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Test Paper 8

I. Indicate the following statements true or false. Put T for true and F for
false in the brackets: (10 points)

) 1. According to M. A. K. Halliday, the three metafunctions of language are







( ) 2. Duality is the first and foremost striking feature of human language.
( ) 3. Modality can be categorized into modalization and modulation according to
( ) 4. Morphology is the study of the internal structure and the formation of words.
( ) 5. Associative meanings are meanings that hinge on referential meaning.
( ) 6. Second language acquisition is a complex process which involves social factors
and learner factors.
( ) 7.Varieties of a language are of four types: the standard variety, regional dialets,
sociodialects and registers.
( ) 8. Functional linguistics is based on the view that language as a system, which is
composed of three aspects: sound, structure and meaning.

) 9.Euphemism is an expression that substitutes one which may be seen as

offensive or disturbing to the addressee.

( ) 10. Intonation is the variation of pitch to distinguish utterance meaning.

II. Multiple choice: (10 points)
1. The language used to talk about language is called __________.
A. language

B. metalanguage

C. natural language

D. artificial language

2. [+continuant] specifies ________________.

A. all the fricatives

B. all the fricatives and glides

C. all the fricatives and liquids

D. all the fricatives, liquids and glides

3. _________ is a process that creates new words by putting together non-morphemic

parts of existing words.
A. Coinage

B. Blending

C. Acronmyms

D. Clipping

4. A __________ is a minimal distinctive linguistic unit.

A. morpheme
C. phoneme

B. word
D. allophones

5. The word multinationality has ___________ morphemes.

A. 2

B. 3

C. 4

D. 5

6. _________ is a term widely used in sociolinguistics to refer to varieties

according to use, in contrast with regional dialects and sociolects, both of which
are varieties according to user.
A. field

B. mode

C. tenor

D. register

7. __________ are a fundamental unit of conversational structure.

A. back-channel signals
C. pre-sequences

B. adjacency pairs
D. insertion sequences

8. The idea that people cooperate with each other in conversing is generalized by
Grice (1975) as ____________.
A. the principle of relevance
C. the politeness principle

B. cooperative principle
D. the theory of prototypes

9. Beauty and siren both refer to a good-looking woman, but they differ in
A. affective meaning

B. style

C. collocation

D. register

10. John explained the theory is a ___________ process according to Halliday.

A. material

B. mental

C. verbal

D. behavioral

III. Complete the blanks with necessary words beginning with the letter given:
(10 points)
1. Specially, there are four m__________ under cooperative principle generalized by
2. M__________ is unanimously acknowledged by researchers and language
teachers as an important factor in second language acquisition.
3. A speech act consists of three dimensions. The act of producing a meaningful
linguistic expression is called l_____________ act. The act of communicating
intention through utterance is termed i_____________ act. The act of bringing
about an effect is known as p____________ act.
4. The transference of properties of the source domain to the target domain is
referred to by some cognitive linguists as m____________ .
5. C__________ is a process that shortens a polysyllabic word by deleting one or
more syllables.

6. A morpheme may be represented by different forms, called a___________,

7. The term language a___________ refers to the natural process of children
language development.
8. A d___________ is a variety of a language that is distinctive from other regional
varieties in vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation.
IV. Match the words underlined in Column A with the types of English
word formation in column B. And put the letter you choose in the
bracket before the sentence: (10 points)

) 1. This vet is very famous in the town.

a. Conversion

) 2. This classroom is large and bright..

b. Derivation

) 3. He is watering flowers.

C. Blending

) 4. Orlon is a kind of cloth material.

d. Backformation

) 5. Watt is the measurement unit of electricity. e. Acronym

) 6. EEC is an important organization in the world.

f. Compounding

) 7. An editor is a person who edits a newspaper.

g. Coinage

) 8. The road was enlarged last year.

) 9. Some young people have brunch quite often.

h. Eponym
i. Clipping

V. Pick out the sound that does not belong to the group of the sounds according
to the natural class of sounds. And then name the feature(s) that define the
one picked out and the group of sounds: (10 points)
For example:

[z] voiced/voiceless

[f] [] [z] [s]

1. [ ]



[m] [] [l] [n]

2. [ ]



[p] [b] [m] [v] [w]

3. [ ]



[s] [z] [] [d] []

4. [ ] ____________ ___________
5. [ ] __________________________

[i:] [i] [] [u] [e]

[i:] [:] [e] []

VI. Draw tree diagrams to show the ambiguity of the sentence, He found his
book on Wall Street: (10 points)

VII. Explain the following terms: (10 points)

1. language and linguistics
2. semantics and pragmatics

VII. Answer the following questions:(40%)

1. How do you understand creativity, one of the features of human language?
2. What do Taboo and Euphemism mean? What is the relationship between them?
3. What are the general roles language plays according to Halliday?