. A
velocidade media de aproximac
ao ao helice, adimensionalizada pela velocidade do modelo, e
menor que a correspondente velocidade adimensionalizada do navio.
Por u
ltimo, dever
a ser considerado o efeito de escala nas caractersticas propulsivas do
helice. De facto, o n
umero de Reynolds do helice no modelo e menor que no helice do navio
e os coeficientes de forca propulsiva e de binario sao diferentes.
Na realizac
ao dos ensaios de propulsao e normalmente mantida a velocidade do carro de
reboque constante e e variada a velocidade de rotacao do helice ate ser obtida uma condicao
de equilbrio. S
ao assim obtidos dados de forca propulsiva e binario em funcao da velocidade.
Adicionalmente, podem ainda ser registados dados sobre o calado e o caimento do modelo
durante o ensaio.
O ponto de auto-propuls
ao do modelo e encontrado quando as forcas exteriores sobre o
modelo sao nulas. O ensaio e realizado com o n
umero de Froude do navio, fazendo variar a
velocidade de rotac
ao do helice ate que a forca de reboque se anule. Nesta situacao, a forca
propulsiva iguala a resistencia da querena, alterada pela presenca de helice. Para compensar
a diferenca no coeficiente de resistencia do navio e do modelo, e aplicada a forca adicional de
portanto mais correcto afirmar que no ponto de
reboque FD determinada pela Eq. (3.41). E
auto-propuls
ao do modelo, a u
nica forca exterior aplicada ao modelo e a forca FD .
Para alem do chamado ensaio de auto-propulsao, realizam-se os ensaios em sobrecarga.
Cada ensaio em sobrecarga realiza-se tambem com o helice a operar atras do modelo com este
a ser rebocado a velocidade constante. Faz-se variar a velocidade de rotacao do helice e, para
cada uma das velocidades ensaiadas nm regista-se a forca de reboque Fm , a forca propulsiva
Tm e o bin
ario Qm . Pode-se encontrar tambem o ponto de auto-propulsao do modelo por
interpolac
ao nos resultados dos ensaios em sobrecarga, mais concretamente interpolando na
curva da forca de reboque em func
ao da velocidade de rotacao, para o valor requerido de FD .

3.8.2

Pot
encia e velocidade

A potencia efectiva PE , potencia necessaria para rebocar a querena, sem os apendices associados `a propuls
ao, `
a velocidade Vs , e obtida por
PE = RT Vs

(3.42)

em que:
- RT e a resistencia total em
aguas livres excluindo a resistencia adicional dos apendices
associados `
a propuls
ao;
- e Vs e a velocidade do navio.

ENTRE CASCO E HELICE

3.8. INTERACC
AO

63

De forma an
aloga, a potencia propulsiva PT pode ser obtida por
PT = T V a
em que:
- T e a forca propulsiva calculada a partir dos ensaios de propulsao;
- e Va e a velocidade de avanco do helice.
A forca propulsiva T e superior `
a resistencia RT avaliada a partir do ensaio de resistencia
realizado sem helice. Isto significa, como referido antes, que a presenca do helice induz uma
resistencia adicional porque:
- a presenca do helice aumenta a velocidade do escoamento na zona da popa do navio e,
em consequencia a resistencia de atrito;
- a presenca do helice provoca uma diminuicao da pressao nos paineis da popa do navio.
O segundo destes factores e normalmente o mais significativo.
O aumento da resistencia devido ao efeito da presenca do helice e usualmente representado
por uma reduc
ao da forca propulsora expressa como fraccao dessa forca. O coeficiente de
deducao da forca propulsiva t associa entao a forca propulsiva e a resistencia,
t=1

RT
T

(3.43)

em que t e normalmente considerado igual no modelo e no navio.


Depois de realizados os ensaios de propulsao e calculados os coeficientes de forca propulsiva, KT m e KQm , o coeficiente de deducao da forca propulsiva e calculado por
tm =

Tm + FD RC
Tm

(3.44)

em que RC e a resistencia corrigida para a diferenca de temperatura entre os dois ensaios,


resistencia e propuls
ao. O valor de RC sera,
RC =

(1 + k) cF mC + cR
RT m
(1 + k) cF m + cR

(3.45)

em que cF mC e o coeficiente da resistencia de atrito avaliado `a temperatura da agua no ensaio


de propuls
ao.
Para corrigir o efeito da velocidade da esteira, define-se o coeficiente de deducao da esteira,
w, que permite relacionar a velocidade de avanco Va com a velocidade do navio V ,
w =1

Va
V

(3.46)

Considerando o diagrama em
aguas livres do helice, com o valor de KT m avaliado com a
forca propulsiva experimental do ensaio de propulsao, pode obter-se atraves daquele diagrama
um valor para o coeficiente de avanco J0m . O coeficiente de esteira do modelo sera entao dado
por
wm = 1

J0m Dm nm
Vm

(3.47)


CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

64

Ou seja, a velocidade media axial no plano do helice atras do navio `a velocidade V , no


ensaio de resistencia sem helice, e a velocidade da esteira nominal,
Va = (1 wn ) V

(3.48)

e, com o helice em operac


ao atr
as do navio, o escoamento devido `a presenca da querena e
modificado obtendo-se a velocidade da esteira efectiva,
Ve = (1 we ) V

(3.49)

A velocidade total ser


a a soma da velocidade da esteira efectiva e da velocidade axial induzida
pelo helice.
O rendimento rotativo relativo R e calculado por
R =

KQ0m
KQm

(3.50)

em que KQ0m e obtido a partir do diagrama em aguas livres do helice e o coeficiente de binario
KQm e calculado com base nos resultados experimentais do ensaio de propulsao.
Designa-se por rendimento do casco a razao entre a potencia efectiva e a potencia propulsiva, ou seja,
H =

PE
RT Vs
1t
=
=
PT
T Va
1w

(3.51)

A determinac
ao de w, t e H e feita preferencialmente atraves de ensaios de modelos em
ensaios de auto-propuls
ao utilizando um helice de stock com caractersticas conhecidas, tao
aproximadas quanto possvel do helice optimo. Se nao for possvel utilizar um modelo, aqueles
parametros poder
ao ser estimados com base em dados estatsticos. Para navios com um ou
dois helices, o diagrama de Harvald permite estimar os valores de w, t e H em funcao do
coeficiente de finura total e da raz
ao B/L, com correccoes associadas ao tipo de popa, cota do
veio e diametro do helice. Outros autores propuseram algumas expressoes para a estimativa
daqueles par
ametros. Destas, destacam-se as de Taylor, Schoenherr e Luke, para navios com
um helice,
w = 0, 5Cb + 0, 025

(3.52)

t = 0, 5w

(3.53)

e,

com H = 1, 02. Para navios com dois helices,


w = 0, 4533Cb 0, 114

(3.54)

t = 0, 7w + 0, 01

(3.55)

e,

com H = 0, 985. Poder


ao aqui ser referidas as expressoes mais complexas apresentadas por
Holtrop, com base em mais de duzentos ensaios de auto-propulsao em modelos de navios de
diversos tipos.

ENTRE CASCO E HELICE

3.8. INTERACC
AO

65

A potencia absorvida pelo helice pode ser expressa em termos da velocidade de rotacao n
(em rps) e do bin
ario Q por
PD = 2 n Q

(3.56)

Devido `
as perdas mec
anicas no veio e chumaceiras, a potencia recebida pelo helice PD e
inferior `a potencia efectiva do motor (brake power ) PB ,
PD = s PB

(3.57)

em que s e o rendimento da linha de veios. A eficiencia do propulsor atras do navio, avalia


as perdas desde a potencia recebida pelo helice PD e a potencia propulsiva PT ,
PT = B PD

(3.58)

Esta eficiencia do propulsor atr


as do navio B e diferente da eficiencia em aguas livres 0
verificada experimentalmente. O rendimento rotativo relativo R avalia as perdas associadas
`a diferenca entre o escoamento em aguas livres e o escoamento tridimensional nao-uniforme
no plano do propulsor,
B = R 0

(3.59)

Em resumo, verifica-se sempre a relacao,


PB > PD > PT > PE
em que os valores daquelas potencias sao calculadas por
PE = H PT = H B PD = H 0 R PD = H 0 R S PB
Se o rendimento quase-propulsivo D espressar o conjunto de eficiencias hidrodinamicas
consideradas,
D = H 0 R

(3.60)

entao, a potencia efectiva pode ser dada por


PE = D S PB
As leis de semelhanca permitem a extrapolacao das medicoes efectuadas para a escala do
navio,

(3.61)
Vs = Vm ,

ns = nm / ,

(3.62)

Ts = Tm (s /m ) 3

(3.63)

Qs = Qm (s /m ) 4

(3.64)

e,


CAPITULO 3. PROPULSAO

66

3.8.3

Extrapolac
ao dos resultados do ensaio de propuls
ao

O procedimento recomendado pela ITTC para o tratamento dos dados experimentais resultantes dos ensaios de resistencia e de propulsao para a previsao do desempenho do navio est
a
includo no Apendice A. Para alem dos ja referidos ensaios de reboque e propulsao, sao ainda
necessarios testes do helice em
aguas livres. De uma forma sucinta, o referido procedimento
envolve os seguintes passos:
- prever a resistencia total do navio a partir da resistencia avaliada no modelo, corrigindo
de acordo com as resistencias adicionais que devam ser consideradas;
- estimar as caractersticas do helice propulsor com base nos coeficientes propulsivos determinados para o modelo;
- estimar a esteira do navio e as condicoes de funcionamento do helice;
- estimar a velocidade de rotac
ao do helice e potencia necessaria com base em factores de
correlac
ao entre o modelo e o navio.
Os detalhes de cada um destes passos, bem como o formulario de calculo, devem ser
consultados no referido Apendice A.
As varias condic
oes consideradas nos ensaios do modelo servirao para fazer uma previsao
do desempenho do navio numa gama de velocidades para as condicoes de lastro e carregado,
conforme representado na Fig. 3.21.

Figura 3.21: Resultados dos ensaios de propulsao.

Captulo

Instalacoes Propulsoras
4.1

Introdu
c
ao

A escolha de uma m
aquina propulsora ou da configuracao mais apropriada para a instalacao
propulsora num projecto de nova construcao ou reconversao nao e actualmente uma decisao
imperioso que esta decis
simples. E
ao seja precedida de uma analise rigorosa das varias opcoes
disponveis para o perfil de operac
ao futura definido para o navio.
Uma vez determinada a potencia absorvida pelo helice, torna-se necessario identificar as
solucoes que satisfazem os requisitos de potencia, velocidade de rotacao, consumo e dimensoes.
A sua avaliac
ao tecnico-financeira sera entao realizada por criterios baseados nos seguintes
factores:
- o investimento inicial;
- a fiabilidade;
- os custos de manutenc
ao previstos;
- os custos de operac
ao previstos;
- a margem do motor, relacionada com a diferenca entre a potencia maxima e a potencia
de servico do motor.
Este processo de selecc
ao terminar
a sempre numa solucao de compromisso ja que nenhum
tipo de instalac
ao apresentar
a apenas vantagens comparativas.
No passado, o armador ou o projectista tinha como escolha imediata um motor diesel lento
acoplado directamente a um helice de passo fixo, ou um motor diesel de media velocidade,
a quatro tempos, accionando atraves de engrenagens redutoras um helice de passo fixo ou
controlavel.
Actualmente, a propuls
ao dos navios que entram em servico e obtida com o acoplamento
directo, muito esporadicamente com engrenagens redutoras, de motores a dois tempos a helices
de passo fixo ou control
avel, motores de media velocidade a quatro tempos e engrenagens
redutoras ou ainda por instalac
oes diesel-electricas com recurso a motores diesel, a quatro
tempos, rapidos ou de media velocidade. Algumas variantes de instalacoes propulsoras estao
representadas nas Fig. 4.1 e 4.2.
67

68

CAPITULO 4. INSTALAC
OES
PROPULSORAS

Figura 4.1: Variantes de instalacoes propulsoras diesel-mecanicas lentas e


de media velocidade.

Os motores diesel lentos predominam no sector do transporte de graneis, lquidos e solidos,


e contentores de longo curso. Motores de media velocidade sao preferidos em navios de
carga com menor dimens
ao, ferries, turismo de passageiros, RoRos, bem como em nichos de
mercado muito especficos como os quebra-gelos, navios de apoio a plataformas de exploracao
petrolfera, etc.
No passado recente, estas tradicionais zonas de influencia de cada um dos referidos tipos
de motores tem-se sobreposto. As novas geracoes de motores a quatro tempos, com cilindros
de grande di
ametro e media velocidade apresentam-se como solucoes competitivas para navios
a operar em viagens de longo curso. Em contrapartida, os motores lentos a dois tempos com
cilindros de pequeno di
ametro tambem se apresentam como solucoes validas para os mercados
costeiro e fluvial.
Um aspecto fundamental a considerar no processo de decisao na escolha da instalacao
propulsora ser
a necessariamente o custo. Nao so o custo inicial, o investimento a fazer na
aquisicao do motor, mas tambem os custos associados `a operacao do navio ou, de uma forma
mais geral, os custos totais do ciclo de vida do navio. Naqueles custos de operacao deverao
ser tidos em conta, entre outros, os seguintes aspectos:
- o tipo de combustvel que a instalacao vai permitir consumir;
- uma previs
ao dos custos de manutencao;
- os recursos humanos exigidos para a operacao/conducao da instalacao;
- a disponibilidade e quantidade/custo dos sobressalentes.

DIESEL-MECANICA

4.2. PROPULSAO

69

Figura 4.2: Instalac


oes propulsoras diesel-mecanica (em cima) e dieselelectrica (em baixo).

A avaliac
ao dos custos de operac
ao ao fim da vida de exploracao do navio pode variar de
forma muito significativa com o tipo de motor escolhido, e com a configuracao da instalacao
propulsora adoptada.
A dimens
ao da casa da m
aquina, a cujo aumento correspondera uma reducao do espaco
de carga disponvel para a explorac
ao do navio, e essencialmente condicionada pela dimensao
da maquina principal. A pr
opria altura da casa da maquina e importante em alguns tipos de
navios como os ferries com conves para veculos.

4.2

Propuls
ao diesel-mec
anica

Conforme j
a referido, a propuls
ao por um helice de passo fixo accionado directamente por um
motor diesel lento a dois tempos continua a ser o sistema mais frequentemente encontrado em
navios de carga de longo curso. A ligeira reducao no rendimento de propulsao reconhecida e
admitida face `
a simplicidade da solucao obtida e, a introducao de motores de longo, super-,
e ultra-longo curso veio diminuir aquelas perdas. No entanto, a velocidade de 100/110 rpm
nao e necessariamente a mais adequada para a propulsao de um grande navio. Os motores
actualmente disponveis com maior curso desenvolvem a sua potencia nominal a velocidades
tao baixas como 55 rpm ate cerca de 250 rpm. Para um dado navio, e entao possvel prescrever
uma soluc
ao de acoplamento directo motor/helice que permita optimizar o rendimento de
propulsao.
Um outro aspecto a considerar e o n
umero de cilindros do motor. Os motores lentos actuais, com cilindros de grande di
ametro, permitem extrair a potencia necessaria `a propulsao de
um navio de um motor com um reduzido n
umero de cilindros. Um motor com menos cilindros
influencia naturalmente de forma favoravel a dimensao da casa da maquina, o volume de trabalho afecto `
a sua manutenc
ao e a quantidade de sobressalentes a manter no navio. Este tipo
de solucao e portanto bem acolhida desde que daqui nao resultem problemas de equilbrio
do motor e vibrac
oes. Estes motores com cilindros de grande diametro queimam bem combustveis pesados de fraca qualidade e proporcionam um consumo especfico de combustvel


CAPITULO 4. INSTALAC
OES
PROPULSORAS

70

inferior ao obtido em motores com cilindros de menor diametro.


Neste tipo de instalac
oes, a energia electrica necessaria ao funcionamento dos equipamentos auxiliares e normalmente fornecida por geradores accionados por motores diesel rapidos
ou de media velocidade. A grande parte dos fabricantes de motores diesel para accionamento de alternadores est
a j
a hoje em condicoes de oferecer solucoes capazes de consumir o
mesmo combustvel que a m
aquina principal, ou marine diesel-oil ou ainda uma mistura
(blended ) de combustveis pesado e destilado. Actualmente, sao ja comuns instalacoes propulsoras Unifuel , nas quais m
aquina principal e motores auxiliares consomem o mesmo tipo
de combustvel.

4.2.1

Accionamento de auxiliares

Os custos associados `
a produc
ao da energia electrica necessaria ao funcionamento dos equipamentos auxiliares da instalac
ao s
ao tambem um factor importante na seleccao da maquina
principal. O desenvolvimento das m
aquinas tem tido como principais objectivos nesta area:
- maximizar o aproveitamento de energia para permitir complementar a producao de
energia electrica durante as viagens;
- permitir o uso de alternadores accionados pela maquina principal atraves de engrenagens
multiplicadoras ou directamente montados na linha de veio;
- possibilitar o accionamento de equipamentos auxiliares directamente pela maquina principal.
A principal motivac
ao para a producao de energia electrica a partir da maquina principal
resulta do seu superior rendimento termico, menor consumo especfico de combustvel e capacidade para consumir combustveis de inferior qualidade e custo. Outra vantagem resulta
naturalmente do menor consumo de oleo lubrificante, de menos intervencoes de manutencao e
inferiores custos com sobressalentes resultantes da reducao do tempo de funcionamento obtida
com a paragem dos diesel-geradores durante a viagem.
No caso de uma instalac
ao com helice de passo fixo, a utilizacao de um acoplamento por
engrenagens, que permita manter constante a velocidade de rotacao do alternador (Fig. 4.3),
possibilita a utilizac
ao do gerador a plena carga numa gama de velocidades da maquina
principal que habitualmente ronda os 70 a 100% da sua velocidade nominal.
A localizac
ao do alternador e tambem um aspecto importante para permitir a desejavel
reducao de espaco ocupado pela casa da maquina. Sao actualmente possveis diversos arranjos
que vao desde a colocac
ao lateral ao motor ou em qualquer uma das suas extremidades.
Em alternativa, quer no caso das instalacoes com helice de passo fixo, quer no caso daquelas
que dispoem de passo control
avel, podem ser utilizados sistemas baseados na conversao da
frequencia da energia electrica produzida (Fig. 4.4).
Mais recentemente, as opc
oes para a producao de energia electrica a bordo alargaramse `a utilizac
ao de turbinas movimentadas pelos gases de evacuacao do motor. O elevado
rendimento dos sobrealimentadores mais modernos torna excedentaria uma fraccao dos gases
de evacuac
ao. O aproveitamento destes gases de evacuacao em pequenas turbinas poder
a
integrar-se em sistemas, que contemplando ainda grupos diesel-geradores, geradores-ao-veio e
turbo-geradoras a vapor, de forma isolada ou combinada, permitirao a optimizacao dos custos
de produc
ao da energia electrica para os varios estados de operacao do navio.

DIESEL-MECANICA

4.2. PROPULSAO

71

Figura 4.3: Acoplamento com relacao variavel de velocidades.

4.2.2

Engrenagens redutoras

Em muitas instalac
oes propulsoras espera-se da caixa redutora:
- a determinac
ao da velocidade e do sentido de rotacao do helice, e a capacidade de
invers
ao;
- que proporcione uma forma de acoplamento, permitindo estabelecer e interromper a
transmiss
ao de potencia entre o motor e o helice;
- que seja capaz de absorver o impulso recebido do helice.
O projecto de engrenagens, embraiagens ou outras formas de acoplamento usadas em instalacoes navais tem de satisfazer v
arios, e por vezes conflituantes, requisitos quanto `a sua
flexibilidade operacional, fiabilidade, rudo emitido e espaco ocupado. Os desenvolvimentos
nas areas do projecto, dos materiais e dos sistemas de controlo contriburam para solucoes
inovadoras para instalac
oes propulsoras versateis com um ou mais motores, envolvendo tomadas de extrac
ao de potencia (Power Take-Off s - PTO) para accionamento de alternadores
e tomadas para recepc
ao de potencia (Power Take-Ins - PTI ) para aumentar a potencia
de propuls
ao.
A forma mais comum do accionamento indirecto do helice passa pela utilizacao de um
ou mais motores a quatro tempos de media velocidade, ligados atraves de embraiagens e
acoplamentos a uma caixa redutora, para movimentar um helice de passo fixo ou controlavel
(Fig. 4.5 e 4.6).
A utilizac
ao de helices de passo controlavel permite eliminar a necessidade da reversibilidade do motor. Por outro lado, a utilizacao da caixa redutora permite escolher a velocidade
de funcionamento do helice mais apropriada. De uma forma geral, pode-se afirmar que as perdas mecanicas na transmiss
ao s
ao compensadas por um maior rendimento propulsivo, quando

72

CAPITULO 4. INSTALAC
OES
PROPULSORAS

Figura 4.4: Conversao da frequencia da energia electrica.

comparado com um caso de acoplamento directo para a mesma potencia. Os custos adicionais da transmiss
ao s
ao tambem, pelo menos parcialmente, compensados pelo menor custo
do motor a quatro tempos, quando comparado com um motor lento a dois tempos.
Sao normalmente identificadas como principais vantagens das instalacoes propulsoras com
mais de um motor, r
apido ou de media velocidade:
- a redund
ancia permite maior disponibilidade para a operacao do navio:
- no caso de avaria num motor, o outro ou os outros mantem a navegabilidade;
- o n
umero de motores em servico para a propulsao pode variar para garantir a forma
mais econ
omica para uma viagem:
- quando o navio viaja em lastro, carga parcial ou a velocidade reduzida um
dos motores pode ser utilizado `a sua potencia nominal, com bom rendimento,
enquanto outro ou outros podem ser parados;
- pelo contr
ario, em condicoes operacionais semelhantes, um motor u
nico, acoplado directamente ao helice, funcionaria durante longos perodos a carga parcial com pouco rendimento;
- A possibilidade de alterar o n
umero de motores em servico facilita o planeamento e a
execuc
ao das tarefas de manutencao e reparacao uma vez que estas poderao ser realizadas em viagem.
- Esta flexibilidade de operacao e particularmente valorizada numa epoca em que se
pretende uma explorac
ao intensiva dos navios.
- As operac
oes de manutencao e reparacao podem ainda decorrer em porto sem
preocupac
oes particulares relativas `a necessidade de mudanca de cais ou partida
antecipada.
- As instalac
oes propulsoras de uma frota de navios pode ser baseada num so modelo
de motor, ajustando o n
umero de motores no navio e o n
umero de cilindros por motor
para as necessidades de propulsao de cada um dos navios, com reducao do custo de

DIESEL-MECANICA

4.2. PROPULSAO

73

Figura 4.5: Instalac


ao propulsora com quatro motores, engrenagens redutoras e dois helices.

sobressalentes e invent
arios, para alem dos benefcios resultantes da familiarizacao das
tripulac
oes.
Este conceito pode ainda ser alargado aos motores auxiliares (uniform machinery installations ), em que os motores principais e auxiliares sao do mesmo modelo.

4.2.3

Configurac
ao pai-e-filho

A flexibilidade de operac
ao e potenciada pela adopcao das instalacoes do tipo pai-e-filho.
Nestas instalac
oes, motores a quatro tempos do mesmo modelo, ou de dois modelos muito
semelhantes, mas com diferente n
umero de cilindros, fazem o accionamento do veio do helice
acoplados a uma caixa redutora comum. Cada um daqueles motores pode ser ainda acoplado
a uma maquina electrica que pode funcionar como motor ou gerador.
Numa configurac
ao deste tipo, a propulsao pode ser assegurada:
- conjuntamente pelos dois motores diesel;
- apenas por qualquer um dos motores diesel.
Em qualquer dos casos, podem ser ainda utilizados os, nesta situacao, motores electricos
acoplados ao veio como motores propulsores, alimentados com energia electrica produzida
pelos geradores auxiliares.


CAPITULO 4. INSTALAC
OES
PROPULSORAS

74

Figura 4.6: Instalac


ao com dois motores diesel diferentes, engrenagens redutoras, embraiagens e geradores acoplados aos veios.

4.3

Propuls
ao diesel-el
ectrica

4.3.1

Propuls
ao por motor el
ectrico

A propuls
ao diesel-electrica, baseada em grupos electrogeneos de media velocidade, e uma
forma de accionamento indirecto com crescente implantacao no mercado. Apos um perodo
em que a utilizac
ao deste tipo de sistemas esteve confinada a nichos de mercado de actividades
com elevada especificidade, como por exemplo os quebra-gelos, navios de investigacao etc.,
as mais recentes tecnologias para a conversao AC/DC alargaram o potencial de utilizacao da
propulsao electrica ao mercado dos navios de passageiros, shuttle tankers no Mar do Norte.
Estando j
a estabelecido como uma boa solucao neste mercados, comecam a surgir referencias da aplicac
ao deste tipo de instalacoes propulsoras a navios de transporte de qumicos
(costeiro e longo curso), ferries e RoRos. Discute-se ainda as vantagens da sua aplicacao
pelo menos a algumas classes de porta-contentores. A propulsao diesel-electrica, combinada
com motores dual-fuel , est
a tambem bem implantada no sector do transporte de LNG.
A propuls
ao diesel-electrica exige grandes motores electricos para accionamento dos helices (Fig. 4.7) e grupos electrogeneos para fornecer a potencia electrica. Pode parecer em
primeira an
alise algo il
ogico usar geradores electricos, conversores e motores electricos para o
accionamento quando um acoplamento directo ou uma engrenagem redutora pode ser suficiente para cumprir aquela miss
ao. As principais razoes que justificam a complexidade e custo
acrescidos daquele tipo de instalac
ao sao:
- maior flexibilidade na distribuicao dos equipamentos na casa da maquina;
- maior diversidade de condic
oes de fundionamento;
- funcionamento mais econ
omico a carga partial;
- facilidade de controlo;
- menor rudo;
- maior seguranca de operac
ao e proteccao ambiental.
Estes aspectos ser
ao abordados nos paragrafos seguintes.

DIESEL-ELECTRICA

4.3. PROPULSAO

75

Figura 4.7: Motor electrico de propulsao.

Flexibilidade na distribui
c
ao dos equipamentos
A vantagem da transmiss
ao electrica resulta de se poder escolher a localizacao em cada
entao possvel colocar os motores, bem
caso mais apropriada para os grupos electrogeneos. E
como os respectivos auxiliares, afastados do veio propulsor. Sempre que seja adoptado este
tipo de instalac
ao, a referida flexibilidade permite aos arquitectos navais criar navios com a
casa da m
aquina muito compacta, libertando espaco para passageiros e/ou carga. O facto
de a casa da m
aquina ser mais compacta permite reduzir ainda a cablagem e a tubagem, em
particular a tubagem a instalar para a evacuacao dos gases do motor (ver Fig. 4.8).
A opcao por uma instalac
ao diesel-electrica facilita tambem ao estaleiro de construcao a
recepcao de m
odulos de grupos electrogeneos pre-testados e prontos para serem incorporados
na instalac
ao.
Deve aqui ser tambem referida a dificuldade de uma instalacao diesel-electrica atingir o
rendimento obtido com um motor lento, a dois tempos, acoplado directamente ao veio do
helice, quando a funcionar `
a sua carga ideal, tal como acontece numa viagem de longo curso
de um navio petroleiro. No entanto, alguns navios deste tipo tem um perfil de operacao
que inclui tambem largos perodos a carga parcial em lastro, navegacao em aguas restritas
e manobras. Numa instalac
ao diesel-electrica, a elevada disponibilidade para producao de
energia electrica pode ser aproveitada para movimentar as bombas de carga e impulsores de
proa/popa, conforme representado esquematicamente na Fig. 4.9.
Variedade de carga
Alguns tipos de navios necessitam de quantidades significativas de energia para auxiliares
quando as necessidades de propuls
ao sao reduzidas. Uma grande instalacao de producao

76

CAPITULO 4. INSTALAC
OES
PROPULSORAS

Figura 4.8: Instalacao diesel-electrica.

de energia electrica nos navios de passageiros/cruzeiros e exigida pela carga dos servicos de
hotelaria e pelos propulsores tranversais de manobra. A potencia electrica necessaria nestes
casos ronda os 30 a 40 % da potencia de propulsao instalada e ainda ha que contar com
significativa redund
ancia por motivos de seguranca.
Estes factores tem promovido um novo conceito de instalacao, a diesel-electrica power
station, nas quais v
arios grupos electrogeneo movidos por motores diesel de media velocidade
satisfazem as necessidades de energia para a propulsao, manobra e servicos de hotelaria nos
grandes navios de passageiros.

Funcionamento econ
omico a carga parcial
Funcionamento econ
omico a carga parcial e facilmente alcancado numa instalacao dieselelectrica power station. Uma instalacao tpica inclui quatro grupos electrogeneos, podendo
ir no entanto ate aos nove, e, atraves do funcionamento em paralelo dos grupos, e facil ajustar
a capacidade de produc
ao `
as necessidades de carga electrica. Por exemplo, no caso de quatro
geradores, aumentar o n
umero de grupos em funcionamento de dois, `a carga maxima, para
tres a carga parcial resulta numa condicao de carga a 67 % que, nao sendo ideal tambem nao
e problem
atica.
Os sistemas de reduc
ao instant
anea da potencia propulsora tornam desnecessario colocar
em funcionamento geradores a carga parcial para prevenir a ocorrencia s
ubita de avaria num
grupo electrogeneo. O sistema de controlo monitoriza a capacidade de producao de energia
electrica, e a sobrecarga de um gerador provoca um ajuste imediato no consumo dos motores
de propuls
ao.

DIESEL-ELECTRICA

4.3. PROPULSAO

77

Figura 4.9: Representac


ao esquematica de uma instalacao diesel-electrica.

Facilidade de controlo
Os accionamentos electricos permitem alcancar, com larga margem, as necessidades de
controlo para um sistema de propuls
ao.
Baixo rudo
Um motor electrico proporciona um accionamento com vibracoes reduzidas, caracterstica
particularmente valorizada nalguns tipos de navios como, por exemplo, os navios para cruzeiros, navios de investigac
ao marinha e navios de guerra. A transmissao electrica permite
procurar a melhor localizac
ao para os motores por forma a minimizar os efeitos da vibracao
transmitida `
a estrutura do navio. A emissao de vibracoes pode ainda ser reduzida atraves do
recurso `a montagem de amortecedores de vibracao.
Protec
c
ao ambiental e seguran
ca de opera
c
ao
O controlo das emiss
oes de
oxidos de azoto pelos motores diesel dos navios favorece tambem
a especificac
ao de instalac
oes com transmissao electrica, uma vez que o funcionamento dos
motores a velocidade constante e carga optimizada permite obter menores emissoes.
O aumento da seguranca da navegacao e tambem obtido nestas instalacoes pela redundancia dos seus elementos constituintes. A redundancia pode ser obtida nao apenas pela
existencia de dois propulsores mas ainda pode ser acrescida colocando os dois, ou mais, motores de propuls
ao em diferentes compartimentos e ligando-os por uma engrenagem redutora.

4.3.2

Propulsores azimutais

As vantagens tecnicas e econ


omicas na concepcao, construcao e operacao de navios com
propulsao por azipods, inicialmente restritos a navios quebra-gelos e navios de passageiros,
tem vindo a alargar o seu campo de aplicacao a outro tipo de navios.
Um propulsor azimutal incorpora o motor electrico num alojamento submerso de formas
hidrodinamicas optimizadas que, podendo rodar 360 no plano horizontal, permite extraor-


CAPITULO 4. INSTALAC
OES
PROPULSORAS

78

dinaria capacidade de propuls


ao e manobra (ver Fig. 4.10). O motor electrico e acoplado
directamente a um helice de passo fixo. A energia electrica e provida pelos varios grupos
electrogeneos do navio.

Figura 4.10: Propulsores azimutais.


Este tipo de propulsores, quando comparados com instalacoes diesel-electricas com linha(s)
de veio(s) apresentam as seguintes vantagens:
- maior liberdade para a concepcao do casco e para o arranjo de maquinas no interior da
casa da m
aquina;
- o espaco no interior do casco destinado aos motores pode ser libertado para outras
finalidades;
- melhor capacidade de manobra quando comparado com o tradicional leme e possibidade
de eliminar propulsores transversais;
- excelente reversibilidade e capacidade de manobra com propulsao a re;
- menor rudo e vibrac
ao, caractersticos da propulsao electrica, agora potenciados pela
posic
ao mais favor
avel dos helices;
- na construc
ao do navio, as unidades de propulsao podem ser incorporadas mais tarde
reduzindo assim os custos de investimento;
- menor custo de produc
ao do navio.

4.4

Selec
c
ao do motor

Seleccionado o tipo de instalac


ao pretendido para a propulsao do navio, chega-se finalmente
`a escolha do motor. Como as caractersticas de funcionamento das turbinas e dos motores

DO MOTOR
4.4. SELECC
AO

79

electricos s
ao bastante diferentes das caractersticas dos motores diesel, a abordagem tera de
ser tambem diferente.
Em qualquer dos casos, dever
a ser tida em conta a margem de servico M S. A margem
de servico tem em conta a diferenca entre a potencia requerida para nas condicoes ideais da
pratica habitual definir-se
prova de mar e a potencia requerida pelas condicoes de servico. E
a margem de servico como uma fraccao da potencia na prova de mar, ou seja,
MS =

PDserv PDtrial
PDtrial

(4.1)

O valor da margem de servico est


a normalmente entre os 10 e os 25%, dependendo das opcoes
estrategicas do armador e da import
ancia da pontualidade do servico. Em princpio, a margem
de servico atribuda a um navio de linha sera superior `a margem considerada para um navio
que vai operar no mercado do tramping. O valor estabelecido da margem de servico deve em
conta uma estimativa da degradac
ao de velocidade, para as condicoes de operacao do navio,
bem com as condic
oes habituais de mar e vento e a degradacao do casco.

4.4.1

Turbinas e motores el
ectricos

No caso da turbinas, de vapor ou g


as, a potencia desenvolvida depende essencialmente do
caudal de fluido em circulac
ao, sendo portanto relativamente pouco sensvel `a velocidade de
rotacao.
As caractersticas dos sistemas com transmissao electrica sao semelhantes `as das turbinas,
independentemente de os geradores serem movidos por turbinas ou motores diesel, uma vez
que a velocidade destes pode ser mantida constante.
Neste tipo de situac
ao, em que a maquina propulsora pode trabalhar proximo da potencia
maxima em qualquer condic
ao de servico, a potencia instalada (PI ) pode ser proxima da
potencia de servico. Na pr
atica, a turbina e ajustada para operar com o maximo rendimento
a uma potencia 10% inferior `
a m
axima potencia em contnuo (MCR, Maximum Continuous
Rating). Assim, a potencia instalada sera
PI (M CR) =

PDserv
1 + MS
= PDtrial
0, 9s
0, 9s

(4.2)

em que PDserv e PDtrial s


ao as potencias absorvidas pelo helice nas condicoes de servico e na
prova de mar, respectivamente, para a velocidade de servico e M S e a margem de servico.

4.4.2

Motores diesel

Ao contrario das turbinas e dos motores electricos, em que a potencia disponvel e pouco
sensvel `a velocidade, os motores diesel caracterizam-se por ter uma curva do binario bastante
plana. Esta caracterstica faz com que a potencia varie de forma aproximadamente linear com
a velocidade de rotac
ao.
Para alem dos principais criterios considerados na avaliacao dos projectos, outros aspectos
que nao devem ser descurados na escolha do motor sao:
- a possibilidade de queimar combustvel pesado de baixa qualidade sem impacto nos
componentes do motor e consequentemente nos custos previstos para sobressalentes e
operac
oes de manutenc
ao;

80

CAPITULO 4. INSTALAC
OES
PROPULSORAS
- o volume de trabalho de manutencao, o n
umero de cilindros, valvulas, camisas, aros
e chumaceiras a necessitar de atencao periodica em relacao ao n
umero de tripulantes
embarcados;
- a adequabilidade para operac
ao nao assistida explorando sistemas de controlo autom
atico e sistemas de monitorizacao;
- a dimens
ao e o peso da instalacao propulsora.

O valor m
aximo da potencia desenvolvida por um motor diesel e condicionada pela carga
termica. Este limite e normalmente expresso em termos da pressao media efectiva. Dependendo das caractersticas do helice seleccionado e das condicoes operacionais, assim o valor
limite da press
ao media efectiva ser
a atingido, ou nao, antes de o motor atingir a velocidade
de rotacao correspondente `
as condic
oes M CR.

Figura 4.11: Diagrama de carga de um motor diesel

Os fabricantes de motores diesel incluem diagramas de carga nos guias de seleccao de


motores para auxiliar a escolha do ponto de funcionamento. Nestes diagramas, como o representado na Fig. 4.11, est
ao marcados:
- o ponto L1 , que corresponde ao MCR do motor;
- a linha vertical L1 L2 , velocidade de rotacao maxima do motor, que limita a zona de
funcionamento do motor;
No Apendice D incluiu-se documentacao da Burmeister & Wain que permite ilustrar a
forma de selecc
ao do motor para uma aplicacao concreta, considerando varias hipoteses: com
ou sem gerador acoplado ao veio, com helice de passo fixo ou de passo controlavel.

DO MOTOR
4.4. SELECC
AO

81

Alguns fabricantes anunciam um valor de Normal Continuous Rating (N CR) cerca de


10% inferior ao valor M CR e a uma velocidade inferior, ao qual corresponde um desempenho
optimizado do motor em termos de consumo e de necessidades de manutencao. Pode ainda
definir-se uma Service Continuous Rating (SCR) que, dependendo da poltica do armador,
podera ser igual ou n
ao do N CR indicado pelo fabricante do motor.
A diferenca entre a M CR e a SCR, ou, caso nao esteja definida, a N CR, da origem `
a
chamada margem do motor (M M ). A margem do motor e avaliada por,
MM =

M CR SCR
M CR

(4.3)

Valores tpicos desta margem de motor rondam os 10 a 15%. De notar que as margens de
servico e de motor surgem frequentemente combinadas numa so, a margem de servico, apesar
de as suas origens serem bem distintas.
Uma vez atribudas as margens de servico e de motor, a potencia instalada e calculada
por
PI (M CR) = PDtrial

1 + MS
(1 M M ) s

(4.4)

Nas provas de mar, nas condic


oes de imersao e caimento contratuais, a potencia absorvida
pelo helice, `
a velocidade de rotac
ao correspondente ao M CR, deve ser igual `a potencia SCR,
deduzida das perdas na linha de veios. Como objectivo das provas, devera garantir-se que a
combinacao motor e helice permite que o anvio atinja a velocidade requerida sem ultrapassar
os limites impostos pelo diagrama de carga.
Sem prejuzo do exposto, o forte aumento do preco dos combustveis nos anos mais recentes faz com que os custos operacionais dos navios sejam cada vez mais dominados por este
factor. Neste contexto, pode ser uma hipotese de trabalho interessante a opcao por um motor
com a mesma potencia, a potencia calculada como necessaria para a propulsao nas condicoes contratuais, mas com um cilindro extra. Esta tecnica, o chamado derating do motor,
exigindo maior valor de investimento inicial, pode apresentar um perodo de retorno atractivo. Wettstein e Brown apresentam as principais motivacoes para aplicacao desta tecnica e
discutem quatro casos de aplicac
ao numa publicacao da Wartsilla, includa no Apendice E.

82

CAPITULO 4. INSTALAC
OES
PROPULSORAS

Bibliografia
[1] Jose P. Saraiva Cabral. Arquitectura Naval, estabilidade, c
alculos, avaria e bordo livre.
Centro do Livro Brasileiro, 1979.
[2] Eric C. Tupper. Introduction to Naval Arquitecture. Elsevier, 2004.
[3] Volker Bertram. Practical Ship Hydrodynamics. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000.
[4] Jorge dAlmeida. Arquitectura Naval - o dimensionamento do navio. Prime Books, 2009.
[5] Editor Doug Woodyard. Pounders Marine Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines. ButterworthHeinemann, 2004.
[6] H. Schneekluth and V. Bertram. Ship Design for Efficiency and Economy. ButterworthHeinemann, 1998.

83

Indice Remissivo
de propulsao, 61
de resistencia, 26
em sobrecarga, 62

Auto-propuls
ao, 62
Boca, 3
Bolbo de proa, 22
Bordo livre, 3
Calado, 3
Camada limite, 24
Cavitacao, 37, 53, 60
Coeficiente
de avanco, 46
de bin
ario, 46
de Burrill, 55
de carga do helice, 44
de deduc
ao da esteira, 63
de deduc
ao da forca propulsiva, 63
de forca propulsiva, 46
de resistencia, 28
de resistencia total, 13
Comprimento
entre perpendiculares, 3
fora a fora, 3
na linha de
agua, 3
Consumo especfico de combustvel, 69
Custos
de manutenc
ao, 68
de operac
ao, 68, 69
totais, 68
Diagrama
de Burrill, 55
em aguas livres, 45, 46
Dual-fuel, 74
Engrenagens redutoras, 71
Ensaios
de auto-propuls
ao, 62
de cavitac
ao, 56
de helices em
aguas livres, 45

Formula
de Alexander, 5
de atrito da ATTC, 25
de atrito da ITTC, 25
de Keller, 59
do atrito de Froude, 24
do atrito de Hugues, 30
Forca
de compensacao, 62
de inercia, 15
de origem hidrodinamica, 16
gravtica, 16
propulsiva, 42
Helice, 35
rendimento ideal, 45
a ponto fixo, 57
bloqueado, 57
com tubeira, 36
contrarotativo, 37
de passo controlavel, 37, 67, 70, 71
de passo fixo, 37, 67, 70, 71, 78
diametro do, 58
distribuicao radial de pressao, 59
geometria do, 40, 59
ndice de qualidade do, 47
interaccao com o casco, 60
n
umero de pas do, 59
projecto do, 40
razao de area expandida, 41
supercavitante, 37
Metodo
de Hughes/Prohaska, 28
84

INDICE REMISSIVO
Geosim, 28, 31
Hughes-Prohaska, 29
ITTC 1957, 28
ITTC 1978, 28, 30
Margem
de servico, 79
do motor, 81
Maximum Continuous Rating, 79
N
umero
de cavitac
ao, 54
de Froude, 17, 23
de Reynolds, 18, 27, 46
Navio
coeficientes de forma, 3
de passageiros, 68, 74, 76, 77
deslocamento do, 3
dimens
oes do, 3
linhas de bordo livre do, 3
planos do, 1
quebra-gelos, 68, 77
tipo ferry, 37, 38, 40, 68, 69, 74
tipo RoRo, 68, 74
tipo shuttle tanker, 74
Normal Continuous Rating, 81
PC-cluster, 10
Pontal, 3
Potencia
absorvida, 65
de reboque, 13
efectiva, 13, 62
efectiva do motor, 65
propulsiva, 63
Power Take Off/In, 71
Profundidade restrita, 23, 32
Propulsao
azimutal, 35, 38, 77
cicloidal, 35, 39
diesel-electrica, 74
diesel-mec
anica, 69
por jacto de
agua, 35, 37
por motor electrico, 74
Provas
de mar, 34
de potencia, 121, 133
de velocidade, 121, 133

85
Rendimento
aguas livres, 46
da linha de veios, 65
do casco, 64
do helice, 46
rotativo relativo, 64
Resistencia, 13
adicional, 31
aerodinamica, 19
de atrito, 24
de onda, 19
decomposicao, 18
dos apendices, 32
viscosa de pressao, 25
Rugosidade do casco, 28, 30, 31
Serie sistematica
60, 33
de helices, 47, 58
de querenas, 32
de Taylor, 33
de Wageningen, 48
Semelhanca
cinematica, 15
dinamica, 15
geometrica, 14
leis da, 14
Service Continuous Rating, 81
Sobrealimentadores, 70
Tanque
de cavitacao, 56
de Froude, 7
de reboque, 26
Unifuel, 70
Velocidade
da querena, 22
de aproximacao, 42
de rotacao do helice, 59
economica, 22
Vibracoes, 42, 53, 5860, 77

86

INDICE REMISSIVO

ndice
Ape

Procedimento Recomendado pela


ITTC para a Previsao do
Desempenho de Navios Baseada nos
Ensaios de Propulsao em Modelos

87

88

BASEADA NOS ENSAIOS DE PROPULSAO

APENDICE
A. PREVISAO

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 1 of 31

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

CONTENTS
1.

PURPOSE OF PROCEDURE

2.

DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
2.1.1
Introduction for the Original 1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Method
for Single Screw Ships
2.1.2
Introduction for the 1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Method as Modified
in 1984 and 1987
2.2
Model Tests
2.3
Analysis of the Model Test Results
2.4
Full Scale Predictions
2.4.1
Total Resistance of Ship
2.4.2
Scale Effect Corrections for Propeller Characteristics.
2.4.3
Full Scale Wake and Operating Condition of Propeller
2.4.4
Model-Ship Correlation Factors
2.5
Analysis of Speed Trial Results
2.6
Input Data
2.7
Output Data
2.8
Test Example

3.

PARAMETERS
3.1
3.2
3.3

4.

VALIDATION
4.1
4.2

5.

Parameters to be Taken into Account


Recommendations of ITTC for Parameters
Input Data
Uncertainty Analysis
Comparison With Full Scale Results

ITTC- 1978 PERFORMANCE PREDICTION METHOD (COMPUTER CODE)

COMMENTS OF PROPULSION COMMITTE OF 22nd ITTC


In its original form the ITTC 1978 Performance Prediction Method offers a valuable and reasonably accurate prediction tool for reference purposes and conventional ships.
Edited by 22nd ITTC QS Group 1999
15th ITTC 1978 pp388 402
17th ITTC 1984 pp326 - 333
18th ITTC 1987 pp266 - 273
Date

Approved
15th ITTC 1978, 17th ITTC 1984
th
and 18 ITTC 1987
Date

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 2 of 31

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Method


1.

PURPOSE OF PROCEDURE

more convenient use of the program. These


extensions are summarized as follows.

The method predicts rate of revolution and


delivered power of a ship from model results.

(1)

Inclusion of prediction of propeller revolutions on the basis of power identity.

2.

DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE

(2)

Temporary measure for wTS > wTM

2.1.1 Introduction for the Original 1978


ITTC Performance Prediction Method
for Single Screw Ships

(3)

Extension to twin screw ships

(4)

Addition of speed trial data

The method predicts rate of revolution and


delivered power of a ship from model results.
The procedure used can be described as follows:

(5)

Extension for the case of a stock propeller in the self-propulsion test

(6)

Adaptation to the input of the nondimensional resistance coefficient and


self-propulsion factors.

The viscous and the residuary resistance of the


ship are calculated from the model resistance
tests assuming the form factor to be independent of scale and speed.
The ITTC standard predictions of rate of revolutions and delivered power are obtained fromthe full scale propeller characteristics. These
characteristics have been determined by correcting the model values for drag scale effects
according to a simple formula. Individual
corrections then give the final predictions.
2.1.2 Introduction for the 1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Method as
Modified in 1984 and 1987
The 1978 ITTC Method developed to predict the rate of propeller revolutions and delivered power of a single screw ship from the
model test results has been extended during the
last two terms of the ITTC for a better and

In recent years, many member organizations


have been asked by their customers for a general description of the method, viz., model test
and analysis of their results, calculation of fullscale power and rate of propeller revolutions,
and the model-ship correlation factors used.
Considering the above, it was decided to prepare a user's manual of the 1978 ITTC method
which includes all of the extensions and modifications made.
2.2 Model Tests
Model tests required for a full scale comprise the resistance test, the self-propulsion test
and the propeller open-water test.
In the resistance test the model is towed at
speeds giving the same Froude numbers as for
the full scale ship, and the total resistance of
the model RTM is measured. The computer pro-

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 3 of 31

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

gram accepts either RTM in Newton, or in a nondimensional form of residuary resistance coefficient CR assuming the form factor 1 + k. In
the latter case, the friction formula used can
then be either of the ITTC 1957, Hughes,
Prandtl-Schlichting or Schnherr's formulae.
The form factor 1 + k is usually determined
from the resistance tests at low speed range or
by Prohaskas plot of CFM against Fn4
The ship model is not in general fitted with
bilge keels. In this case the total wetted surface
area of them is recorded and their frictional
resistance is added in calculating the full-scale
resistance of the ship.
In the self-propulsion test the model is
towed at speeds giving the same Froude numbers as for the full-scale ship. Generally a towing force FD is applied to compensate for the
difference between the model and the full-scale
resistance coefficient.
During the test, propeller thrust (TM), torque
(OM) and rate of propeller rotation (nM) are
measured.
In many cases, stock propellers are used
which are selected in view of the similarity in
diameter pitch and blade area to the full-scale
propeller. Then the diameter and the openwater characteristics of the stock propeller
have to be given as input data in the program.
In the open-water test, thrust, torque and rate of
revolutions are measured, keeping the rate of
revolutions constant whilst the speed of advance is varied so that a loading range of the
propeller is examined.
In the case when a stock propeller is used in
the self-propulsion test, both the stock propel-

Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

ler and the model similar to the full-scale propeller should be tested in open water.
2.3 Analysis of the Model Test Results
Resistance RTM measured in the resistance
tests is expressed in the non-dimensional form
C TM =

R TM

1
SV 2
2
This is reduced to residual resistance coefficient CR by use of form factor k,
viz.,
CR = CTM - CFM (1 + k)
Thrust, T, and torque Q, measured in the
self-propulsion tests are expressed in the nondimensional forms

K TM =

T
D 4 n 2

and

K QM =

Q
D 5 n 2

With KTM as input data, JTM and KQTM are read


off from the model propeller characteristics,
and the wake fraction
wTM = 1

J TM D M
V

and the relative rotative efficiency


K QTM
R =
K QM
are calculated. V is model speed.
The thrust deduction is obtained from
t=

T + FD RC
T

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 4 of 31

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

with

FD =

1
M S M V M2 [C FM (C FS + C F )]
2

where RC is the resistance corrected for differences in temperature between resistance and
self-propulsion tests:
RC =

(1 + k ).C FMC + C R
(1 + k ).C FM + C R

RTM

where CFMC is the frictional resistance coefficient at the temperature of the self-propulsion
test.
2.4 Full Scale Predictions
2.4.1

Total Resistance of Ship

The total resistance coefficient of a ship


without bilge keels is
CTS =(1+k)CFS +CR+ CF +CAA

k
C F = 105 S
LWL

Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

3
0.6410 3

where the roughness kS=150.10-6 m and


- CAA, is the air resistance
A
C AA = 0.001. T
S
If the ship is fitted with bilge keels the total
resistance is as follows:
C TS =

S + S BK
[(1 + k )C FS + C F ] + C R + C AA
S

2.4.2 Scale Effect Corrections for Propeller


Characteristics.

The characteristics of the full scale propeller are calculated from the model characteristics as follows
K TS = K TM K T

Where
-k

is the form factor determined from the


resistance test

- CFS is the frictional coefficient of the ship


according to the ITTC-1957 ship-model
correlation line
- CR is the residual resistance calculated from
the total and frictional coefficients of the
model in the resistance tests:
C R = C TM (1 + k )C FM
-. C F is the roughness allowance

K QS = K QM K Q
where

K T = C D .0.3.

P c.Z
D D

K Q = C D .0.25.

c.Z
D

The difference in drag coefficient C D is


C D = C DM C DS
where

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 5 of 31

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

C DM

nS =

t 0.04
5

= 2 1 + 2

c (R ) 16 (R ) 23

nco
nco

C DS

(1 wTS )V S

2.5

In the formulae listed above c is the chord


length, t is the maximum thickness, P/D is the
pitch ratio and Rnco is the local Reynolds number at x=0.75. The blade roughness kp is put
kp=30.10-6 m. Rnco must not be lower than 2.105
at the open-water test.

PDS = 2D 5 n S3

the effective power:


PE = C TS 1 / 2 .V S3 .S .10 3

the total efficiency:


P
D = DS
PE

the hull efficiency:


1 t
H =
1 wTS

C TS
KT
S
=
.
J 2 2 D 2 (1 t )(1 wTS )2
With this K T / J 2 as input value the full
scale advance coefficient JTS and the torque
coefficient KQTS are read off from the full scale
propeller characteristics and the following
quantities are calculated

2.4.4

(kW)

(N)

(Nm)

where 0.04 is to take account of rudder effect.


The load of the full scale propeller is obtained
from

10 3

- the torque of the propeller:


K QTS
QS =
D 5 n S2 :

The full scale wake is calculated from the


model wake, wTM, and the thrust deduction, t:

(1 + k )C FS + C F
(1 + k )C FM

K QTS

- the thrust of the propeller:


K
2
TS = T2 . J TS .D 4 .n S2
J

- the rate of revolutions:

(r/s)

J TS D

2.4.3 Full Scale Wake and Operating Condition of Propeller

wTS = (t + 0.04 ) + (wTM t 0.04 )

Revision
00

- the delivered power:

and
t
c

= 21 + 2 1.89 + 1.62. log


c
kp

Effective Date
1999

(kW)

Model-Ship Correlation Factors

Trial prediction of rate of revolutions and delivered power with CP - CN corrections


if CHOICE=0 the final trial predictions will be
calculated from
nT = CN.nS

(r/s)

for the rate of revolutions and


PDT = CP.PDS
(kW)

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 6 of 31

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

2.5 Analysis of Speed Trial Results

for the delivered power.


Trial prediction with CFC - wC corrections

The analysis of trials data is performed in a


way consistent with performance prediction but
starting PD and n backwards, i.e. from

If CHOICE=1 the final trial predictions are


calculated as follows:
C TS + C FC
KT
S
=
.
J 2 2 D 2 (1 t )(1 wTS + wC )2

KQ =

JS is obtained from the full-scale open-water


characteristics KQ JS then

With this KT/J as input value, JTS and KQTS


are read off from the full scale propeller characteristics and
nT =

(1 wTS

+ wC )V S
J TS .D

PDT = 2 . .D 5 .n T3 .

K QTS

RM

wT = 1 J S .n.D / V
Further from KT JS characteristics

(r/s)

.10 3

T = K T . .n D 4
CT =

(kW)

If CHOICE = 2 the shaft rate of rotation is predicted on the basis of power identity as follows.

1000.C P .PDS
=
3
T 2 . .D V S (1 wTS )

K Q0

KQ
=
J J

. RM
T

2.6 Input Data

Input data sheets are given in ENCL.1


2.7 Output Data

n S = V S (1 wTS ) / J TS .D
nT = C NP n S

T .(1 t )
1
. .V .S
2

Then we obtain
C FC = C T C TS
wC = wTS wT

Trial prediction with CNP correction

KQ

PD
. RM .10
2 . .D 5 .n 3

Output data I gives ITTC Standard Prediction with CP = CN = 1.0, together with
model and full scale propulsive coefficients (ENCL. 4).
Output data II gives the final ship prediction (ENCL. 5).

ITTC Recommended
Procedures

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 7 of 31

Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

Effective Date
1999

propeller diameter

D = 8.2m

Output data III gives the analysis of the


speed trial results (ENCL. 6).

Revision
00

Calculations were carried out with the


ITTC Trial Prediction Test Program with:
2.8 Test Example

To illustrate the program a prediction was


made for a hypothetical ship with the following
particulars:
length between
perpendiculars
Lpp = 251.5m
breadth
B = 41.5m
draft
T = 16.5m

CP = 1.01
CN = 1.02
The input data were taken as shown in
ENCL. 1 and the printout of the input data and
results are given in ENCL. 4 - 6.

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 8 of 31
Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 9 of 31
Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 10 of 31
Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 11 of 31
Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 12 of 31

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

3.

PARAMETERS

3.1 Parameters to be Taken into Account

Froude scaling law


ship-model correlation line ,friction line
kinematic viscosity
mass density
blockage
form factor
propeller loading
hull roughness
see also 3.3 Input Data
3.2 Recommendations of ITTC for Parameters
see 4.9-03-03-01.1 Propulsion Test
1987 p.263 In using the 1978 ITTC Method
it is recommended that the rudder(s) be fitted
in hull resistance experiments for barge type
forms where inflow velocity is relatively
large.

3.3 Input Data

All data are either non-dimensional or


given in SI-units.
Every data card defines several parameters
which are required by the program; each of
these parameters must be input according to a
specific format.
"I" format means that the value is to be input
without a decimal point and packed to the
right of the specified field.

Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

"F" format requires the data to be input with a


decimal point; the number can appear
anywhere in the field indicated.
"A" format indicates that alphanumeric characters must be entered in the appropriate
card columns.
The card order of the data deck must follow the order in which they are described
below.
Card No. 1 Identifications
Card
column
1- 8
9-16

Form
at
A
A

17-24

CC
Definition
Symbol
Project No.
Ship model No
Propeller model No.
-

25-32

SCALE Scale ratio

Card No. 2 Ship particulars


Card
column
9-16
17-24
25-32
33-40
41-48

Format
F
F
F
F
F

CC
Symbol
LWL
TF
TA
B
S

49-56
157-64

F
F

DISW
SBK

65-72

AT

72-80

C3

Definition
Length of waterline
Draft, forward
Draft, aft
Breadth
Wetted surface, without bilge keels
Displacement
Wetted surface of
bilge keels
Transverse projected
area of ship above
waterline
Form factor determined at resistance
tests

7.5 02
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ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

Card No. 3 Particulars of full scale


Card
column
8- 8

Format
I

CC
Symbol
NOPROP

15-16

NPB

17-24
25-32
33-40

F
F
F

DP
PD075
CH075

41-48

TMO75

49-56

RNCHM

Definition
Number of propellers
should be 1 since method
is valid only for single
screw ships
Number of propeller
blades
Diameter of propeller
Pitch ratio at x=0.75
Chord length of Propeller
blade at x=0.75
Maximum blade thickness of propeller at
x=0.75
Reynolds number at
open-water test based on
chord length and local
velocity
.0.75

V = VA 1 +

Card No. 4 General


Format

2.- 4

7- 8

9-16
17-24
25-30

F
F
F

31-36

36-41
48-48

F
I

CC Symbol

Definition

NOJ

Number of J-values in the


open-water characteristics
(J NOJ 10)
NOSP
Number of speeds in the
self- propulsion tests
(NOSPmax=10)
RHOM Density of tank water
RHOS Density of sea water
TEMM Temperature of resistance
test
TEMP Temperature at selfpropulsion test TEMS Temperature of sea water
CHOICE CHOICE=0 C C
P
N
trial corr.
CHOICE==1:

C FC wC trial corr.
49-56

57-64
65-72

F
F

72-80

CP

Trial correction for shaft


power.
Trial correction for rpm
Trial correction for C F

CN
DELT
CFC
DELTWC Trial correction for w

Revision
00

Mean values of the trial correction figures,


Cp and CN can be obtained from the trial test
material of the individual institutions by running the ITTC Trial Prediction Test Program.
If an institution wishes to give predictions
with a certain margin the input CP-CN-values
must be somewhat higher than these mean
values.
Cards Nos. 5-14 Result of resistance and selfpropulsion tests and model propeller characteristics.
Card
column
1- 8
9-16

Format
F
F

CC
Symbol
VS
RTM

17-24
25-32

F
F

THM
QM

33-40
41-48

F
F

NM
FD

49-56

ADVC

57-64

KT

65-72

KQ

at x-0.75.
Card
column

Effective Date
1999

Definition
Ship speed in knots
Resistance of ship
model
Thrust of propeller
Torque of propeller:QM:100
Rate of revolution
Skin friction correction force
Advance coefficient,.
open water
Thrust coefficient,
open water
Torque coefficient,
open water

The J-margin in the open-water characteristics must be large enough to cover the
model and full scale J-values with some margin.
Input data sheets are given in ENCL. 1.

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

4.

VALIDATION

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 14 of 31
Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

(13th 1972 pp.155-180) Empirical Power


Prediction Factor ( 1+X )

4.1 Uncertainty Analysis


not yet available

2) Propeller Dynamics Comparative Tests


(13th 1972 pp.445-446 )

4.2 Comparison With Full Scale Results

3) Comparative Calculations with the ITTC


Trial Prediction Test Programme
(14th 1975 Vol.3 pp.548-553)

The data that led to t ITTC-78 method can


be found in the following ITTC proceedings:
1) Proposed Performance Prediction Factors
for Single Screw Ocean Going Ships

4) Factors Affecting Model Ship Correlation


(17th 1984 Vol. 1, pp274-291)

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 15 of 31

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

5.
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

Effective Date
1999

ITTC- 1978 PERFORMANCE PREDICTION METHOD (COMPUTER CODE)


****************************************************************************************************
*
*
*
1978 ITTC PERFORMANCE PREDICTION METHOD FOR SINGLE SCREW *
*
SHIPS
*
*
(REVISED 1983 TO INCLUDE TRIAL ANALYSIS AND TWIN SCREW SHIPS* *
*
*
****************************************************************************************************
DECLARATIONS
COMMON /A/ FILE(2),MODELS(2), MODELP(2), LPP,LWL,TF,TA,B,S,
*
SCALE,RNCHM,DISW,NOPROP,NPB,DP,PD075,CH075.
*
TM075,C3,SBK,AT,CP,CN,DELCF,DELWC,KSI,KPI,
*
RHOM,RHOS,TEMM,TEMP,TEMS,VS(10),RTM(10),THM(10),
*
QM(10),NM(10),ADVC(10),KT(10),KQ(10),THD(10),
*
FD(10),IC,NOJ,NOSP,PI

C
COMMON /B/ ETARM(10),ETAO(10),ETAH(10),ETAD(10),AWTM(10),
*
AWTS(10),ACFM(10),ACTM(10),AVS(10),AVM(10),
*
ATS(10),AQS(10),APDS(10),APE(10),APDT(10),
*
ANS(10),ANT(10),BPDT(10),BNT(10),KTSJ2(10),
*
KQS(10),KTS(10),ACTS(10)
DIMENSION FILE1(2),MODLS1(2),MODLP1(2)
C

500
501
502
503
504
600

Revision
00

REAL
LPP, LWL, KS1, KS, KP1, KP, NM1, NM, KT, KQ, KTM, KQ0, JTM,
*
KTSJ2, JTS, NS, KQTS, KTS, KQS, KQM
DATA
TRIAL /TRIA/
FORMAT(6A4,F8.0)
FORMAT(10F8.0)
FORMAT(2I4,9F8.0)
FORMAT(2I4,2F8.0,3F6.0,I6,4F8.0)
FORMAT(9F8.0)
FORMAT(/5X,NUMBER OF ADV,KT AND KQ POINTS =,15/
*
5X,NUMBER OF SPEEDS
=,15/
*
5X,NUMBER OF SPEEDS OR ADVC POINTS >10/)

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

C
C
C

CONSTANTS
G=9.81
PI=3.14159
KP1=30.0
KS1=150.0
KS=1.5E-4
KP=0.3E-4

C
C
READ INPUT DATA
C
1000 CONTINUE
READ(5,500,END=999) FILE,MODELS,MODELP,SCALE
READ(5,501) LPP,LWL,TF,TA,B,S,DISW,SBK,AT,C3
READ(5,502) NOPROP,NPB,DP,PD075,CH075,TM075,RNCHM
READ(5,503) NOJ,NOSP,RHOM,RHOS,TEMM,TEMP,TEMS
*
IC,CP,CN,DELCF,DELWC
NMAX=MAX0(NOJ,NOSP)
IF(FILE(1).EQ.TRIAL) GOTO 100
READ(5,504)(VS(I),RTM(I),THM(I),QM(I),NM(I),FD(I),
*
ADVC(I),KT(I),KQ(I);I=1,NMAX)
C
C
C

WRITE INPUT DATA


CALL OUTPUT(1)

C
C
C

CHECK

IF(NOJ.LE.10.AND.NOSP.LE.10) GOTO 2
WRITE(6,600) NOJ.NOSP
GOTO 1000
CONTINUE

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 16 of 31
Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

C
C
C

RECALCULATION OF INPUT DATA

....3

C
C
C

CORRECTION OF PROPELLER CHARACTERISTICS

C
C

DO 3 I=1,NOJ
KT(I)=KT(I)*0.1
KQ(I)=KQ(I)*0.01
CONTINUE
DELCF=DELCF*0.001
RNCHM=RNCHM*100000.
VISCP=((0.585E-3*(TEMP-12.0)-0.03361)*(TEMP-12.0)+
*
1.2350)*1.0E-6
VISCM=((0.585E-3*(TEMM-12.0)-0.0361)*(TEMM-12.0)+
*
1.2350)*1.0E-6
VISCS=((0.659E-3*(TEMS-1.0)-0.05076)*(TEMS-1.0)+
*
1.7688)*1.0E-6

CDM=2.0*(1.0+2.0*TM075/CH075)*(0.044/RNCHM**0.16667*
5.0/RNCHM**0.66667)
CDS=2.0*(1.0+2.0*TM075/CH075)/(1.89+1.62*ALOG10(CH075
*
/KP))**2.5
DCD=CDM-CDS
DKT=-0.3*DCD*PD075*CH075*NPB/DP
DKQ=0.25*DCD*CH075*NPB/DP
DO 4 I=1,NOJ
KTS(I)=KT(I)-DKT
KQS(I)=KQ(I)-DKQ
KTSJ2(I)=KTS(I)/ADVC(I)**2
CONTINUE
DO 5 I=1,NOSP
VS1=VS(I)*0.15444
VM1=VS1/SQRT(SCALE)
NM1=NM(I)

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 17 of 31
Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 18 of 31

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

C
C

Effective Date
1999

CALCULATE ROUGHNESS ALLOWANCE AND SHIP TOTAL RESISTANCE


RNLP=LWL*VM1/(VISCP*SCALE)
RNLM=LWL*VM1/(VISCM*SCALE)
RNLS=LWL*VS1/VISCS
CFMC=0.075/(ALOG10(RNLP)-2)**2
CFM=0.075/(ALOG10(RNLM)-2)**2
CFS=0.075/(ALOG10(RNLS)-2)**2
CTM=RTM(I)*SCALE**3/(0.5*RHOM*VS1**2*S)
CR=CTM-(1.0+C3)*CFM
RTMC=RTM(I)*(1.0+C3)*CFMC+CR)/((1.0+C3)*CFM+CR)
THD(I)=(THM(I)+FD(I)-RTMC)/THM(I)
DELCF=(105.0*(KS/LWL)**0.33333-0.64)*0.001
CAA=0.001*AT/S
CTS=((1.0+C3)*CFS*DELCF)*(S+SBK)/S+CR+CAA

C
C
C

MODEL PROPULSIVE COEFFICIENTS


FNOP=NPROP
KTM=(THM(I)/FNOP)/(RHOM*(DP/SCALE)**4*NM1*NM1)
KQM=(QM(I)*0.01/FNOP)/(RHOM*(DP/SCALE)**5*NM1*NM1)
JTM=APOL(0,KT,ADVC,NOJ,KTM,IX)
KQ0=APOL(0,ADVC,KQ,NOJ,JTM,IX)
WTM=1.0-JTM*DP*NM1/(VM1*SCALE)

C
C
C

FULL SCALE WAKE


5
6
7

C
C
C

SAVE AREAS

8
C
C

IF(JRUDER) 6,5,6
WTS=(THD(I)+0.04)+(WTM-THD(I)-0.04)*((1.0+C3)*CFS+DELCF)/
*
((1.0+C3)*CFM)
GOTO 7
WTS=(THD(I) )+(WTM-THD(I) )*((1.0+C3)*CFS+DELCF)/
*
((1.0+C3)*CFM)
GOTO 7
IF(WTS.GT.WTM) WTS=WTM
ETARM(I)=KQ0/KQM

ACTM(I)=CTM
ACFM(I)=CFM
AWTM(I)=WTM
AWTS(I)=WTS
ACTS(I)=CTS
AVS(I)=VS1
AVM(I)=VM1
CONTINUE
ITTC STANDARD PREDICTION

Revision
00

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

C
CALL IP
C
C
C

RETURN FOR NEW INPUT


DO 20 I=1,2
FILE1(I)=FILE(I)
MODLS1(I)=MODELS(I)
20

MODELP1(I)=MODELP(I)
SCALE1=SCALE
GOTO 1000

C
100 CONTINUE
DO 110 I=1,2
FILE(I)=FILE1(I)
MODELS(I)=MODLS1(I)
MODELP(I)=MODLP1(I)
SCALE=SCALE1

110
C

CALL ANLSYS
C
C
C
C

RETURN FOR NEW INPUT

GOTO 1000
999 STOP
END
C

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 19 of 31
Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 20 of 31

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

C
C
*****************************************************************************************************
***
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

OUTPUT IS USED FOR PRINTING INPUT DATA AND RESULTS


IOUT= 1
2
3

INPUT DATA IS PRINTED


RESULT PAGE 1
RESULT PAGE 2

*****************************************************************************************************
***
C
SUBROUTINE OUTPUT(IOUT)

COMMON /A/ FILE(2),MODELS(2),MODELP(2),LPP,LWL,TF,TA,B,S


*
SCALE,RNCHM,DISW,NOPROP,NPB,DP,PD075,CH075,
*
TM075,C3,SBK,AT,CP,CN,DELCFC,DELWC,KSI,KPI,
*
RHOM,RHOS,TEMM,TEMP,TEMS,VS(10),RTM(10);THM(10),
*
QM(10),NM(10),ADVC(10),KT(10),KQ(10),THD(10),
*
FD(10),IC,NOJ,NOSP,PI
C
COMMON /B/ ETARM(10),ETA0(10),ETAH(10),ETAD(10),AWTM(10),
*
AWTS(10),ACFM(10),ACTM(10),AVS(10),AVM(10),
*
ATS(10),AQS(10),APDS(10),APE(10),APDT(10),
*
ANS(10),ANT(10),BPDT(10),BNT(10),KTSJ2(10),
*
KQS(10),KTS(10),ACTS(10)
C
REAL

LPP,LWL,KS1,KS,KP1,KP,NM1,NM,KT,KQ,KTM,KQ0,JTM,
KTSJ2,JTS,NS,KQTS,KTS,KQS
DIMENSION TEXT (16)
DATA TEXT /INPU,T DA,TA , ,
*
OUTP,UT D,ATA ,1 ,
*
OUTP,UT D,ATA..,2 ;
*
`TRIA`,`L AN`,LYS`,S `/
600 FORMAT(1,19X,1978 ITTC PERFORMANCE PREDICTION,10X,
*
ENCL:/
C?? *
20X,METHOD
,8X,
*
REPORT:/20X,4A4/)

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

602

603

604

605

601 FORMAT(5X,IDENTIFICATION
:,18X,SHIP://
*
5X,PROJECT
:,2A4,
*
10X,LENGTH PP
:,F8.2, (M)/
*
5X,SHIP MODEL
:,2A4,
*
10X,LENGTH WL
:,F8.2, (M)/
*
5X,PROPELLER MODEL :,2A4,
*
10X,DRAFT FWD
:,F8.2, (M)/
*
5X,SCALE FACTOR
:,F8.2,
*
10X,DRAFT AFT
:,F8.2, (M)/
*
43X,BREADTH
:,F8.2, (M)/
*
5X,PROPELLER:,
*
28X,WETTED SURFACE :,F8.0, (M**2)/
*
43X,DISPLACEMENT
:,F8.0, (M**3))
FORMAT(5X,NUMBER OF PROPELLERS:,I8/
*
5X,NUMBER OF BLADES
:,I8,
*
6X,FRICTION COEFFICIENT CF/
*
5X,DIAMETER
:,F8.3, (M),
*
2X,CALCULATED ACCORDING TO ITTC-57/
*
5X,PITCH RATIO 0.75R
:,F8.4,
*
6X,FORM FACTOR :,F6.3, (BASED ON ITTC-57)/)
FORMAT(5X,HULL ROUGHN.*10**6
:,F6.1, (M),
*
2x,BILGE KEEL AREA
:,F6.1, (M**2),
*
5X,PROPELLER BLADE ROUGHN.*10**6:,F6.1, (M),
*
2X,PROJ.AREA ABOVE WL. :,F6.1, (M**2)/)
FORMAT(5X,CHORD LENGTH OF PROP.BLADE AT X=0.75:,
*
F7.4, (M)/
*
5X,THICKNESS OF PROP.BLADE
AT X=0.75:,
*
F7.4 (M)/)
FORMAT(5X,DENSITY OF WATER (TANK
) :F7.1,
*
(KG/M**3)/
*
DENSITY OF WATER (SEA
) :F7.1,
*
(KG/M**3)/
*
5X,TEMP. OF WATER (RESISTANCE TEST) :F7.2,
*
(CENTIGRADES)/
*
5X,TEMP. OF WATER (SELF PROP. TEST) :F7.2,
*
(CENTIGRADES)/
*
5X,TEMP. OF WATER (SEA
) :F7.2,
*
(CENTIGRADES)//
*
5X,MODEL TEST RESULTS:,
*
30X,OPEN WATER CHARACT.;/
*
54X,RNC :F5.2,*10**5/)

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 21 of 31
Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 22 of 31
Effective Date
1999

606 FORMAT(5X,SHIP RESIS- FRICT. THRUST TORQUE RATE OF ,


*
2X,ADVANCE THRUST TORQUE/
*
20X,REVS. RATIO COEFF. COEFF./
*
5X,KNOTS
N
N
N
NM
RPS ,
*
7X,J
10*KT
100*KQ/)
607 FORMAT(1X)
608 FORMAT(+,3X,F5.1,1X,F7.1,1X,F7.2,2X,2F7.1,F9.2)
609 FORMAT(+,49X,F10.3,F7.3,F8.3)
610 FORMAT(5X,SHIP MODEL://
*
8X,SPEED RES. COEFF. FRICT. COEFF. THRUST DED.,
*
2X,MEAN REL.ROT./
*
6X,VS
VM
TOTAL,32X, WAKE
EFFIC./
*
5X,KNOTS M/S
CTM*1000
CFM*1000,8X,TM,
*
7X,WTM
ETARM/)
611 FORMAT(4X,F5.1,F7.3,F8.3,6X,F7.3,7X,F7.3,3X,F7.3,F8.3)
612 FORMAT(/5x,ITTC STANDARD PREDICTION CP=CN=1.0 ://
*
5X,SPEED EFF. POWER DELIV. POWER RSATE OF REVS,
*
2X, THRUST TORQUE/
*
6X,VS,7X,PE,10X,PD,12X,N,10X,T,8X,Q/
*
5X,KNOTS,5X,KW,10X,KW,11X,RPS,9X,KN,
*
6X,KNM/)
613 FORMAT(4X,F5.1,F10.0,3X,F9.0,4X,F9.3,3X,F9.0,F8.0)
614 (FORMAT(/5X,SPEED TOT. EFF. PROP.EFF. HULL EFF. SHIP WAKE,
*
3X,OPEN WATER CHAR. FULL SCALE:/
*
5X,KNOTS ETAD
ETA0 ETAH,/X,WTS,
*
9X,J
10*KT
100*KQ/)
615 FORMAT(+,3X,F5.1,F8.3,3(3X,F7.3))
616 FORMAT(+,50X,3F7.3)
617 FORMAT(/5X,SHIP DELIVERED POWER
RATE OF REVS./
*
5X, SPEED -----------------------------------------------/
*
5X,KNOTS KW
HP
RPS
RPM/)
618 FORMAT(4X,F5.1,2X,2F8.0,3X,F7.3,F8.2)
619 FORMAT(/5X,SHIP TRIALS PREDICTION CP=,F7.3, CN=,F7.3)
620 FORMAT(/5X,SHIP TRIALS PREDICTION DELCFC*1000=,
*
F6.3, DELCW=,F6.3)
ITEX=ICUT*4-4
WRITE(6,600) (TEXT(ITEX+1),I=1,4)
WRITE(6,601) FILE,LPP,MODELS,LWL,MODELP,TF,SCALE,TA,B,S,DISW
WRITE(6,602) NOPROP,NPB,DP,PD075,C3
C
GOTO(10,20,30,40) , IOUT

Revision
00

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 23 of 31

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

C
C
C

Effective Date
1999

INPUT DATA IS LISTED


10 CONTINUE
WRITE(6,603) KS1,SBK,KP1,AT
WRITE(6,604) CH075,TM075
WRITE(6,605) RHOM,RHOS,TEMM,TEMP,TEMS,RNCHM
WRITE(6,606)
NMAX=MAX0(NOJ,NOSP)
DO 1 I=1,NMAX
WRITE(6,607)
IF(I. LE. NOSP) WRITE(6,608) VS(I);RTM(I);FD(I),THM(I),
QM(I),NM(I)
IF(I. LE.NOJ) WRITE(6,609)
ADVC(I),KT(I),KQ(I)
1 CONTINUE
RETURN

C
C
C

RESULTS PAGE 1
20 CONTINUE
WRITE(6,610)
DO 21 I=1,NOSP
CFM=ACFM(I)*1000.0
CTM=ACTM(I)*1000.0
WRITE(6,611) VS(I),AVM(I),CTM,CFM,THD(I),AWTM(I),ETARM(I)
21 CONTINUE
WRITE(6,612)
DO 22 i=1,NOSP
WRITE(6,613) VS(I),APE(I),APDS(I),ANS(I),ATS(I),AQS(I)
22 CONTINUE
WRITE(6,614)
DO 23 i=1,NMAX
WRITE(6,607)
IF(I.LE.NOSP) WRITE(6,615)
VS(I),ETAD(I),ETA0(I),ETAH(I);
AWTS(I)
XKTS=KTS(I)*10.0
XKQS=KQS(I)*100.0
IF(I.LE.NOSP) WRITE(6,616)
ADVC(I),XKTS,XKQS
23 CONTINUE
RETURN

Revision
00

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

C
C
C

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 24 of 31
Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

RESULTS PAGE 3

30 CONTINUE
DCFC=DELCFC*1000.0
IF(IC.EQ.1) WRITE(6,620)DCFC,DELWC
IF(IC.NE.1) WRITE
(6,619) CP,CN
WRITE(6,617)
DO 31 I=1,NOSP
WRITE(6,618)VS(I),APDT(I),BPDT(I),ANT(I),BNT(I)
31 CONTINUE
....40 RETURN
END
C
C
*****************************************************************************************************
***
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

IRAT= 0
=1
X
=
Y
=
N
=
EX
=
IFEL =

INTERPOLATION WITH A 2:ND DEGREE POLYNOMIAL


INTERPOLATION WITH A RATIONAL FUNCTION OF 2:ND DEGREE
ARGUMENT ARRAY
VALUE ARRAY
NUMBER OF ARGUMENTS
ARGUMENT
ERROR RETURN CODE

*****************************************************************************************************
***
C
REAL FUNCTION APOL(IRAT,X,Y,N,EX,IFEL)
DIMENSION X(1),Y(1)
C
C
C

CHECK NUMBER OF POINTS > 2


IFEL=0
IF(X(1).GT.X(N)) GOTO 2
IF(X(1).GT.EX.OR.X(N).LT.EX) GOTO 7
DO 1 I=1,N
L=1
IF(EX-X(I)) 4,4,1
1 CONTINUE
GOTO 4
2 CONTINUE
IF(X(1).LT.EX.OR.X(N).GT.EX) GOTO 7
DO 3 I=1,N
L=I
IF(EX-X(I)) 3,4,4

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

3 CONTINUE
4 CONTINUE
M=2
IF(L.EQ.1) M=1
IF(L.EQ.3) M=3
LM=L-M
X1=X(LM+1)
X2=X(LM+2)
X3=X(LM+3)
Y1=Y(LM+1)
Y2=Y(LM+2)
Y3=Y(LM+3)
C
C
C

INTERPOL. 2:ND DEGREE POLYNOMIAL

6
C
C
C

7
8

X21=X2-X1
X31=X3-X1
X32=X3-X2
IF(IRAT.EQ.1) GOTO 6
C1=Y1
C2=(Y2-C1)/X21
C3=(Y3-C1-C2*X31)/(X31*X32)
APOL=C1+(EX-X1)*(C2+C3*(EX-X2))
RETURN
CONTINUE
INTERPOL. RAT. FUNCTION
Y21=Y2*X2*X2-Y1*X1*X1
Y32=Y3*X3*X3-Y2*X2*X2
A0=(Y32-X32*Y21/X21)/(X32*X31)
B0=(Y21/X21-A0*(X1+X2)
C0=((Y1-A0)*X1-B0)*X1
APOL=(C0/EX+B0)/EX+A0
RETURN
CONTINUE
WRITE(6,8)
FORMAT(/5X,INCREASE THE J-RANGE)
STOP
END

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 25 of 31
Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 26 of 31

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

C
C
C
C
C
C
C

Effective Date
1999

********************************************************************
ITTC PREDICTIONS
********************************************************************
SUBROUTINE IP
COMMON /A/ FILE(2),MODELS(2),MODELP(2),LPP,LWL,TF,TA,B,S,
*
SCALE,RNCHM,DISW,NOPROP,NPB,DP,PD075,CH075,
*
TM075,C3,SBK,AT,CP,CN,DELCFC,DELWC,KSI,KPI,
*
RHOM,RHOS,TEMM,TEMP,TEMS,VS(10),RTM(10),THM(10),
*
QM(10),NM(10),ADVC(10),KT(10),KQ(10),THD(10),
*
FD(10),IC,NOJ,NOSP,PI

C
COMMON /B/ ETARM(10),ETA0(10),ETAR(10),ETAD(10),AWTM(10),
*
AWTS(10),ACFM(10),ACTM(10),AVS(10),AVM(10),
*
ATS(10),AQS(10),APDS(10),APE(10),APDT(10),
*
ANS(10),ANT(10),BPDT(10),BNT(10),KTSJ2(10),
*
KQS(10),KTS(10),ACTS(10)
C
REAL LPP,LWL,KS1,KS,KPI,KP,NM1,NM,KT,KQ,KTM,KQD,JTM,
*
KTSJ2,JTS,NS,KQTS,KTJT2,KQOS,KQS,KTS
DO 3 I=1,NOSP
VS1=AVS(I)
CTS=ACTS(I)
WTS=AWTS(I)
C
C
C
C

CALCULATE THE FULL SCALE LOAD ADVANCE COEFF: AND


TORQUE COEFF.
FNOP=NOPROP
KTJT2=S*CTS*0.5/((DP*(1.0-WTS))**2*(1.0-THD(I))) /FNOP
JTS=APOL(1,KTSJ2,ADVC,NOJ,KT,KTJT2,IX)
KQOS=APOL(0,ADVC,KQS,NOJ,JTS,IX)

C
C
C

THE RATE OF REV. AND THE DELIVERED POWER


NS=(1.0-WTS)*VS1/(JTS*DP)
APDS(I)=2.0*PI*RHOS*DP**5*NS**3*KQOS/ETARM(I)*0.001
ANS(I)=NS

Revision
00

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 27 of 31

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

C
C
C

Effective Date
1999

THE THRUST AND TORQUE OF THE PROPELLER


ATS(I)=KTJT2*JTS**2*RHOS*DP**4*NS*NS*0.001
AQS(I)=KQOS*RHOS*DP**5*NS*NS/ETARM(I)*0.001

C
C
C

THE EFFECTIVE POWER, TOTAL AND HULL EFFICIENCY


APE(I)=CTS*0.5*RHOS*VS1**3*S*0.001
ETAD(I)=APE(I)/APDS(I)
ETAH(I)=(1.0-THD(I))/(1.0-WTS)
IF(IC.EQ.1) GOTO 1

C
IC1=IC-1
IF(IC1)10,11,12
C
C
C

TRIAL PREDICTION WITH CP-CN CORRECTIONS (ITTC1978 ORIGINAL)


10 ANT(I)=CN*NS
BNT(I)=ANT(I)*60.0
APDT(I)=CP*APDS(I)
BPDT(I)=1.36*APDT(I)
GOTO 100

C
C
C
C

TRIAL PREDICTION WITH CP-CN CORRECTIONS


CN BASED ON POWER IDENTITY
12

11

APDT(I)=CP*APDS(I)
BPDT(I)=1.36*APDT(I)
KQJ3T=1000.0*APDT(I)/(2.0*PI*RHOS*DP**2) /FNOP
KQJ3T=KQJ3T/(VS1**3*(1.0-WTS)**3)
KQ0J3=KQJ3T*ETARM(I)
JTS=APOL(1,KQSJ3,ADVC,NOJ,KQ0J3,IX)
NS=(1.0-WTS)*VS1/(JTS*DP)
ANT(I)=CN*NS
BNT(I)=ANT(I)*60.0
GOTO 100
CONTINUE

Revision
00

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

C
C
C
*

C
C
C

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 28 of 31
Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

TRIAL PREDICTION WITH DELCF-DELWC CORRECTIONS


KTJT2=S*(CTS+DELCFC)/(2.0*(1.0-THD(I))*(DP*
(1.0-(WTS-DELWC)))**2)
JTS=APOL(1,KTSJ2,ADVC,NOJ,KTJT2,IX)
KQOS=APOL(0,ADVC,KQS,NOJ,JTS,IX)
ANT(I)=(1.0-WTS+DELWC)*VS1/(JTS*DP)
BNT(I)=ANT(I)*60.0
APDT(I)=2.0*PI*RHOS*DP**5*ANT(I)**3*KQOS/ETARM(I)*0.001
BPDT(I)=1.36*APDT(I)
2 CONTINUE
ETAD(I)=KTJT2*JTS**3/(2.0*PI*KQOS)
3 CONTINUE
WRITE OUTPUT
CALL OUTPUT(2)
CALL OUTPUT(3)
RETURN

SUBROUTINE ANLSYS
C
C***********************************************************************************************************
****
C
*
C
*
ANALYSIS ACCORD1NG TO 1978 ITTC PREDICTION METHOD
C
*
C***********************************************************************************************************
****
C
C
DIMENSION VST(10),XNT(10),XPD(10),
*
THDT(10),WTMT(10),WTST(10),ETART(10),CRWT(10),
*
YNT(10),YPD(10),CPT(10),CNT(10),CNPT(10),ZNT(10)
*
DCFT(10),WTSS(10),DWT(10),DCFM(10),DWM(I0),
*
KQJ3(10)
C
COMMON /A/ FILE(2),MODELS(2),MODELP(2),LPP,LWL,TF,TA,B,S,
*
SCALE,RNCHM,DISW,NOPROP,NPB,DP,PD075,CH075,
*
TM075,C3,SBK,AT,CP,CN,DELCFC,DELWC,KS1,KP1,
*
RHOM, RHOS,TEMM,TEMP,TEMS,VS(10),RTM(10),THM(10),
*
QM(10),NM(10),ADVC(10),KT(10),KQ(10),THD(10),
*
RA(10),IC,NOJ,NOSP,PI

*
*
*

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 29 of 31

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

Effective Date
1999

C
COMMON /B/
*
*
*
*

ETARM(10), ETA0(10),ETAH(10),ETAD(10),AWTM(10),
AWTS(10),ACFM(10),ACTM(10),AVS(10),AVM(10),
ATS(10),AQS(10),APDS(10),APE(10),APDT(10),
ANS(10),ANT(10),BPDT(10),BNT(10),KTSJ2(10),
KQS(10),KTS(10),ACTS(10)

C
REAL LPP,LWL,KS1,KS,KP1,KP,NM1,NM,KT,KQ,KTM,KQ0,JTM,
*
KTSJ2,JTS,NS,KQTS,KTJT2,KQOS,KTS,KQS,KQM,
*
KQJ3,KQJ3T
C
C
5

DO 5 I = 1,NOJ
KQJ3(I) = KQS(I) /ADVC(I)**3

C
NOST=10
READ(5,510) (VST(I), I=1,NOST)
READ(5,510) (XNT(I), I=1,NOST)
READ(5,510) (XPD(I), .I=1,NOST)
510
C
C

10
20

FORMAT (10F8.0)
COUNT NO. OF TRIAL RUNS
NOST = 0
DO 8 I = 1, 10
IF (VST(I).GT.0. ) NOST=NOST+1
CONTINUE
IF(XNT(1).GT.20.) GOTO 20
DO 10 I=1, NOST
XNT(I) = XNT(I)*60.0
XPD(I) = XPD(I)*1.36
CONTINUE
DO 50 I=1, NOST
VST1=VST(I)*1852.0/3600.0
CTST =
APOL(0,AVS, ACTS, NOSP,VST1, IX)
THDT(I)= APOL(0,AVS, THD, NOSP,VST1, IX)
WTMT(I)= APOL(0,AVS, AWTM, NOSP,VST1, IX)
WTST(I)= APOL(0,AVS, AWTS, NOSP,VST1, IX)
ETART(I)= APOL(0,AVS, ETARM,NOSP,VST1, IX)
CF
=APOL(0,AVS, ACFM, NOSP,VST1, IX)
CT
=APOL(0,AVS, ACTM, NOSP,VST1, X)

Revision
00

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 30 of 31
Effective Date
1999

CRWT(I)= CT - (1.0+C3)*CF
FNOP =NOPROP
KTJT2 =S*(CTST/FNOP )*0.5 / ((DP*(1.0-WTST(I)))**2*(1.0-THDT(I)))
JTS =APOL(1, KTSJ2, ADVC, NOJ, KTJT2, IX)
KQOS=APOL (0, ADVC, KQS, NOJ, JTS, IX)
NS=(1.0-WTST(I))*VST1/(JTS*DP)
PDS = 2.0*PI*RHOS*DP**5*NS**3*KQ0S/ETART(I)*0.001*FNOP
YNT(I)= NS*60.0
YPD(I) = PDS*1.36
CPT(I)= XPD(I)/YPD(I)
CNT(l)=XNT(I)/YNT(I)
PDT1 = XPD(I) /1.36
XNT1 = XNT(I) / 60.0
FKQ = PDT1*START(I)*1000.0 / (2.0*PI*RHOS*DP**5*XNT1**3) / FNOP
FJT = APOL(0,KQS,ADVC,NOJ,FKQ,IX)
FKT = APOL(0,ADVC, KTS,NOJ,FJT,IX)
KQJ3T=FKQ * (DP*XNT1)**3 / ((1-WTST(I))*VST1)**3
FJQ= APOL( 1,KQJ3,ADVC,NOJ,KQJ3T,IX)
ZNT(I)=(1.0 -WTST(I)) * VST1 / (FJQ*DP) * 60.0
CNPT(I)=XNT(I) / ZNT(I)
THS= FKT * RHOS * DP**4*XNT1**2
CTS=THS*(1.0 - THDT(I)) / (0.5*RHOS*VST1**2*S) * FNOP
DCFT(I)=(CTS - CTST)*1000.0
WTSS(I)= 1.0 - FJT*DP*XNT1/VST1
DWT(I) = WTST(I) - WTSS(I)
DWM(I) = WTMT(I) - WTSS(I)
C
C
C

CALCULATION OF FRICTIONAL RESISTANCE ~COEFF. OF SHIP


T = TEMS
FNU = ((0.659E-3*(T-l.0)-0.05076)*(T-1)+1.7688)*1.0E-6
RNLS= ALOG10(LWL*VST1/FNU)
CFS = 0.075 / (RNLS-2.0)**2

C
DCFM(I) = CTS - (l.0+C3)*CFS - ( CRWT(I)+0.001*AT / S )*S / (S+SBK)
DCFM(I) = DCFM(I) * 1000.0
CRWT(I) = CRWT(I) * 1000.0
50 CONTINUE
C
CALL OUTPUT(4)
WRITE(6,600)

Revision
00

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction
Method

600
610
620
630
640
650
660
670
680
690
700
710
715
717
720
730
740
750
760
770

7.5 02
03 01.4
Page 31 of 31
Effective Date
1999

Revision
00

FORMAT(' ',19X,'TRIAL ANALYSIS ACCORDING TO ITTC 1978 METHOD',///)


WRITE(6,610) ( VST(I), I=1, NOST)
FORMAT(5X..
' SHIP SPEED - TRTAL',7(F10.2, 2X) /)
WRITE(6,620) ( XNT(I), I=1, NOST)
FORMAT(5X,
PROP, RPM TRTAL ',7(F10.2, 2X) /)
WRITE(6,630) ( XPD(I), I=1, NOST)
FORMAT(4X,
'DELIV.POWER-TRIAL ',7(F11.0,1X) //)
WRITE(6,640) ( YNT(I), I=1, NOST)
FORMAT(/5X,
PROP. RPM -CN=1
',7(F10.2,2X) /)
WRITE~(6,650) ( ~YPD(I), I=1,NOST)
FORMAT(4X,
' DELIV. POWER -CP =1',7(F11.0,1X) /)
WRITE(6,660) ( ZNT(I), I=1, NOST)
FORMAT(5X,
PROP. RPM -CNP=1 ',7(F10.2,2X), //)
WRITE(6,670) ( CPT(I), I=1, NOST)
FORMAT(/5X,
CP
,7(F10.3,2X) /)
WRITE(6,680) (CNT(I), I=1, NOST)
FORMAT(5X,
CN
,7(F10.3,2X) /)
WRITE(6,690) (CNPT(I), I=1,NOST)
FORMAT(5X,
CNP
',7(F10.3,2X) //)
WRITE(6,700) (DCFT(I), I=1,NOST)
FORMAT(/5X,
DCFC*1000 -CP=CN=1,7(F10.3,2x) /)
WRITE(6,710) ( DWT(I), I=1, NOST)
FORMAT(5X,
' DWC
CP=CN=1,7(F10.3,2X) //)
WRITE(6,715) ( DCFM(I), I=1, NOST)
FORMAT(/5X,
'DCF *1000
ITTC-57,7(F10.3,2x) /)
WRITE(6,717) ( DWM(I), I=1,NOST)
FORMAT(5X,
DW = WM-WTRIAL
',7(F10.3,2X) //)
WRITE(6,720) ( CRWT(I) ,I=1, NOST)
FORMAT(/5X,

CR*1000
,7(F10.3,2X) /)
WRITE (6,730) ( THDT(I), I=1, NOST)
FORMAT(5X,

THDM
',7(F10.3,2X) /)
WRITE(6,740) ( WTMT(I), I=1, NOST)
FORMAT(5X,

WTM
',7(F10.3,2X) /)
WRITE(6,750) ( WTST(I), I=1, NOST)
FORMAT(5X,

WTS
CP=CN=1 ,7(F10.3,2x) /)
WRITE(6,760) ( WTSS(I), I=1, NOST)
FORMAT(5X,

WTS
TRIAL
,7(F10.3,2X) /)
WRITE(6,770) ( ETART(I), I=1, NOST)
FORMAT(5X,

ETARM
,7(F10.3,2X) /)
RETURN
END

120

BASEADA NOS ENSAIOS DE PROPULSAO

APENDICE
A. PREVISAO

ndice
Ape

Procedimentos Recomendados pela


ITTC para a Preparacao e
Realizacao das Provas de Velocidade
e Potencia

121

122

APENDICE
B. PROVAS DE VELOCIDADE E POTENCIA

ITTC Recommended
Procedures and Guidelines
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Preparation and Conduct of
Speed/Power Trials

7.5-04
-01-01.1
Page 1 of 10
Effective Date
2005

Revision
03

Table of Contents
1.

PURPOSE ..............................................2

2.

DEFINITIONS.......................................2

3.

RESPONSIBILITIES............................3

4.3 Hull- and Propulsor Survey..............5


4.4 Instrumentation Installation and
Calibration .........................................5
4.4.1 Instrumentation Installation.............5
4.4.2 Instrumentation Calibration Check .6

3.1 Shipbuilders Responsibilities............3


3.2 The Trial Team ..................................4
4.

4.5 Trial Conditions.................................6


4.5.1 Wind: ...............................................8
4.5.2 Sea State: .........................................8
4.5.3 Current:............................................8

PROCEDURES......................................4
4.1 Trial Preparation...............................4
4.1.1 Shipbuilders Support Requirement:4
4.1.2 Space Requirements ........................4
4.2 Ship Inspection...................................5
4.2.1 Preparation for the trials ..................5
4.2.2 Ship Inspection ................................5
4.2.3 Reporting of Results and
Distribution of Information .............5

Updated / Edited by

4.6 Trial Conduct: ...................................8


5.

REFERENCES ....................................10

Approved

Specialist Committee on Powering Performance of 24th ITTC


Date 2005

24th ITTC 2005


Date 2005

7.5-04
-01-01.1
Page 2 of 10

ITTC Recommended
Procedures and Guidelines
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Preparation and Conduct of
Speed/Power Trials

Effective Date
2005

Revision
03

Preparation and Conduct of Speed/Power Trials

1.

recommended to allow an evaluation of


the trial results for scientific purposes),

PURPOSE

to install and calibrate trial instrumentation for full scale Speed/Power trials,

The general purpose of this procedure is to


define basic requirements for the preparation
and conduct of speed trials.
The primary purpose of speed trials is to
determine ship performance in terms of speed,
power and propeller revolutions under prescribed ship conditions, and thereby verify the
satisfactory attainment of the contractually
stipulated ship speed.
The applicability of this procedure is limited to commercial ships of the displacement
type.

to define acceptable limits for trial conditions needed to validate hydrodynamic design and/or satisfy contractual
requirements,
for acceptable conduct of each speed trial.
2.

The procedure is

no waves (or waves with maximum


wave heights and wave periods according to Beaufort 1)

to define the responsibility sharing


among the parties who take part in the
sea trial for the smooth preparation and
execution of the speed trial

to establish a baseline of
and propulsor condition
conduct of a full-scale
trial;(hull and propulsor

the ship hull


prior to the
Speed/Power
surveys are

Ship Speed is that realized under the contractually stipulated conditions. Ideal conditions to which the speed would be corrected
would be
no wind (or maximum wind speed according to Beaufort 2)

to provide guidelines to document the


trial preparation prior to the conduct of
a full scale Speed/Power trial,

to establish a guideline for conducting


inspections for the purpose of installing
instrumentation prior to the conduct of
a full scale Speed/Power trial,

DEFINITIONS

no current
deep water
smooth hull and propeller surfaces

Docking Report: Report that documents


the condition of the ship hull and propulsors (available from the most recent dry docking).

Trial Agenda: Document outlining the


scope of a particular Speed/Power trial.
This document contains the procedures on

ITTC Recommended
Procedures and Guidelines
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Preparation and Conduct of
Speed/Power Trials

7.5-04
-01-01.1
Page 3 of 10
Effective Date
2005

Revision
03

how to conduct the trial and table(s) portraying the runs to be conducted.

The Shipbuilder has to provide all permits


and certificates needed to go to sea.

Trial Log: For each run, the log contains


the run number, type of maneuver, approach speed by log, approach shaft speed,
times when the maneuvers start and stop,
and any comments about the run.

The Shipbuilder is responsible to ensure


that all qualified personnel, needed for operating the ship and all engines, systems
and equipment during the trials have been
ordered.

Propeller Pitch: the design pitch also for


controllable pitch propellers.

Running Pitch: the operating pitch of a


CPP

Brake Power: Power delivered by the output coupling of the propulsion machinery
before passing through any speed reducing
and transmission devices and with all continuously operating engine auxiliaries in
use.

The Shipbuilder is responsible to ensure


that all regulatory bodies, Classification
Society, Ship Owner, ship agents, suppliers,
subcontractors, harbor facilities, delivering
departments of provisions, fuel, water, towing, etc., needed for conducting the sea trials, have been informed and are available
and on board, if required.

It is the Shipbuilders responsibility that all


safety measures have been checked and all
fixed, portable and individual material (for
crew, trial personnel and guests) is on
board and operative.

It is the Shipbuilders responsibility that


dock trials of all systems have been executed as well as all alarms, warning and
safety systems.

It is the Shipbuilders responsibility that an


inclining test has been performed and/or at
least a preliminary stability booklet has
been approved, covering the sea trial condition, in accordance with the 1974 SOLAS
Convention.

The Shipbuilder is responsible for the overall trial coordination between the ship's
crew, trial personnel, and the owner representative. A pre-trial meeting between the
trial team, owner and the ships crew will
be held to discuss the various trial events
and to resolve any outstanding issues.

Shaft Power: Net power supplied by the


propulsion machinery to the propulsion
shafting after passing through all speedreducing and other transmission devices
and after power for all attached auxiliaries
has been taken off.

3.

RESPONSIBILITIES

3.1

Shipbuilders Responsibilities

The Shipbuilder has the responsibility for


planning, conducting and evaluating the trials.
Speed Power - Trials may be conducted
by institutions acknowledged as competent
to perform those trials, as agreed between
the Shipbuilder and the Ship owner

7.5-04
-01-01.1
Page 4 of 10

ITTC Recommended
Procedures and Guidelines
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Preparation and Conduct of
Speed/Power Trials

3.2

The Shipbuilder has, if necessary, to arrange for divers to inspect the ships hull
and propellers.

4.

PROCEDURES

4.1

Trial Preparation

The Trial Leader is the duly authorized


(shipbuilders representative) person responsible for the execution of all phases of
the Speed/Power trials including the pretrial preparation.

4.1.1

The Trial Team

The trial team is responsible for correct


measurements and analysis of the measured
data according to the state of the art.
The trial team is responsible for the following:
a.

Conduct ship inspection, if possible or


necessary.

b.

Provide, install and operate all required


trial instrumentation and temporary cabling.

c.

If previously arranged, provide the ship


master and owners representative with
a preliminary data package before debarking. The contents of the data package will be determined in consultation
with the owners representative at the
initial pre-trial briefing.

d.

Effective Date
2005

Provide a final report after completion


of the trials in accordance with any
agreement between the shipbuilder and
the ship owner.

Revision
03

Shipbuilders Support Requirement:

Prior to the trials the required instrumentation has to be installed. The assistance of the
ships or shipbuilders crew will be required
when making electrical connections to the
ship's systems and circuits such as heading,
wind speed, wind direction, and rudder angle
synchronous repeaters. The following support
is requested from the Shipbuilder to properly
prepare for the trials:
a.

Provide access to the ship for trial instrumentation.

b.

Assistance is required for the following


electrical connections:
Gyrocompass
Wind meter
Rudder angle indicator
Log Speed
Propeller Pitch

c.

Vary the output level of each of the


above measurement sources to ensure
the proper operation and alignment of
the test instrumentation

4.1.2

Space Requirements

Spaces and an electric supply adequate for


the trial equipment will be required for the trial
instrumentation and computers.

ITTC Recommended
Procedures and Guidelines
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Preparation and Conduct of
Speed/Power Trials

4.2

There are three stages of a ship inspection:


in-house preparation, the actual inspection, and
the reporting of results and distribution of information to the various parties involved in the
trial.
Preparation for the trials

Review shafting dimensions, propulsion


plant specifications, etc.

Review trials agenda, if available.

4.2.2

Ship Inspection

Inspect hull- and propeller surface condition, if possible.

Inspect ships instrumentation for accessibility.

Determine routes for cable runs/data


transfer conduits between trial room
and bridge or control area.

Contact the Engineer on duty to discuss


trial instrumentation requirements. Inspect machinery spaces as applicable.

4.2.3

Reporting of Results and Distribution


of Information

Document all pertinent information related


to the ship inspection
a) Last date of cleaning.
b) Means of cleaning.
c) Propeller roughness measurement, if
available, which should include average, standard deviation, distribution

Effective Date
2005

Revision
03

along the blades, and existing physical


damage.

Ship Inspection

4.2.1

7.5-04
-01-01.1
Page 5 of 10

d) For a clean hull; documentation indicating manufacturer and kind of paint


used, paint layer thickness and, if available, roughness measurements (average,
standard deviation, and distribution
along the hull) should be provided. The
majority of this information may be
contained in the docking report.
e) For a dirty hull, documentation indicating visual observations of any fouling and date of last dry-docking should
be provided.
4.3

Hull- and Propulsor Survey

A roughness survey is recommended to


document the conditions of the ship hull, appendages, and propulsor(s) prior to the start of
the full-scale speed/ power trial. Cleaning may
be required if fouling is found to be such that it
would bias the trial data.
Ideally, roughness surveys should be conducted prior to the trials. The average hull
roughness should not exceed 250 m ( =
1x10-6 m) (6.35 mils) and the average propulsor roughness level should not be greater than
150 m (3.81 mils).
4.4
4.4.1

Instrumentation Installation and Calibration


Instrumentation Installation

The installation of instrumentation should


be scheduled at a time of minimal conflict with
ship operations.

7.5-04
-01-01.1
Page 6 of 10

ITTC Recommended
Procedures and Guidelines
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Preparation and Conduct of
Speed/Power Trials

Effective Date
2005

Revision
03

The bias limits of the instrumentation used


for the measurements should be known and assessed.

measurement of the rates of revolutions must


be checked before the trial runs start and after
they have been finished.

The instrumentation used for the on-boardmeasurements must be calibrated before application on board. If this is not possible, for some
reason, the consequences of this should be
highlighted in the final trial report. Electrical
calibration is recommended for the torque
measurement device and, in case of use during
the sea trials, for the thrust measurement device.
Further a calibration should be done for the
pick ups and the respective amplifiers used for
the measurement of the rate of revolutions. A
calibration of a (differential) GPS-System is
not possible without excessive measures, but at
least the function of the device should be
checked before use on board.

As part of the pre-trial calibration, the torsion meters zero torque readings must be determined since there is a residual torque in the
shaft, which is resting on the line shaft bearings.
This might be done in different ways; one possible way is to use the jacking motors. The
shaft is jacked both ahead and astern and the
average of the readings noted. The zeroes are
set at the midpoint of the torque required to
jack each shaft ahead and the torque required to
jack each shaft astern. An allowance is normally made for frictional losses in the stern
tube bearings.

If portable radar tracking or (differential)


GPS is utilized, a Receiver/Transmitter (R/T)
unit or GPS antenna is to be installed. In case
the soft ware program used for the evaluation
of the data received does not allow for varying
positions on the uppermost deck of the ship the
antenna should be placed in a location along
the ships centerline as close to the ships CG
as possible. This location will ideally be located on a mast or site that is clear of obstructions, such as the ships superstructure.
4.4.2

Instrumentation Calibration Check

All shipboard signals to be recorded during


the trials must be adjusted to zero or should
have their zero value checked (e.g. for a (D)
GPS-device) after the instrumentation installation is completed and prior to the trials. The
zero values of the torsiometers, the thrust
measurement devices and the devices for the

As part of the pre-trial calibration for a ship


equipped with controllable pitch propellers,
maximum ahead pitch, the design pitch and the
maximum astern pitch should be determined
and then the ship indicators should be adjusted
to reflect the measurement.
4.5

Trial Conditions

Speed/Power trials require accurate position


data. The use of (D) GPS provides great latitude in choosing a trial site. Regardless of the
instrumentation utilized for obtaining positional data, the operational area should be free
from substantial small boat traffic.
The tracking range should be agreed between the Trial Director and the ships master.
Draft, trim and displacement of the ship on
trials should be obtained by averaging the ship
draft mark readings. The ship should be
brought into a condition that is as close as possible to the contract condition and/or the condi-

ITTC Recommended
Procedures and Guidelines
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Preparation and Conduct of
Speed/Power Trials

tion on which model tests have been carried out.


This will allow for the correction of the displacement and trim with respect to the trials
that were conducted and will be applicable to
the suggestions outlined in the ITTC Procedure
for the Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data.
Draft, trim and displacement should be obtained at the beginning and at the end of the
trial. This may be accomplished using a loading computer or by taking a second draft reading. The accuracy of the draft readings and the
method used to establish draft and displacement underway will be compared in port by direct draft readings both port and starboard in
conjunction with a liquid load calculation.
Displacement should be derived from the
hydrostatic curves by utilizing the draft data
and the density of the water.

High wind and sea states can force the


use of excessive rudder to maintain
heading, and thus cause excessive fluctuations in shaft torque, shaft speed and
ship speed.
Sea states of 3 or less and a true wind
speed below Beaufort 6 (20 Kn) are the
desired conditions for sea trials. When
working under the time constraints of a
contract, corrections to the trials data
can be made in accordance with the recommendations provided in the ITTC
Procedure for the Analysis of
Speed/Power Trial Data for sea states
less than or equal to 5. For sea states

Effective Date
2005

Revision
03

greater than 5, corrections to the trials


data can be applied but are not considered reliable from a scientific standpoint.

The local seawater temperature and specific gravity at the trial site are recorded
to enable the calculation of ship's displacement.

An acceptable minimum water depth


for the trials where the data do not need
to be corrected for shallow water can be
calculated using:
(1)
h > 6.0(Am)0.5 and h > 0.5 V2
with
Am= midship section area, [m2]
V= ship speed, [m/s]
The larger of the 2 values obtained
from the two equations should be used.

Current speed and direction should be


determined in the test area by prognostic analysis. When current speed and direction is unknown, the ships global
drift (also including wind effect) in
some cases might be determined by a
360 turning test conducted at low
ahead speed to magnify any environmental effect.

The runs should be conducted into and


against the waves; i.e., head and following seas, respectively. To ensure that
tests are performed in comparable conditions, the data between reciprocal
runs should be reviewed for consistency
and/or anomalies. Individual speed runs
conducted in the same conditions
should be averaged with their reciprocal
runs to take into account global drift.

Environmental factors may significantly influence the data obtained during sea trials; consequently, these factors should be monitored
and documented to the greatest extent possible:

7.5-04
-01-01.1
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7.5-04
-01-01.1
Page 8 of 10

ITTC Recommended
Procedures and Guidelines
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Preparation and Conduct of
Speed/Power Trials

In accordance with ISO 15016 the following, general recommendations can be given:
4.5.1

Wind:

Wind speed and direction shall be measured


as relative wind; continuous recording of relative wind during each run is recommended.
Care has to be taken whether the data derived
from the wind indicator are reliable; checks,
such as parallel measurements with a portable
instrument, comparison of the data received
from the wind indicator with wind speeds and
directions received from local weather stations
sufficiently close to the actual position of the
ship or, if possible, calibration of the wind indicator (taking into consideration the effects of
boundary layers of the superstructure on the
measured values) in a wind tunnel are recommended.
It is suggested that wind force during the
trial runs under no conditions should be higher
than

Beaufort 6 for ships with lengths equal


or exceeding 100m and

Beaufort 5 for ships shorter than 100m.

4.5.2

Sea State:

If possible, instruments such as buoys or instruments onboard ships (e.g. seaway analysis
radar) should be used to determine the wave
height, wave period and direction of seas and
swell. Considering usual practice the wave
heights may be determined from observations
by multiple, experienced observers, including
the nautical staff on board.

Effective Date
2005

Revision
03

During the trial runs the total wave height


(double amplitude), which allows for the wave
heights of seas and swell (see ISO 15016),
should not exceed

3m for ships of 100m length and more


and

1,5m for ships with lengths smaller than


100m

4.5.3

Current:

Current speed and direction shall be obtained either as part of the evaluation of run
and counter-run of each double run, by direct
measurement with a current gauge buoy or by
use of nautical charts of the respective trial area.
It is recommended to compare measured data
with those included on the nautical charts.
4.6

Trial Conduct:

All speed trials shall be carried out using


double runs, i.e. each run is followed by a return run in the opposite direction, performed
with the same engine settings.
The number of such double runs should not
be less than three. This three runs should be at
different engine settings.
The time necessary for a speed run depends
on the ships speed, size and power. Steady
state conditions should be achieved before the
speed runs start. It is recommended that the
time of one run should be as long as possible
but should at least be 10 min.
The ideal path of a ship in a typical
speed/power maneuver is shown in Figure 1:

7.5-04
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ITTC Recommended
Procedures and Guidelines
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Preparation and Conduct of
Speed/Power Trials

Effective Date
2005

Revision
03

Min. 10 min
Steady Approach
Steady Approach
Min 10 min

Figure 1

Prior to the trial, the data specified below


shall be recorded, based on measurements
where relevant:
Date
Trial area
Weather conditions
Air temperature
Mean water depth in the trial area
Water temperature and density
Draughts
Corresponding displacement
Propeller pitch in the case of a CPP
It is recommended to retain a record of the
following factors, which should prove useful
for verifying the condition of the ship at the
time of the speed trial:

Time elapsed since last hull and propeller cleaning

Surface condition of hull and propeller.

The following data should be monitored


and recorded on each run:
Clock time at commencement
Time elapsed over the measured distance
Ship heading
Ships speed over ground
Propeller rate of revolutions
Propeller shaft torque and/or brake
power
Water depth
Relative wind velocity and direction
Air temperature
Observed wave height (or: wave height
corresponding to observed and/or
agreed wind conditions)
Rudder angle
Ship position and track

7.5-04
-01-01.1
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ITTC Recommended
Procedures and Guidelines
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Preparation and Conduct of
Speed/Power Trials

Data such as ships speed, rate of revolutions of the propeller, torque, rudder angle and
drift angle to be used for the analyses shall be
the average values derived on the measured
distance.

5.

Effective Date
2005

Revision
03

REFERENCES

(1) ISO 15016, Ships and marine technology


Guidelines for the assessment of speed and
power performance by analysis of speed
trial data
(2) ITTC Procedure for the Analysis of
Speed/Power Trial Data
(3) ISO 19019

ndice
Ape

Condicoes de Realizacao das Provas


de Velocidade e Potencia
Recomendadas pela ITTC

133

134

APENDICE
C. CONDIC
OES
DAS PROVAS DE VELOCIDADE E POTENCIA

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Trial Conditions

7.5 0.4
01 01.5
Page 1 of 6
Effective Date
2002

CONTENTS
1.

PURPOSE

2.

SCOPE

3.

RESPONSIBILITIES

4.

DEFINITIONS

5.

PROCEDURE

6.

REFERENCES

7.

RECORDS

8.

ATTACHMENTS

Updated by

Approved

Specialist Committee of 23rd ITTC on


Speed and Powering
Date

23rd ITTC 2002


Date 2002

Revision
01

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Trial Conditions

7.5 0.4
01 01.5
Page 2 of 6
Effective Date
2002

Revision
01

Trial Conditions
1. PURPOSE

b. Collect and record seawater temperature and specific gravity during trial,
daily.

The purpose of this procedure is to establish guidelines for the definition of acceptable
limits for trial conditions needed to validate
hydrodynamic design and/or satisfy contractual
requirements.

4. DEFINITIONS

2. SCOPE

5. PROCEDURE

This procedure applies to the documentation of trial conditions (environmental and


ship) in which the full-scale Speed/Power trial
are performed.

1. Speed/Power trials require accurate position data and therefore will ideally be conducted at an instrumented tracking range
located in a sheltered body of water. Lacking availability of an instrumented tracking
range, the use of DGPS provides great latitude in choosing a trial site. Regardless of
the instrumentation utilized for obtaining
positional data, the operational area should
be free from substantial small boat traffic.
2. If an instrumented tracking range is utilized, the ships master will receive a formal
briefing on tracking range procedures by
the Trial Director prior to the conduct of
the trials. During the briefing, specific trial
runs will be reviewed. The trial team will
provide an on-shore observer to monitor
data collection by the tracking range facility. If DGPS is utilized, the Trial Director
will brief the ships master on specific trial
runs and procedures.
3. Ship characteristics and environmental factors are carefully monitored and documented throughout the trials (see Table 1).
Accurate quantification of these conditions
is necessary because a ship's speed and
powering characteristics are extremely sensitive to conditions such as ship and propeller condition, ship displacement, shallow
water effects, sea state and wind velocity.

3. RESPONSIBILITIES

The Trial Director is the duly authorized


shipbuilders representative responsible for
the execution of all phases of the
Speed/Power trials. When unforeseen problems, such as weather or technical difficulties require that the trial schedule or trial
logistics be modified, the Trial Director
shall make the final decision, subject to the
concurrence of the ships master and the
owners representative.
The shipbuilder is responsible for the overall trial coordination between the ship's
crew, trial personnel, and the owner representative. A pre-trial meeting between the
trial team, owner and the ships crew will
be held to discuss the various trial events
and to resolve any outstanding issues.
The trial team is responsible for the following:
a. Operate and maintain all required trial
instrumentation and temporary cabling.

None

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Trial Conditions

4. Speed/Power Trials are normally scheduled


within 30 days of undocking to minimize
the adverse effects of hull and propulsor
fouling and provide a more "standard" condition for testing. In situations where the
ship has become fouled after undocking, a
hull cleaning, propeller polishing and hull
and propeller roughness survey should be
performed within 30 days of the
Speed/Power trial date. Guidance may be
found in Hull and Propulsor Survey Procedure 7.5-04-01-01.3. At a minimum, the
ships latest docking report and diver inspection should be provided to fulfill this
requirement. Guidance may be found in
Speed/Power Trial Ship Inspection Procedure 7.5-04-01-01.2.
5. Draft, trim and displacement of the trials
must be obtained by averaging the ship
draft mark readings. The ship should be
brought into a condition that is as close as
possible to the contract condition and/or the
condition by which model tests have been
carried out. This will allow for the correction of the displacement and trim with respect to the trials that were conducted and
will be applicable to the suggestions outlined in the 23rd ITTC Speed and Powering
Trials Specialist Committee final report.
a. Draft, trim and displacement must be
obtained at the beginning and at the end
of the trial. This may be accomplished
using a loading computer or by taking a
second draft reading. The accuracy of
the ship's draft marks and the method
used to calculate draft and displacement
underway will be compared in port by
direct draft readings both port and starboard in conjunction with a liquid load
calculation. The trial team will verify
and document the results prior to the
Speed/Power trials.

7.5 0.4
01 01.5
Page 3 of 6
Effective Date
2002

Revision
01

b. Displacement must be derived from the


hydrostatic curves by utilizing the draft
data and the density of the water. When
dealing with Froude numbers higher
than 0.5 (e.g. a Fast Ferry with 100 m
length and speed over 30 kn) intermediate ship loading conditions must be
documented. This is better accomplished through tank soundings.
6. Environmental factors can significantly influence the data obtained during sea trials.
Consequently, these factors must be monitored and documented to the greatest extent
possible.
a. High wind and sea states can force the
use of excessive rudder to maintain
heading, and thus cause excessive fluctuations in shaft torque, shaft speed and
ship speed.
b. Sea states of 3 or less and a true wind
speed below Beaufort 6 (20 kn) are the
desired conditions for sea trials. When
working under the time constraints of a
contract, corrections to the trials data
can be made in accordance with the recommendations provided in the 23rd
ITTC Speed and Powering Trials Specialist Committee final report for sea
states less than or equal to 5. For sea
states greater than 5, corrections to the
trials data can be applied but are not
considered reliable from a scientific
standpoint.
c. The local seawater temperature and specific gravity at the trial site are recorded
to enable the calculation of ship's displacement.
d. Air temperature and atmospheric pressure should be measured at the trial location using a calibrated thermometer
and barometer.
e. An acceptable minimum water depth for the
trials where the data do not need to be cor-

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Trial Conditions

rected for shallow water can be calculated


using:
h > 6.0(Am)0.5 and h > 0.5 V2

(1)

Use the larger of the 2 values obtained from


the two equations.
Other accepted formulae are:
1. SNAME 1973/21st ITTC Powering
Performance
Committee
d

10TV/(L)0.5

(2)

d = water depth, ft
T =trial draft, ft
V = speed, kn
L = length between perpendiculars, ft
2.

SNAME 1989 from Det Norske


Veritas
Nautical Safety- Additional Classes
NAUT-A, NAUT-B AND NAUTC, July 1986
h > 5.0(Am)0.5 and h > 0.4 V2 (3)
Use the larger of the 2 values obtained from the two equations.
h = water depth, m
Am = midship section area, m2
V = ship speed, m/s
or
h > 5 (T)
T =

(4)
Mean draft, m

3.

7.5 0.4
01 01.5
Page 4 of 6
Effective Date
2002

Revision
01

22nd ITTC Trials & Monitoring


Specialist Committee/12th ITTC
based on ship section and Froude
Number.
h > 3.0(BT)0.5 and h > 2.75 V2/g
(5)
Use the larger of the 2 values obtained from the two equations.
h = depth in appropriate length
units
B = beam in appropriate length
units
T = draft in appropriate length
units
V = speed in system of units consistent with the above dimension
g = acceleration due to gravity in
units consistent with the above dimension

4. ISO/FDIS 15016:(E) based on Lackenbys Formula


V
gh
A

= 0.1242 2m 0.05 + 1 tanh( 2 )

h
V
V

for h (Am/0.05)0.5
V
0.02
V

(6)

h = water depth, m
Am = midship section area under
water, m2
V = ship speed, m/s
V = speed loss due to shallow water effect, m/s
g = acceleration due to gravity,
m/s2

0.5

7.5 0.4
01 01.5
Page 5 of 6

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Trial Conditions

f. Current speed and direction should be


determined in the test area by prognostic analysis. When current speed is suspected to be varying and direction is
unknown, the ships global drift (also
including wind effect) should be determined by a 360 turning test conducted
at low ahead speed to magnify any environmental effect. Test runs should be
conducted against and with global drift.
It should be noted that this method of
determining the direction of the trial
runs is extremely important in the case
of small ships whose performance is
strongly effected by environmental conditions. For large ships, such as ULCCs,
performance is not impacted as greatly
by environmental conditions. If time is
a critical factor, then the runs can be
conducted into and against the waves;
i.e., head and following seas, respectively. To ensure that tests are performed in comparable conditions, the
data between reciprocal runs should be
reviewed for consistency and/or anomalies. Individual speed runs conducted in
the same conditions should be averaged
with their reciprocal runs to take into
account global drift.
6. REFERENCES

1. SNAME 1973/21st ITTC Powering Performance Committee Final Report

Effective Date
2002

Revision
01

2. 22nd ITTC Trials & Monitoring Specialist


Committee Final Report
3. Ships and marine technology Guidelines
for the assessment of speed and power performance analysis of speed trial data, Final
Draft International Standard ISO/FDIS
15016: (E), ISO/TC 8/SC 9/WG 2 of 2001
4. 23rd ITTC Speed and Powering Trials Specialist Committee Final Report
5. Speed/Power Trial Ship Inspection Procedure 7.5-04-01-01.2
6. Hull and Propulsor Survey Procedure 7.504-01-01.3
7. RECORDS

1. Ship conditions displacement, draft, propulsor and hull roughness


2. Environmental conditions water depth,
water temperature, wind direction and
speed, sea state, specific gravity, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, current
speed and direction
8. ATTACHMENTS

1. Table 1. Documented Ship and Trial Conditions Reported

7.5 0.4
01 01.5
Page 6 of 6

ITTC Recommended
Procedures
Full Scale Measurements
Speed and Power Trials
Trial Conditions

Effective Date
2002

Table 1. Documented Ship and Trial Conditions Reported


Description
Ship Hull
Draft
Trim
Displacement and Load
Hull Condition
Roughness of shell and bottom paint
Height of welding beads
Waviness of hull
Size, number and position of zinc anodes
Size, number and position of openings of sea water inlets and outlets
Paint system
Hull Appendages and Rudder
Geometry, deviations, roughness
Type
Rate of movement
Propeller(s)
Geometry, deviations, roughness
Pitch
Direction of rotation
Number of blades
Propeller Shaft(s)
Geometry
Material
Trial Site
Water depth
Water temperature
Air temperature
Sea State
Specific gravity of water
Environmental Conditions
Wind
Waves
Current
Atmospheric pressure

Revision
01

ndice
Ape

Utilizacao dos Diagramas na


Seleccao de Motores Propulsores

141

142

DE MOTORES PROPULSORES
APENDICE
D. SELECC
AO

Basic Principles of Ship Propulsion

Page

Contents:
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Scope of this Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 1
Ship Definitions and Hull Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ship types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A ships load lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Indication of a ships size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Description of hull forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ships resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 2
Propeller Propulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Propeller types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Flow conditions around the propeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Efficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Propeller dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Operating conditions of a propeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Chapter 3
Engine Layout and Load Diagrams

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Power functions and logarithmic scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


Propulsion and engine running points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Engine layout diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Load diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Use of layout and load diagrams examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Influence on engine running of different types
of ship resistance plant with FPpropeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Influence of ship resistance
on combinator curves plant with CPpropeller . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Closing Remarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Basic Principles of Ship Propulsion

Introduction

Scope of this Paper

For the purpose of this paper, the term


ship is used to denote a vehicle em
ployed to transport goods and persons
from one point to another over water.
Ship propulsion normally occurs with
the help of a propeller, which is the
term most widely used in English, al
though the word screw is sometimes
seen, inter alia in combinations such as
a twinscrew propulsion plant.

This paper is divided into three chapters


which, in principle, may be considered as
three separate papers but which also,
with advantage, may be read in close
connection to each other. Therefore,
some important information mentioned in
one chapter may well appear in another
chapter, too.

Today, the primary source of propeller


power is the diesel engine, and the power
requirement and rate of revolution very
much depend on the ships hull form
and the propeller design. Therefore, in
order to arrive at a solution that is as
optimal as possible, some general
knowledge is essential as to the princi
pal ship and diesel engine parameters
that influence the propulsion system.
This paper will, in particular, attempt to
explain some of the most elementary
terms used regarding ship types,
ships dimensions and hull forms and
clarify some of the parameters pertain
ing to hull resistance, propeller condi
tions and the diesel engines load
diagram.
On the other hand, it is considered be
yond the scope of this publication to
give an explanation of how propulsion
calculations as such are carried out, as
the calculation procedure is extremely
complex. The reader is referred to the
specialised literature on this subject, for
example as stated in References.

Chapter 1, describes the most elemen


tary terms used to define ship sizes
and hull forms such as, for example,
the ships displacement, deadweight,
design draught, length between per
pendiculars, block coefficient, etc.
Other ship terms described include the
effective towing resistance, consisting
of frictional, residual and air resistance,
and the influence of these resistances
in service.

followed up by the relative heavy/light


running conditions which apply when
the ship is sailing and subject to different
types of extra resistance, like fouling,
heavy sea against, etc.
Chapter 3, elucidates the importance
of choosing the correct specified MCR
and optimising point of the main engine,
and thereby the engines load diagram
in consideration to the propellers design
point. The construction of the relevant
load diagram lines is described in detail
by means of several examples. Fig. 24
shows, for a ship with fixed pitch pro
peller, by means of a load diagram, the
important influence of different types of
ship resistance on the engines contin
uous service rating.

Chapter 2, deals with ship propulsion


and the flow conditions around the pro
peller(s). In this connection, the wake
fraction coefficient and thrust deduc
tion coefficient, etc. are mentioned.
The total power needed for the propel
ler is found based on the above effec
tive towing resistance and various
propeller and hull dependent efficien
cies which are also described. A sum
mary of the propulsion theory is shown
in Fig. 6.
The operating conditions of a propeller
according to the propeller law valid for
a propeller with fixed pitch are described
for free sailing in calm weather, and

Category

Ship Definitions and Hull


Resistance

Tanker

Class

Type

Oil tanker

Crude (oil) Carrier


Very Large Crude Carrier
Ultra Large Crude Carrier
Product Tanker

CC
VLCC
ULCC

Gas tanker
Chemical tanker

Liquefied Natural Gas carrier


Liquefied Petroleum Gas carrier

LNG
LPG

OBO

Oil/Bulk/Ore carrier

OBO

Container carrier
Roll OnRoll Off

RoRo

Ship types
Depending on the nature of their cargo,
and sometimes also the way the cargo
is loaded/unloaded, ships can be divided
into different categories, classes, and
types, some of which are mentioned in
Table 1.
The three largest categories of ships
are container ships, bulk carriers (for
bulk goods such as grain, coal, ores,
etc.) and tankers, which again can be
divided into more precisely defined
classes and types. Thus, tankers can
be divided into oil tankers, gas tankers
and chemical tankers, but there are
also combinations, e.g. oil/chemical
tankers.
Table 1 provides only a rough outline.
In reality there are many other combi
nations, such as Multipurpose bulk
container carriers, to mention just one
example.

Bulk carrier

Bulk carrier

Container ship

Container ship

General cargo ship

General cargo
Coaster

Reefer

Reefer

Passenger ship

Ferry
Cruise vessel

Refrigerated cargo vessel

Table 1: Examples of ship types

the risk of bad weather whereas, on the


other hand, the freeboard draught for

tropical seas is somewhat higher than


the summer freeboard draught.

A ships load lines


Painted halfway along the ships side
is the Plimsoll Mark, see Fig. 1. The
lines and letters of the Plimsoll Mark,
which conform to the freeboard rules
laid down by the IMO (International
Maritime Organisation) and local au
thorities, indicate the depth to which
the vessel may be safely loaded (the
depth varies according to the season
and the salinity of the water).
There are, e.g. load lines for sailing in
freshwater and seawater, respectively,
with further divisions for tropical condi
tions and summer and winter sailing.
According to the international freeboard
rules, the summer freeboard draught
for seawater is equal to the Scantling
draught, which is the term applied to
the ships draught when dimensioning
the hull.
The winter freeboard draught is less
than that valid for summer because of

Freeboard deck

D: Freeboard draught

TF
D

T
S
W
WNA

Tropical
Summer
Winter
Winter - the North Atlantic

Danish load mark


Freshwater

Fig. 1: Load lines freeboard draught

Seawater

Indication of a ships size


Displacement and deadweight
When a ship in loaded condition floats at
an arbitrary water line, its displacement is
equal to the relevant mass of water dis
placed by the ship. Displacement is thus
equal to the total weight, all told, of the
relevant loaded ship, normally in seawa
ter with a mass density of 1.025 t/m3.
Displacement comprises the ships
light weight and its deadweight, where
the deadweight is equal to the ships
loaded capacity, including bunkers and
other supplies necessary for the ships
propulsion. The deadweight at any time
thus represents the difference between
the actual displacement and the ships
light weight, all given in tons:

AM

BWL

DF

DA
LPP
LWL

deadweight = displacement light weight.

LOA

Incidentally, the word ton does not


always express the same amount of
weight. Besides the metric ton (1,000
kg), there is the English ton (1,016 kg),
which is also called the long ton. A
short ton is approx. 907 kg.
The light weight of a ship is not normally
used to indicate the size of a ship,
whereas the deadweight tonnage
(dwt), based on the ships loading ca
pacity, including fuel and lube oils etc.
for operation of the ship, measured in
tons at scantling draught, often is.
Sometimes, the deadweight tonnage
may also refer to the design draught of
the ship but, if so, this will be mentioned.
Table 2 indicates the ruleofthumb rela
tionship between the ships displacement,
deadweight tonnage (summer freeboard/
scantling draught) and light weight.
A ships displacement can also be ex
pressed as the volume of displaced
water , i.e. in m3.
Gross register tons
Without going into detail, it should be
mentioned that there are also such
measurements as Gross Register Tons
(GRT), and Net Register Tons (NRT)
where 1 register ton = 100 English cubic
feet, or 2.83 m3.

Length between perpendiculars:


Length on waterline:
Length overall:
Breadth on waterline:
Draught:
Midship section area:

LPP
LWL
LOA
BWL
D = 1/2 (DF +DA)
Am

Fig. 2: Hull dimensions

Ship type
Tanker and
Bulk carrier
Container ship

dwt/light
weight ratio

Displ./dwt
ratio

1.17

2.53.0

1.331.4

Table 2: Examples of relationship between dis


placement, deadweight tonnage and light weight

These measurements express the size


of the internal volume of the ship in ac
cordance with the given rules for such
measurements, and are extensively
used for calculating harbour and canal
dues/charges.
Description of hull forms
It is evident that the part of the ship
which is of significance for its propulsion

is the part of the ships hull which is


under the water line. The dimensions
below describing the hull form refer
to the design draught, which is less
than, or equal to, the scantling
draught. The choice of the design
draught depends on the degree of
load, i.e. whether, in service, the ship
will be lightly or heavily loaded. Gen
erally, the most frequently occurring
draught between the fullyloaded and
the ballast draught is used.
Ships lengths LOA, LWL, and LPP
The overall length of the ship LOA is
normally of no consequence when
calculating the hulls water resistance.
The factors used are the length of the
waterline LWL and the socalled length
between perpendiculars LPP. The di
mensions referred to are shown in
Fig. 2.

The length between perpendiculars is


the length between the foremost per
pendicular, i.e. usually a vertical line
through the stems intersection with
the waterline, and the aftmost perpen
dicular which, normally, coincides with
the rudder axis. Generally, this length is
slightly less than the waterline length,
and is often expressed as:

AM

Waterline plane
AWL

L PP
L WL

LPP = 0.97 LWL

BW

Draught D
The ships draught D (often T is used in
literature) is defined as the vertical dis
tance from the waterline to that point of
the hull which is deepest in the water,
see Figs. 2 and 3. The foremost draught
DF and aftmost draught DA are normally
the same when the ship is in the loaded
condition.
Breadth on waterline BWL
Another important factor is the hulls
largest breadth on the waterline BWL,
see Figs. 2 and 3.
Block coefficient CB
Various form coefficients are used to
express the shape of the hull. The most
important of these coefficients is the
block coefficient CB, which is defined
as the ratio between the displacement
volume and the volume of a box with
dimensions LWL BWL D, see Fig. 3, i.e.:
CB =

Waterline area

: A WL

Block coefficient, LWL based

: CB =

Midship section coefficient

: CM =

Longitudinal prismatic coefficient

: CP =

Waterplane area coefficient

LWL BWL D

A small block coefficient means less re


sistance and, consequently, the possibil
ity of attaining higher speeds.
Table 3 shows some examples of block
coefficient sizes, and the pertaining

: CWL =

LWL x BWL x D
AM
BWL x D

AM x LWL
AWL
LWL x BWL

Fig. 3: Hull coefficients of a ship

service speeds, on different types of


ships. It shows that large block coeffi
cients correspond to low speeds and
vice versa.

In the case cited above, the block co


efficient refers to the length on water
line LWL. However, shipbuilders often use
block coefficient CB, PP based on the
length between perpendiculars, LPP, in
which case the block coefficient will, as a
rule, be slightly larger because, as previ
ously mentioned, LPP is normally slightly
less than LWL.

C B ,PP =
LPP BWL D

Volume of displacement

Block
coefficient
CB

Approxi
mate ship
speed V
in knots

0.90

5 10

Bulk carrier

0.80 0.85

12 17

Tanker

0.80 0.85

12 16

General cargo

0.55 0.75

13 22

Container ship

0.50 0.70

14 26

Ferry boat

0.50 0.70

15 26

Ship type

Lighter

Table 3: Examples of block coefficients

Water plane area coefficient CWL


The water plane area coefficient CWL
expresses the ratio between the ves
sels waterline area AWL and the product
of the length LWL and the breadth BWL of
the ship on the waterline, see Fig. 3, i.e.:

CWL =

AWL
LWL BWL

Generally, the waterplane area coeffi


cient is some 0.10 higher than the block
coefficient, i.e.:
CWL CB + 0.10.
This difference will be slightly larger on
fast vessels with small block coefficients
where the stern is also partly immersed
in the water and thus becomes part of
the waterplane area.
Midship section coefficient CM
A further description of the hull form is
provided by the midship section coeffi
cient CM, which expresses the ratio be
tween the immersed midship section
area AM (midway between the foremost
and the aftmost perpendiculars) and the
product of the ships breadth BWL and
draught D, see Fig. 3, i.e.:
CM =

AM
BWL D

For bulkers and tankers, this coefficient


is in the order of 0.980.99, and for
container ships in the order of 0.970.98.
Longitudinal prismatic coefficient CP
The longitudinal prismatic coefficient
CP expresses the ratio between dis
placement volume and the product
of the midship frame section area AM
and the length of the waterline LWL,
see also Fig. 3, i.e.:
Cp =

AM LWL

C M BWL D LWL

CB
=
CM

As can be seen, CP is not an independ


ent form coefficient, but is entirely de
pendent on the block coefficient CB
and the midship section coefficient CM.
Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy LCB
The Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy
(LCB) expresses the position of the
centre of buoyancy and is defined as
the distance between the centre of
buoyancy and the midpoint between
the ships foremost and aftmost perpen
diculars. The distance is normally stated
as a percentage of the length between
the perpendiculars, and is positive if
the centre of buoyancy is located to
the fore of the midpoint between the
perpendiculars, and negative if located
to the aft of the midpoint. For a ship
designed for high speeds, e.g. container
ships, the LCB will, normally, be nega
tive, whereas for slowspeed ships,
such as tankers and bulk carriers, it will
normally be positive. The LCB is gener
ally between 3% and +3%.
Fineness ratio CLD
The length/displacement ratio or fine
ness ratio, CLD, is defined as the ratio
between the ships waterline length LWL,
and the length of a cube with a volume
equal to the displacement volume, i.e.:
C LD =

LWL
3

Ships resistance
To move a ship, it is first necessary to
overcome resistance, i.e. the force work
ing against its propulsion. The calculation
of this resistance R plays a significant role

in the selection of the correct propeller and


in the subsequent choice of main engine.
General
A ships resistance is particularly influ
enced by its speed, displacement, and
hull form. The total resistance RT, con
sists of many sourceresistances R
which can be divided into three main
groups, viz.:
1) Frictional resistance
2) Residual resistance
3) Air resistance
The influence of frictional and residual
resistances depends on how much of
the hull is below the waterline, while the
influence of air resistance depends on
how much of the ship is above the wa
terline. In view of this, air resistance will
have a certain effect on container ships
which carry a large number of contain
ers on the deck.
Water with a speed of V and a density
of r has a dynamic pressure of:
r V 2 (Bernoullis law)
Thus, if water is being completely
stopped by a body, the water will react
on the surface of the body with the dy
namic pressure, resulting in a dynamic
force on the body.
This relationship is used as a basis
when calculating or measuring the
sourceresistances R of a ships hull,
by means of dimensionless resistance
coefficients C. Thus, C is related to the
reference force K, defined as the force
which the dynamic pressure of water
with the ships speed V exerts on a
surface which is equal to the hulls wet
ted area AS. The rudders surface is
also included in the wetted area. The
general data for resistance calculations
is thus:
Reference force: K = r V 2 AS
and source resistances: R = C K
On the basis of many experimental
tank tests, and with the help of pertain
ing dimensionless hull parameters,
some of which have already been dis
cussed, methods have been estab
lished for calculating all the necessary

resistance coefficients C and, thus, the


pertaining sourceresistances R. In
practice, the calculation of a particular
ships resistance can be verified by
testing a model of the relevant ship in
a towing tank.
Frictional resistance RF
The frictional resistance RF of the hull
depends on the size of the hulls wet
ted area AS, and on the specific fric
tional resistance coefficient CF. The
friction increases with fouling of the
hull, i.e. by the growth of, i.a. algae,
sea grass and barnacles.
An attempt to avoid fouling is made by
the use of antifouling hull paints to
prevent the hull from becoming
longhaired, i.e. these paints reduce
the possibility of the hull becoming
fouled by living organisms. The paints
containing TBT (tributyl tin) as their
principal biocide, which is very toxic,
have dominated the market for decades,
but the IMO ban of TBT for new appli
cations from 1 January, 2003, and a
full ban from 1 January, 2008, may in
volve the use of new (and maybe not
as effective) alternatives, probably cop
perbased antifouling paints.
When the ship is propelled through the
water, the frictional resistance increases
at a rate that is virtually equal to the
square of the vessels speed.
Frictional resistance represents a con
siderable part of the ships resistance,
often some 7090% of the ships total
resistance for lowspeed ships (bulk
carriers and tankers), and sometimes
less than 40% for highspeed ships
(cruise liners and passenger ships) [1]. The
frictional resistance is found as follows:
R F = CF K
Residual resistance RR
Residual resistance RR comprises wave
resistance and eddy resistance. Wave
resistance refers to the energy loss
caused by waves created by the vessel
during its propulsion through the water,
while eddy resistance refers to the loss
caused by flow separation which cre
ates eddies, particularly at the aft end
of the ship.

Wave resistance at low speeds is pro


portional to the square of the speed,
but increases much faster at higher
speeds. In principle, this means that a
speed barrier is imposed, so that a fur
ther increase of the ships propulsion
power will not result in a higher speed
as all the power will be converted into
wave energy. The residual resistance
normally represents 825% of the total
resistance for lowspeed ships, and up
to 4060% for highspeed ships [1].
Incidentally, shallow waters can also
have great influence on the residual
resistance, as the displaced water un
der the ship will have greater difficulty
in moving aftwards.
The procedure for calculating the spe
cific residual resistance coefficient CR is
described in specialised literature [2]
and the residual resistance is found as
follows:

through the water, i.e. to tow the ship


at the speed V, is then:
P E = V RT
The power delivered to the propeller,
PD, in order to move the ship at speed
V is, however, somewhat larger. This is
due, in particular, to the flow conditions
around the propeller and the propeller
efficiency itself, the influences of which
are discussed in the next chapter
which deals with Propeller Propulsion.
Total ship resistance in general
When dividing the residual resistance
into wave and eddy resistance, as earlier
described, the distribution of the total ship
towing resistance RT could also, as a
guideline, be stated as shown in Fig. 4.

The right column is valid for lowspeed


ships like bulk carriers and tankers, and
the left column is valid for very highspeed
ships like cruise liners and ferries. Con
tainer ships may be placed in between
the two columns.
The main reason for the difference
between the two columns is, as earlier
mentioned, the wave resistance. Thus,
in general all the resistances are pro
portional to the square of the speed,
but for higher speeds the wave resis
tance increases much faster, involving
a higher part of the total resistance.
This tendency is also shown in Fig. 5
for a 600 teu container ship, originally
designed for the ship speed of 15 knots.
Without any change to the hull design,

Type of resistance

R R = CR K

High Low
speed speed
ship ship

Air resistance RA
In calm weather, air resistance is, in prin
ciple, proportional to the square of the
ships speed, and proportional to the
crosssectional area of the ship above the
waterline. Air resistance normally repre
sents about 2% of the total resistance.

RF
RW
RE
RA

= Friction
= Wave
= Eddy
= Air

RA = 0.90 rair V 2 Aair

Ship speed V

RW

where rair is the density of the air, and


Aair is the crosssectional area of the
vessel above the water [1].
RE

V
RF

RT = RF + R R + RA
The corresponding effective (towing)
power, PE, necessary to move the ship
Fig. 4: Total ship towing resistance RT = RF + RW + RE + RA

45  90
40  5
5 3
10  2

RA

For container ships in head wind, the


air resistance can be as much as 10%.
The air resistance can, similar to the
foregoing resistances, be expressed as
RA = CA K, but is sometimes based
on 90% of the dynamic pressure of air
with a speed of V, i.e.:

Towing resistance RT
and effective (towing) power PE
The ships total towing resistance RT is
thus found as:

% of RT

kW Propulsion power
8,000

6,000

"Wave wall"

New service point

4,000
Normal service point

2,000

Estimates of average increase in


resistance for ships navigating the
main routes:
North Atlantic route,
navigation westward

2535%

North Atlantic route,


navigation eastward

2025%

EuropeAustralia

2025%

EuropeEast Asia

2025%

The Pacific routes

2030%

Table 4: Main routes of ships

0
10

15

20 knots
Ship speed

Power and speed relationship for a 600 TEU container ship

Fig. 5: The wave wall ship speed barrier

the ship speed for a sister ship was re


quested to be increased to about 17.6
knots. However, this would lead to a
relatively high wave resistance, requir
ing a doubling of the necessary propul
sion power.
A further increase of the propulsion
power may only result in a minor ship
speed increase, as most of the extra
power will be converted into wave en
ergy, i.e. a ship speed barrier valid for
the given hull design is imposed by
what we could call a wave wall, see
Fig. 5. A modification of the hull lines,
suiting the higher ship speed, is neces
sary.
Increase of ship resistance in service,
Ref. [3], page 244
During the operation of the ship, the
paint film on the hull will break down.
Erosion will start, and marine plants
and barnacles, etc. will grow on the
surface of the hull. Bad weather, per
haps in connection with an inappropri
ate distribution of the cargo, can be a
reason for buckled bottom plates. The
hull has been fouled and will no longer
have a technically smooth surface,

which means that the frictional resist


ance will be greater. It must also be
considered that the propeller surface
can become rough and fouled. The to
tal resistance, caused by fouling, may
increase by 2550% throughout the
lifetime of a ship.
Experience [4] shows that hull fouling
with barnacles and tube worms may
cause an increase in drag (ship resis
tance) of up to 40%, with a drastical
reduction of the ship speed as the con
sequence.
Furthermore, in general [4] for every 25
m (25/1000 mm) increase of the aver
age hull roughness, the result will be a
power increase of 23%, or a ship
speed reduction of about 1%.
Resistance will also increase because
of sea, wind and current, as shown in
Table 4 for different main routes of
ships. The resistance when navigating
in headon sea could, in general, in
crease by as much as 50100% of the
total ship resistance in calm weather.

On the North Atlantic routes, the first


percentage corresponds to summer
navigation and the second percentage
to winter navigation.
However, analysis of trading conditions
for a typical 140,000 dwt bulk carrier
shows that on some routes, especially
JapanCanada when loaded, the in
creased resistance (sea margin) can
reach extreme values up to 220%, with
an average of about 100%.
Unfortunately, no data have been pub
lished on increased resistance as a fun
ction of type and size of vessel. The
larger the ship, the less the relative in
crease of resistance due to the sea.
On the other hand, the frictional resis
tance of the large, fullbodied ships will
very easily be changed in the course of
time because of fouling.
In practice, the increase of resistance
caused by heavy weather depends on
the current, the wind, as well as the
wave size, where the latter factor may
have great influence. Thus, if the wave
size is relatively high, the ship speed
will be somewhat reduced even when
sailing in fair seas.
In principle, the increased resistance
caused by heavy weather could be
related to:
a) wind and current against, and
b) heavy waves,
but in practice it will be difficult to dis
tinguish between these factors.

Chapter 2
Propeller Propulsion
The traditional agent employed to
move a ship is a propeller, sometimes
two and, in very rare cases, more than
two. The necessary propeller thrust T
required to move the ship at speed V
is normally greater than the pertaining
towing resistance RT, and the flowrelated
reasons are, amongst other reasons,
explained in this chapter. See also Fig. 6,
where all relevant velocity, force, power
and efficiency parameters are shown.

Velocities
Ships speed
: V
Arriving water velocity to propeller : VA
(Speed of advance of propeller)
Effective wake velocity
: VW = V _ V A
V _ VA
Wake fraction coefficient
: w=
V
Forces
Towing resistance

: PE = R T x V

Thrust power delivered


by the propeller to water

: PT = PE /

Power delivered to propeller

: PD = P T /

Brake power of main engine

: PB = PD /

Efficiencies
: RT

Thrust force
Thrust deduction fraction
Thrust deduction coefficient

Propeller types

Power
Effective (Towing) power

: T
: F = T _ RT
_
: t = T RT
T

Relative rotative efficiency


:
Propeller efficiency  open water :
Propeller efficiency  behind hull :
Propulsive efficiency
:
Shaft efficiency
:
Total efficiency
:

V W VA
V

Propellers may be divided into the follow


ing two main groups, see also Fig. 7:

Hull efficiency

PE PE PT PD
= 
=  x  x  =
PB PT PD P B

Bx

1_t
1_w

R
0
B
D

=
=

S
T

Fixed pitch propeller (FPpropeller)


V

Controllable pitch propeller


(CPpropeller)

RT

Propellers of the FPtype are cast in


one block and normally made of a copper
alloy. The position of the blades, and
thereby the propeller pitch, is once and
for all fixed, with a given pitch that can
not be changed in operation. This
means that when operating in, for ex
ample, heavy weather conditions, the
propeller performance curves, i.e. the
combination of power and speed
(r/min) points, will change according to
the physical laws, and the actual pro
peller curve cannot be changed by the
crew. Most ships which do not need a
particularly good manoeuvrability are
equipped with an FPpropeller.
Propellers of the CPtype have a rela
tively larger hub compared with the
FPpropellers because the hub has to
have space for a hydraulically activated
mechanism for control of the pitch (an
gle) of the blades. The CPpropeller is
relatively expensive, maybe up to 34
times as expensive as a corresponding
FPpropeller. Furthermore, because of
the relatively larger hub, the propeller
efficiency is slightly lower.
CPpropellers are mostly used for
RoRo ships, shuttle tankers and simi
lar ships that require a high degree of

10

PT PD

PE

PB

Fig. 6: The propulsion of a ship theory

Fixed pitch propeller (FPPropeller)

Monobloc with fixed


propeller blades
(copper alloy)

Fig. 7: Propeller types

Controllable pitch propeller (CPPropeller)

Hub with a mechanism


for control of the pitch
of the blades
(hydraulically activated)

manoeuvrability. For ordinary ships like


container ships, bulk carriers and crude
oil tankers sailing for a long time in nor
mal sea service at a given ship speed,
it will, in general, be a waste of money
to install an expensive CPpropeller in
stead of an FPpropeller. Furthermore, a
CPpropeller is more complicated, invol
ving a higher risk of problems in service.

VW V V A
=
V
V
VA
( you get
=1 w )
V
w=

The value of the wake fraction coefficient


depends largely on the shape of the
hull, but also on the propellers location
and size, and has great influence on
the propellers efficiency.

Flow conditions around the propeller


Wake fraction coefficient w
When the ship is moving, the friction of
the hull will create a socalled friction
belt or boundary layer of water around
the hull. In this friction belt the velocity
of the water on the surface of the hull is
equal to that of the ship, but is reduced
with its distance from the surface of the
hull. At a certain distance from the hull
and, per definition, equal to the outer
surface of the friction belt, the water
velocity is equal to zero.
The thickness of the friction belt increases
with its distance from the fore end of
the hull. The friction belt is therefore
thickest at the aft end of the hull and
this thickness is nearly proportional to
the length of the ship, Ref. [5]. This
means that there will be a certain wake
velocity caused by the friction along the
sides of the hull. Additionally, the ships
displacement of water will also cause
wake waves both fore and aft. All this
involves that the propeller behind the
hull will be working in a wake field.
Therefore, and mainly originating from
the friction wake, the water at the pro
peller will have an effective wake veloc
ity Vw which has the same direction as
the ships speed V, see Fig. 6. This
means that the velocity of arriving water
VA at the propeller, (equal to the speed
of advance of the propeller) given as
the average velocity over the propellers
disk area is Vw lower than the ships
speed V.
The effective wake velocity at the pro
peller is therefore equal to Vw = V VA
and may be expressed in dimensionless
form by means of the wake fraction
coefficient w. The normally used wake
fraction coefficient w given by Taylor is
defined as:

The propeller diameter or, even better,


the ratio between the propeller diameter
d and the ships length LWL has some
influence on the wake fraction coeffi
cient, as d/LWL gives a rough indication
of the degree to which the propeller
works in the hulls wake field. Thus, the
larger the ratio d/LWL, the lower w will
be. The wake fraction coefficient w in
creases when the hull is fouled.
For ships with one propeller, the wake
fraction coefficient w is normally in the
region of 0.20 to 0.45, corresponding
to a flow velocity to the propeller VA of
0.80 to 0.55 of the ships speed V. The
larger the block coefficient, the larger is
the wake fraction coefficient. On ships
with two propellers and a conventional
aftbody form of the hull, the propellers
will normally be positioned outside the
friction belt, for which reason the wake
fraction coefficient w will, in this case,
be a great deal lower. However, for a
twinskeg ship with two propellers, the
coefficient w will be almost unchanged
(or maybe slightly lower) compared
with the singlepropeller case.
Incidentally, a large wake fraction co
efficient increases the risk of propeller
cavitation, as the distribution of the
water velocity around the propeller is
generally very inhomogeneous under
such conditions.
A more homogeneous wake field for
the propeller, also involving a higher
speed of advance VA of the propeller,
may sometimes be needed and can be
obtained in several ways, e.g. by hav
ing the propellers arranged in nozzles,
below shields, etc. Obviously, the best
method is to ensure, already at the de
sign stage, that the aft end of the hull is
shaped in such a way that the opti
mum wake field is obtained.

Thrust deduction coefficient t


The rotation of the propeller causes the
water in front of it to be sucked back
towards the propeller. This results in an
extra resistance on the hull normally
called augment of resistance or, if re
lated to the total required thrust force T
on the propeller, thrust deduction frac
tion F, see Fig. 6. This means that the
thrust force T on the propeller has to
overcome both the ships resistance RT
and this loss of thrust F.
The thrust deduction fraction F may be
expressed in dimensionless form by
means of the thrust deduction coeffi
cient t, which is defined as:
F T RT
=
T
T
RT
( you get
=1 t )
T
t=

The thrust deduction coefficient t can


be calculated by using calculation
models set up on the basis of research
carried out on different models.
In general, the size of the thrust deduc
tion coefficient t increases when the
wake fraction coefficient w increases.
The shape of the hull may have a sig
nificant influence, e.g. a bulbous stem
can, under certain circumstances (low
ship speeds), reduce t.
The size of the thrust deduction coeffi
cient t for a ship with one propeller is,
normally, in the range of 0.12 to 0.30,
as a ship with a large block coefficient
has a large thrust deduction coefficient.
For ships with two propellers and a
conventional aftbody form of the hull,
the thrust deduction coefficient t will be
much less as the propellers sucking
occurs further away from the hull.
However, for a twinskeg ship with two
propellers, the coefficient t will be almost
unchanged (or maybe slightly lower)
compared with the singlepropeller case.
Efficiencies
Hull efficiency hH
The hull efficiency hH is defined as the
ratio between the effective (towing)
power PE = RT V, and the thrust power

11

which the propeller delivers to the water


PT = T VA, i.e.:
hH =

PE RT V RT / T
1 t
=
=
=
PT T V A V A / V
1 w

For a ship with one propeller, the hull


efficiency H is usually in the range of
1.1 to 1.4, with the high value for ships
with high block coefficients. For ships
with two propellers and a conventional
aftbody form of the hull, the hull effi
ciency H is approx. 0.95 to 1.05, again
with the high value for a high block co
efficient. However, for a twinskeg ship
with two propellers, the hull coefficient
H will be almost unchanged compared
with the singlepropeller case.
Open water propeller efficiency O
Propeller efficiency O is related to
working in open water, i.e. the propel
ler works in a homogeneous wake field
with no hull in front of it.
The propeller efficiency depends, es
pecially, on the speed of advance VA,
thrust force T, rate of revolution n, di
ameter d and, moreover, i.a. on the de
sign of the propeller, i.e. the number of
blades, disk area ratio, and pitch/diam
eter ratio which will be discussed
later in this chapter. The propeller effi
ciency O can vary between approx.
0.35 and 0.75, with the high value be
ing valid for propellers with a high
speed of advance VA, Ref. [3].
Fig. 8 shows the obtainable propeller
efficiency O shown as a function of the
speed of advance VA, which is given in
dimensionless form as:
J=

VA
n d

where J is the advance number of the


propeller.
Relative rotative efficiency R
The actual velocity of the water flowing
to the propeller behind the hull is nei
ther constant nor at right angles to the
propellers disk area, but has a kind of
rotational flow. Therefore, compared
with when the propeller is working in
open water, the propellers efficiency is

12

Propeller
efficiency

Small tankers
20,000 DWT

Large tankers
>150,000 DWT

Reefers
Container ships

o
0.7

0.6
n ( revs./s )
1.66

0.5

2.00
0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.7

0.6

0.5

Advance number J =

VA
nxd

Fig. 8: Obtainable propeller efficiency open water, Ref. [3], page 213

affected by the R factor called the


propellers relative rotative efficiency.
On ships with a single propeller the
rotative efficiency R is, normally, around
1.0 to 1.07, in other words, the rotation
of the water has a beneficial effect. The
rotative efficiency R on a ship with a
conventional hull shape and with two
propellers will normally be less, approx.
0.98, whereas for a twinskeg ship with
two propellers, the rotative efficiency R
will be almost unchanged.
In combination with w and t, R is prob
ably often being used to adjust the re
sults of model tank tests to the theory.
Propeller efficiency B working behind
the ship
The ratio between the thrust power PT,
which the propeller delivers to the wa

ter, and the power PD, which is deliv


ered to the propeller, i.e. the propeller
efficiency B for a propeller working
behind the ship, is defined as:
hB =

PT
= ho hR
PD

Propulsive efficiency D
The propulsive efficiency D, which
must not be confused with the open
water propeller efficiency O, is equal to
the ratio between the effective (towing)
power PE and the necessary power
delivered to the propeller PD, i.e.:
hD =

PE PE PT
=

PD PT PD

= H B = H O R

As can be seen, the propulsive efficiency


D is equal to the product of the hull
efficiency H, the open water propeller
efficiency O, and the relative rotative
efficiency R, although the latter has
less significance.
In this connection, one can be led to
believe that a hull form giving a high
wake fraction coefficient w, and hence
a high hull efficiency H, will also provide
the best propulsive efficiency D.
However, as the open water propeller
efficiency O is also greatly dependent
on the speed of advance VA, cf. Fig. 8,
that is decreasing with increased w,
the propulsive efficiency D will not,
generally, improve with increasing w,
quite often the opposite effect is obtained.
Generally, the best propulsive efficiency
is achieved when the propeller works in
a homogeneous wake field.
Shaft efficiency S
The shaft efficiency S depends, i.a. on
the alignment and lubrication of the
shaft bearings, and on the reduction
gear, if installed.
Shaft efficiency is equal to the ratio be
tween the power PD delivered to the
propeller and the brake power PB deliv
ered by the main engine, i.e.
PD
hS =
PB
The shaft efficiency is normally around
0.985, but can vary between 0.96 and
0.995.
Total efficiency T
The total efficiency T, which is equal to
the ratio between the effective (towing)
power PE, and the necessary brake
power PB delivered by the main engine,
can be expressed thus:
hT =

PE PE PD
=

PB PD PB

= D S = H O R S

Propeller dimensions
Propeller diameter d
With a view to obtaining the highest
possible propulsive efficiency D, the
largest possible propeller diameter d
will, normally, be preferred. There are,
however, special conditions to be con
sidered. For one thing, the aftbody form
of the hull can vary greatly depending on
type of ship and ship design, for another,
the necessary clearance between the
tip of the propeller and the hull will de
pend on the type of propeller.
For bulkers and tankers, which are often
sailing in ballast condition, there are
frequent demands that the propeller
shall be fully immersed also in this con
dition, giving some limitation to the pro
peller size. This propeller size limitation
is not particularly valid for container
ships as they rarely sail in ballast condi
tion. All the above factors mean that an
exact propeller diameter/design draught
ratio d/D cannot be given here but, as
a ruleofthumb, the below mentioned
approximations of the diameter/design
draught ratio d/D can be presented,
and a large diameter d will, normally,
result in a low rate of revolution n.
Bulk carrier and tanker:

Twobladed propellers are used on


small ships, and 4, 5 and 6bladed
propellers are used on large ships.
Ships using the MAN B&W twostroke
engines are normally largetype vessels
which use 4bladed propellers. Ships
with a relatively large power requirement
and heavily loaded propellers, e.g. con
tainer ships, may need 5 or 6bladed
propellers. For vibrational reasons, pro
pellers with certain numbers of blades
may be avoided in individual cases in
order not to give rise to the excitation
of natural frequencies in the ships hull
or superstructure, Ref. [5].
Disk area coefficient
The disk area coefficient referred to in
older literature as expanded blade area
ratio defines the developed surface
area of the propeller in relation to its
disk area. A factor of 0.55 is considered
as being good. The disk area coefficient
of traditional 4bladed propellers is of
little significance, as a higher value will
only lead to extra resistance on the
propeller itself and, thus, have little ef
fect on the final result.
For ships with particularly heavyloaded
propellers, often 5 and 6bladed pro
pellers, the coefficient may have a
higher value. On warships it can be as
high as 1.2.

d/D < approximately 0.65


Container ship:
d/D < approximately 0.74
For strength and production reasons,
the propeller diameter will generally not
exceed 10.0 metres and a power out
put of about 90,000 kW. The largest
diameter propeller manufactured so far
is of 11.0 metres and has four propeller
blades.
Number of propeller blades
Propellers can be manufactured with 2,
3, 4, 5 or 6 blades. The fewer the num
ber of blades, the higher the propeller
efficiency will be. However, for reasons
of strength, propellers which are to be
subjected to heavy loads cannot be
manufactured with only two or three
blades.

Pitch diameter ratio p/d


The pitch diameter ratio p/d, expresses
the ratio between the propellers pitch
p and its diameter d, see Fig. 10. The
pitch p is the distance the propeller
screws itself forward through the wa
ter per revolution, providing that there
is no slip see also the next section
and Fig. 10. As the pitch can vary
along the blades radius, the ratio is
normally related to the pitch at 0.7 r,
where r = d/2 is the propellers radius.
To achieve the best propulsive efficiency
for a given propeller diameter, an optimum
pitch/diameter ratio is to be found,
which again corresponds to a particu
lar design rate of revolution. If, for
instance, a lower design rate of revolution
is desired, the pitch/diameter ratio has
to be increased, and vice versa, at the
cost of efficiency. On the other hand, if
a lower design rate of revolution is de
sired, and the ships draught permits,
the choice of a larger propeller diame
13

ter may permit such a lower design rate


of revolution and even, at the same time,
increase the propulsive efficiency.
Propeller coefficients J, KT and KQ
Propeller theory is based on models,
but to facilitate the general use of this
theory, certain dimensionless propeller
coefficients have been introduced in re
lation to the diameter d, the rate of rev
olution n, and the waters mass density
r. The three most important of these
coefficients are mentioned below.
The advance number of the propeller J
is, as earlier mentioned, a dimensionless
expression of the propellers speed of
advance VA.
J=

VA
n d

The thrust force T, is expressed


dimensionless, with the help of the
thrust coefficient KT, as
KT =

T
r n d4
2

The price of the propeller, of course,


depends on the selected accuracy
class, with the lowest price for class III.
However, it is not recommended to
use class III, as this class has a too
high tolerance. This again means that
the mean pitch tolerance should nor
mally be less than +/ 1.0 %.

ISO 484/1 1981 (CE)


Manufacturing
accuracy

Mean pitch
for propel
ler

Very high accuracy


High accuracy
Medium accuracy
Wide tolerances

+/ 0.5 %
+/ 0.75 %
+/ 1.00 %
+/ 3.00 %

Class
S
I
II
III

The manufacturing accuracy tolerance


corresponds to a propeller speed toler
ance of max. +/ 1.0 %. When also in
corporating the influence of the tolerance
on the wake field of the hull, the total
propeller tolerance on the rate of revo
lution can be up to +/ 2.0 %. This tol
erance has also to be borne in mind
when considering the operating condi
tions of the propeller in heavy weather.

Table 5: Manufacturing accuracy classes


of a propeller

Manufacturing accuracy of the propeller


Before the manufacturing of the propeller,
the desired accuracy class standard of
the propeller must be chosen by the
customer. Such a standard is, for ex
ample, ISO 484/1 1981 (CE), which
has four different Accuracy classes,
see Table 5.

Influence of propeller diameter and


pitch/diameter ratio on propulsive
efficiency D.
As already mentioned, the highest pos
sible propulsive efficiency required to
provide a given ship speed is obtained
with the largest possible propeller dia
meter d, in combination with the corre
sponding, optimum pitch/diameter ra
tio p/d.

Each of the classes, among other de


tails, specifies the maximum allowable
tolerance on the mean design pitch of
the manufactured propeller, and
thereby the tolerance on the correspond
ing propeller speed (rate of revolution).

and the propeller torque


Q=

PD
2p n

is expressed dimensionless with the


help of the torque coefficient KQ, as
KQ =

Q
r n2 d 5

The propeller efficiency hO can be cal


culated with the help of the abovemen
tioned coefficients, because, as previously
mentioned, the propeller efficiency hO is
defined as:
hO =

PT
T VA
KT
J
=
=

PD Q 2 p n K Q 2 p

Shaft power
kW
9,500

80,000 dwt crude oil tanker


Design draught = 12.2 m
Ship speed
= 14.5 kn

9,400
p/d

9,300

14

d
6.6 m

1.00

9,200

6.8 m

0.95

9,100

0.90

9,000

7.0 m

0.85
0.80

8,900
8,800

7.4 m

8,700

8,600

0.70

70

80

0.60
0.65

p/d
0.67

0.50

0.55
Power and speed curve
for the given propeller
diameter d = 7.2 m with
different p/d

Power and speed curve


for various propeller
diameters d with
optimum p/d
Propeller speed

0.71

p/d

90

0.68

0.69

7.2 m
0.75

8,500

With the help of special and very com


plicated propeller diagrams, which
contain, i.a. J, KT and KQ curves, it is
possible to find/calculate the propellers
dimensions, efficiency, thrust, power, etc.

p/d

d = Propeller diameter
p/d = Pitch/diameter ratio

100

110

Fig. 9: Propeller design influence of diameter and pitch

120

130 r/min

As an example for an 80,000 dwt crude


oil tanker, with a service ship speed of
14.5 knots and a maximum possible
propeller diameter of 7.2 m, this influence
is shown in Fig. 9.
According to the blue curve, the maxi
mum possible propeller diameter of 7.2
m may have the optimum pitch/diame
ter ratio of 0.70, and the lowest possi
ble shaft power of 8,820 kW at 100
r/min. If the pitch for this diameter is
changed, the propulsive efficiency will
be reduced, i.e. the necessary shaft
power will increase, see the red curve.

Pitch p
Slip

0.7 x r
d
r

The blue curve shows that if a bigger


propeller diameter of 7.4 m is possible,
the necessary shaft power will be re
duced to 8,690 kW at 94 r/min, i.e. the
bigger the propeller, the lower the opti
mum propeller speed.
The red curve also shows that propul
sionwise it will always be an advan
tage to choose the largest possible
propeller diameter, even though the
optimum pitch/diameter ratio would
involve a too low propeller speed (in rela
tion to the required main engine speed).
Thus, when using a somewhat lower
pitch/diameter ratio, compared with the
optimum ratio, the propeller/ engine
speed may be increased and will only
cause a minor extra power increase.

Sxpxn

V or VA
pxn

pxn_V
V
=1_
pxn
pxn
p x n _ VA
VA
: SR =
=1_
pxn
pxn

The apparent slip ratio : SA =


The real slip ratio

Fig. 10: Movement of a ships propeller, with pitch p and slip ratio S

The apparent slip ratio SA, which is


dimensionless, is defined as:
SA =

The apparent slip ratio SA, which is cal


culated by the crew, provides useful
knowledge as it gives an impression of
the loads applied to the propeller under
different operating conditions. The ap
parent slip ratio increases when the

p nV
V
=1
p n
p n

Operating conditions of a propeller


Velocity of corkscrew: V = p x n

Pitch p

Slip ratio S
If the propeller had no slip, i.e. if the
water which the propeller screws
itself through did not yield (i.e. if the
water did not accelerate aft), the pro
peller would move forward at a speed
of V = p n, where n is the propellers
rate of revolution, see Fig. 10.
The similar situation is shown in Fig. 11
for a cork screw, and because the cork
is a solid material, the slip is zero and,
therefore, the cork screw always moves
forward at a speed of V = p n. How
ever, as the water is a fluid and does
yield (i.e. accelerate aft), the propellers
apparent speed forward decreases
with its slip and becomes equal to the
ships speed V, and its apparent slip
can thus be expressed as p n V.

Corkscrew

Cork

Wine bottle

Fig. 11: Movement of a corkscrew, without slip

15

vessel sails against the wind or waves,


in shallow waters, when the hull is
fouled, and when the ship accelerates.
Under increased resistance, this in
volves that the propeller speed (rate of
revolution) has to be increased in order
to maintain the required ship speed.
The real slip ratio will be greater than
the apparent slip ratio because the real
speed of advance VA of the propeller is,
as previously mentioned, less than the
ships speed V.
The real slip ratio SR, which gives a truer
picture of the propellers function, is:

sonable relationship to be used for esti


mations in the normal ship speed range
could be as follows:

and heavy weather). These diagrams us


ing logarithmic scales and straight lines
are described in detail in Chapter 3.

For large highspeed ships like con


tainer vessels: P = c V 4.5

Propeller performance in general at


increased ship resistance
The difference between the abovemen
tioned light and heavy running propeller
curves may be explained by an exam
ple, see Fig. 12, for a ship using, as ref
erence, 15 knots and 100% propulsion
power when running with a clean hull in
calm weather conditions. With 15% more
power, the corresponding ship speed
may increase from 15.0 to 15.6 knots.

For mediumsized, mediumspeed


ships like feeder container ships,
reefers, RoRo ships, etc.: P = c V 4.0
For lowspeed ships like tankers and
bulk carriers, and small feeder con
tainer ships, etc.: P = c V 3.5

At quay trials where the ships speed is


V = 0, both slip ratios are 1.0. Incidentally,
slip ratios are often given in percentages.

Propeller law for heavy running propeller


The propeller law, of course, can only
be applied to identical ship running
conditions. When, for example, the
ships hull after some time in service
has become fouled and thus become
more rough, the wake field will be different
from that of the smooth ship (clean hull)
valid at trial trip conditions.

Propeller law in general


As discussed in Chapter 1, the resis
tance R for lower ship speeds is pro
portional to the square of the ships
speed V, i.e.:

A ship with a fouled hull will, conse


quently, be subject to extra resistance
which will give rise to a heavy propeller
condition, i.e. at the same propeller
power, the rate of revolution will be lower.

VA
V (1 w )
SR =1
=1
p n
p n

R = c V2
where c is a constant. The necessary
power requirement P is thus propor
tional to the speed V to the power of
three, thus:
P = R V = c V3
For a ship equipped with a fixed pitch
propeller, i.e. a propeller with unchange
able pitch, the ship speed V will be pro
portional to the rate of revolution n, thus:
P = c n3
which precisely expresses the propeller
law, which states that the necessary
power delivered to the propeller is pro
portional to the rate of revolution to the
power of three.
Actual measurements show that the
power and engine speed relationship
for a given weather condition is fairly
reasonable, whereas the power and
ship speed relationship is often seen
with a higher power than three. A rea

16

The propeller law now applies to an


other and heavier propeller curve
than that applying to the clean hull,
propeller curve, Ref. [3], page 243.
The same relative considerations apply
when the ship is sailing in a heavy sea
against the current, a strong wind, and
heavy waves, where also the heavy
waves in tail wind may give rise to a
heavier propeller running than when
running in calm weather. On the other
hand, if the ship is sailing in ballast
condition, i.e. with a lower displace
ment, the propeller law now applies to
a lighter propeller curve, i.e. at the
same propeller power, the propeller
rate of revolution will be higher.
As mentioned previously, for ships with
a fixed pitch propeller, the propeller law
is extensively used at part load running.
It is therefore also used in MAN B&W
Diesels engine layout and load diagrams
to specify the engines operational
curves for light running conditions (i.e.
clean hull and calm weather) and heavy
running conditions (i.e. for fouled hull

As described in Chapter 3, and com


pared with the calm weather conditions,
it is normal to incorporate an extra
power margin, the socalled sea mar
gin, which is often chosen to be 15%.
This power margin corresponds to ex
tra resistance on the ship caused by
the weather conditions. However, for
very rough weather conditions the influ
ence may be much greater, as de
scribed in Chapter 1.
In Fig. 12a, the propulsion power is
shown as a function of the ship speed.
When the resistance increases to a
level which requires 15% extra power
to maintain a ship speed of 15 knots,
the operating point A will move towards
point B.
In Fig. 12b the propulsion power is
now shown as a function of the propeller
speed. As a first guess it will often be as
sumed that point A will move towards B
because an unchanged propeller speed
implies that, with unchanged pitch, the
propeller will move through the water
at an unchanged speed.
If the propeller was a corkscrew moving
through cork, this assumption would
be correct. However, water is not solid
as cork but will yield, and the propeller
will have a slip that will increase with in
creased thrust caused by increased
hull resistance. Therefore, point A will
move towards B which, in fact, is very
close to the propeller curve through A.
Point B will now be positioned on a
propeller curve which is slightly heavy
running compared with the clean hull
and calm weather propeller curve.

Power

15.0 knots
115% power

15%
Sea
margin

Slip

15.6 knots
115% power

15.6 knots
115% power

15%
Sea
margin

Propeller curve for clean


hull and calm weather

Propeller curve for clean


hull and calm weather

Propeller
curve for
fouled hull
and heavy
seas

Ship speed
(Logarithmic scales)

A Power

12.3 knots
50% power
C
HR
LR

15.0 knots
100% power

Propeller curve
for clean hull and
calm weather

10.0 knots
50% power

15.0 knots
100% power

15.0 knots
100% power

12.3 knots
100% power
Slip

Power

15.0 knots
115% power

Propeller speed

HR = Heavy running
LR = Light running
Propeller speed

(Logarithmic scales)

(Logarithmic scales)

Fig. 12a: Ship speed performance at 15%


sea margin

Fig. 12b: Propeller speed performance at


15% sea margin

Fig. 12c: Propeller speed performance at


large extra ship resistance

Sometimes, for instance when the hull


is fouled and the ship is sailing in heavy
seas in a head wind, the increase in
resistance may be much greater, cor
responding to an extra power demand
of the magnitude of 100% or even higher.
An example is shown in Fig. 12c.

a ducted propeller, the opposite effect


is obtained.

can be up to 78% heavier running


than in calm weather, i.e. at the same
propeller power, the rate of revolution
may be 78% lower. An example valid
for a smaller container ship is shown in
Fig. 13. The service data is measured

In this example, where 100% power


will give a ship speed of 15.0 knots,
point A, a ship speed of, for instance,
12.3 knots at clean hull and in calm
weather conditions, point C, will require
about 50% propulsion power but, at
the abovementioned heavy running
conditions, it might only be possible to
obtain the 12.3 knots by 100% propulsion
power, i.e. for 100% power going from
point A to D. Running point D may now
be placed relatively far to the left of point
A, i.e. very heavy running. Such a situ
ation must be considered when laying
out the main engine in relation to the
layout of the propeller, as described in
Chapter 3.
A scewed propeller (with bent blade
tips) is more sensitive to heavy running
than a normal propeller, because the
propeller is able to absorb a higher
torque in heavy running conditions. For

Heavy waves and sea and wind against


When sailing in heavy sea against, with
heavy wave resistance, the propeller

BHP
21,000

Shaft power

Ap
10% pare
6% nt s
2% lip
2%

Heavy
running
C
Extremely bad weather 6%
18,000
B
Average weather
3%
A
Extremely good weather 0%
15,000

12,000
C

Clean hull and draught D


DMEAN = 6.50 m
DF
= 5.25 m
DA
= 7.75 m
Source: Lloyd's Register

9,000 13

6,000

B
16 A
Sh
ip
s 19
kn pee
ots d
76
80

22
84

88

92

96
100 r/min
Propeller speed

Fig. 13: Service data over a period of a year returned from a single screw container ship

17

SMCR: 13,000 kW x 105 r/min


Wind velocity : 2.5 m/s
Wave height : 4 m

Shaft power
% SMCR
105

Head wind
Tail wind

*22.0

SMCR
100

22.3 *

5
1

95

90
g
En

op
pr

"
ve
ur Propeller design
c
r
le
light running
el

"

in

85
rc

80

lle

ll

e
op
Pr

96

20.5
21.8
* * 20.5 *
21.5
21.1 *
3

20.8*

ve
ur

e
op
Pr

Heavy
running

21.1 *
ve
ur
c
er

97

98

*21.2

99

100

(Logarithmic scales)

101

102

103

104 105 % SMCR

Propeller/engine speed

Fig. 14: Measured relationship between power, propeller and ship speed during seatrial of
a reefer ship

over a period of one year and only


includes the influence of weather con
ditions! The measuring points have
been reduced to three average weather
conditions and show, for extremely bad
weather conditions, an average heavy
running of 6%, and therefore, in prac
tice, the heavy running has proved to
be even greater.
In order to avoid slamming of the ship,
and thereby damage to the stem and
racing of the propeller, the ship speed
will normally be reduced by the navigat
ing officer on watch.
Another measured example is shown
in Fig. 14, and is valid for a reefer ship
during its sea trial. Even though the
wind velocity is relatively low, only 2.5
m/s, and the wave height is 4 m, the
18

measurements indicate approx. 1.5%


heavy running when sailing in head
wind out, compared with when sailing
in tail wind on return.
Ship acceleration
When the ship accelerates, the propel
ler will be subjected to an even larger
load than during free sailing. The power
required for the propeller, therefore, will
be relatively higher than for free sailing,
and the engines operating point will be
heavy running, as it takes some time
before the propeller speed has reached
its new and higher level. An example
with two different accelerations, for an
engine without electronic governor and
scavenge air pressure limiter, is shown
in Fig. 15. The load diagram and scav
enge air pressure limiter are is described
in Chapter 3.

Shallow waters
When sailing in shallow waters, the re
sidual resistance of the ship may be in
creased and, in the same way as when
the ship accelerates, the propeller will
be subjected to a larger load than dur
ing free sailing, and the propeller will be
heavy running.
Influence of displacement
When the ship is sailing in the loaded
condition, the ships displacement vol
ume may, for example, be 10% higher
or lower than for the displacement valid
for the average loaded condition. This,
of course, has an influence on the ships
resistance, and the required propeller
power, but only a minor influence on
the propeller curve.
On the other hand, when the ship is
sailing in the ballast condition, the dis
placement volume, compared to the
loaded condition, can be much lower,
and the corresponding propeller curve
may apply to, for example, a 2% lighter
propeller curve, i.e. for the same power
to the propeller, the rate of revolution
will be 2% higher.
Parameters causing heavy running
propeller
Together with the previously described
operating parameters which cause a
heavy running propeller, the parame
ters summarised below may give an in
dication of the risk/sensitivity of getting
a heavy running propeller when sailing
in heavy weather and rough seas:
1 Relatively small ships (<70,000 dwt)
such as reefers and small container
ships are sensitive whereas large ships,
such as large tankers and container
ships, are less sensitive because the
waves are relatively small compared
to the ship size.
2 Small ships (Lpp < 135 m 20,000 dwt)
have low directional stability and,
therefore, require frequent rudder
corrections, which increase the ship
resistance (a selfcontrolled rudder
will reduce such resistance).
3 Highspeed ships
are more sensitive than lowspeed
ships because the waves will act on
the fastgoing ship with a relatively

power will be needed but, of course,


this will be higher for running in heavy
weather with increased resistance on
the ship.

Engine shaft power, % A


A 100% reference point
M Specified engine MCR
O Optimising point

110
100

A=M
O

90
80
mep
110%

70

Therefore, a clockwise (looking from aft


to fore) rotating propeller will tend to
push the ships stern in the starboard
direction, i.e. pushing the ships stem
to port, during normal ahead running.
This has to be counteracted by the
rudder.

100%
90%

60

80%
50

Direction of propeller rotation (side thrust)


When a ship is sailing, the propeller
blades bite more in their lowermost po
sition than in their uppermost position.
The resulting sidethrust effect is larger
the more shallow the water is as, for
example, during harbour manoeuvres.

70%
60%

40
60

65

70

75

80

(Logarithmic scales)

85

90

95 100 105
Engine speed, % A

Fig. 15: Load diagram acceleration

larger force than on the slowgoing


ship.
4 Ships with a flat stem
may be slowed down faster by waves
than a ship with a sharp stem.
Thus an axeshaped upper bow may
better cut the waves and thereby
reduce the heavy running tendency.
5 Fouling of the hull and propeller
will increase both hull resistance and
propeller torque. Polishing the pro
peller (especially the tips) as often as
possible (also when in water) has a
positive effect. The use of effective
antifouling paints will prevent fouling
caused by living organisms.
6 Ship acceleration
will increase the propeller torque,
and thus give a temporarily heavy
running propeller.

7 Sailing in shallow waters


increases the hull resistance and re
duces the ships directional stability.
8 Ships with scewed propeller
are able to absorb a higher torque
under heavy running conditions.
Manoeuvring speed
Below a certain ship speed, called the
manoeuvring speed, the manoeuvra
bility of the rudder is insufficient be
cause of a too low velocity of the water
arriving at the rudder. It is rather difficult
to give an exact figure for an adequate
manoeuvring speed of the ship as the
velocity of the water arriving at the rud
der depends on the propellers slip
stream.

When reversing the propeller to astern


running as, for example, when berthing
alongside the quay, the sidethrust ef
fect is also reversed and becomes fur
ther pronounced as the ships speed
decreases. Awareness of this behav
iour is very important in critical situa
tions and during harbour manoeuvres.
According to Ref. [5], page 153, the
real reason for the appearance of the
side thrust during reversing of the pro
peller is that the upper part of the pro
pellers slip stream, which is rotative,
strikes the aftbody of the ship.
Thus, also the pilot has to know pre
cisely how the ship reacts in a given
situation. It is therefore an unwritten
law that on a ship fitted with a fixed
pitch propeller, the propeller is always
designed for clockwise rotation when
sailing ahead. A direct coupled main
engine, of course, will have the same
rotation.
In order to obtain the same sidethrust
effect, when reversing to astern, on
ships fitted with a controllable pitch
propeller, CPpropellers are designed
for anticlockwise rotation when sailing
ahead.

Often a manoeuvring speed of the


magnitude of 3.54.5 knots is men
tioned. According to the propeller law,
a correspondingly low propulsion

19

Propulsion and engine running


points

Engine Layout and


Load Diagrams
Power functions and logarithmic
scales
As is wellknown, the effective brake
power PB of a diesel engine is propor
tional to the mean effective pressure
(mep) pe and engine speed (rate of rev
olution) n. When using c as a constant,
PB may then be expressed as follows:

Propeller design point PD


Normally, estimations of the necessary
propeller power and speed are based
on theoretical calculations for loaded
ship, and often experimental tank tests,
both assuming optimum operating
conditions, i.e. a clean hull and good
weather. The combination of speed
and power obtained may be called the
ships propeller design point PD placed
on the light running propeller curve 6,

PB = c pe n
or, in other words, for constant mep
the power is proportional to the speed:

PB = c n1 (for constant mep)


As already mentioned when running
with a fixed pitch propeller the power
may, according to the propeller law, be
expressed as:
P B = c n3

a
1
b
X
0
1
2
A. Straight lines in linear scales

(propeller law)

Thus, for the above examples, the brake


power PB may be expressed as a func
tion of the speed n to the power of i, i.e.
PB = c n

Fig. 16 shows the relationship between


the linear functions, y = ax + b, see (A),
using linear scales and the power func
i
tions PB = c n , see (B), using logarith
mic scales.

y = log (PB)

log (PB) = i log (n) + log (c)


which is equivalent to:

y = ax + b

Thus, propeller curves will be parallel to


lines having the inclination i = 3, and
lines with constant mep will be parallel
to lines with the inclination i = 1.
Therefore, in the layout and load diagrams
for diesel engines, as described in the
following, logarithmic scales are used,
making simple diagrams with straight
lines.

y = log (PB) = log (c x ni )

i=0

i=2

i=3

Fouled hull
When the ship has been sailing for
some time, the hull and propeller be
come fouled and the hulls resistance
will increase. Consequently, the ship
speed will be reduced unless the engine
delivers more power to the propeller, i.e.
the propeller will be further loaded and
will become heavy running HR.
Furthermore, newer highefficiency ship
types have a relatively high ship speed,
and a very smooth hull and propeller
surface (at sea trial) when the ship is
delivered. This means that the inevitable
buildup of the surface roughness on
the hull and propeller during sea service
after seatrial may result in a relatively
heavier running propeller, compared
with older ships born with a more rough
hull surface.
Heavy weather and sea margin used
for layout of engine
If, at the same time, the weather is
bad, with head winds, the ships resis
tance may increase much more, and
lead to even heavier running.
When determining the necessary en
gine power, it is normal practice to add
an extra power margin, the socalled
sea margin, which is traditionally about
15% of the propeller design PD power.
However, for large container ships,
2030% may sometimes be used.

i=1

The power functions will be linear when


using logarithmic scales, as:

20

y = ax + b

see Fig. 17. On the other hand, some


shipyards and/or propeller manufactur
ers sometimes use a propeller design
point PD that incorporates all or part of
the socalled sea margin described be
low.

x = log (n)

PB = engine brake power


c = constant
n = engine speed
log(PB) = i x log(n) + log(c)
PB = c x ni
y
ax + b
=
B. Power function curves
in logarithmic scales

Fig. 16: Relationship between linear functions


using linear scales and power functions
using logarithmic scales

When determining the necessary en


gine speed, for layout of the engine, it
is recommended compared with the
clean hull and calm weather propeller
curve 6 to choose the heavier propel
ler curve 2, see Fig. 17, corresponding
to curve 6 having a 37% higher rate of
revolution than curve 2, and in general
with 5% as a good choice.
Note that the chosen sea power mar
gin does not equalise the chosen
heavy engine propeller curve.

Power

MP
Engine margin
(10% of MP)

SP
PD

Sea margin
(15% of PD)

the engine operating curve in service,


curve 2, whereas the light propeller
curve for clean hull and calm weather,
curve 6, may be valid for running con
ditions with new ships, and equal to
the layout/design curve of the propel
ler. Therefore, the light propeller curve
for clean hull and calm weather is said
to represent a light running LR pro
peller and will be related to the heavy
propeller curve for fouled hull and
heavy weather condition by means of a
light running factor fLR, which, for the
same power to the propeller, is defined
as the percentage increase of the rate
of revolution n, compared to the rate of
revolution for heavy running, i.e.

PD

fLR =

LR(5%)

HR
Engine speed

2
6
MP:
SP:
PD:
Pd:
LR:
HR:

Heavy propeller curve _ fouled hull and heavy weather


Light propeller curve _ clean hull and calm weather
Specified propulsion point
Service propulsion point
Propeller design point
Alternative propeller design point
Light running factor
Heavy running

nlight nheavy
nheavy

100%

Engine margin
Besides the sea margin, a socalled
engine margin of some 1015% is
frequently added as an operational
margin for the engine. The correspond
ing point is called the specified MCR
for propulsion MP, see Fig. 17, and
refers to the fact that the power for
point SP is 1015% lower than for
point MP, i.e. equal to 9085% of MP.
Specified MCR M
The engines specified MCR point M is
the maximum rating required by the
yard or owner for continuous operation
of the engine. Point M is identical to the
specified propulsion MCR point MP un
less a main engine driven shaft genera
tor is installed. In such a case, the extra
power demand of the shaft generator
must also be considered.

Fig. 17: Ship propulsion running points and engine layout

Continuous service propulsion point SP


The resulting speed and power combi
nation when including heavy propeller
running and sea margin is called the
continuous service rating for propulsion
SP for fouled hull and heavy weather.
The heavy propeller curve, curve 2, for
fouled hull and heavy weather will nor
mally be used as the basis for the en
gine operating curve in service, and the
propeller curve for clean hull and calm
weather, curve 6, is said to represent a
light running LR propeller.

Continuous service rating S


The continuous service rating is the
power at which the engine, including
the sea margin, is assumed to operate,
and point S is identical to the service
propulsion point SP unless a main en
gine driven shaft generator is installed.
Light running factor fLR
The heavy propeller curve for a fouled
hull and heavy weather, and if no shaft
generator is installed may, as mentioned
above, be used as the design basis for

Note:
Light/heavy running, fouling and sea
margin are overlapping terms.
Light/heavy running of the propeller re
fers to hull and propeller deterioration,
and bad weather, and sea margin, i.e.
extra power to the propeller, refers to
the influence of the wind and the sea.
Based on feedback from service, it
seems reasonable to design the pro
peller for 37% light running. The de
gree of light running must be decided
upon, based on experience from the
actual trade and hull design, but 5%
is often a good choice.

21

gine may be drawnin. The specified


MCR point M must be inside the limita
tion lines of the layout diagram; if it is
not, the propeller speed will have to be
changed or another main engine type
must be chosen. Yet, in special cases,
point M may be located to the right of
line L1L2, see Optimising/Matching
Point below.

Engine shaft power, % A


110

A 100% reference point


M Specified engine MCR
O Optimising point

100

A=M
7
5

90

Optimising point O
The Optimising (MC)/Matching (ME)
point O or, better, the layout point of
the engine is the rating at which the
engine (timing and) compression ratio
are adjusted, with consideration to the
scavenge air pressure of the turbocharger.

80
10

mep
110%

70

100%

90%

60

80%
3

50

70%
9
60%

40
60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100 105

Engine speed, % A

Line 1: Propeller curve through optimising point (O) _ layout curve for engine
Line 2: Heavy propeller curve _ fouled hull and heavy seas
Line 3: Speed limit
Line 4: Torque/speed limit
Line 5: Mean effective pressure limit
Line 6: Light propeller curve _ clean hull and calm weather _ layout curve for propeller
Line 7: Power limit for continuous running
Line 8: Overload limit
Line 9: Sea trial speed limit
Line 10: Constant mean effective pressure (mep) lines

Fig. 18: Engine load diagram

As mentioned below, under Load dia


gram, the optimising point O (later on
in this paper also used in general
where matching point for ME engines
was the correct one) is placed on line 1
(layout curve of engine) of the load dia
gram, and the optimised power can be
from 85 to 100% of point Ms power.
Overload running will still be possible
(110% of Ms power), as long as consid
eration to the scavenge air pressure has
been taken.
The optimising point O is to be placed
inside the layout diagram. In fact, the
specified MCR point M can be placed
outside the layout diagram, but only by
exceeding line L1L2, and, of course,
only provided that the optimising point
O is located inside the layout diagram.
It should be noted that MC/MCC en
gines without VIT (variable injection tim
ing) fuel pumps cannot be optimised at
partload. Therefore, these engines are
always optimised in point A, i.e. having
point Ms power.
Load diagram

Engine layout diagram


An engines layout diagram is limited by
two constant mean effective pressure
(mep) lines L1L3 and L2L4, and by two
constant engine speed lines L1L2 and
L3L4, see Fig. 17. The L1 point refers to
the engines nominal maximum contin
uous rating. Within the layout area
there is full freedom to select the en
gines specified MCR point M and rele
vant optimising point O, see below,

22

which is optimum for the ship and the


operating profile. Please note that the
lowest specific fuel oil consumption for
a given optimising point O will be ob
tained at 70% and 80% of point Os
power, for electronically (ME) and me
chanically (MC) controlled engines,
respectively.

Definitions
The load diagram (Fig. 18) defines the
power and speed limits for continuous
as well as overload operation of an in
stalled engine which has an optimising
point O and a specified MCR point M
that conforms to the ships specification.

Based on the propulsion and engine


running points, as previously found, the
layout diagram of a relevant main en

Point A is a 100% speed and power


reference point of the load diagram,
and is defined as the point on the pro

peller curve (line 1) the layout curve of


the engine through the optimising point
O, having the specified MCR power.
Normally, point M is equal to point A,
but in special cases, for example if a
shaft generator is installed, point M
may be placed to the right of point A
on line 7. The service points of the in
stalled engine incorporate the engine
power required for ship propulsion and
for the shaft generator, if installed.
During shoptest running, the engine will
always operate along curve 1, with
point A as 100% MCR. If CPpropeller
and constant speed operation is re
quired, the delivery test may be fin
ished with a constant speed test.
Limits to continuous operation
The continuous service range is limited
by the four lines 4, 5, 7 and 3 (9), see
Fig. 18:
Line 3 and line 9
Line 3 represents the maximum accept
able speed for continuous operation, i.e.

105% of A, however, maximum 105%


of L1. During sea trial conditions the
maximum speed may be extended to
107% of A, see line 9.

Line 5:
Represents the maximum mean effec
tive pressure level (mep) which can be
accepted for continuous operation.

The above limits may, in general, be


extended to 105% and, during sea trial
conditions, to 107% of the nominal L1
speed of the engine, provided the tor
sional vibration conditions permit.

Line 7:
Represents the maximum power for
continuous operation.

The overspeed setpoint is 109% of


the speed in A, however, it may be
moved to 109% of the nominal speed
in L1, provided that torsional vibration
conditions permit.

Limits for overload operation


The overload service range is limited as
follows, see Fig. 18:

Running at low load above 100% of


the nominal L1 speed of the engine is,
however, to be avoided for extended
periods.

Line 8:
Represents the overload operation limi
tations.

Line 4:
Represents the limit at which an ample
air supply is available for combustion and
imposes a limitation on the maximum
combination of torque and speed.

M: Specified MCR of engine


S: Continuous service rating of engine
O: Optimising point of engine
A: Reference point of load diagram

Line 10:
Represents the mean effective pressure
(mep) lines. Line 5 is equal to the 100%
mepline. The meplines are also an
expression of the corresponding fuel
index of the engine.

The area between lines 4, 5, 7 and the


dashed line 8 in Fig. 18 is available for
overload running for limited periods
only (1 hour per 12 hours).

M: Specified MCR of engine


S: Continuous service rating of engine
O: Optimising point of engine
A: Reference point of load diagram

Power

7
A=M=MP
O
S=SP
2

5% A

3.3% A

5
4
Power

1 2 6
A=M

5% L1

S
Propulsion and
engine service curve
for heavy running

2
3

Engine speed
Point A of load diagram
Line 1: Propeller curve through optimising point (O)
Line 7: Constant power line through specified MCR (M)
Point A: Intersection between lines 1 and 7

Fig. 19a: Example 1 with FPP engine layout without SG (normal case)

Propulsion and engine service


curve for heavy running

Engine speed

Fig. 19b: Example 1 with FPP load diagram without SG (normal case)

23

The scavenge air pressure limiter


algorithm compares the calculated
fuel pump index and measured
scavenge air pressure with a refer
ence limiter curve giving the maxi
mum allowable fuel pump index at a
given scavenge air pressure. If the
calculated fuel pump index is above
this curve, the resulting fuel pump
index will be reduced correspondingly.

Torque limiter
The purpose of the torque limiter is
to ensure that the limitation lines of
the load diagram are always observed.
The torque limiter algorithm compares
the calculated fuel pump index (fuel
amount) and the actually measured
engine speed with a reference limiter
curve giving the maximum allowable
fuel pump index at a given engine
speed. If the calculated fuel pump
index is above this curve, the result
ing fuel pump index will be reduced
correspondingly.
The reference limiter curve is to be
adjusted so that it corresponds to the
limitation lines of the load diagram.
Scavenge air pressure limiter
The purpose of the scavenge air

ship and clean hull, the propeller/engine


may run along or close to the propeller
design curve 6.

pressure limiter is to ensure that the


engine is not being overfuelled during
acceleration, as for example during
manoeuvring.

Electronic governor with load limitation


In order to safeguard the diesel engine
against thermal and mechanical overload,
the approved electronic governors include
the following two limiter functions:

The reference limiter curve is to be


adjusted to ensure that sufficient air
will always be available for a good
combustion process.
Recommendation
Continuous operation without a time
limitation is allowed only within the area
limited by lines 4, 5, 7 and 3 of the
load diagram. For fixed pitch propeller
operation in calm weather with loaded

M: Specified MCR of engine


S: Continuous service rating of engine
O: Optimising point of engine
A: Reference point of load diagram

After some time in operation, the ships


hull and propeller will become fouled,
resulting in heavier running of the pro
peller, i.e. the propeller curve will move
to the left from line 6 towards line 2, and
extra power will be required for propulsion
in order to maintain the ship speed.
At calm weather conditions the extent
of heavy running of the propeller will
indicate the need for cleaning the hull
and, possibly, polishing the propeller.
The area between lines 4 and 1 is avail
able for operation in shallow water,
heavy weather and during acceleration,
i.e. for nonsteady operation without
any actual time limitation.

M: Specified MCR of engine


S: Continuous service rating of engine
O: Optimising point of engine
A: Reference point of load diagram
7
5% A

3.3% A

Power

A
O

1 2

Power

M=MP
S=SP

1 2 6
A
5

5% L1

Propulsion and
engine service curve
for heavy running

1 2

6
3

Engine speed
Point A of load diagram
Line 1: Propeller curve through optimising point (O)
Line 7: Constant power line through specified MCR (M)
Point A: Intersection between lines 1 and 7

Fig. 20a: Example 2 with FPP engine layout without SG (special case)

24

Propulsion and engine service


curve for heavy running
Engine speed

Fig. 20b: Example 2 with FPP load diagram without SG (special case)

The recommended use of a relatively


high light running factor for design of
the propeller will involve that a relatively
higher propeller speed will be used for
layout design of the propeller. This, in
turn, may involve a minor reduction of
the propeller efficiency, and may possi
bly cause the propeller manufacturer to
abstain from using a large light running
margin. However, this reduction of the
propeller efficiency caused by the large
light running factor is actually relatively
insignificant compared with the improved
engine performance obtained when
sailing in heavy weather and/or with
fouled hull and propeller.

In this respect the choice of the optimi


sing point O has a significant influence.
Examples with fixed pitch propeller

When the ship accelerates, the propel


ler will be subjected to an even larger
load than during free sailing. The same
applies when the ship is subjected to
an extra resistance as, for example,
when sailing against heavy wind and
sea with large wave resistance.

Example 1:
Normal running conditions, without
shaft generator
Normally, the optimising point O, and
thereby the engine layout curve 1, will
be selected on the engine service
curve 2 (for heavy running), as shown
in Fig. 19a.

Use of layout and load


diagrams  examples

Point A is then found at the intersection


between propeller curve 1 (2) and the
constant power curve through M, line
7. In this case, point A will be equal to
point M.

In the following, four different examples


based on fixed pitch propeller (FPP)
and one example based on controllable
pitch propeller (CPP) are given in order
to illustrate the flexibility of the layout
and load diagrams.

Once point A has been found in the


layout diagram, the load diagram can
be drawn, as shown in Fig. 19b, and
hence the actual load limitation lines
of the diesel engine may be found.

M: Specified MCR of engine


S: Continuous service rating of engine
O: Optimising point of engine
A: Reference point of load diagram
Power
S

Example 2:
Special running conditions, without
shaft generator

In both cases, the engines operating


point will be to the left of the normal
operating curve, as the propeller will
run heavily.
In order to avoid exceeding the
lefthand limitation line 4 of the load
diagram, it may, in certain cases, be
necessary to limit the acceleration
and/or the propulsion power.
If the expected trade pattern of the
ship is to be in an area with frequently
appearing heavy wind and sea and

M: Specified MCR of engine


S: Continuous service rating of engine
O: Optimising point of engine
A: Reference point of load diagram

A=M 7
O SG

7
5

3.3% A

5% A

SG MP

Power

1 2 6

A=M
7
5

at
o

SP
er
en
tg

MP

Sh

af

5% L1

Sh

af

tg

en

Propulsion curve
for heavy running

er

at

or

SP

Engine service curve


for heavy running

Engine speed
Point A of load diagram
Line 1: Propeller curve through optimising point (O)
Line 7: Constant power line through specified MCR (M)
Point A: Intersection between lines 1 and 7

Fig. 21a: Example 3 with FPP engine layout with SG (normal case)

Engine service curve


for heavy running

Propulsion curve
for heavy running
Engine speed

Fig. 21b: Example 3 with FPP load diagram with SG (normal case)

25

large wave resistance, it can, therefore,


be an advantage to design/move the
load diagram more towards the left.
The latter can be done by moving the
engines optimising point O and thus
the propeller curve 1 through the opti
mising point towards the left. How
ever, this will be at the expense of a
slightly increased specific fuel oil con
sumption.
An example is shown in Figs. 20a and
20b. As will be seen in Fig. 20b, and
compared with the normal case shown
in Example 1 (Fig. 19b), the lefthand
limitation line 4 is moved to the left, giv
ing a wider margin between lines 2 and
4, i.e. a larger light running factor has
been used in this example.
Example 3:
Normal case, with shaft generator
In this example a shaft generator (SG)
is installed, and therefore the service
power of the engine also has to incor
porate the extra shaft power required

One solution could be to choose a


diesel engine with an extra cylinder,
but another and cheaper solution is to
reduce the electrical power production
of the shaft generator when running in
the upper propulsion power range.

for the shaft generators electrical


power production.
In Fig. 21a, the engine service curve
shown for heavy running incorporates
this extra power.

If choosing the latter solution, the re


quired specified MCR power of the en
gine can be reduced from point M to
point M as shown in Fig. 22a. Therefore,
when running in the upper propulsion
power range, a diesel generator has to
take over all or part of the electrical
power production.

The optimising point O, and thereby the


engine layout curve 1, will normally be
chosen on the propeller curve (~ en
gine service curve) through point M.
Point A is then found in the same way
as in example 1, and the load diagram
can be drawn as shown in Fig. 21b.
Example 4:
Special case, with shaft generator
Also in this special case, a shaft gener
ator is installed but, unlike in Example
3, now the specified MCR for propul
sion MP is placed at the top of the lay
out diagram, see Fig. 22a. This involves
that the intended specified MCR of the
engine (Point M) will be placed outside
the top of the layout diagram.

M: Specified MCR of engine


S: Continuous service rating of engine
O: Optimising point of engine
A: Reference point of load diagram

M
A
O=S

However, such a situation will seldom


occur, as ships rather infrequently op
erate in the upper propulsion power
range. In the example, the optimising
point O has been chosen equal to
point S, and line 1 may be found.
Point A, having the highest possible
power, is then found at the intersection
of line L1L3 with line 1, see Fig. 22a,
and the corresponding load diagram is

M: Specified MCR of engine


S: Continuous service rating of engine
O: Optimising point of engine
A: Reference point of load diagram

Power
SG

5% A

3.3% A

MP

SP

en

Power

1 2 6

O=S

Sh

af

SP

MP

SG

tg

er

at
o

5% L1

Engine service curve


for heavy running

af

tg

Engine speed

Point A and M of load diagram


Line 1: Propeller curve through optimising point (O)
Point A: Intersection between line 1 and line L1  L3
Point M: Located on constant power line 7 through point A
and at MPs speed

Fig. 22a: Example 4 with FPP engine layout with SG (special case)

26

Sh

Propulsion curve for heavy running

en

er

at

or

Propulsion curve
for heavy running
Engine service curve
for heavy running
Engine speed

Fig. 22b: Example 4 with FPP load diagram with SG (special case)

drawn in Fig. 22b. Point M is found on


line 7 at MPs speed.
Example with controllable pitch propeller
Example 5:
With or without shaft generator
Layout diagram without shaft generator
If a controllable pitch propeller (CPP)
is applied, the combinator curve (of
the propeller with optimum propeller
efficiency) will normally be selected for
loaded ship including sea margin.
For a given propeller speed, the com
binator curve may have a given propeller
pitch, and this means that, like for a fixed
pitch propeller, the propeller may be
heavy running in heavy weather.

Therefore, it is recommended to use a


light running combinator curve (the dotted
curve), as shown in Fig. 23, to obtain an
increased operating margin for the diesel
engine in heavy weather to the load limits
indicated by curves 4 and 5.
Layout diagram with shaft generator
The hatched area in Fig. 23 shows the
recommended speed range between
100% and 96.7% of the specified MCR
speed for an engine with shaft generator
running at constant speed.
The service point S can be located at
any point within the hatched area.
The procedure shown in Examples 3
and 4 for engines with FPP can also be

M: Specified MCR of engine


S: Continuous service rating of engine
O: Optimising point of engine
A: Reference point of load diagram
5%A

5
4
1
A=M

7
5%L 1

O
S
4

3
Recommended range
for shaft generator
operation with
constant speed
Combinator curve
for loaded ship
and incl. sea margin

Min
speed

Load diagram
Therefore, when the engines specified
MCR point M has been chosen including
engine margin, sea margin and the
power for a shaft generator, if installed,
point M can be used as point A of the
load diagram, which can then be drawn.
The position of the combinator curve
ensures the maximum load range
within the permitted speed range for
engine operation, and it still leaves a
reasonable margin to the load limits
indicated by curves 4 and 5.

In order to give a brief summary regard


ing the influence on the fixed pitch
propeller running and main engine opera
tion of different types of ship resistance,
an arbitrary example has been chosen,
see the load diagram in Fig. 24.

The optimising point O for engines with


VIT can be chosen on the propeller curve
1 through point A = M with an optimised
power from 85 to 100% of the specified
MCR as mentioned before in the section
dealing with optimising point O.

Influence on engine running of


different types of ship resistance
plant with FPpropeller

Power
3.3%A

applied for engines with CPP running


on a combinator curve.

Max
speed
Engine speed

Fig. 23: Example 5 with CPP with or without shaft generator

The influence of the different types of


resistance is illustrated by means of
corresponding service points for propul
sion having the same propulsion power,
using as basis the propeller design
point PD, plus 15% extra power.
Propeller design point PD
The propeller will, as previously described,
normally be designed according to a
specified ship speed V valid for loaded
ship with clean hull and calm weather
conditions. The corresponding engine
speed and power combination is
shown as point PD on propeller curve
6 in the load diagram, Fig. 24.
Increased ship speed, point S0
If the engine power is increased by, for
example, 15%, and the loaded ship is
still operating with a clean hull and in
calm weather, point S0, the ship speed

27

V and engine speed n will increase in


accordance with the propeller law (more
or less valid for the normal speed range):

Point S0 will be placed on the same


propeller curve as point PD.
Sea running with clean hull and 15%
sea margin, point S2
Conversely, if still operating with loaded
ship and clean hull, but now with extra

V S 0 = V 3 .5 115
. = 1041
.
V
nS 0 = n 3 .0 115
. = 1048
.
n

PD: Propeller design point, clean hull and calm weather


Continuous service rating for propulsion with
a power equal to 90% specified MCR, based on:
S0:

Clean hull and calm weather, loaded ship

S1:

Clean hull and calm weather, ballast (trial)

S2:

Clean hull and 15% sea margin, loaded ship

SP:

Fouled hull and heavy weather, loaded ship

S3:

Very heavy sea and wave resistance

For a resistance corresponding to


about 30% extra power (30% sea mar
gin), the corresponding relative heavy
running factor will be about 1%.

100% ref. point (A)


Specified MCR (M)

105
A=M

100

95

S0
S1
S2
SP

90
85

S3
8

80

PD

75
6.3

6.2

6.1

70
80

85

90

As the ship speed VS2 = V, and if the


propeller had no slip, it would be expected
that the engine (propeller) speed would
also be constant. However, as the water
does yield, i.e. the propeller has a slip,
the engine speed will increase and the
running point S2 will be placed on a
propeller curve 6.2 very close to S0, on
propeller curve 6. Propeller curve 6.2
will possibly represent an approximate
0.5% heavier running propeller than
curve 6.
Depending on the ship type and size,
the heavy running factor of 0.5% may
be slightly higher or lower.

Engine shaft power % of A

110

resistance from heavy seas, an extra


power of, for example, 15% is needed
in order to maintain the ship speed V
(15% sea margin).

95

100

105

110

Engine speed, % of A

Line 1:

Propeller curve through point A=M, layout curve for engine

Line 2:

Heavy propeller curve, fouled hull and heavy weather, loaded ship

Line 6:

Light propeller curve, clean hull and calm weather,


loaded ship, layout curve for propeller

Sea running with fouled hull, and


heavy weather, point SP
When, after some time in service, the
ships hull has been fouled, and thus
becomes more rough, the wake field
will be different from that of a smooth
ship (clean hull).
A ship with a fouled hull will, conse
quently, be subject to an extra resis
tance which, due to the changed
wake field, will give rise to a heavier
running propeller than experienced
during bad weather conditions alone.
When also incorporating some aver
age influence of heavy weather, the
propeller curve for loaded ship will
move to the left, see propeller curve
2 in the load diagram in Fig. 24. This
propeller curve, denoted fouled hull
and heavy weather for a loaded ship,
is about 5% heavy running compared
to the clean hull and calm weather
propeller curve 6.

Line 6.1: Propeller curve, clean hull and calm weather, ballast (trial)
Line 6.2: Propeller curve, clean hull and 15% sea margin, loaded ship
Line 6.3: Propeller curve, very heavy sea and wave resistance

Fig. 24: Influence of different types of ship resistance on the continuous service rating

28

In order to maintain an ample air


supply for the diesel engines com
bustion, which imposes a limitation
on the maximum combination of
torque and speed, see curve 4 of the
load diagram, it is normal practice to
match the diesel engine and turbo

charger etc. according to a propeller


curve 1 of the load diagram, equal to
the heavy propeller curve 2.
Instead of point S2, therefore, point SP
will normally be used for the engine lay
out by referring this service propulsion
rating to, for example, 90% of the engines
specified MCR, which corresponds to
choosing a 10% engine margin.
In other words, in the example the pro
pellers design curve is about 5% light
running compared with the propeller
curve used for layout of the main engine.
Running in very heavy seas with
heavy waves, point S3
When sailing in very heavy sea against,
with heavy waves, the propeller can be
78% heavier running (and even more)
than in calm weather, i.e. at the same
propeller power, the rate of revolution
may be 78% lower.

seldom loaded during sea trials and


more often is sailing in ballast, the ac
tual propeller curve 6.1 will be more
light running than curve 6.
For a power to the propeller equal to
90% specified MCR, point S1 on the
load diagram, in Fig. 24, indicates an
example of such a running condition. In
order to be able to demonstrate opera
tion at 100% power, if required, during
sea trial conditions, it may in some
cases be necessary to exceed the pro
peller speed restriction, line 3, which
during trial conditions may be allowed
to be extended to 107%, i.e. to line 9
of the load diagram.

Influence of ship resistance on


combinator curves plant with
CPpropeller
This case is rather similar with the FP
propeller case described above, and
therefore only briefly described here.
The CPpropeller will normally operate
on a given combinator curve, i.e. for a
given propeller speed the propeller
pitch is given (not valid for constant
propeller speed). This means that
heavy running operation on a given
propeller speed will result in a higher
power operation, as shown in the ex
ample in Fig. 25.

S=PD Propeller design point incl. sea margins, and continuous service rating of engine
Line 1

Propeller curve for layout of engine

Line 1 Combinator curve for propeller design, clean hull and 15% sea margin, loaded ship
Line 6.1 Light combinator curve, fouled hull and calm weather, loaded ship

For a propeller power equal to 90% of


specified MCR, point S3 in the load
diagram in Fig. 24 shows an example
of such a running condition.
In some cases in practice with strong
wind against, the heavy running has
proved to be even greater and even to
be found to the left of the limitation line
4 of the load diagram.
In such situations, to avoid slamming of
the ship and thus damage to the stem
and racing of the propeller, the ship
speed will normally be reduced by the
navigating officers on watch.
Ship acceleration and operation in
shallow waters
When the ship accelerates and the
propeller is being subjected to a larger
load than during free sailing, the effect
on the propeller may be similar to that
illustrated by means of point S3 in the
load diagram, Fig. 24. In some cases in
practice, the influence of acceleration
on the heavy running has proved to be
even greater. The same conditions are
valid for running in shallow waters.
Sea running at trial conditions, point S1
Normally, the clean hull propeller curve
6 will be referred to as the trial trip pro
peller curve. However, as the ship is

Line 2

Heavy combinator curve, fouled hull and heavy weather, loaded ship

Line 2.1 Very heavy combinator curve, very heavy sea and wave resistance
Engine shaft power % of A

100% ref. point (A)


Specified MCR (M)

110
105
100
95

A=M

S=PD

90
85
80

75

70
65
60

6.1

2
2.1

55
50
65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105 110

Engine speed, % of A

Fig. 25: Influence of ship resistance on combinator curves for CPpropeller

29

Closing Remarks

References

In practice, the ships resistance will


frequently be checked against the results
obtained by testing a model of the ship
in a towing tank. The experimental tank
test measurements are also used for
optimising the propeller and hull design.

[1] Technical discussion with


Keld Kofoed Nielsen,
Burmeister & Wain Shipyard,
Copenhagen

When the ships necessary power re


quirement, including margins, and the
propellers speed (rate of revolution)
have been determined, the correct
main engine can then be selected, e.g.
with the help of MAN B&W Diesels
computerbased engine selection
programme.
In this connection the interaction between
ship and main engine is extremely im
portant, and the placing of the engines
load diagram, i.e. the choice of engine
layout in relation to the engines (ships)
operational curve, must be made care
fully in order to achieve the optimum
propulsion plant. In order to avoid over
loading of the main engine for excessive
running conditions, the installation of an
electronic governor with load control may
be useful.
If a main engine driven shaft generator
producing electricity for the ship is in
stalled, the interaction between ship and
main engine will be even more complex.
However, thanks to the flexibility of the
layout and load diagrams for the MAN
B&W engines, a suitable solution will
nearly always be readily at hand.

[2] Ship Resistance


H.E. Guldhammer and
Sv. Aa. Harvald, 1974
[3] Resistance and Propulsion of Ships,
Sv. Aa. Harvald, 1983
[4] Paint supplier International
Coatings Ltd., 2003
[5] Fartygspropellrar och Fartygs Framdrift,
Jan Tornblad, KaMeWa Publication,
1985
Furthermore, we recommend:
[6] Prediction of Power of Ships
Sv. Aa. Harvald, 1977 and 1986
[7] Propulsion of SingleScrew Ships
Sv. Aa. Harvald & J.M. Hee, 1981

174

DE MOTORES PROPULSORES
APENDICE
D. SELECC
AO

ndice
Ape

Derating para Reduzir Consumo de


Combustvel

175

176

APENDICE
E. DERATING

Derating: a solution for


high fuel savings and lower emissions
Rudolf Wettstein1 & David Brown2
Wrtsil Switzerland Ltd, Winterthur

Summary
This paper sets out ways to achieve worthwhile reductions in the fuel consumption of Wrtsil low-speed engines
when designing newbuildings. The key approach is to use the exibility oered by the full power/speed layout eld to
select a better layout point at a derated power with a lower BSFC and also possibly a higher propeller eciency.

Introduction

Rudolf Wettstein is Director, Marketing &


Application Development, Ship Power, Wrtsil
Switzerland Ltd.
David Brown is Manager, Marketing Support,
Wrtsil Switzerland Ltd.

Engine power, %R1


Higher propulsive
efficiency

R1

tt

or
qu
e

lin

100

Rx

80

0
-1 BSFC
-2 g/kWh
-3
-4
-5

on

st

an

90

Fuel eciency and environmental friendliness are


high on the list of requirements for ship propulsion
engines from todays shipping- and shipbuilding
industries. Thus Wrtsil is committed to creating
better technology in these areas that will benet both
the customers and the environment.
Yet it is often forgotten by many ship designers
and those specifying low-speed main engines that
advantage can be taken of the power/speed layout
eld of Wrtsil low-speed engines to select an engine
rating point with a still lower fuel consumption.
The concept of the power/speed layout eld for
low-speed marine diesel engines originated in the
1970s. The layout options were step-by-step widened
until, in 1984, our low-speed engines began to be
oered with a broad power/speed layout eld. An
engines contracted maximum continuous rating
(CMCR) can be selected at any point in the power/
speed eld dened by the four corner points: R1,
R2, R3 and R4 (Fig. 1). The rating point R1 is the
maximum continuous rating (MCR) of the engine.
Most recently, the layout elds for certain
engines, the RT-ex82C, RTA82C, RT-ex82T and
RTA82T, are extended to increased speeds for the
R1+ and R2+ points (Fig. 2). The extended elds
oer widened exibility to select the most ecient
propeller speed for lowest daily fuel consumption,
and the most economic propulsion equipment,

-6

R3
-7

70

60
70

R2

R4

80

90

Lower
specific
fuel
consumption

100

Engine speed, %R1

Fig. 1: Typical layout eld for RTA and RT-ex engines. The
contracted maximum continuous rating (CMCR) can be
selected at any point, such as Rx, within the layout eld. The
BSFC is the reduction in full-load BSFC for any rating
point Rx relative to that at the R1 rating.
[08#044]

namely the propeller, shafting, etc.


One basic principle of the engine layout eld is
that the same maximum cylinder pressure (Pmax)
is employed at all CMCR points within the layout
eld. Thus the reduced brake mean eective pressure
(BMEP) obtained at the reduced power outputs in
the eld results in an increased ratio of Pmax/BMEP
and thus lower brake specic fuel consumption
(BSFC).
The other principle behind the layout eld is

Wrtsil Corporation, June 2008

Engine power, %R1

Engine power, %R1

R1

100
R1

100

R1+
90

90

80

Rx2
Rx1

R3
80

70
R4

R2

80

Rating line
slope =

R3

R2

R4

R2+

90

100

60
70

Engine speed, %R1

80

90

100

Engine speed, %R1

Fig. 2: For the RT-ex82C, RTA82C, RT-ex82T and


RTA82T engines the layout elds are extended to the ratings
R1+ and R2+ at the same powers as R1 and R2 respectively
but with increased shaft speed.
[08#049]

Fig. 3: For a given ship, a rating line (slope ) can be applied


to the layout eld so that all rating points on that line would
give the same ship speed with a suitably optimized propeller.
Rating points at lower speeds on the rating line require
a larger propeller diameter and give a greater propulsive
eciency.

that the lower CMCR speeds allow exibility in


selection of the optimum propeller with consequent
benets in propulsion eciency and thus lower fuel
consumption in terms of tonnes per day.
One feature to be borne in mind when selecting
the rating point for the derated engine is the rating

line (Fig. 3). This is the line through a CMCR rating


point such that any point on the line represents
a new power/speed combination that will give
the same ship speed in knots. The points on the
rating line all require the same propeller type but
with dierent adaptations to suit the power/speed
combination. In general, lower speeds of rotation
require larger propeller diameters and thereby
increase the total propulsive eciency. Usually the
selected propeller speed depends on the maximum
permissible propeller diameter. The maximum
diameter is often determined by operational
requirements, such as design draught and ballast
draught limitations, as well as class recommendations
concerning propellerhull clearance (pressure
impulse induced by the propeller on the hull).
The slope of the rating line () depends broadly
upon the ship type. It can range from 0.15 for
tankers, bulk carriers and general cargo ships up to
about 10,000 tdw to 0.22 for container ships larger
than 3000 TEU and 0.25 for tankers and bulk
carriers larger than 30,000 tdw.

Fig. 4: Since the 1980s engine ratings have been selected over
a steadily smaller area of the layout eld.
[08#051]
Engine power, %R1
100

R1

Area of recent
CMCR selection

90

80

70

60
70

R3

Area of CMCR
selection in
the 1980s

R2

R4

80

90

100

Engine speed, %R1

Changing engine selection strategies


When the broad layout eld was introduced in
RTA engines in 1984 it was widely welcomed by
shipowners and shipbuilders. Afterwards RTA
engines were frequently selected at ratings in the
lower part of the layout eld to gain the benets of
2

Wrtsil Corporation, June 2008

Bunker price, US$/tonne


380cSt HFO
500

400

300

200

100
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Fig. 5: Bunker prices have considerably increased in recent times. The chart shows the average price of 380 cSt heavy fuel oil (HFO)
from various ports around the world from 2004 to 2008. The green bars indicate the mean price for each year.
[08#045]

lower fuel consumption.


However, under the pressure of rst costs and
softening bunker prices the strategy was changed and
the selected power/speed combination has, during
the past 15 years or so, been selected to be closer to
the R1 rating (Fig. 4).
Yet, more recently, bunker prices have steadily
climbed, rising by some 85 per cent in the course of
2007 from US$ 270 to US$ 500 per tonne (Fig. 5).
The result is that bunkers are now the dominant part
of ship operating costs.
Such drastic increases in bunker prices give a
strong impetus to reduce fuel costs. They can also
justify additional investment cost such as selecting
an engine with an extra cylinder. The consequent
fuel saving may make for an acceptable payback time
on the additional investment cost. It would justify
any eorts to increase the overall eciency of the
complete propulsion system.
Further impetus to implementing such changes
in engine selection strategy will come from a future
need to cut CO2 emissions. If a carbon trading

scheme is imposed on shipping it would give further


economic advantage to reducing fuel consumption
and further help to pay for any necessary extra
investment costs.
In addition it is important to bear in mind that
the fuel savings measures discussed here will also
result in lower NOX emissions in absolute terms.

Derating engines for greater fuel savings


In the following pages are some case studies for ship
installations for which an engine is selected with an
extra cylinder without increasing the engines power.
These cases demonstrate that such engine derating
can be an advantageous solution with remarkable
saving potential. Depending on bunker costs, such a
strategy can have a very attractive pay-back time.
The four case studies are for a Suezmax tanker,
a Capesize bulk carrier, a Panamax container ship
and a Post-Panamax container ship. They include
estimations of the respective pay-back times for the
additional engine costs.

Wrtsil Corporation, June 2008

Case 1: Suezmax tanker & Capesize bulk carrier


In this case, a typical Suezmax tanker might be
specied with a six-cylinder Wrtsil RT-ex68-D
main engine. However, if a seven-cylinder engine is
employed instead, the daily fuel consumption can be
reduced by some 3.4 per cent.
In the engine/propeller layout for this ship as
shown in gure 6, the CMCR points for the two
alternative engines are on the same rating line
( = 0.3) through a common design point for the
same ship service speed (knots).
The calculation of annual fuel costs given in table
2 is based on 6000 hours running with heavy fuel oil

costing US$ 500 per tonne.


The resulting payback time for the extra cost
associated with the additional engine cylinder is
estimated to be between 3.5 and six years depending
on the bunker price of US$ 600400 per tonne
respectively (Fig. 7). The calculations of the payback
are based on an interest rate of eight per cent.
A similar case may be made for a Capesize bulk
carrier as it would be similar in size and speed to a
Suezmax tanker and would thus require a similar
engine.

Table 1: Typical ship parameters for a Suezmax tanker

Length overall:
Beam:
Design draught:
Scantling draught:
Sea margin:
Engine service load:

about 274
4650
16
17
15
90

m
m
m
m
%
%

Table 2: Main engine options

Alternative engines:
Cylinder bore, mm:
Piston stroke, mm:
Stroke/bore ratio:
MCR, kW / rpm:
CMCR, kW / rpm:
BMEP at CMCR, bar:
CSR at 90% CMCR, kW/rpm:
BSFC at CMCR, g/kWh:
100% load:
90% load:
Daily fuel consumption, tonnes/day:
ISO fuel, LCV 42.7 MJ/kg:
LCV 40.5 MJ/kg:
As percentage, %:
Annual fuel costs, US$:
Fuel saving, US$:
Engine length, mm:
Engine mass, tonnes:

6RT-ex68-D
680
2720
4:1
18,780/95
18,780/95
20.0
16,902/91.7

7RT-ex68-D
680
2720
4:1
21,910/95
18,460/89.7
17.9
16,614/86.6

169.0
165.6

164.8
162.6

67.2
70.8
100
8,853,000
0

64.8
68.4
96.6
8,544,000
309,000

8690
472

9870
533

3.4%

Wrtsil Corporation, June 2008

Case 1: Suezmax tanker & Capesize bulk carrier

Engine power, kW
22,000
7RT-flex68-D

20,000
Constant ship speed
= 0.3

Fig. 6: Engine/propeller layouts for


a typical Suezmax tanker with a
derated seven-cylinder RT-ex68-D
engine compared with a six-cylinder
engine at the full MCR power and
speed.
[08#052]

CMCR
18,460 kW
89.7 rpm

Design point
CMCR = R1
18,780 kW, 95 rpm
6RT-flex68-D

18,000

CSR
16,902 kW
91.7 rpm

CSR
16,614 kW
86.6 rpm

16,000

75

80

85

90

95

100

Engine speed, rpm

Millions US$
Bunker price, HFO:
$600/tonne
$500/tonne

3.0

$400/tonne

2.0

Fig. 7: Variation of payback times


from fuel savings according to
bunker costs for the derated engine
with an extra cylinder for a typical
Suezmax tanker.
[08#144]

Investment approx. ($)

1.0

0
2

10

12

14
Years

Wrtsil Corporation, June 2008

Case 2: Panamax container ship


In this case, a typical Panamax container ship with
a container capacity of up to 5000 TEU might be
specied with an eight-cylinder Wrtsil RT-ex82C
main engine. However, if a nine-cylinder engine is
employed instead, the daily fuel consumption can be
reduced by some two per cent.
In the engine/propeller layout for this ship as
shown in gure 8, the CMCR points for the two
alternative engines are on the same rating line
( = 0.2) through a common design point for the
same ship service speed (knots).

The calculation of annual fuel costs given in table


4 is based on 6000 hours running with heavy fuel oil
costing US$ 500 per tonne.
The resulting payback time for the extra cost
associated with the additional engine cylinder
is estimated to be between four and seven years
depending on the bunker price of US$ 600400 per
tonne respectively (Fig. 9). The calculations of the
payback are based on an interest rate of eight per
cent.

Table 3: Typical ship parameters for a Panamax


container ship

Length overall:
Beam:
Design draught:
Scantling draught:
Sea margin:
Engine service load:

about 295
32.2
12
13.5
15
90

m
m
m
m
%
%

Table 4: Main engine options

Alternative engines:
Cylinder bore, mm:
Piston stroke, mm:
Stroke/bore ratio:
MCR, kW / rpm:
CMCR, kW / rpm:
BMEP at CMCR, bar:
CSR at 90% CMCR, kW / rpm:
BSFC at CMCR, g/kWh:
100% load:
90% load:
Daily fuel consumption, tonnes/day:
ISO fuel, LCV 42.7 MJ/kg:
LCV 40.5 MJ/kg:
As percentage, %:
Annual fuel costs, US$:
Fuel saving, US$:
Engine length, mm:
Engine mass, tonnes:

8RT-ex82C
820
2646
3.2:1
36,160/102
36,160/102
19.0
32,544/98.5

9RT-ex82C
820
2646
3.2:1
40,680/102
35,480/97.5
17.5
32,250/94.3

169.0
166.5

166.6
164.6

130.0
137.1
100
17,138,000
0
14,055
1020

127.4
134.3
98 2.0%
16,790,000
348,000
16,500
1140

Wrtsil Corporation, June 2008

Case 2: Panamax container ship

Engine power, kW
42,000

40,000

9RT-flex82C
38,000

Fig. 8: Engine/propeller layouts for a


typical Panamax container ship with
a derated nine-cylinder RT-ex82C
engine compared with an eightcylinder engine at the full MCR
power and speed.
[08#062]

CMCR
35,850 kW
97.5 rpm

Constant ship speed


= 0.2

36,000

Design point
CMCR = R1+
36,160 kW, 102 rpm

8RT-flex82C

34,000

CSR
32,544 kW
98.5 rpm

CSR
32,250 kW
94.3 rpm

32,000
85

90

95

100

105

Engine speed, rpm

Millions US$
4.0
Bunker price, HFO:
$600/tonne

3.0

$500/tonne
$400/tonne

Fig. 9: Variation of payback times


from fuel savings according to
bunker costs for the derated engine
with an extra cylinder for a typical
Panamax container ship.
[08#145]

2.0
Investment approx. ($)

1.0
0
2

10

12

14
Years

Wrtsil Corporation, June 2008

Case 3: Post-Panamax container ship


In this case, a typical Post-Panamax container
ship with a container capacity of around 7000
TEU might be specied with an eleven-cylinder
Wrtsil RT-ex96C main engine. However, if a
12-cylinder engine is employed instead, the daily fuel
consumption can be reduced by some 2.4 per cent.
In the engine/propeller layout for this ship as
shown in gure 10, the CMCR points for the two
alternative engines are on the same rating line
( = 0.2) through a common design point for the
same ship service speed (knots).

The calculation of annual fuel costs given in table


6 is based on 6000 hours running with heavy fuel oil
costing US$ 500 per tonne.
The resulting payback time for the extra cost
associated with the additional engine cylinder is
estimated to be between two-and-a-half and four
years depending on the bunker price of US$ 600
400 per tonne respectively (Fig. 11). The calculations
of the payback are based on an interest rate of eight
per cent.

Table 5: Typical ship parameters for a Post-Panamax


container ship

Length overall:
Beam:
Design draught:
Scantling draught:
Sea margin:
Engine service load:

about 325
42.8
13
14.5
15
90

m
m
m
m
%
%

Table 6: Main engine options

Alternative engines:
Cylinder bore, mm:
Piston stroke, mm:
Stroke/bore ratio:
MCR, kW / rpm:
CMCR, kW / rpm:
BMEP at CMCR, bar:
CSR at 90% CMCR, kW / rpm:
BSFC at CMCR, g/kWh:
100% load:
90% load:
Daily fuel consumption, tonnes/day:
ISO fuel, LCV 42.7 MJ/kg:
LCV 40.5 MJ/kg:
As percentage, %:
Annual fuel costs, US$:
Fuel saving, US$:
Engine length, mm:
Engine mass, tonnes:

11RT-ex96C
960
2500
2.6:1
66,330/102
66,330/102
19.6
59,697/98.5

12RT-ex96C
960
2500
2.6:1
72,360/102
65,919/98.9
18.4
59,327/95.5

171.0
166.8

168.0
163.8

239
252
100
31,500,000
0
21,550
1910

233.2
245.9
97.6 2.4%
30,738,000
762,000
23,230
2050

Wrtsil Corporation, June 2008

Case 3: Post-Panamax container ship

Engine power, kW

72,000
12RT-flex96C
70,000

68,000

66,000

Fig. 10: Engine/propeller layouts for


a typical Post-Panamax container
ship with a derated 12-cylinder RTex96C engine compared with an
11-cylinder engine at the full MCR
power and speed.
[08#127]

Design point
CMCR = R1
66,330 kW, 102 rpm

CMCR
65,919 kW
98.9 rpm

Constant ship speed


= 0.2

11RT-flex96C
64,000

62,000

60,000

CSR
59,327 kW
95.5 rpm

CSR
59,697 kW
98.5 rpm

58,000
90

95

100

105

Engine speed, rpm

Millions US$
Bunker price, HFO:
$600/tonne

8.0

$500/tonne

6.0

Fig. 11: Variation of payback times


from fuel savings according to
bunker costs for the derated engine
with an extra cylinder for the typical
Post-Panamax container ship.
[08#146]

$400/tonne

4.0
Investment approx. ($)

2.0
0
2

10

12

14
Years

Wrtsil Corporation, June 2008

Case 4: Derating without adding an


engine cylinder

a modest increase in cost of the D version for the


higher-eciency turbochargers used, but the extra
cost would soon be repaid by the fuel cost savings.

It is also feasible to apply a derated engine to obtain


fuel savings in such a way that an additional engine
cylinder is not required.
An example of this can be seen with the Wrtsil
RT-ex50 engine. In October 2007, the D version
of this engine was announced, in which the engine
power was increased by 5.1 per cent and the BSFC
at full-load was reduced by 2 g/kWh compared with
the B version.
Thus if a -D engine is derated to the same
cylinder power output as the original version of the
RT-ex50, then the BSFC at full load is reduced
by 4.5 g/kWh, or 2.7 per cent (see Table 7). For a
typical bulk carrier with a six-cylinder RT-ex50
engine this can translate into annual savings of
US$ 124,000 when operating for 6000 running
hours a year with heavy fuel oil costing US$ 500
per tonne. Even greater savings are possible if the
engine is derated to a lower running speed (rpm)
at the derated power to gain the benets of a better
propulsion eciency.
There are already a number of standard ship
designs delivered and on order with RT-ex50-B or
even the original RT-ex50 engine. So it would be
perfectly feasible to install a derated RT-ex50-D
in further newbuildings to the same ship designs
and obtain the benet of the substantial savings in
operating costs. The overall dimensions of the D
version are identical to those of the B and original
versions of the RT-ex50. There would, however, be

Derating with exibility to full rating


Although derating oers attractive economics, it
can be frustrating to buy more engine than seems
necessary. Yet there is an interesting option to retain
an ability to utilise the full available installed engine
power, even up to the full R1 rating for future use to
obtain higher ship service speeds.
The concept would be to set up the engine for
the derated output at the chosen reduced service
speed. Then for a later date, the engine could be
re-adapted to the higher output. However, this needs
corresponding provisions in the selection and design
of the propeller, shafting and ancillary equipment to
meet the requirements of the envisaged higher power.
Furthermore the engine would need to be tested
and approved by the Classication Society for both
ratings with all the necessary emissions certication.

RT-ex technology as an important


contribution to fuel saving
Wrtsil RT-ex technology plays an important role
in fuel saving. Wrtsil RT-ex low-speed engines
incorporate the latest electronically-controlled
common-rail technology for fuel injection and valve
actuation. The result is great exibility in engine
setting, bringing benets in lower fuel consumption,
lower minimum running speeds, smokeless operation

Table 7: Options for the Wrtsil RT-ex50 engine type

Alternative engines:
Cylinder bore, mm:
Piston stroke, mm:
S/B ratio:
MCR, kW / rpm:
CMCR, kW / rpm:
BMEP at CMCR, bar:
CSR at 90% CMCR, kW / rpm:
BSFC at CMCR, g/kWh:
100% load:
90% load:
Daily fuel consumption, tonnes/day:
ISO fuel, LCV 42.7 MJ/kg:
LCV 40.5 MJ/kg:
As percentage, %:
Annual fuel costs, US$:
Fuel saving, US$:

6RT-ex50
500
2050
4.1:1
9720/124
9720/124
19.5
8748/119.7

6RT-ex50-D
500
2050
4.1:1
10,470/124
9720/124
19.5
8748/119.7

171
167.6

165.7
163.0

35.2
37.1
100
4,637,000
0
10

34.2
36.2
97.3 2.7%
4,513,000
124,000
Wrtsil Corporation, June 2008

at all running speeds, and better control of other


exhaust emissions.
Not only do RT-ex engines have a lower partload fuel consumption than RTA engines but they
can be adapted through Delta Tuning so that their
part-load fuel consumtion is even lower. [1]
Owing to the interaction between fuel economy
and NOX emissions, there is always the possibility
that fuel saving measures will have an impact on
NOX emissions. As with all new marine engines
nowadays, Wrtsil RTA and RT-ex engines are all
fully compliant with the NOX emission regulation of
Annexe VI of the MARPOL 1973/78 convention.
Moreover, the engines in the Wrtsil portfolio will
be adapted to meet the coming IMO NOX reduction
level Tier II.

also possibly a higher propeller eciency.


It must also not be forgotten that any fuel savings
achieved at the ship design stage will have benets in
also reducing exhaust emissions.
If you have a project for which you wish to
explore the fuel-saving possibilities through derating
as set out in this paper, then please contact your
nearest Wrtsil oce. Our experts will be delighted
to calculate various alternatives for your evaluation.

References
1. German Weisser, Fuel saving with RT-ex,
Wrtsil Switzerland Ltd, July 2004.

Conclusion
The paper shows that there are techniques to achieve
worthwhile reductions in the fuel consumption
of Wrtsil low-speed engines when designing
newbuildings. The key approach is to use the
exibility oered by the full power/speed layout eld
to select a better layout point with a lower BSFC and

Published June 2008 by:


Wrtsil Switzerland Ltd
PO Box 414
CH-8401 Winterthur
Tel: +41 52 262 49 22
Fax: +41 52 262 07 18
www.wartsila.com
11

Wrtsil Corporation, June 2008