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Iberian midwife toad

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Iberian midwife toad
Benny Trapp Alytes cisternasii.jpg
Conservation status
Near Threatened (IUCN 3.1)[1]
Scientific classification e
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Alytidae
Genus: Alytes
A. cisternasii
Binomial name
Alytes cisternasii
Bosc, 1879
Alytes cisternasii range Map.png
The Iberian midwife toad or brown midwife toad (Alytes cisternasii, in Spanish s
apo partero ibrico[1]) is a species of frog in the family Alytidae (formerly Disc
oglossidae) found in Portugal and western Spain.[2] It is typically found in ope
n habitats such as meadows and open oak forests. Habitat loss is one of the thre
ats to its survival.[1]
Contents [hide]
1 Description
2 Distribution and habitat
3 Biology
4 Status
5 References
6 External links
The Iberian midwife toad grows to a length of about 40 mm (1.6 in), males being
rather smaller than females. The snout is rounded and the eyes large, with verti
cal slit pupils. There are tiny, often orange, warts on the upper eyelids. The p
arotoid glands are relatively small and the tympani distinct. There are many tub
ercles on the body and concentrations of glandular warts under the arms, in the
groin area and on the ankles. The limbs are fairly short. The colour of the uppe
r surface is brownish-grey with dark spots, and the warts are often reddish. The
underparts are unspotted and greyish-white.[3]
Distribution and habitat[edit]
This toad is native to Portugal and western Spain at altitudes of up to 1,300 me
tres (4,300 ft) above sea level. Its preferred habitat is Mediterranean-type scr
ub, rough grazing and light oak woodland.[1]
Mating takes place in the autumn and the eggs are laid on land. The male then ga
thers up the egg mass and wraps it round his legs, carrying it around until the
developing embryos are ready to hatch. He can carry as many as 180 eggs resultin
g from four clutches laid by different females. The male deposits the hatching t
adpoles in suitable water bodies where they continue their development. Metamorp
hosis occurs about four months later when the tadpoles measure about 70 millimet
res (2.8 in) in length.[3]
The IUCN lists this species as being "Near Threatened". The main threats it face
s are the degradation of suitable terrestrial habitat, pollution and loss of sui
table breeding pools, and the introduction of the invasive crayfish Procambarus

clarkii and non-native fishes which prey on the tadpoles. It is also threatened
by the infectious fungal disease chytridiomycosis.[1]
^ Jump up to: a b c d e Pedro Beja, Jaime Bosch, Miguel Tejedo, Miguel Lizana, Ii
go Martnez-Solano, Alfredo Salvador, Mario Garca-Pars, Ernesto Recuero Gil, Jan Wil
lem Arntzen, Rafael Marquez, Carmen Diaz Paniagua (2008). "Alytes cisternasii".
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Con
servation of Nature. Retrieved 2013-12-08.
Jump up ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Alytes cisternasii Bosc, 1879". Amphibian Spe
cies of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural
History. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
^ Jump up to: a b Arie van der Meijden; Vance Vredenburg; Meredith Mahoney (2002
-05-25). "Alytes cisternasii". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 2013-12-08.