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Exam-style assessment

Inequalities

1.

2
Solve the inequality x + 2 < x

2.

Find the complete set of values of x for which x + 2  1 x

3.

Find the set of values of x for which x x 1 > x 1+ 3

4.

(a) Use algebra to solve the equation |x2 - 5x + 6| = 4x - 8

x 1

x+3

(b) On the same diagram, sketch the graphs with equations y = |x2 - 5x + 6|
and y = 4x - 8
(c) Hence, or otherwise, solve the inequality |x2 - 5x + 6| < 4x - 8
5.

(a) On the same diagram, sketch the graphs with equations y = |x2 - 9| and
y = |2x - 1|. Label, with their coordinates, the axis-crossing points of
each graph.
(b) Find the values of x where these two graphs intersect. Give answers in
simplified surd form where appropriate.
(c) Hence solve the inequality |x 2 - 9| . |2x -1|

6.

(a) On the same diagram, sketch the graphs with equations y = |2x + a| and
y = |3x + a|, where a is a positive constant. Label, with their coordinates,
the axis-crossing points of each graph.
(b) Hence solve, in terms of a, the inequality |2x + a| < |3x + a|

7.

(a) Sketch the graph with equation y = |x2 - 2kx| where k is a positive constant.
Label the stationary point with its coordinates.
(b) Hence, or otherwise, solve the inequality |x2 - 2kx| - k2, giving your answer
in terms of k.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style mark scheme

1
Question
Number

Inequalities
Solution

Marks

x2 + 2 x < 0
x 1
x+2 <0
x 1

M1
M1

Critical values: x = -2, 1


Considering change of sign of factors gives:
-2 < x < 1

A1
A2
5

x+2+ x 0
x+3 2
(x + 1)(x + 4)
0
2(x + 3)

M1
M1 A1

Critical values: x = -4, -3 and -1


Considering change of sign of factors gives:
-4 - x < -3, x . -1

A1
M1 A2
7

3 a

x 1 >0
x 1 x + 3

M1

(x + 1)2
>0
(x 1)((x + 3)

M1 A1

Critical values: x = -3, -1 and 1


Considering change of sign of factors gives:
Hence x > 1 or x < -3

M1 A1
A2
7

4 a

(x - 3)2(x - 2)2 = 16(x - 2)2


(x - 3)2(x - 2)2 - 16(x - 2)2 = 0
(x - 2)2[(x - 3)2 - 16] = 0
Then x = 2, 7 and -1 (ignore x = -1, it does not satisfy the
original equation).
y

M1oe
M1
M1
A2

(5)

B2

(2)

A2

(2)
9

6
y = 4x 8

y = |x2 5x + 6|
O

2 3

2<x<7

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

5 a

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

B2

(2)

For x > 3 or -3 < x < 0.5 then x2 - 9 = 2x - 1


x2 2x 8 = 0, then x = 4 or x = -2
For 0.5 < x < 3 or x < -3 then x2 - 9 = -(2x - 1)
x2 + 2x - 10 = 0, then x = 1 11
Hence x = 4, -2, 1 11

M1
M1 A1
M1
M1
A3

(6)

From part b and the graph x - 1 11, 2 - x - 1 + 11, x . 4

A2

(2)
10

B3

(3)

4 3 2 1 O 1 1 2 3 4 x
2

6 a
y = |3x + a|

(0, a)

y = |2x + a|

a
,0
2

a
,0
3

( )( )
b

For a < x < a , then 2x + a = -(3x + a)


2
x = 2a
5

A1

Hence x < -0.4a or x > 0

7 a

A1

(4)
7

B3

(3)

(k, k2)

2k

M1 A1

x2 2kx - k2 = 0, x = k(1 2 )

M1 A1

Hence k(1 2) - x - k(1 + 2)

A2

Oxford University Press 2009

(4)
7

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

2
1.

Series

(a) Simplify r(r + 2) -r(r - 2)


(b) Hence use the method of differences to prove that

r =1

2.

(a) Express

= 1 n(n + 1)
2

6
in partial fractions.
9r 2 12r 5

(15n + 2 ) ( n 1)
8
=
( 3n + 1) ( 3n 2 )
r = 2 9r 12r 5
n

(b) Hence show that

15

8
, giving your answer to 3 significant figures.
r = 6 9r 12r 5

(c) Evaluate the series


3.

(a) Find constants A, B and C such that

8
A
B
C

+
+
2
1
2
1
2

+
+ 3)
r
r
r
(
)
(
)
(
4r 1 ( 2r + 3 )

(b) Hence show that

r =1

4.

(a) Show that

for all r . 1

n (n + 2)
3
=
4r 1 ( 2r + 3 ) ( 2n + 1) ( 2n + 3 )
2

1
1
2

=
r ( r + 1) ( r + 1) ( r + 2 ) r ( r + 1) ( r + 2 )

for all r . 1

(b) Hence, or otherwise, find an expression for


n

r ( r + 14) ( r + 2 )

r =1

giving your answer in fully factorised form.


n

4
(c) Deduce
< 1 for all n > 1
1
r
r
+
) (r + 2 )
r =1 (

5.

(a) Simplify (3r + 1)3 - (3r - 2)3


n

(b) Hence, or otherwise, show that r 2 = 1 n(n + 1)(2n + 1)


6
r =1
n

You can use the result r = 1 n(n + 1) without proof.


2
r =1
6.

3
(a) Express 8r 2 2r 1 in the form Ar +

4r 1

B
C , for constants A, B
+
2
r

1
2
r
(
) ( + 1)

and C to be determined.
n
3
(b) Hence find an expression for 8r 2 2r 1 giving your answer in terms of
r =1

4r 1

n and in fully factorised form.

24
3
(c) Evaluate the series 8r 2 2r 1, giving your answer to 3 significant figures.
r =7

Oxford University Press 2009

4r 1

Further Pure FP2

7.

(a) Express

3r 2
in partial fractions.
r ( r + 1) ( r + 2 )

n
3r 2
n2
=
(b) Hence show that
( n + 1) ( n + 2 )
r =1 r ( r + 1) ( r + 2 )

(c) Find the value of the positive integer N for which


N

r ( r +3r1)( r2 + 2 )

r =1

8.

(a) Express

= 8
15

3 r in the form A + B + C where A, B and C


r 1 r r +1
r r2 1

are constants.

(b) Hence, using the method of differences, show that


n

3 r = n 1
2
n ( n + 1)
r =2 r r 1

Oxford University Press 2009

for n > 2

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style mark scheme

Series

Question
Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

r2 + 2r - r2 + 2r = 4r

A1

r =1

r =1

4 r = [r (r + 2) r (r 2)]
4(1) = 1(3) - 1(-1)
4(2) = 2(4) - 2(0)
4(3) = 3(5) - 3(1)
4(4) = 4(7) - 4(2)
4(n - 2) = (n - 2)(n) - (n - 2)(n - 4)
4(n - 1) = (n - 1)(n + 1) - (n - 1)(n - 3)
4(n) = n(n + 2) - n(n - 2)
Adding:
4(1 + 2 + 3 + + n) = 1 + (n - 1)(n + 1) + n(n + 2)
= 2n2 + 2n
n

2 a

M1 A1

M1 A1

Hence r = 1 n(n + 1)
2
r =1

A1

(5)
6

1 1
3r 5 3r + 1

B1 A2

(3)

(1)

6
9r 2 12
r5

r =2

r =2

( 3r 1 5 3r 1+ 1 )

r = 2,

1 1

r = 3,

+1 1
4 10
+1 1
7 13

r = 4,

..................
1
1
3n 11 3n 5
+ 1 1
3n 8 3n 2
+ 1 1
3n 5 3n + 1
+

r = n - 2,
r = n - 1,
r = n,

M1 A1

Adding:
11
4

1 1 = 45n2 39n 6
3n 2 3n + 1 4(3n + 1)(3n 2)

8
9r 2 12
r5

r =2

Hence

r =2

n
= 8 2 6
6 r = 2 9r 12r 5

8
15n2 13n 2 = (15n + 2)(n 1)
=
9r 2 12r 5 (3n + 1)(3n 2) (3n + 1)(33n 2)

Oxford University Press 2009

M1 A1
M1
M1 A1

(7)
10

Further Pure FP2

15

r = 6 9r

8
12r 5

15

5
8
2 8
r = 2 9r 2r 5
r = 2 9r 12r 5

(75 + 2)4
= (15 15 + 2)(15 1)
(45 2)(45 + 1)
(15 2)(15 + 1)
= 227 14 77 4
43 46 13 16

= 0.126
10
3 a
b

1 2 + 1
2r 1 2r + 1 2r + 3

r = 1:

1 2 + 1
3 5

r = 2:

+1 2 + 1
3 5 7

r = 3:

+1 2 + 1
5 7 9

..

..

r = n - 2:

1 2 + 1
2n 5 2n 3 2n 1

r = n - 1:

1 2 + 1
2n 3 2n 1 2n + 3

r = n:

1 2 + 1
2n 1 2n + 1 2n + 3

M1 A3

(4)

M1 A1

Adding:
2 1 + 1 =
8n2 + 16n
3 2n + 1 2n + 3 3(2n + 1)(2n + 3)
n(n + 2)
3
3 n
8
=
=

2
2
(
n
8
2
+ 1)(2n + 3)
r =1 (4r 1)(2r + 3)
r =1 (4r 1)(2r + 3)

M1 A1

Hence

Oxford University Press 2009

B1 A1

(6)
10

Further Pure FP2

4 a
b

LHS = (r + 2) r

r(r + 1)(r + 2)

2
r(r + 1)(r + 2)

n
2
1

= 1

(r + 1)(r + 2)
r =1 r(r + 1)(r + 2)
r =1 r(r + 1)
11
r = 1:
2 6
r = 2:
+1 1
6 12
n

r = n - 1:

1
1

(n 1)n n(n + 1)
1
+ 1

n(n + 1) (n + 1)(n + 2)

r = n:

M1 A1

(2)

B1

M1 A1

Adding:
n(n + 3)
1
1
=
2 (n + 1)(n + 2) 2(n + 1)(n + 2)
n(n + 3)
4
Hence r(r + 1)(r + 2) = (n + 1)(n + 2)
r =1

M1 A1

M1 A1

(7)

2
n(n + 3)
4
= 2n + 3n
=
(n + 1)(n + 2) n + 3n + 2
r =1 r(r + 1)(r + 2)
n

Now n2 + 3n < n2 + 3n + 2
As n > 1, n2 + 3n + 2 > 0 so that
n

n2 + 3n < 1
n2 + 3n + 2

Therefore r(r + 14)(r + 2) < 1


r =1
9
5 a
b

27r3 + 27r2 + 9r + 1 - (27r3 - 54r2 + 36r - 8) = 9(9r2 - 3r + 1)


n

9 (9r 2 3r + 1) = (3r + 1)3 (3r 2)3


r =1
r =1

r = 1:
43 - 13
r = 2:
+ 73 - 43
..
.
r = n - 1:
+ (3n - 2)3 - (3n - 5)3
r = n:
+ ( 3n + 1) - (3n - 2)3
Adding:
(3n + 1)3 - 1 = 9n (3n2 + 3n + 1)

M1 A1

(2)

B1

M1 A1
M1 A1
B1

Hence (9r 2 3r + 1) = n(3n3 + 3n + 1)


r =1

n
n

1
2
2
r = n(3n + 3n + 1) + 3 r n
9
r =1
r =1

B1

= 1 [n(3n2 + 3n + 1) + 3 n(n + 1) - n]
2
9
n
= [6n2 + 6n + 2 + 3n + 3 - 2]
18
= n [2n2 + 3n + 1]
6
1
= 6 n(n + 1)(2n + 1)

Oxford University Press 2009

M1 A1

(9)
11

Further Pure FP2

6 a
b

2r

1
1
+
2(2r 1) 2(2r + 1)

M1 A3 (4)

8r 3 2r 1
4r 2 1
r =1
n
1
1
= 2r +

2(2r + 1) 2(2r 1)
r =1
n

n
n
1
1
= 2r + 1

(2r 1)
2
r =1
r =1 (2r + 1)

= n(n + 1) + 1 1 1
2 3
+ 1 1
5 3
+ .....
1 1
2n 1 2n 3
+ 1 1
2n + 1 2n 1

= n(n + 1) + 1 1 1

2 2n + 1
= n(n + 1)

n
2n + 1

n [(n + 1)(2n + 1) 1]
2n + 1

n(2n2 + 3n) n2(2n + 3)


=
2n + 1
2n + 1

24
24
6
242(51) 36 15
= =
49
13
r = 7 r =1
r =1

558 (3sf)

7 a
b

1+ 5 4
r r +1 r + 2

M1 A3

(4)

n
3r 2
= 1 + 5 4
r +1 r + 2
r =1 r(r + 1)(r + 2)
r =1 r
n

= 1 + 5 4
2 3
1
5
+
1
2 3
1 5 4
+
3 4 5

+.....

1 +5 4
n 1 n n +1
1
5 4
+
n n +1 n + 2
= 1 + 5 1 + 1 4
2 2 n +1 n + 2

= 1 + n + 2 4n 4
(n + 1)(n + 2)
2
= n + 3n + 2 3n 2
(n + 1)(n + 2)

n2
as required.
(n + 1)(n + 2)

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

8 a
b

15N2 = 8(N + 1)(N + 2)


7N2 - 24N - 16 = 0
(7N + 4)(N - 4) = 0, Hence N = 4

B1
M1 A1

(3)
11

1 3+ 2
r 1 r r +1

B1 A1

(2)

3r = n 1 3 + 2

2
r 1 r r + 1
r = 2 r(r 1)
r =1

B1

1 3 + 2
2 3
1
+ 1+ 2
2
4
+1 3 + 2
3 4 5

r = 2:
r = 3:
r = 4:

..

r = n - 2:

+ 1 3 + 2
n 3 n 2 n 1

r = n - 1:

r = n:

+ 1 3+ 2
n 1 n n +1

1 3 +2
n 2 n 1 n

M1 A1

Adding:
1 3 + 1 + 2 3 + 2 = 1 + 2
2 2 n n n +1
n n +1
n
3 r = n 1
Hence 2
n(n + 1)
r = 2 r(r 1)

Oxford University Press 2009

M1 A1
A1

(6)
8

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

3
1.

Further complex numbers

(a) Using de Moivres theorem, or otherwise, prove that


cos 4q 8cos4 q - 8cos2 q + 1
(b) Solve the equation cos 4q + 4cos4 q = 0 for 0 - q - p
When not exact, give each answer correct to 2 decimal places.

2.

The transformation T from the z-plane to the w-plane is given by


z

w = z + 1 + 2i , z -1 - 2i
(a) Show that T maps the line y = 2x to part of the real axis in the w-plane.
(b) Find the locus of points in the z-plane which are mapped to the
line u = 0 in the w-plane.
3.

(a) Shade on an Argand diagram the region R given by


|z - 1| - |z - i|
The transformation T from the z-plane to the w-plane is given by
w = zz + 3i , z i
(b) Show that T maps |z - 1| = |z - i| to a circle in the w-plane.
Give the cartesian equation of this circle.
(c) On a separate Argand diagram shade the region in the w-plane
which is the image of R under T.

4.

Point P represents the complex number z where |z - 3| = 2|z - 3i|


(a) Use algebra to show that the locus of P is a circle, giving the centre
C and radius of this circle.
Point Q represents the complex number z where arg(z + 1 - 4i) = 3 p
4

(b) On the same Argand diagram sketch the locus of P and the locus of Q,
marking clearly the point A where the two loci intersect.
(c) Find the complex number a which represents A and express the equation
of the tangent to this circle at A in the form
|z + 1 - 4i| = |z - b| for b a complex number to be stated.
5.

(a) Solve the equation z3 = 4 - 4 3i


giving your answers in the form reiq where r > 0 and exact q, -p < q - p
(b) Illustrate your values from a on an Argand diagram.
(c) Hence, or otherwise, show that, if p and q are two distinct cube
roots of 4 - 4 3i then |p + q| = 2

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

6.

(a) Solve the equation z4 = 2 3 + 2i


giving your answers in exact modulus-argument form.
Give arguments as principal values.
(b) Illustrate your values from (a) on an Argand diagram.
(c) Prove that the points representing these values form the vertices of a square.
(d) State the two possible values of |p - q| where p and q are two distinct
fourth roots of 2 3 + 2i

7.

(a) Given that z = cos q + isin q, use de Moivres theorem to show that
zn - 1n = 2isin nq
z

where n is a positive integer.

(b) Express 4sin3 q in the form Asin q + Bsin 3q for integers A and B to
be stated.
y

R
O

The diagram shows the curve with equation y = 2 sin3q for 0 - q - p. R is the
region bounded by this curve, the q-axis and the lines q = 0 and q = p
(c) Find the exact volume formed when region R is rotated once around the q-axis.
8.

Point P represents the complex number z, where |z + 2i| = k|z - 3 - i|,


where k is a constant. Point A, which represents the complex number 6 + 4i,
lies in the locus of P.
(a) Show that k = 2
(b) Use algebra to show that the locus of P is a circle C.
Give the centre and radius of this circle.
Point Q represents the complex number z, where arg(z - 4 - 2i) = 1 p
4

(c) Shade, on a single Argand diagram, the region of points on or inside


C and which satisfy 1 p - arg(z - 4 - 2i) - p and find the exact area
4
of this region.
The transformation T from the z-plane to the w-plane is given by
w = z + 2i , z 3 + i
z3i

(d) Show that T maps the locus of P to a circle in the w-plane.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

9.

Points A and B represent the complex numbers 0 - 3i and 4 + 0i respectively.

(z4)

Point P represents the complex number z, where arg z + 3i = 2 p


3

(a) Sketch on an Argand diagram the locus of P. Indicate on your sketch the
position of points A and B.
(b) Given that point Q in this locus is such that AQ = BQ
(i) show that AQ = 5 3,
3

(ii) find the exact area of triangle AQB.


10.

Point P represents the complex number z, where |z - 2| = 2 |z - 4i|

( z 4i )

Point Q represents the complex number z where arg z 2 = 1 p


4

(a) Use algebra to show that the locus of P is a circle. Give the centre and
exact radius of this circle.
(b) Given that p = z 2 , where z is the complex number which
z 4i

belongs to both of these loci


(i) show that p = 1 + i,
(ii) find z.
(c) On a single Argand diagram, sketch the locus of P and the locus of Q.
11.

(a) Solve the equation z5 = 1


giving your answers in the form eiq for -p < q - p
(b) Given that w is any complex 5th root of 1
(i) state the value of 1 + w + w2 + w3 + w4
(ii) hence find the value of

Oxford University Press 2009

(1 + w ) (1 + w2 )
w4

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style mark scheme

Further complex numbers

Question
Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

(cos q + i sin q)4 = cos 4q + i sin 4q


(cosq + i sin q )4 = cos4 q + 4i cos3q sin q 6 cos2 q sin 2 q
- 4i cos q sin3 q + sin4 q
Considering the real parts:
cos 4q = cos4 q - 6cos2 q sin2 q + sin4 q
= cos4 q 6cos2 q (1 cos2 q ) + (1 cos2 q )2

M1
M1

M1 A1

(4)

= 8 cos4 q 8 cos2 q + 1
b

cos 4q + 4cos4 q = 0 8c4 - 8c2 + 1 + 4c4 = 0 where c = cos q


12c4 - 8c2 + 1 = 0
c2 = 8 4

24
1
1
Hence cos q = ,
2 6
cosq = 1 , 1
2
6
1
1
3
cosq =
q = p , p for 0  q  p
2
4 4
1
cosq =
q = 1.150! , 1.991! for 0  q  p
6
2

Hence q = 1 p , 3 p , 1.15c, 1.99c (2 decimal places)


4 4
2 a

Let P be any point on y = 2x, then P = (k, 2k), where k \


k + 2ik
k + 2ik + 1 + 2i
k(1 + 2i)
k(1 + 2i)
=
=
k + 1 + 2i(k + 1) (k + 1)(1 + 2i)

M1

w=

k \, k 1
k +1

w = 0 + iv =

x + iy
x + iy + 1 + 2i

B1
A1
B1

x + iy
(x + 1) i( y + 2)

(x + 1) + i( y + 2) (x + 1) i( y + 2)

M1

x 2 + x + y 2 + 2y + i(y 2x)
(x + 1)2 + (y + 2)2

B1

Considering the real part of w = 0:


x2 + x + y2+ 2y = 0
(x + 0.5)2 + ( y + 1)2 = 5 ,
4
Hence the locus is a circle centre (-0.5, -1), radius 5
2
(excluding the point (-1, -2))

Oxford University Press 2009

(3)

B1
M1
A1

(6)
9

Further Pure FP2

3 a

B2

(2)

2
1

1
2

z = 3 + iw = 3 + i(u + iv)
w 1
u + iv 1

M1

(3 v) + iu (u 1) iv

(u 1) + iv (u 1) iv

M1

(3u + v 3) + i(u2 u 3v + v 2)
(u 1)2 + v 2

B1

Since |z - 1| = |z - i|, then the real part of z = the imaginary part of z:


Then 3u + v - 3 = u2 - u - 3v + v2
u2 - 4u + v2 - 4v + 3 = 0
(u - 2)2 + (v - 2)2 = 5
c

A1

(4)

B2

(2)

4 a

10

(x - 3)2 + y2 = 4[ x2 + (y - 3)2]
x2 + 2x + y2 - 8y + 9 = 0
(x + 1)2 + (y - 4)2 = 8
C(-1, 4), radius = 2 2

M1
B1
A2

(4)

B3

(3)

y
8
A
6
3r
4

4
2

From Argand diagram:


a = -3 + 6i
|z + 1 - 4i| = |z + 5 - 8i| so

Oxford University Press 2009

b = -5 + 8i

A1
A1

(2)
9

Further Pure FP2

5 a

(2

4 4 3i = 8 1 3 i
2

q = p , r = 8

B1oe
A1

z 3 = 8e

i p + 2np
3

M1

A1

i p + 2np
3

z = 2e 3

If n = 0, then z0 = 2e
If n = 1, then z1 = 2e
b

i p

i 5p
9

and z3 = 2e

i 7p

A2

(6)

B2

(2)

y
z1

2r
3

x
r

z0

z2
2

|z0| = |z1| = |z2| = 2 and the angle between any two distinct
roots p and q = 2p ,
3
p + q = 2 2 cos p = 2
3

6 a

z4 = 4 3 + 1 i
2

( 6 ) ( 6 )
z = 2 cos ( p + np ) + i sin ( p + np )
24
2
24
2

If n = 0 then z = 2 ( cos p + i sin p )


24
24
If n = 1 then z = 2 ( cos 13p + i sin 13p ) and
24
24
z = 2 ( cos 11p i sin 11p )
24
24
23p
23p
If n = 2 then z = 2 ( cos 24 i sin 24 )
= 4 cos p + 2np + i sin p + 2np

B1oe
M1 A1

(3)
11

B1oe
B1
M1

Oxford University Press 2009

A2

A1

(7)

B2

(2)

Further Pure FP2

z1

z0
O

z3

z2

|z0| = |z1| = |z2| = |z3| = 2 and


arg(z1) - arg(z0) = p2 = arg(z3) - arg(z1) = arg(z2) - arg(z3)
Then z0, z1, z2, z3 are the vertices of a square.

B2oe

(2)

|p - q| = 2 or 2 2
11

7 a

zn = cos nq + isin nq
z-n = cos nq - isin nq
zn - z-n = 2i sin nq

1
(2i sin q)3 = z z

M1
M1
A1

(3)

= z3 - 3z + 3 13
z

= z 3 13 3 z 1z
z

= 2i sin 3q - 6i sin q
Hence 4 sin3 q = -sin 3q + 3sin q
so A = 3, B = -1
p

V = p 4sin3 q dq = p (3sin q - sin 3q)dq


0

= p 3 cosq + 1 cos 3q

= 16 p
3

Oxford University Press 2009

M1

M2
A1

(4)
12

Further Pure FP2

8 a
b

|6 + 6i| = k|3 + 3i| k = 2

M1 A1

x2 + (y + 2)2 = 4[(x - 3)2 + (y - 1)2]


x2 + y2 + 4y + 4 = 4(x2 - 6x + 9 + y2 - 2y + 1)
3x2 - 24x + 3y2 - 12y + 36 = 0
(x - 4)2 + (y - 2)2 = 8
Centre (4, 2), radius = 2 2

M1
B1

M1
A2

(2)

(5)

B3

y
4
r
4

Area = 1 r 2q = 1 8 3 p
2

w =

M1

= 3p

A1

z + 2i
= 2 (using part a above)
z3i

M1oe

|w| = 2 is a circle centre (0, 0) radius = 2

9 a

B
O

B3

(3)

arg(z + 3i) arg(z 4) =

2r
3

Angle ABQ = p , AB = 42 + 32 = 5
6

M1

AQ = 5

M1 A1

ii

(2)
14

A
4 arg(z + 3i)

A1

arg(z 4)

(5)

1
cos p
6

)
2 (3

= 5 2 = 5 3
2
3 3
2

Area = 1 5 3 sin 2p = 25 3

Oxford University Press 2009

12

M1 A1

(5)
8

Further Pure FP2

10 a

(x - 2)2 + y2 = 2[x2 + (y - 4)2]


x2 - 4x + 4 + y2 = 2x2 + 2y2 - 16y + 32
x2 + 4x + y2 - 16y + 28 = 0
(x + 2)2 (y - 8)2 = 40
Centre (-2, 8) and radius 2 10
i

M1
B1
M1
A2

( z 4i )

Since |z - 2| = 2 |z - 4i| and arg z 2 = 1 p , then


4

(5)

B1

|p| = 2 and arg( p) = 1 p


4

p = 2 cos p + i sin p = 1 + i
4

M1 A1

4ip 2
, substitute p = 1 + i:
ii z =
p 1

M1 A1

(6)

B3

(3)

z = 4i 4 2 = 4 + 6i
i

c
14
12
10
(2, 8)

6
(0, 4)
4

2
O (2, 0)

14
11 a

z 5 = 1 = 1ei(0 + 2np) = ei2np

B1

i 2 np

z=e5

M1

If n = 0, then z0 = ei0 = 1

If n = 1, then z1 =

2 pi
e5 ,

If n = 2, then z3 =

4 pi
e5 ,

i
ii

A1
z2 =

2 pi
e 5

A2

z4 =

4 pi
e 5

A2

(7)

A1
M1
A1

(3)

(w5 1) = (w 1)(w4 + w3 + w2 + w + 1) = 0
Hence w4 + w3 + w2 + w + 1 = 0
w3 + w2 + w + 1 = -w4
(1 + w)(1 + w )
= 1
w4
2

10

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

4
1.

First order differential equations

(a) Find the general solution of the differential equation


tan(2x)

dy
1
= 2y, where 0 < x < p ,
dx
4

giving your answer in the form y = f(x)


(b) Find the particular solution y of this differential equation for which
y = -2 when x = 1 p and sketch this solution curve for 0 < x < 1 p
12
4

2.

The equation of a curve C satisfies the differential equation


(2x + 1)

dy
1
= 4x (y 4), where x >
dx
2

(a) Find the general solution of this differential equation, giving your
answer in the form y = f(x)
(b) Given that the curve passes through the point P(0, 5) find the equation of C.
3.

(a) Express

2 in partial fractions.
y2 1

dy
+ 1 = y2 ,
dx
where y > 1, x > 0, and for which y = 2 when x = 1 is given by y = 1 + x
3
1 x

(b) Hence show that the particular solution of the equation 2x

4.

(a) Show that x 2 + 1 is an integrating factor for the differential equation


1 dy
y
=1
+
x dx x 2 + 1

(b) Hence find the particular solution of this differential equation for which y = 1
3
when x = 0. Sketch the graph of this solution.
5.

(a) Find the general solution of the differential equation

dy
+ 2ytan x = 1
dx

(b) Hence show that the particular solution of the given equation for which y = 1
when x = 1 p is given by y = 1 sin 2x.
4
2
6.

As part of a training exercise, an athlete undertakes a 20 km run. After t hours


she has run x km. During the run she varies her speed in such a way that the
rate of increase of x is directly proportional to x multiplied by the distance
she has left to run.
(a) Formulate a differential equation for x
(b) Given that after 1 hour she has run 10 km and that after 90 minutes she has run
15 km, solve this differential equation to show that
x
= 9t 1
20 x

(c) Calculate the total distance run after 2 hours.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

7.

(a) Use integration by parts to show that xex dx = (x - 1)ex + c


(b) Hence find the general solution of the differential equation
(x + 1)

8.

dy
+ (x + 2)y = x
dx

The equation of a curve C satisfies the differential equation x

dy
- y = 2y2x
dx

(a) Show that the substitution y = ux transforms the given differential


du

equation into the equation dx = 2u2x


(b) Find the general solution for u and hence find y in terms of x.
(c) Given that C passes through the point with coordinates (-1, 1),
find the equation of the curve C and sketch its graph.
9.

The equation of a curve C satisfies the differential equation


x2

dy
- xy = 2y( y + x)
dx

(1)

(a) Show that the substitution y = ux transforms equation (1) into the differential
2u ( u + 1)
equation du =
dx

(2)

(b) Hence show that the general solution of equation (1) can be expressed as
y=

Ax 3 ,
1 Ax 2

for A an arbitrary constant.


The curve C passes through the point (1, -2).
(c) Find the equation of C and the coordinates of all the points where C intersects
the line y = x.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style mark scheme

First order differential equations

Question
Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

dy
= 2 cos 2x dx
sin 2x
y

B1

ln |y| = ln |sin 2x| + ln c


y = k sin 2x

M3
A1

-2 = k sin p , then k = -4

M1 A1

y = -4sin 2x

A1 ft

(4)

(3)

y
O

r
4

B1

2 a

dy
= 4x dx
y 4 2x + 1

B1

ln |y - 4| =

M2

(2 2x2+ 1)dx

ln |y - 4| = 2x - ln |2x + 1| + ln c
y 4 = ce

2x

B1

2x + 1
2x
y = 4 + ce
2x + 1

A1

5=4+c
c=1

(6)

A1

2x
y=4+ e

A1 ft

(2)
8

1 1
y 1 y +1

M1 A1

(2)

2dy
= dx
2
x
y 1

B1

1 1 dy = dx
y 1 y + 1
x

M1

ln y 1 = ln x + ln c

M2oe

2x + 1

3 a

M1

y +1
y 1
= kx
y +1

A1

k = 1 since y = 2 when x = 1
y - 1 = yx + x
y = 1+ x
1 x

Oxford University Press 2009

A1
M1
A1

(8)
10

Further Pure FP2

4 a

dy
+ x y= x
dx x 2 + 1
x

x 2 +1dx

1 ln(x 2 +1)

= e2

M1 A1

x2 + 1

x(x 2 + 1) 2 dx + c

y(x 2 + 1) 2 =
1

M1

y(x 2 + 1) 2 = 1 (x 2 + 1) 2 + c

M1 A1

c=0

A1

y = 1 (x2 + 1)
3

A1ft

B2

5 a

(3)

B1

The integrating factor is e

10

2 (tan x ) dx

=e

2 ln cos x

= sec 2 x

M1

ysec2 x = (sec2x) dx = tan x + c

M1 A1

Substitute y = 1 and x = p , c = 0

A1

(7)

(3)

Particular solution:
y=

6 a
b

tan x
1
= sin x cos x = sin 2 x
2
2
sec x

dx
= kx(20 x )
dt
dx
= kdt
x(20 x)

(1)

M1 A1
K+C=0

x
= ( t 1) 1 ln 3
20 20 x
10
= ( t 1) 2 ln 3 = ( t 1) ln 9 = ln 9t 1
i.e. ln x
20 x

Hence 1 ln

A1

B1 M1 A1

Substitute x = 15 and t = 1.5: 3K + 2C = 1 ln 3


10
From (1) and (2): K = 1 ln 3 and C = 1 ln 3
10
10

Therefore

(3)
6

M1

1+ 1
1
dx = kt + c
x 20 x
20
1 ln x
= Kt + C
20 20 x

Substitute x = 10 and t = 1:

M1 A1

(1)
(2)

M1
A2
M1 A1

(11)

x
= 9t 1 as required
20 x

When t = 2,

x
=9
20 x

Therefore x = 180 - 9x, so x = 18 km


12

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

7 a

Let u = x, then du = dx
Let dv = exdx, v = ex

B1

xe x dx = xe x - e x dx = (x - 1)e x + c
b

dy x + 2
x
+
y=
dx
x +1
x +1

The integrating factor is e

M1 A1
M1

x+2

x +1 dx

=e

1+ x +1 dx

= ( x + 1)e x

x
(x + 1)e x dx = xe x dx
x +1
x
(x + 1)e x y = (x - 1)e x + c so y = ( x 1) e +x c
( x + 1) e

(x + 1)e x y =

(3)

M1 A1
M1 A1
M1 A1
10

8 a

dy
= u + x du
dx
dx

M1

x u + x du ux = 2u2 x 3

M1

du = 2u2 x
dx

A1

u-2du = 2x dx

B1

1 = x2 + c
u
x = x2 + c

y
y = 2x
x +c

M1 A1

c=0

A1

1
y=
x

A1oe

dx

(3)

B1
A1

(5)

y
2

B1
O

(3)

11

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

9 a

Substitute y = ux and

dy
du
=u+x
in (I):
dx
dx

x 2 u + x du x(ux) = 2ux (ux + x)


dx
du = 2u(u + 1)
dx
x

B1
A1

(3)

du = 2 dx
u(u + 1)
x

( u1 u 1+ 1) du =

2dx
x

B1

ln u - ln(u + 1) = 2ln x + ln A

M1

u = Ax 2
u +1

M1

u - Ax2u = Ax2

M1

Ax 2
1 Ax 2

u=

y
x

Substitute u = :
y=
c

M1

Ax 3
1 Ax 2

2 =

y=

A
, then A = 2
1 A

2 x3
1 2 x2

Bloe
A1

(6)

A1
A1

Substitute y = x:
x=

2x 3
1 2x 2

x(1 - 2x2) = 2x3

M1

x(4x2 - 1) = 0
(0, 0), (0.5, 0.5) and (-0.5, -0.5)

B1
A2

Oxford University Press 2009

(6)
15

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

5
1.

2nd order differential equations


d2y

dy

(a) Find the general solution of the differential equation 2 + k


= 0 , giving
dx
d
x
y in terms of x and the positive constant k.
(b) Describe the behaviour of y as x increases, where x > 0

2.

An object is oscillating about a fixed point P. After t seconds the object is x metres
from P where x is modelled by the differential equation
d2x
+ 4x = 0
dt 2

(a) Given that x = 3 when t = 0 and when t = 1 p , solve this differential equation to
4
show that x = 3cos 2t + 3sin 2t
(b) Express x in the form R sin (2t + a), where R > 0 and 0 < a < 1 p are both exact.
2

(c) Hence find the maximum possible distance of the object from point P.
Give your answer in simplified surd form.
3.

(a) Find the general solution of the differential equation


4

d2y
dy
+4
+ 5y = 2cos x - 8sin x
2
d
x
dx

A curve C has equation which satisfies this differential equation.


The curve crosses the x-axis when x = 0 and when x = 1 p .
2

(b) Find the equation of the curve C.


(c) Show that for large positive values of x, the curve C may be approximated
by a cosine function and write down this function.
4.

The equation of a curve satisfies the differential equation


d2y
dy
2
- 3y = 16e x
2
d
x
dx

The gradient of this curve at the point (0, 1) is -5.


(a) Show that the equation of this curve is given by y = e -x(e2x - 2)2
(b) Find the exact coordinates of the point P where this curve crosses the x-axis.
(c) Given that P is a stationary point on this curve, use the differential equation
to show that P is a minimum point.
5.

(a) Show that 3xe2x is a particular integral of the differential equation


d2y
dy
3
+ 2y = 3e2x
2
d
x
dx

(b) Find the particular solution of this differential equation for which at
dy
x = 0, y = -1 and
= -1
dx

A curve C has equation given by this particular solution.


(c) Find the value of y on the curve when x = 1. Deduce that between x = 0 and
x = 1, the curve C crosses the x-axis.
Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

6.

(a) Find the general solution of the differential equation


2
4 d x2 + 4 dx + x = (t + 1)(t + 7)
dt

dt

(b) Hence show that the particular solution of this differential equation for
which x = -2 when t = 0 and for which dx = 6 when t = 3 is given by

x = (t - 1) e
7.

1t
2

dt

+ t +1

(a) Show that the substitution y = ux transforms the differential equation


d2y
dy
+ ( 5x 4 ) x
+ (4 - 5x + 3x2) y = 10x3sin 2x
dx
dx 2
2
(2)
into the equation 2 d u2 + 5 ddux + 3u = 10sin 2x
dx

2x 2

(1)

(b) Solve equation (2).


(c) Hence write down the general solution of equation (1).
8.

dy
=
(a) If y = 1 , where u is a function of x, show that
dx

an expression for

d2y
.
dx 2

1 du
and find
u2 dx

(b) Use the substitution y = 1 to show that the differential equation


u

d y
dy
2 + 4y2 (2y - 1) = 0
d
dx 2
x
d 2u
can be expressed as 2 + 4u = 8
dx

(1)
(2)

(c) Find the general solution of equation (2).


(d) (i) Hence show that the particular solution of equation (1) for which y = 1 at
x = 0 and at x = 1 p is given by y = cos 2x + 1sin 2x + 2
4
(ii) State the minimum possible value attained by this particular solution.
9.

(a) Show that the substitution v = xy transforms the differential equation


d2y
dy
+ 2 (1 + x )
+ (2 + x)y = x2 + 6x + 6
2
d
x
dx
2
into the equation d v2 + 2 dv + v = x2 + 6x + 6
dx
dx

(1)
(2)

(b) Solve equation (2) and hence find y in terms of x.


(c) Show that any member of the family of solution curves of equation (1) can,
for large positive values of x, be approximated by the line y = x + 2

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style mark scheme

2nd order differential equations

Question
Number

Solution

Marks

1 a

aux.eqn.: m 2 + km = 0, m = 0, m = -k
gen. soln. y = A + Be -kx

M1 A2
M1 A1

(5)

If B is positive, y decreases approaching A.


If B is negative, y increases approaching A.

B1
B1

(2)

6
2 a

aux. eqn.: m2 + 4 = 0, m = 2i
gen. soln.: x = Acos (2t) + Bsin (2t)
Substitute x = 3 and t = 0, then A = 3.
Substitute x = 3 and t = p , then B = 3.

M1 A2
M2
A1
A1

Hence x = 3cos 2t + 3sin 2t

M1 A1

(7)

R = 3 2 , a = tan 1 1 = p

x = 3 2 sin 2t + p
c

3 a

A1

max.x = 3 2 metres

A1

Aux. eqn.: 4m2 + 4m + 5 = 0

M1

m = 4

A1

64

C.F.: y = e

= 1 i
2

1 x

(A cos x + B sin x)

P.I.:
y = pcos x + qsin x

(4)
11

A1
B1

dy
= -psin x + qcos x
dx
d 2y
= -pcos x - qsin x
dx 2

-4pcos x - 4qsin x - 4psin x + 4qcos x + 5pcos x + 5qsin x


= 2cos x - 8sin x
then
(p + 4q)cos x + (q - 4p)sin x = 2cos x - 8sin x
p + 4q = 2
q - 4q = -8
hence
q = 0, p = 2
General solution:
y=e

1x
2

(Acos x + Bsin x) + 2cos x

Oxford University Press 2009

M3

A2

A1

(10)

Further Pure FP2

Substituting y = 0, x = 0 and x = p then A = -2, B = 0

A2

Equation of the curve is.


y = 2(1 - e-0.5x ) cos x

A1oe

If x then e 0.5x 0 , hence y 2cos x

B1 A1

(5)
15

4 a

The auxiliary equation m2 - 2m - 3 = 0 has solution m = -1, m = 3


The complementary function is y = Ae-x + Be3x, for A and B arbitrary
constant.
An appropriate trial function is yT = De x

B1

M1

dy
d 2y
= De x and 2 = De x
dx
dx

If y = Dex then

Substitute these expressions into the given differential equation:


d 2y
2 dy 3y = 16e x De x 2De x 3De x = 16e x
2
dx
dx
x
x

M1

-4De = 16e
D = -4

Hence the general solution of the given differential equation is


y = Ae-x + Be3x - 4ex
Substitute the boundary condition y = 1, x = 0 into the general solution:
y = Ae-x + Be3x - 4ex 1 = Ae0 + Be0 - 4e0
A+B=5
(1)
Substitute the boundary condition dy = 5, x = 0 into the general solution:
-x

y = Ae +

Be3x

4ex

dx
dy

= -Ae-x + 3Be3x - 4ex


dx

-5 = -Ae0 + 3Be0 - 4e0


A - 3B = 1
(2)
A+B=5
A - 3B = 1
(1) - (2):
A = 4, B = 1

(1)
(2)

Hence the equation of the curve is y = 4e-x + e3x - 4ex


= e-x (e4x - 4e2x + 4)
= e-x (e2x - 2)2

M1 A1

e-x (e2x - 2)2 = 0


2x = ln 2

M1

(5)

x = 1 ln 2
2

( 21 ln 2, 0)
c

A1

(2)

B1

(1)
8

1 ln 2
2
Substitute x = 1 ln 2 in to the DE to give d y2 = 16e 2 = 16 2 > 0

Therefore P is min. point.

Oxford University Press 2009

dx

Further Pure FP2

5 a

y = 3xe2x

M1

dy
= 3e2x + 6xe2x
dx

M1

d 2y
= 6e2x + 6e2x + 12xe2x = 12e2x + 12xe2x
dx 2

d 2y
3 dy + 2y = (12 9)e2x + (12 18 + 6)xe2x = 3e2x
2
dx
dx

M1 A1

Aux. eqn.: m2 - 3m + 2 = 0, then m = 1, 2


C.F. y = Ae x + Be2x
General Solution: y = Ae x + Be2x + 3xe2x

M1 A1
A1
A1

dy
= Ae x + 2Be2x + 3e2x + 6xe2x
dx
dy
Substituting x = 0, y = -1 and dx = 1:

M1

A + B = -1 and A + 2B = -4, solve simultaneously:


A = 2, B = -3
Particular solution: y = 2e x - 3e2x + 3xe2x
c

At x = 1 then y = 2 e > 0
At x = 0 then y = -1
Change of sign, therefore curve C crosses the x-axis.

(4)

M1
A2
A1ft

(9)

A1
A1

(2)
15

6 a

Aux. eqn.: 4m2 + 4m + 1 = 0, then (2m + 1)2 = 0, m = -0.5


C.F.: x = Ae-0.5t + Bte-0.5t
P.I.: x = pt2 + qt + r

M1 A1
A1
M1

dx = 2 pt + q
dt
d 2x = 2 p
dt 2
2
4 d 2x + 4 dx + x = 8 p + 8 pt + 4q + pt 2 + qt + r
dt
dt

= t2 + 8t + 7
Comparing the coefficients of t2, t,:
p = 1, q = 0 and r = -1
The general solution is
x = Ae-0.5t + Bte-0.5t + t2 - 1
b

M2

A3
A1

(10)

dx
-0.5t
+ Be-0.5t -0.5Bt e-0.5t + 2t
dt = -0.5Ae
Substituting (t = 0, x = -2) and dx = 6 at t = 3:
dt

-2 = A - 1, then A = -1, B = 1,
Particular solution: x = -e-0.5t + te-0.5t + t2 - 1
= e-0.5t(t - 1) + (t - 1)(t + 1)
= (t - 1)(e-0.5t + t + 1)

Oxford University Press 2009

A2
M1 A1

(6)
16

Further Pure FP2

7 a

dy
= u + x du
dx
dx

M1

d 2y
du + x d 2u
=
2
dx
dx 2
dx 2

M1

2x 2 2 du + x d u2 + (5x 4)x u + x du
dx
dx

dx

M1

+ (4 - 5x + 3x2)(ux) = 10x3sin 2x
2
4x du + 2x 2 d u2 + 5xu + 5x 2 du 4u 4x du

dx

dx

dx

dx

M1

+ 4u - 5xu + 3x2u = 10x2 sin 2x


2
2 d u2 + 5 du + 3u = 10 sin 2x

A1

Aux. eqn.: 2m2 + 5m + 3 = 0, (2m + 3)(m + 1) = 0

M1

m = -1, 3

A1

C.F.: u = Ae-x + Be-1.5x


P.I.: u = psin 2x + qcos 2x
3u = 3psin 2x + 3qcos 2x

A1
B1

dx

dx

5 du = 10 p cos 2x 10q sin 2x

(5)

M2

dx

2
2 d u2 = 8 p sin 2x 8q cos 2x

A1oe

dx

Total:
-(5p + 10q)sin 2x + (10p - 5q) cos 2x = 10 sin 2x
Then p + 2q = -2 and 2p - q = 0

A2

p = 2, q = 4
5

The general solution of (II):

A1

(10)

A1

(1)

u = Ae-x + Be-1.5x - 2 sin 2x - 4 cos 2x


5

y = Axe-x + Bxe-1.5x 2 xsin 2x 4 xcos 2x


5

16

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

8 a

y = u-1
dy 2 du
= u
as required
dx
dx

( )

d 2y
= 2u 3 du
2
dx
dx

2
u 2 d u2

( dx ) u
dx
2 ( dy ) = 2u ( du )
dx
dx
2

M1oe

dx

2
u 1 d y2 = 2u 4 du

M1oe

(2)

d 2u
dx 2

8y3 - 4y2 = 8u-3 - 4u-2


Total:
u

M1
2

d u + 8u 3 4u 2 = 0
dx 2

M1

Multiply by -u3:
d 2u + 4u = 8
dx 2

Aux. eqn.: m2 + 4 = 0, m = 2i
C.F.: u = Acos 2x + Bsin 2x
P.I.:

2
u = k, d u2 = 0, then k = 2

dx

The general solution of (II) :


u = Acos 2x + Bsin 2x + 2
d

( ) ( )

Substituting 0, 1 and p , 1 :
4 3
3
1
= Acos 2x + Bsin 2x + 2
y

A = 1 and B = 1
1
cos 2x + sin 2x + 2
Min. value is 1
2+ 2

M1 A1
A1

(4)

A1
A1

(5)

M1
A2
A1

Hence y =

ii

Oxford University Press 2009

A1

(5)
16

Further Pure FP2

9 a

y = x-1v
dy 2
= x v + x 1 dv
dx
dx

B1oe

2
d 2y
= 2x 3v x 2 dv x 2 dv + x 1 d v2
2
dx
dx
dx
dx

B1oe

2
d 2y
3
2 dv
1 d v
=
2
x
v

2
x
+
x
dx
dx 2
dx 2

B1oe

2
2
x d y2 = 2x 2v 2x 1 dv + d v2

dx

dx

dx
(2 + 2x) dy = 2x 2v + 2x 1 dv 2x 1v + 2 dv
dx
dx
dx

(2 + x)y = 2x-1v + v
(i) + (ii) + (iii):

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

d 2v + 2 dv + v = x 2 + 6x + 6
dx
dx 2

Aux. eqn.: m2 + 2m + 1 = 0
(m + 1)2 = 0, then m = -1
C.F.: v = Ae-x + Bx e-x
v = px2 + qx + r

M1
A1

(5)

M1 A1
A1
M1oe

dv = 2 px + q
dx

P.I.:

d 2v = 2 p
dx 2
d 2v + 2 dv + v = 2 p + 4 px + 2q + px 2 + qx + r
dx
dx 2

= px2 + (4p + q)x + 2p + 2q + r = x2 + 6x +6


Comparing the coefficients of x2 and x:
p = 1, q = 2 and r = 0
The general solution of (II):
v = Ae-x + Bxe-x + x2 + 2x
y = Ax-1e-x + Be-x + x + 2
c

If x then e-x 0, hence y x + 2

Oxford University Press 2009

A3
A1
A1
A1

(12)
17

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

6
1.

Maclaurin and Taylor series

(a) Find the Taylor expansion of sin 6x in ascending powers of x 1 p

up to and including the term in x 1 p .


6

(b) Hence, or otherwise, find the first two non-zero terms, in ascending powers

of x 1 p , in the Taylor expansion of sin 3xcos 3x.


2.

f(x) = tan x
(a) Find f (1) (x), f (2) (x) and f (3) (x).
(b) Show that, if x is sufficiently small that terms in x4 and higher powers
can be ignored, then
tan x = x + 1 x 3
3

0.2

(c) Use this approximation to estimate the value of


Give your answer to 3 decimal places.
3.

0.1

3tan x
dx.
x

(a) Write down the Maclaurin expansion in ascending powers of x of ln (1 + x)


up to and including the term in x3.
(b) Hence, or otherwise, find, in ascending powers of x, the expansion of
(i) ln (1 + 2x),
(ii) ln (1 - 2x),
giving each expansion up to and including the term in x3
(c) Deduce that, for small values of x, ln

(11 + 22xx ) 2x + 83 x

and hence, by substituting x with a suitable value into this approximation,


estimate the value of ln 3, giving your answer as a fraction in its lowest terms.
4.

f(x) = ln (4 - x),

x<4

(a) Prove by induction that


f (n) (x) = -(n - 1)!(4 - x)-n

for all positive integers n.

(b) Hence find the coefficient of (x - 2)5 in the Taylor expansion of ln 1


4x
in ascending powers of (x - 2).
5.

x2

dy
+ y2 = x - 1
dx

(a) Given that y = 2 when x = 1 find a series solution for y, in ascending powers
of (x - 1), up to and including the term in (x - 1)2.
(b) Hence estimate the value of y when x = 1.2

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

6.

(a) Express ecos x-1 as a series of ascending powers of x up to and including


the term in x2.
It is given that in the interval (0, 1) the equation ecos x-1 = 2x is satisfied by
exactly one value a
(b) Use your answer to part (a) to find an estimate for a.
(c) Show, by means of a change of sign, that this estimate for a is accurate to
2 decimal places.

7.

2
For the differential equation (x + 2) d y2 y dy = x ,

dx
dy
= 3 when x = 0.
where y = 2 and
dx

dx

(a) find a series solution for y, in ascending powers of x, up to and including


the term in x3.
(b) Hence estimate the value of y when x = -0.1, giving your answer to
3 decimal places.
8.

2
For the differential equation (x2 - 1) d y2 - 2y = (3x + 1)(x - 1),

it is given that y = 0 and

dx
dy
= -1 when x = 0.
dx

(a) Show that the first three non-zero terms in a series solution for y, in
ascending powers of x, is
y = x + 1 x 2 + 2 x 3 + . . .
2

(b) Given that the particular solution of this differential equation is


y = (x2 + k) ln (1 + x), where k is a constant,
(i) find the value of k,
(ii) find the coefficient of x4 in the series solution for y.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style mark scheme

6
Question
Number

1 a

Maclaurin and Taylor series


Solution

Marks

(6) ( 6)
f (x) = 6cos 6x f ( p ) = 6
6
f (x) = -36sin 6x f ( p ) = 0
6
f (x) = -216cos 6x f ( p ) = 216
6
sin6x = 6 ( x 1 p ) + 36 ( x 1 p )
6
6

f(x) = sin 6x f p = sin 6 p = 0

A1

M1 A1
A1
A1

A1

sin 3x cos 3x = 1 sin 6x

M1

= 1 6 x p + 36 x p
2
6
6

6)

6)

= 3 x p + 18 x p
2 a

(6)

M1

A1

f (x) = sec2 x
f (x) = 2sec xsec x tan x
= 2sec 2x tan x
f (x) = 4sec x sec x tan x tan x + 2sec2x sec2x
= 4sec2x tan2x + 2sec4x

M1 A1

f(0) = tan 0 = 0, f (0) = sec20 = 1, f (0) = 0, f (0) = 2

M1 A2

2
3
tan x  f (0) + xf (0) + x f (0) + x f (0)

M1

2!

(3)

3!

A1

M1 A1

(5)

3
= x + x 2

3!

3
= x+ x

A1

0.2

c
0.1

3tan x dx 
x

Oxford University Press 2009

0.2

0.1

3 + x2 dx = 3x + x
3

(5)

0.2

0.1

= 0.302(3 dp)
10

Further Pure FP2

3 a

f(x) = ln(1 + x) f (0) = 0


f (x) = (1 + x)-1 f (0) = 1
f (x) = -(1 + x)-2 f (0) = -1
f (x) = 2(1 + x)-3 f (0) = 2

A1
M1 A1
M1 A1
M1 A1

ln(1 + x)  x 1 x 2 + 1 x 3

A1

ln(1 + 2x)  2x 2x 2 + 8 x 3

A1

3
ii ln(1 2x) = 2x 2x 2 8 x 3
3

A1

ln 1 + 2x = 1 [ln(1 + 2x) ln(1 2x)]


1 2x

(8)

M1

= x x2 + 4 x3 + x + x2 + 4 x3

B1

= 2x + 8 x 3

A1

Take x = 0.25, then ln 3 = 2 1 +


4

(2)

8 = 13
3 64 24

M1 A1

(5)
15

4 a

For n = 1, f (x) = -(4 - x)-1, so it is true for n = 1.


Assume true for n = k, then f (k) = -(k - 1)!(4 - x)-k
(k)
f (k +1)(x) = d( f (x))

M1
B1

dx

= d [(k 1)!(4 x)k]


dx

= (k 1)!(k)(1)(4 x)(k +1)


= (k !)(4 x)(k 1)

M1
M1 A1

(5)

Therefore it is true for n = k + 1


Hence by induction, the result is true for all n . 1
b

ln

( 4 1 x ) =

ln(4

x)

M1oe

f (5)(2) 4! 2 5
=
= 1
5!
5!
160

M1 A1

(3)
8

5 a

Substituting y = 2 and x = 1: dy = 4
2
2
2x dy + x 2 d y2 + 2y dy = 1 d y2 = 25

dx

dx

dx

dx

when x = 1

M1 A1ft

y  2 4(x 1) + 25 (x 1)2

M1 A1ft

y  2 - 4(0.2) + 12.5(0.2)2
= 1.7

M1
A1ft

A1

dx

Oxford University Press 2009

(5)

(2)
7

Further Pure FP2

6 a

f(x) = ecosx-1 f(0) = 1


f (x) = -ecos x1 sin x f (0) = 0
f (x) = ecos x1 sin 2x - ecos x1 cos x f (0) = -1

A1
M1 A1
M1 A1

ecos x 1 1 1 x 2

M1 A1

(7)

1 1 x 2 = 2x
2

x + 4x - 2 = 0

M1

x = 2 6
c

7 a

a 2 + 6 = 0.45 (2 dp)

A1

Let g(x) = ecos x-1 - 2x


g(0.445) = ecos(0.445) -1 2(0.445) = +0.02
g(0.445) = ecos(0.455) -1 - 2(0.445) = -0.07
Change of sign in the region [0.445, 0.455], \a = 0.45 (2dp)

M1

Substituting y = 2 and

2
dy
= 3, x = 0 then d y2 = 3
dx
dx

( )

3
d 2y
+ (x + 2) d y3 dy
2
dx
dx
dx

2
3
y d y2 = 1 d y3 = 13

dx

dx

2
y 2 + 3x + 3x + 13 x 3

8 a

12

y = 2 - 0.3 + 1.5(0.01) - 13 (0.001) = 1.714(3dp)


12

Substituting y = 0,

d 2y
dy
= -1 when x = 0, then 2 = 1
dx
dx

2
3
3
2x d y2 + (x 2 1) d y3 2 dy = 6x 2 d y3 = 4 when x = 0

dx
dx
y x + 1 x 2 + 2 x 3
2
3
dx

dx

dy
= 2x ln(1 + x) + (x 2 + k)(1 + x)1
dx
Substituting x = 0 and dy = -1, then k = -1
dx

M1
A1

M1 A1ft
M1 A1ft

(5)

M1 A1ft

(2)
7

A1
M1 A1ft
A1

A1

1 1
1
The coefficient of x4 = 2 + 4 = 4

A1

(4)

M1 B1oe

M1

( x 2 1) x

(3)
12

A1

x 2 + x 3 x 4 + ...
2
3
4

ii

(2)

(3)

(2)
9

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style assessment

7
1.

Polar coordinates

The polar curve C has equation r = 4cos q + 2sin q for 0 - q - 1 p .


2

(a) Show that (x - 2)2 + (y - 1)2 = 5, where (x, y) are the cartesian coordinates
of any point on C.
(b) Hence sketch the polar curve C.
2.

1
r
6

The diagram shows part of the curve C with cartesian equation y2 = x2 - 1


for x . 1 point P on the curve is such that line OP makes an angle of 1 p radians,
6
measured anti-clockwise against the positive x-axis.
(a) Show that for any polar point (r, q) on C, r2 = sec 2q
(b) Hence, or otherwise, find the exact distance OP.
3.

i=

1
r
2

C2

C1
l

The diagram shows the polar curves C1 and C2 with equations given by
C1: r = cos 2q 0 - q - 1 p
and

C2: r = sin q

4
0 - q - 1p
2

Point A lies on the curve C2 and on the half-line q = 1 p . P is a point of


2
intersection of the two curves.
(a) Find the exact polar coordinates of point P.
(b) Show that AP = 1 3
2

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

4.

B
O

The diagram shows the polar curve with equation r = a(1 + 2cos q) for 0 - q - 2 p ,
3
where a is a positive constant. The curve crosses the initial line at the pole and at
point A. The line p is a tangent to this curve at point B and is perpendicular to the
initial line, as shown.
(a) Find the polar coordinates of point A, giving your answer in terms of a
(b) Show that, for this curve, rcos q = a(cos q + cos 2q + 1)
(c) Hence find, in terms of a, the distance OB.
2
(d) Show that the area of triangle OAB is 3a 15

16

5.

A curve C is defined by the polar equation r = 2 + acos q for -p - q - p,


where a is a positive constant.
(a) On separate diagrams, sketch the curve C given that
(i) a = 2
(ii) a < 2.
(b) In the case when a =

6.

i=

2, find the exact total area enclosed by the curve C.

1
r
2

i=0

The diagram shows the polar curve with equation r 2 = 2 3 sin 2q for 0 - q - 1 p ,
the initial line and the half-line q = 1 p . A tangent to this curve at point A,
2
parallel to the initial line, is also shown.

(a) Show that r2 sin2 q = 3 sin 2q 1 sin 4q


2

(b) Hence, by using implicit differentiation, show that point A has polar
coordinates

3, 1 p .
3

(c) Find the polar equation of this tangent.


(d) Show that the line OA divides the curve into two regions whose areas are
in the ratio 1 : 3.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

7.

i=r

i= 0

The diagram shows the curve with polar equation r = 2 - cos 2q for 0 - q - p.
The curve is enclosed by a rectangle formed by the half-lines q = 0, q = p and the
tangents parallel and perpendicular to the initial line, which touch the curve at
points P, Q and R respectively, as shown.
(a) Express r sin q in terms of sin q only.

(b) Use calculus to show that point P has polar coordinates 3, 1 p .


2

(c) Find the exact polar coordinates of point Q and point R.


(d) Show that the area of the region inside the rectangle but outside the curve,
as shaded in the diagram, is 6 2 9 p
4

8.

L
P

C
R

initial line

The diagram shows the polar curve C and the straight line L with equations
given by
C: r = 2(cos q - sin q)
and

L: r 1 sec 1 p q
2

0 - q - 1p

4
0 - q - 1p
4

C and L intersect at point P. Point Q is where L crosses the initial line. R is the
finite region bounded by C, PQ and the initial line and which does not contain
the pole.
(a) Show that P has polar coordinates P

( 3 1, 61 p ).

(b) Find the polar coordinates of point Q.


(c) Show that the area of region R is 0.36, correct to 2 decimal places.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

9.

C1

C2

C2

i=r

C1
l

The diagram shows the polar curves C1 and C2 with equations given by
C1: r = 2(1 + sin q)

0-q-p

C2: r = 2(1 + cos q)

0-q-p

The half-lines q = 0 and q = p bound both C1 and C2.


The curves intersect at point P.
(a) Find the polar coordinates of point P. Give your answer in exact form.
(b) Show that (1 + sin q)2 - (1 + cos q)2 2sin q - 2cos q - cos 2q
(c) Find the exact area of the region R between the two curves and which is
bounded by the half-lines q = 1 p and q = p, shown shaded on the diagram.
4

10.

1
1
The diagram shows the polar curve C with equation r 2 = 2a2cos 2q for 4 p  q  4 p ,
where a > 0 is a constant. Tangents to the curve at point A and point B, parallel to
the initial line, have been drawn.

(a) Show that, for any point (r, q ) on C, r 2 sin2 q = a2(cos 2q - cos2 2q)
(b) Hence, using implicit differentiation, find in terms of a the polar coordinates
of points A and B.
(c) Show that triangle OAB is equilateral and find its area in terms of a.
(d) Find, in terms of a, the exact area of the finite region bounded by the curve
and the line AB and which does not contain the pole.

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

Exam-style mark scheme

Polar coordinates

Question
Number

Solution

1 a

Multiply by r:
r2 = 4r cos q + 2r sin q
Usin g r2 = x2 + y2, x = rcos q and y = rsin q
x2 + y2 = 4x + 2y
(x 2)2 + (y 1)2 = 5

Marks

M1
M1
M1 A1

(4)

B3

(3)

7
2 a

3 a

Substitute x = rcos q and y = rsin q in y2 = x2 1:


r2 sin2 q = r2 cos2 q - 1
r2 (cos2 q sin2 q ) = 1
r2 cos 2q = 1, hence r2 = sec 2q

M1oe
M1oe
M1 A1

r 2 = sec p = 2 , r = 2

M1 A1

cos2 q = sin q
1 2sin2 q = sin q
2sin2 q + sin q 1 = 0
(2 sin q - 1)(sin q + 1) = 0, sin q = 1

A1

Hence q = p

A1

(2 6 )

P 1 ,p
b

A(0, 1), P
AP =

3 + 9 = 1 3
16 16
2

Oxford University Press 2009

(2)
6

B1
M1

A1

( 43 , 14 ) in Cartesian form

(4)

(5)

A2
M1 A1

(4)
9

Further Pure FP2

4 a

r = a(1 + 2cos 0) 3a

Hence A has polar coordinates (3a, 0)

r cos q = a(1 + 2cos q) cos q


= a(cos q + 2cos2 q)
= a(cos q + cos 2q + 1), as required

x = r cos q, so dx = a (-sin q - 2sin 2q)


dq

Hence at B, sin q + 2sin 2q = 0


sin q + 4 sin q cos q = 0
sin q (1 + 4cos q) = 0
i.e. sin q = 0 [which does not correspond to B]
or cosq = 1

( ( 14 )) = 21 a

Hence OB = a 1 + 2
d

(2 )

Area = 1 (3a) 1 a sin q, where cos q = 1 , 0 < q < p


2

Hence sin q = 1 cos2 q


= 1 1

16
1
=
15
4

( )(

So Area = 1 (3a) 1 a 1 15

2
2
4
= 3 a 2 15, as required
16

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

5 a

r = 2 + 2cos i

B2

x
2

ii

2
2a

2+a
x

B2

(4)

Area
p

=2
0

1 r 2dq
2

(2 +

2 cosq ) dq
2

M1

(4 + 4

2 cosq + 2 cos2 q ) dq

M1

(5 + 4

2 cosq + cos 2q ) dq

M1

=
0

= 5q + 4 2 sinq + 1 sin 2q

= 5p

M2
A1

(6)
6

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

6 a

r2 sin 2q
= 2 3 sin 2q sin 2 q

= 2 3 sin 2q 1 2 cos 2q
=

M1

3(sin 2q sin 2q cos 2q )

= 3 sin 2q 1 sin 4q
b

M1

M1 A1

(4)

M1 A1

(2)

y 2 = 3 sin 2q 1 sin 4q so 2y dy = 3 (2 cos 2q 2 cos 4q)


2

dq

Hence, at A, 2cos 2q - 2cos 4q = 0


i.e. 2cos2 2q - cos 2q - 1 = 0
(2cos 2q + 1)(cos 2q - 1) = 0
cos 2q = 1 [which does not correspond to A]
or cos 2q = 1 , so 2q = 2 p i.e. q = 1 p
3
3
2
1
2
q = p r = 3 and so the polar coordinates of A are A
3
c

r sinq = 3 sin p = 1.5

Area above OA:

1
2

p
2

p
3

3, 1 p
3

2 3 sin 2q dq = 3 [ cos 2q]p2 = 3


2
4
3

M1 A1

Area below OA:


p
3

1
2
0

2 3 sin 2q dq = 3 [ cos 2q]03 = 3 3


2
4

3 : 3 3 then ratio is 1 : 3
4
4

M1 A1
A1

(5)
17

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

7 a

rsin q = 2sin q - sin q cos 2q


= 2sin q - sin q (1 - 2sin 2q)
= 2sin 3q + sin q
d(r sinq )
= 6 sin 2 q cosq + cosq = 0
dq
cos q = 0 then q = p
2
Therefore P 3, p
2

( )

rcos q = 2cos q - cos q cos 2q


= 2cos q - cos q (2cos2 q - 1)
= 3cos q - 2cos 3q
d(r cosq )
= 3 sinq + 6 cos2 q sinq = 0
dq
cosq = 1 (as sinq = 0 cannot give P or Q)
2
q = p , 3p
4 4
Q 2, p , R 2, 3p
4
4

( ) (

Area of the rectangle = 2 2 cos p 3 = 6 2


4

M1
A1

(2)

M1
A1
A1

(3)

M1
A1
M1
A1
A1
A2

(7)

M1 A1

Area inside the curve:


p
2

(2 - cos 2q)2 dq

M1

0
p
2

(4 - 4cos 2q + cos 22q)dq

0
p
2

=
0

( 4.5 4 cos 2q + 21 cos 4q ) dq


p
2

M1

= 4.5q 2 sin 2q + 1 sin 4q

M1

= 9p

A1

Shaded Area = 6 2 9 p
4

A1

(7)
19

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

8 a

1
2 cos p q
4

2(cosq sinq ) =

2(cosq sinq ) =

M1

M1

2 cos p cosq + sin p sinq


4
4
1
2(cosq sinq ) =
cosq + sinq

M1

2(cos 2q - sin 2q) = 1


2 cos2 q 1 = 1
2

cosq = 3

M1

2
Hence q = p and r = 2 cos p sin p =
6
6
6
P 3 1, p
6

b
c

3 1

A2

Substitute q = 0 in the equation of L, then r = 1


Q(1, 0)

A1

(7)

M1
A1

(2)

Area of the triangle OPQ


= 1 1 ( 3 1) sin p = 3 1
2

M1 A1

Area of the triangle OPQ + the region R:


= 1
2

p
6

[2(cos q - sin q]2 dq

M1

= 2 (1 - 2cos q sin q) dq

M1

0
p
6

p
6

= 2 [q + cos2 q ]0

M1 A1

=p 1
3 2

A1

Therefore the area of the region R = p 1 - 3 1 = 0.36 (2dp)


3

M1 A1

(9)
18

9 a

2(1 + sin q) = 2(1 + cos q)


sin q = cos q so tan q = 1
q =p
4

A1

r = 2 1 + sin p = 2 + 2

M1

P 2 + 2, p

A1

M1

1 + 2sin q + sin 2q - 1 - 2cos q - cos 2q


= 2sin q - 2cos q - (cos 2 - sin 2q)
= 2sin q - 2cos q - cos 2q

(4)

M1
A1

(2)

Area of the region R:


p

= 2 (2sin q - 2cos q - cos 2q) dq


p
4

M1

= 2 2 cosq 2 sin q 1 sin 2q p

M2

=5+4 2

A1

(4)
10

Oxford University Press 2009

Further Pure FP2

10 a

r2sin 2q = 2a2sin 2q cos 2q

= 2a 2 1 cos 2q cos 2q

M1

= a2(cos 2q - cos2 2q)

M1 A1

(3)

AB = 2 a sin p = a,

A2

(7)

Therefore OA = OB = AB = a, so triangle is equilateral

M1

Area of the triangle OAB = 1 a 2 sin p =

A1

Solve dy = 0 to find the coordinates of points A and B:


dq

y = r sin q y2 = r2 sin2 q
y2 = a2(cos2 q - cos2 2q)
2y = dy = a2(-2sin 2q + 4cos 2q sin 2q )
dq

dy
= 0 -2sin 2q + 4cos 2q sin 2q = 0
dq

2sin 2q (2cos 2q - 1) = 0
sin 2q = 0, cos 2q = 1

2
1
q = 0, q = p
6
Clearly, q = 1 p corresponds to point A and q = 1 p to point B
6
6
1
At A and B, cos 2q = and hence r2 = 2a2 cos 2q
2
2

=a

The polar coordinates of A and B are A a, 1 p and B a,- 1 p


6
6
respsectively.
c

3 a2
4

(2)

Area bounded
by curve and lines OA and OB
p
6

= 2 1
2

p
6

r2dq

2a2cos 2qdq

=
0

6
= [ a 2 sin 2q ]0

3 a2
2

Therefore Area required


=

3 a2

Oxford University Press 2009

3 a2
=
4

3 a2
4

Further Pure FP2