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PROPERTY

PROPERTY

I.CHARACTERISTICS

Q:Whatisproperty?

A:Itisanobjectorarightwhichisappropriated
or susceptible of appropriation by man, with
capacity to satisfy human wants and needs
(PinedaProperty,p.1,1999Ed)

Q: What are the requisites for a thing to be


consideredasproperty?

A:USA
1. Utility capability to satisfy a human
need
2. Substantivity/Individuality

independentexistence
3. Appropriability susceptibility to
ownership/possession, even if not yet
actuallyappropriated

Q: What properties are not susceptible of


appropriation?
A:
1.

Commonthings(rescommones)

XPN: Those that may be appropriated


undercertainconditionsinalimitedway.
e.g.Electricity

2.

Not susceptible
impossibility
e.g.Sun

due

to

physical

3.

Notsusceptibleduetolegalimpossibility
e.g.Humanbody
II.CLASSIFICATIONOFPROPERTY

Q:Whataretheclassificationsofproperty?
A:
1.

2.

3.

Astomobility
a. Immovableorrealproperty
b. Movableorpersonalproperty

Astoownership
a. Publicdominion
b. Privateownership

Astoalienability
a. Alienable
b. Inalienable

4.

5.

6.

7.

Astoindividuality
a. Specificproperty
b. Genericproperty

Astosusceptibilitytotouch
a. Tangible
b. Intangible

Astosusceptibilitytosubstitution
a. Fungible
b. Nonfungible

Astoaccession
a. Principal
b. Accessory

A.HIDDENTREASURE

Q:Whatistheconceptofhiddentreasure?
A:HUM
1.
2.
3.

Hiddenandunknown
Unknownowner
Consists of Money, jewels, or other
preciousobjects.(Notrawmaterials)

Q: What is the meaning of other precious


objects?

A: Under the ejusdem generis rule, the phrase


should be understood as being similar to money
orjewelry.

Q:Isoilorgoldconsideredashiddentreasure?

A:No,thesearenaturalresources.

Q:Whatistheruleregardingdiscoveryofhidden
treasure?

A:
GR: If the finder is the owner of the land,
building,orotherpropertywhereitisfound,
theentirehiddentreasurebelongstohim.
XPN: If the finder is not the owner or is a
stranger (includes the lessee or
usufructuary), he is entitled to thereof.
(Art566,NCC)
Q:Whatistheeffectifthefinderismarried?
A:Ifthefinderismarriedheorshegetsonehalf
of the treasure or its value his or her spouse is
entitledtoshareonehalfofthatshareitbeinga
conjugalproperty.(Art.117,par.4,FC)

ACADEMICSCHAIR:LESTERJAYALANE.FLORESII
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Q:Whenisthefinderentitledtoanyshareinthe
hiddentreasure?
A:Requisites:ACTA
1.

2.
3.

Discoverywasmadeonthepropertyof
Another, or of the State or any of its
politicalsubdivisions;
MadebyChance;and
He is not a Trespasser or Agent of the
landowner.(Art.438par.2,NCC)

Note:Ifthethingsfoundbeofinteresttoscienceor
thearts,theStatemayacquirethemattheirjust
price,whichshallbedividedinconformitywiththe
rulestated.(Art.438,NCC)

Q:WhatisthemeaningofByChance?
A: The finder had no intention to search for the
treasure. There is no agreement between the
owner of the property and the finder for the
search of the treasure. (Pineda Property, p. 86,
1999ed)
Q:Adam,abuildingcontractor,wasengagedby
Blastoconstructahouseonalotwhichhe(Blas)
owns. While digging on the lot in order to lay
down the foundation of the house, Adam hit a
veryhardobject.Itturnedouttobethevaultof
the old Banco de las Islas Filipinas. Using a
detonation device, Adam was able to open the
vaultcontainingoldnotesandcoinswhichwere
in circulation during the Spanish era. While the
notesandcoinsarenolongerlegaltender,they
were valued at P 100 million because of their
historical value and the coins silver and nickel
content.Thefollowingfiledlegalclaimsoverthe
notesandcoins:
i)
ii)

Adam,asfinder;
Blas, as owner of the property where
theywerefound;
iii) Bank of the Philippine Islands, as
successorininterest of the owner of
thevault;and
iv) ThePhilippineGovernmentbecauseof
theirhistoricalvalue.
Q:Whoownsthenotesandcoins?
A: Hidden treasure is money jewelry or other
preciousobjectstheownershipofwhichdoesnot
appear (Art. 439, CC). The vault of the Banco de
las Islas Filipinas has been buried for about a
century and the Bank of the Philippine Islands
cannotsucceedbyinheritancetothepropertyof
BancodelasIslasFilipinas.Theownershipofthe
vault,togetherwiththenotesandcoinscannow
legallybeconsideredashiddentreasurebecause

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its ownership is no longer apparent. The


contractor, Adams, is not a trespasser and
therefore entitled to onehalf of the hidden
treasure and Blas as owner of the property, is
entitled the other half (Art. 438, NCC). Since the
notes and coins have historical value, the
governmentmayacquirethemattheirjustprice
which in turn will be divided equally between
AdamandBlas(Art.438,par.3,CC)
Alternative Answer: The Banco de las Islas
Filipinasistheownerofthevault.Thefinderand
the owner of the land cannot share in the notes
and coins, because they are not buried treasure
under the law, as the ownership is known.
Although under Art. 720 of the Civil Code the
findershallbegivenarewardofonetenthofthe
priceofthethingfound,asalostmovable,onthe
principleofquasicontract.
However, the notes and coinsmay have become
res nullius considering that Banco de las Islas
Filipinas is no longer a juridical person and has
apparently given up looking for them and Adam,
the first one to take possession with intent to
possessshallbecomethesoleowner.
Q: Assuming that either or both Adam and Blas
areadjudgedasowners,willthenotesandcoins
bedeemedpartoftheirabsolutecommunityor
conjugal partnership of gains with their
respectivespouses?
A: Yes. The hidden treasure will be part of the
absolute community or conjugal property, of the
respectivemarriages(Arts.91,93and106,Family
Code).
AlternativeAnswer:Itisnothiddentreasureand
therefore, not part of the absolute or conjugal
partnership of the spouses.But the finder of the
lostmovable,thenhisrewardequivalenttoone
tenth of the value of the vaults contents, will
form part of the conjugal partnership. If the
government wants to acquire the notes and
coins, it must expropriate them for public use as
museumpiecesandpayjustcompensation.(2008
BarQuestion)
B.RIGHTOFACCESSION
Q:Whatistherightofaccession?
A:Thatrightofownershipofwhichanownerofa
thing has over the products of said thing
(accession discreta), as well as to all things
inseparably attached or incorporated thereto

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
whether naturally or artificially (accession
continua).(PinedaProperty,p.88,1999ed)
1.FRUITS

Civil fruits are the rents of buildings, the price of


leases of lands and other property and the amount
of perpetual or life annuities or other similar
income.

Q:Whatistheobligationoftheownerwho
receivesthefruitfromathirdperson?

A: He who receives the fruitshastheobligation


to pay the expenses made by a third person in
theirproduction,gathering,andpreservation.

Q:Whatistheruleontheownersrightof
accessionwithrespecttowhatisproducedby
hisproperty?

A: Totheownerbelongsthe:
1. naturalfruits;
2. industrialfruits;
3. civilfruits.(Art.441,NCC)

NOTE: Only such as are manifest or born are


consideredasnaturalorindustrialfruits.

NOTE: Natural fruits are the spontaneous products


of the soil, and the young and other products of
animals.

Withrespecttoanimals,itissufficientthattheyare
inthewombofthemother,althoughunborn.

Industrial fruits are those produced by lands of any


kindthroughcultivationorlabor.

2.ACCESSION;IMMOVABLEPROPERTYFRUITS

Q:Whatistheruleiftheplanterandownerofthelandaredifferent?
A:Asto:
GatheredFruits

PlanterinGF

PlanterinBF

Planter

Keepsfruits

Reimbursedforexpensesfor
production,gathering,and
preservation

Owner

Nonecessitytoreimbursethe
planterofexpensessinceheretains
thefruits

Getsfruits,payplanterexpenses

StandingCrops

PlanterinGF

PlanterinBF

Reimbursedforexpenses,
Planter

forproduction,gathering,and
preservation.

Loseseverything.Norightof
reimbursement

Ownsfruitsprovidedhepays
planterexpenses,
Ownsfruits

Owner
forproduction,gathering,and
preservation.

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Q:Givetherulewhenthelandowneristhebuilder,planterorsower.
A:
LandOwner
OwnerofMaterials
andBuilder,PlanterorSower
GoodFaith

GoodFaith

Acquirebuildingetc.afterpayingindemnityforvalueof
materials.

1.Removematerialsifw/oinjuryto
works,plantingsorconstructions;or
2.Receiveindemnityforvalueof
materials

BadFaith

GoodFaith

Acquirebuildingetc.afterpayingvalueofmaterialsAND
indemnityfordamages,subjecttotherightoftheownerof
materialstoremove

1.Removematerials,w/orw/oinjury
andbeindemnifiedfordamages;or
2.Beindemnifiedforvalueofmaterials
anddamages

GoodFaith

BadFaith

Acquirew/opayingindemnityandrighttodamages.

Losematerialsw/obeingindemnified
andpaydamages

BadFaith

BadFaith

Asthoughbothactedingoodfaith
(inparidelicto)

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CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
Q:Givetherulewhenlandownerisnotbuilder,planterorsower.
A:
LandOwner

Builder,Planter,SowerandOwnerofMaterials

GoodFaith

GoodFaith

LOhasoptionto:
1.Acquireimprovementsafterpayingindemnitywhich
couldeitherbe:

Incaselandownerexercises(1),builderhastherightto
retainuntilindemnityispaidandcannotberequiredto
payrent.

a.Originalcostsofimprovements
b.Increaseinthevalueofthewhole.

2.Sellthelandtobuilderandplanterorcollectrentfrom
sowerunlessthevalueofthelandisconsiderablygreater
thanthebuildingetc.,inwhichcase,thebuilderandplanter
shallpayrentunderthetermsfixedbytheparties.
GoodFaith

BadFaith

1.Optionto:
a.Acquireimprovementswithoutpayingindemnity
andcollectdamages.
b.Sellthelandtobuilderandplanterorrentittothe
sower,andcollectdamagesinbothcases.
c.Orderthedemolitionofworkorrestorationto
formerconditionandcollectdamagesinbothcases.

1.Loseimprovementswithoutrighttobeindemnified.

2.Recovernecessaryexpensesforpreservationofland.

3.Paydamagestolandowner.

2.Paynecessaryexpensesforpreservation.
BadFaith

GoodFaith

1.Landownermustindemnifybuilder,planter,sowerfor
improvementsandpaydamages.

1.Receiveindemnityforimprovementsandreceive
damages;or

2.Removetheminanyeventandreceivedamages

2.CannotcompelBuilder,planterandsowertobuyland.

BadFaith

BadFaith

Asthoughbothactedingoodfaith
(inparidelicto)

ACADEMICSCHAIR:LESTERJAYALANE.FLORESII
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Q:Givetherulewhenthelandowner,builder,planter,sowerandownerofmaterialsaredifferentpersons.
A:
LandOwner

Builder,Planter,Sower

OwnerofMaterials

GoodFaith

GoodFaith

GoodFaith

1.Acquireimprovementsandpay
indemnitytobuilder,planter,sower
andbesubsidiarilyliabletoownerof
materialsforvalueofmaterials

1.Collectvalueofmaterials
1.Rightofretentionfornecessary
andusefulexpensesand2.Payvalue primarilyfromBPSandsubsidiarily
fromLOifformerisinsolvent
ofmaterialstoitsowner.

2.Removeonlyifw/oinjury
2.Either
a.Sellthelandtobuilderand
planterexceptifitsvalueis
considerablymore.
b.Renttosower.
GoodFaith

GoodFaith

BadFaith

1.Rightofretentionfornecessary
andusefulexpenses.

1.Losematerialswithoutrightto
indemnity.

a.Acquireimprovementsandpay
indemnitytobuilder,planter,
sower.

b.

2.Paydamages.
2.Keepbuildingetc.without
indemnitytoownerofmaterialsand
collectdamagesfromhim.

1.Optionto:

i.Selltobuilder,planterexceptif
thevalueoflandis
considerablymore,then,
forcedlease.
ii.Renttosower

2.Withoutsubsidiaryliabilityforcost
ofmaterials.

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CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
GoodFaith

BadFaith

BadFaith

1.Optionto:
1.Recovervaluefrombuilder,
planter,sower(inparidelicto)

a.Acquireimprovementswithout
payingindemnityandcollect
damages.

1.Recovernecessaryexpensesfor
landpreservation.

b.Demolition/restoreplus
damages.

2.Ifbuilder,planter,soweracquired
improvements,removematerialsif
possiblewithoutinjury.

2.Losesimprovementswithoutright
toindemnityfromlandownerunless
thelattersellstheland.
3.Noactionagainstlandownerand

maybeliabletothelatterfor
2.Paynecessaryexpensestobuilder,
damages.
planter,sower
c.Selltobuilder,planterorcollect
rentfromsowerplusdamages.

BadFaith

BadFaith

BadFaith

Sameasthoughbothactedingoodfaith
(inparidelicto)
BadFaith

GoodFaith

GoodFaith
1.Removematerialsifpossible
withoutinjury.

1.Acquireimprovementsafterpaying 1.Removeimprovements

indemnityanddamagestobuilder,
2.Beindemnifiedfordamagesinany
planter,sower,unlessthelatter
2.Collectvalueofmaterialsprimarily
event
decidestoremove.
frombuilder,planter,sower,
subsidiarilyfromlandowner.
BadFaith
1.Acquireimprovementsafter
indemnity,subsidiarilyliabletoowner
ofmaterials.

2.
a.Selltobuilder,planterexceptif
valueoflandismore.

BadFaith

GoodFaith

1.Rightofretentionfornecessary
expenses
1.Collectvalueofmaterialsprimarily
frombuilder,planter,sower,
subsidiarilyfromlandowner.

2.Payvalueofmaterialstoownerof
materialsandpayhimdamages.

b.Renttosower.

ACADEMICSCHAIR:LESTERJAYALANE.FLORESII
UNIVERSITYOFSANTOTOMAS
VICECHAIRSFORACADEMICS:KARENJOYG.SABUGO&JOHNHENRYC.MENDOZA
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UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011

GoodFaith

BadFaith

GoodFaith

1.Optionto:
a.Acquirewithoutpaying
indemnityandcollectdamages. 1.Recovernecessaryexpenses.

1.Collectvalueofmaterialsand
damagesfrombuilder,planter,
sower.

b.Selltobuilder,planterorrentto
sowerandcollectdamages

2.Loseimprovementswithoutright
2.Paynecessaryexpensestobuilder, ofindemnityfromlandownerunless
2.Removematerialsinanyeventif
thelattersellstheland.
planter,sower.
builder,planter,sower.
3.Subsidiarilyliabletoownerof
materials.
BadFaith

GoodFaith

BadFaith

Noindemnity,losesmaterials.
1.Indemnityfordamages
Acquire improvements and pay
indemnity and damages to builder,
planter, sower unless the latter
2. Remove improvements in any
decidestoremove.
event.

Q:Whencantheownerofthelandappropriate
ashisowntheworks,sowingorplantingofthe
builder,planter,sowerrespectively.

two more months, a resurvey of the land


showedthatitreallybelongedtoFred.Whatare
theoptionsavailabletoFred?

A:Onlywhenthebuilder,planter,sowerbelieves
that he has the right to so build, plant, or sow
because he thinks he owns the land or believes
himself to have a claim of title. (Morales v. CA,
G.R.No.12196,Jan.28,1998)

A: As to the pending crops planted by Felix in


good faith, Fred has the option of allowing Felix
to continue the cultivation and to harvest the
crops, or to continue the cultivation and harvest
the crops himself. In the latter option, however,
Felixshallhavetherighttoapartoftheexpenses
of cultivation and to a part of the net harvest,
bothinproportiontothetimeofpossession.(Art.
545)(2000BarQuestion)

Note: Improvements made prior to the annotation


ofthenoticeoflispendensaredeemedtohavebeen
made in good faith. After such annotation, the
buildercannolongerinvoketherightsofabuilderin
goodfaith.(Carrascosov.CA,G.R.No.123672,Dec.
14,2005)

Q:Maytheownerofthelandchooseneitherto
paythebuildingnortosellthelandanddemand
theremovalofthestructuresandrestorationof
possessionofthelot.Decide.
A: The ownerhas the option of paying the value
of the building or selling the land. He cannot
refuseeithertopayorsellandcompeltheowner
ofthebuildingtoremoveitfromthelandwhere
it is erected. He is entitled to such removal only
when, after having chosen to sell the land, the
other party fails to pay for the same. (Ignacio v.
Hilario,76Phil606,1946)
Q: Felix cultivated a parcel of land and planted
sugarcane,believingittobehisown.Whenthe
cropwaseightmonthsold,andharvestableafter

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Q:Becauseofconfusionastotheboundariesof
the adjoining lots that they bought from the
same subdivision company, X constructed a
house on the adjoining lot of Y in the honest
beliefthatitisthelandthatheboughtfromthe
subdivisioncompany.
1.

What are the respective rights of X and Y


withrespecttoX'shouse?

A:TherightsofY,asownerofthelot,andofX,as
builderofahousethereon,aregovernedbyArt.
448 which grants to Y the right to choose
betweentworemedies:(a)appropriatethehouse
by indemnifying X for its value plus whatever
necessary expenses the latter may have incurred
for the preservation of the land, or (b) compel X
to buy the land if the price of the land is not

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
considerablymorethanthevalueofthehouse.If
itis,thenXcannotbeobligedtobuythelandbut
he shall pay reasonable rent, and in case of
disagreement,thecourtshallfixthetermsofthe
lease.
2.

Suppose X was in good faith but Y knew


thatXwasconstructingonhis(Y's)landbut
simplykeptquietaboutit,thinkingperhaps
thathecouldgetX'shouselater.Whatare
therespectiverightsofthepartiesoverX's
houseinthiscase?

A: Since the lot owner Y is deemed to be in bad


faith (Art. 453), X as the party in good faith may
(a) remove the house and demand
indemnification for damages suffered by him, or
(b) demand payment of the value of the house
plusreparationfordamages(Art.447,inrelation
toArt.454).Ycontinuesasownerofthelotand
becomes,underthesecondoption,ownerofthe
houseaswell,afterhepaysthesumsdemanded.
(1999BarQuestion)
Q:Pecsonownedacommerciallotonwhichhe
built a building. For failure to pay realty taxes,
the lot was sold at public auction to
Nepomuceno,whointurnsoldittothespouses
Nuguid.Thesale,however,doesnotincludethe
building. The spouses subsequently moved for
the delivery of possession of the said lot and
apartment. Pecson filed a motion to restore
possession pending determination of the value
oftheapartment.MayPecsonclaimpaymentof
rentals?
A: Yes, Pecson is entitled to rentals by virtue of
his right of retention over the apartment. The
constructionoftheapartmentwasundertakenat
thetimewhenPecsonwasstilltheownerofthe
lot. When the Nuguids became the uncontested
owner of the lot, the apartment was already in
existenceandoccupiedbytenants.
Art.448doesnotapplytocaseswheretheowner
of the land is the builder but who later lost the
land; not being applicable, the indemnity that
should be paid to the buyer must be the fair
marketvalueofthebuildingandnotjustthecost
of construction thereof. To do otherwise would
unjustlyenrichthenewowneroftheland.

Note: While the law aims to concentrate in one


person the ownership of the land and the
improvements thereon in view of the
impracticability of creating a state of forced co
ownership, it guards against unjust enrichment
insofarasthegoodfaithbuildersimprovementsare
concerned. The right of retention is considered as

one of the measures to protect builders in good


faith.

Q: Pending complete reimbursement, may the


spousesNuguidbenefitfromtheimprovement?
A:No.SincespousesNuguidoptedtoappropriate
the improvement for themselves when they
appliedforawritofexecutiondespiteknowledge
that the auction sale did not include the
apartment building, they could not benefit from
the lots improvement until they reimbursed the
improver in full, based on the current market
value of the property. (Pecson v. CA, G.R. No.
115814,May26,1995)
Q: In good faith, Pedro constructed a fivedoor
commercial building on the land of Pablo who
was also in good faith. When Pablo discovered
the construction, he opted to appropriate the
building by paying Pedro the cost thereof.
However, Pedro insists that he should be paid
the current market value of the building, which
wasmuchhigherbecauseofinflation.
1.Whoiscorrect,PedroorPablo?
A: Pablo is correct. Under Art. 448 in relation to
Art.546,thebuilderingoodfaithisentitledtoa
refund of the necessary and useful expenses
incurred by him, or the increase in value which
the land may have acquired by reason of the
improvement, at the option of the landowner.
Thebuilderisentitledtoarefundoftheexpenses
he incurred, and not to the market value of the
improvement.
Note: The case of Pecson v. CA, G.R. No. 115814,
May26,1995isnotapplicable.

2. In the meantime that Pedro is not yet paid,


who is entitled to the rentals of the building,
PedroorPablo?
A:Pabloisentitledtotherentalsofthebuilding.
Astheowneroftheland,Pabloisalsotheowner
of the building being an accession thereto.
However, Pedro who is entitled to retain the
building is also entitled to retain the rentals. He,
however,shallapplytherentalstotheindemnity
payabletohimafterdeductingreasonablecostof
repairandmaintenance.(2000BarQuestion)
Q:Whatistheeffectifthebuildingbuiltonthe
land owned by another is sold to pay for the
landsvalue?
A:Thebuilderbecomespartowneroftheland.

ACADEMICSCHAIR:LESTERJAYALANE.FLORESII
UNIVERSITYOFSANTOTOMAS
VICECHAIRSFORACADEMICS:KARENJOYG.SABUGO&JOHNHENRYC.MENDOZA
Facultad de Derecho Civil
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Q: When may the land owner compel the


removalofthebuildingbuiltonhisland?
A: The landowner may not seek to compel the
owner of the building to remove the building
from the land after refusing to pay for the
buildingortoselltheland.Heisentitledtosuch
removal only when, after having chosen to sell
theland,theotherpartyfailstopayforsaidland.
(Ignaciov.Hilario,G.R.L175,April30,1946)
Q: What is the rule when the lands value is
considerablymorethantheimprovement?
A:Landownercannotcompelthebuildertobuy
theland.Insuchevent,aforcedleaseiscreated
and the court shall fix the terms thereof in case
the parties disagree thereon (Depra v. Dumalo,
No.L57348,May16,1985).
Q: What is the rule when land owner sells the
landtoa3rdpersonwhoisinbadfaith?
A: Builder must go against the 3rd person but if
thelatterhaspaidthelandowner,acaseagainst
such land owner may still be filed by the builder
rd
rd
andthe3 personmayfilea3 partycomplaint
againstlandowner.
Q: Does the land owner have the right of
removalordemolition?
A:
GR:No.

XPN:Optionexercisedwascompulsory
sellingandbuilderfailedtopay.

Q:Whatistherecourselefttothepartieswhere
thebuilderfailstopaythevalueoftheland?
A: While the Civil Code is silent on this point,
guidancemaybehadfromthesedecisions:

auction, applying the proceeds first to


the payments of the value of the land,
andtheexcessifany,tobedeliveredto
the owner of the house in payment
thereof. (Filipinas College Inc. v.
Timbang, G.R. No. L12812, Sept. 29,
1959)

Q: Will the land owner upon demand for


paymentautomaticallybecometheownerofthe
improvementforfailureofthebuildertopayfor
thevalueoftheland?

A:No.ThereisnothinginArt.448and546which
would justify the conclusion that upon failure of
the builder to pay the value of the land, when
such is demanded by the landowner, the land
owner becomes automatically the owner of the
improvementunderArt.445.
Q: The Church, despite knowledge that its
intended contract of sale with the National
Housing Autority had not been perfected,
proceeded to introduce improvements on the
disputed land. On the other hand, NHA
knowinglygrantedtheChurchtemporaryuseof
the subject properties and did not prevent the
Churchfrommakingimprovementsthereon.Did
theChurchandNHAactinbadfaith?
A: Yes. The Church and the NHA, both acted in
bad faith, hence, they shall be treated as if they
were both in good faith. (National Housing
Authority v. Grace Baptist Church, G.R. No.
156437,Mar.1,2004)
USUFRUCTUARY
Q: What are the rights of the usufruct over
improvements he introduced on the property
heldinusufruct?
A:

1.

2.

3.

98

InMirandav.Fadullon,G.R.No.L8220,
Oct. 29, 1955, the builder might be
madetopayrentalonly,leavethingsas
they are, and assume the relation of
lessorandlessee;

InIgnaciov.Hilario,G.R.L175,April30,
1946, owner of the land may have the
improvementremoved;or

In Bernardo v. Bataclan, G.R. No. L


44606,Nov.28,1938,thelandandthe
improvement may be sold in a public

GR: The usufructuary is not entitled to


indemnityfortheexpenseshehadincurredin
themakingoftheimprovements.

XPN:Hemayremovetheimprovementseven
against the will of the owner. Provided, that
nodamagewouldbecausedtotheproperty.
(Art.579,NCC)
Note: The usufructuary may introduce useful or
luxurious improvements but is prohibited from
alteringtheformandsubstanceoftheproperty

CIVILLAWTEAM:
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ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
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PROPERTY
Note:Iftheusufructuaryhasnotchosentoremove
the improvements, he may not be compelled to do
so(PinedaProperty,p.329,1999ed)
Q:Whatiftheimprovementscannotberemoved
withoutcausingdamagetotheproperty?

A: The usufructuary can setoff the value of the


improvementsagainsttheamountofthedamage
hehadcausedtotheproperty.(Art.580,NCC)
3.LANDADJOININGRIVERBANKS

A.ALLUVION

Q:Whatisalluviumoralluvion?

A:Itisthegradualdepositofsedimentbynatural
actionofacurrentoffreshwater(notseawater),
the original identity of the deposit being lost.
Where is by sea water, it belongs to the State.
(Government of Philippine Islands v. Cabangis,
G.R.No.L28379,Mar.27,1929)
Note:Art.457statesTotheownersofthelands
adjoining the banks of the rivers belong the
accretion which they gradually receive from the
effectsofthecurrentofthewaters.
Q:Distinguishaccretionfromalluvium?
A: Accretion is the process whereby the soil is
depositedwhilealluviumisthesoildeposited.
Q:Whataretherequisitesofalluvium?
A:GMA
1.
2.
3.

DepositisGradualandimperceptible
Madethroughtheeffectsofthecurrent
ofthewater
The land where the accretion takes
place is Adjacent to the banks of the
river

Q: What is the effect if all the requisites are


present?

A:Theriparianownerisautomaticallyentitledto
theaccretion.

A: The rule does not apply to manmade or


artificial accretions to lands that adjoin canals or
esterosorartificialdrainagesystem(Ronquillovs.
CA,G.R.No43346,Mar.20,1991).
Q:Whatifthedepositsaccumulate,notthrough
the effects of the current of the water, but
becauseoftheconstructionsmadebytheowner
purely for defensive purposes against the
damagingactionofthewater?
A: The deposits are still deemed to be alluvion
andwillbelongtotheriparianowner.
Q: What if the deposit is brought about by sea
water?
A: It belongs to the State and forms part of the
publicdomain.
Q:Mustalluvialdepositsberegistered?
A: Yes, though automatically it is owned by the
riparianowner.(HeirsofNavarrov.IAC,G.R.No.
68166,Feb.12,1997)
Q:Whatiftheriparianownerfailstoregisterthe
depositswithintheprescriptiveperiod?
A:Failuretoregisterthealluvialdepositacquired
byaccretionforaperiodof50yearssubjectssaid
accretiontoacquisitionthruprescriptionbythird
persons.(Reynantev.CA,G.R.No.95907,Apr.8,
1992)
Note:RegistrationundertheTorrensSystemdoes
not protect the riparian owner against the
diminution of the area of his registered land
through gradual changes in the course of an
adjoiningstream
Q: What are the reasons for granting a riparian
ownertherighttoalluviondepositedbyariver?
A:
1.Tocompensatehimfor:
a.

b. fortheencumbrancesandother
easementsonhisland

Q: When does the alluvion start to become the


propertyoftheriparianowner?
A:Fromthetimethatthedepositcreatedbythe
current of water becomes manifest. (Heirs of
Navarrov.IAC,GR.No.68166,Feb.12,1997)
Q:Towhatdoestheruleonalluvionnotapply?

dangeroflossthathesuffersdue
tothelocationofhisland

To promote the interests of agriculture


asheisinthebestpositiontoutilizethe
accretion.

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B.CHANGEINTHECOURSEOFRIVER
3
Q: What happens when a river changes its
course by natural causes and its bed is formed
onaprivateestate?

ownership of it, provided he removes it within 2


years.

Q:Distinguishalluviumfromavulsion.
A:
ALLUVIUM

AVULSION

Gradualand
imperceptible

Suddenorabrupt
process

Soilcannotbe
identified

Identifiableand
verifiable

Belongstotheowner
ofthepropertyto
whichitisattached

Belongstotheowner
fromwhosepropertyit
wasdetached

Merelyanattachment

Detachmentfollowedby
attachment

A: It becomes of public dominion whether it is


navigableorfloatableornot.
Q:Whataretherequisites?
A:NAPA
1.

2.
3.

There must be a Natural change in the


course of the waters of the river;
otherwise, the bed may be the subject
ofaStategrant(ReyesPuno,p.54)
ThechangemustbeAbruptorsudden;
ThechangemustbePermanent;

Note: the rule does not apply to temporary


overflowingoftheriver.

4.

There must be Abandonment by the


ownerofthebed.

Note: Abandonment pertains to the decision


not to bring back the river to the old bed.
(ReyesPuno,p.53)

Q:Whataretherequisitesofavulsion?

A:CAP
1. Transfer is caused by the Current of a
river,creek,ortorrent.
2. TransferissuddenorAbrupt
3. The Portion of the land transported is
knownoridentifiable.

Q: What is the effect when the river bed is


abandoned?
A: Once the river bed has been abandoned, the
owners of the invaded land become owners of
theabandonedbedtotheextentasprovidedby
Art.462.Nopositiveact isneededontheirpart,
asitissubjecttheretoipsojurefromthemoment
themodeofacquisitionbecomesevident.
Note: The rule on abandoned river bed does not
apply to cases where the river simply dries up
because there are no persons whose lands are
occupiedbythewatersoftheriver.

C.AVULSION
Q:Whatisavulsion?
A:Itisthedepositofknown(identifiable)portion
of land detached from the property of another
whichisattachedtothepropertyofanotherasa
resultoftheeffectofthecurrentofariver,creek
ortorrent.
Note:Art.459statesthatWheneverthecurrentof
a river, creek, or torrent segregates from an estate
onitsbanksaknownportionoflandandtransfersit
to another estate, the owner of the land to which
the segregated portion belonged retains the

100

Q: What if land from one tenement is


transferredtoanotherbyforcesofnatureother
thantherivercurrent?
A: By analogy, it can still be considered as an
avulsion.
Q: What is the rule on acquisition of titles over
anavulsion?
A:
GR:Originalownerretainstitle.
XPNs: The owner must remove (not merely
claim)thetransportedportionwithin2years
toretainownership,otherwise,thelandnot
removed shall belong to the owner of the
landtowhichithasbeenadjudicatedincase
of:
1.
2.

Abandonment;or
Expiration of 2 years, whether the
failure to remove be voluntary or
involuntary,andirrespectiveofthe
areaoftheportionknowntohave
beentransferred.

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
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PROPERTY
4.ISLANDS
Q:Whataretherulesonownershipwithregard
toformationofislands?

Dodongthusmayacquiresaidlandbyacquisitive
prescription. But here, Dodongs possession
cannot be considered to be in good faith, so 30
years of possession is needed. (Jagualing v. CA,
G.R.No.94283,Mar.4,1991)

A:
LOCATION

OWNER

Ifformedonthesea
W/interritorialwaters

State

Outsideterritorial
waters

Firstcountrytooccupy

Ifformedonlakesornavigable/floatablerivers

State

Ifformedonnonnavigable/floatablerivers
Nearerinmarginto
onebank

Ownerofnearer
marginisthesole
owner

Ifequidistant

Islanddivided
longitudinallyinhalves

Q: Eduave is the owner of land forming part of


anislandinanonnavigableriver.Saidlandwas
eroded due to a typhoon, destroying the bigger
portion thereof and improvements thereon.
Due to the movements of the river deposits on
the part of the land that was not eroded, the
area was increased. Later, Eduave allowed
Dodongtointroduceimprovementsthereonand
live there as a caretaker. However, Dodong
however later denied Eduaves claim of
ownershipsothelatterfiledactiontoquiettitle
overtheproperty.Whohasabetterrighttothe
land?
A: Eduave. Clearly, the land in question is an
island that appears in a nonfloatable and non
navigableriver,anditisnotdisputedthatEduave
is the owner of the parcel of land along the
margin of the river and opposite the island.
ApplyingArt.465,theislandbelongstotheowner
of the parcel of land nearer the margin. More
accurately, because the island is longer than the
property of Eduave, he is deemed ipso jure the
owner of that portion which corresponds to the
length of his property along the margin of the
river. If however, the riparian owner fails to
assert his claim thereof, the same may yield to
the adverse possession of the third parties, as
indeed even accretion to land titled under the
Torrens system must itself still be registered.

Note:Thereisnoaccessionwhenislandsareformed
by the branching of a river; the owner retains
ownershipoftheisolatedpieceofland.

C.BYOBJECT

1.REALORIMMOVABLE

Q: What are the categories of immovable


property?

A:RealPropertyby:NIDA
1. Nature cannot be carried from place
toplace.

2. Incorporation those which are


attached to an immovable in a fixed
manner and considered as an integral
part thereof, irrespective of its
ownership.

3. Destination things placed in buildings


or on lands by the owner of the
immovable or his agent in such a
manner that it reveals the intention to
attachthempermanentlythereto.

4. Analogy classified by express


provisionoflaw.

IMMOVABLEBYNATURE&
BYINCORPORATION
Par.1,Art.415.Land,buildings,roadsand
constructionsofallkindsadheredtothesoil.

Q:Arebarongbarongsimmovableproperty?

A: No. They are not permanent structures but


meresuperimpositionsonland.

Q: Where buildings are sold to be demolished


immediately, are the buildings immovable or
movable?

A:Thesaleinvolvesmovableproperty.Whatare
reallysoldarethematerials.

Q:Whatistheeffectofdemolitionofahouse?

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A: Once a house is demolished, its character as


an immovable ceases. This is because a house is
classifiedasanimmovablepropertybyreasonof
its adherence to the soil on which it is built.
(Bicerra v. Teneza, G.R. No. L16218, Nov. 29,
1962)
Q:Mayabuildingbemortgagedapartfromthe
landonwhichitwasbuilt?
A: While it is true that a mortgage of land
necessarilyincludes,intheabsenceofstipulation
of the improvements thereon, buildings, still a
buildingbyitselfmaybemortgageapartfromthe
landonwhichithasbeenbuilt.Suchamortgage
would still be a real estate mortgage for the
building would still be considered immovable
property even if dealt with separately and apart
from the land. (Yee v. Strong Machinery
Company,G.R.No.11658,Feb.15,1918)
Q:Canabuildingerectedonalandbelongingto
anotherbemortgaged?
A: Yes. A valid real estate mortgage can be
constituted. Art. 415 of the New Civil Code
mentions buildings separate from land. This
meansthatthebuildingbyitselfisanimmovable
andmaybesubjectofaREM.(PrudentialBankv.
Panis,G.R.No.L50008,Aug.31,1987)
Q: Is the annotation or inscription of a deed of
sale of real property in a chattel mortgage
registryconsideredaninscriptionintheregistry
ofrealproperty?
A:No.Byitsexpressterms,theChattelMortgage
Law contemplates and makes provisions for
mortgages of personal property; and the sole
purpose and object of the chattel mortgage
registry is to provide for the registry of Chattel
mortgages,thatistosay,mortgagesofpersonal
property executed in the manner and form
prescribed in the statute. (Yee v. Strong
MachineryCo,G.R.No.L11658,Feb.15,1918)

2.

Real property by incorporation If they


have been planted thru cultivation or
labor

Note: The moment trees are detached or uprooted


fromthelanditisconsideredaspersonalproperty.
However, in case of uprooted timber, they are still
notconsideredaspersonalpropertybecausetimber
isanintegralpartofthetimberland.

IMMOVABLEBYINCORPORATION
Par.3,Art.415.Everythingattachedtoan
immovableinafixedmanner,insuchawaythat
itcannotbeseparatedtherefromwithout
breakingthematerialordeteriorationofthe
object.

Q:Whatisresvinta?
A:Theseareimmovablebyincorporation,which
whenseparatedfromtheimmovable,theyregain
theirconditionasmovable?

IMMOVABLEBYINCORPORATION&BY
DESTINATION
Par.4,Art.415.Statutes,reliefs,paintingsorother
objectsforuseorornamentation,placedinbuildingsor
onlandsbytheowneroftheimmovableinsucha
mannerthatitrevealstheintentiontoattachthem
permanentlytothetenements.

Q:Whatdoyoumeanbyplacedbytheowner?
A: The objects must be placed by the owner of
the immovable and not necessarily the owner of
theobject.

Par.2,Art.415.Trees,plantsandgrowingfruits,
whiletheyareattachedtothelandorforman
integralpartofanimmovable.

Q:Aretreesimmovableormovable?
A:
1.

Real property by nature if they are


spontaneousproductsofthesoil

102

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ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
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PROPERTY
from the act of the owner in giving by contract a
permanent destination to the machinery. (Valdez v.
CentralAltagracia,225U.S.58,1912)

Q:DistinguishPar.3fromPar.4.
A:
PAR.3

PAR.4

Cannotbeseparated
fromtheimmovable
withoutbreakingor
deterioration

Canbeseparatedfrom
theimmovablewithout
breakingor
deterioration.

Neednotbeplacedby
theowner

Mustbeplacedbythe
ownerofthe
immovable,orbyhis
agentwhetherexpress
orimplied

Realpropertyby
incorporation

Realpropertyby
incorporationand
destination

Par.5,Art.415.Machinery,receptacles,
instrumentsorimplementsintendedbythe
ownerofthetenementforanindustryorworks
whichmaybecarriedoninabuildingorona
pieceofland&whichtenddirectlytomeetthe
needsofthesaidindustryorworks.

Q: What are the requisites for machinery to be


consideredrealproperty?
A:COTE
1.

The industry or work must be Carried


oninabuildingoronapieceofland;
2. Themachinerymust:
a. Be placed by the Owner of the
tenementorhisagent;
b. Tenddirectlytomeettheneedsof
thesaidindustryorwork;and
c. Be Essential and principal to the
industry or work, and not merely
incidentalthereto.

Q: Is machinery placed by a tenant or by a


usufructuaryconsideredrealproperty?
A:No.Sinceitisplacedbyapersonhavingonlya
temporaryright,itdoesnotbecomeimmobilized.

Q: How is the equipment of a transportation


businessclassified?
A:Atransportationbusinessisnotcarriedonina
buildingoronaspecifiedland.Hence,equipment
destinedonlytorepairorserviceatransportation
business may not be deemed real property, but
personal property. (Mindanao Bus Co. v. City
Assessor and Treasurer, G.R. No. L17870, Sept.
29,1962)
Note: Machines must be essential and principal
elementsintheindustryandmustdirectlymeetthe
needsofsaidindustry.Itdoesnotincludemovables
which are merely incidentals, without which the
business can still continue or carry on their
functions.

Q: Are machineries bolted or cemented on real


property mortgaged considered an immovable
property?
A: No. The fact that machineries were bolted or
cemented on real property mortgaged does not
make them ipso facto immovable under Art. 415
(3)and(5)asthepartiesintenthastobelooked
into.
Q:Canpartiestreatanimmovablepropertyby
natureasachattel?
A: Yes. Even if the properties appear to be
immovable by nature, nothing detracts the
parties from treating them as chattels to secure
an obligation under the principle of estoppel.
(Tsaiv.CA,G.R.No.120098,Oct.2,2001)
Q:Whatistheeffectoftemporaryseparationof
movables from the immovables to which they
areattached?
A:2views
1.
2.

They continue to be regarded as


immovables.
Fact of separation determines the
conditionoftheobjectsthusrecovering
theirconditionasmovables.

Note: Where a tenant places the machinery under


theexpressprovisionofleasethatitshallbecomea
part of the land belonging to the owner upon the
termination of the lease without compensation to
thelessee,thetenantactsasanagentoftheowner
and the immobilization of the machineries arises
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2.PERSONALORMOVABLE
Q:Whataremovableproperties?

D.BYOWNER
Q: How are properties classified according to
ownership?

A:SOFTSS
A:
1.
2.

3.

Movables Susceptible of appropriation


whicharenotincludedinArt.415;
Real property which by any Special
provisionoflawconsidersaspersonalty
e.g. growing crops under the Chattel
MortgageLaw.
Forces of nature which are brought
underthecontrolofscience
e.g. electricity generated by electric
powers, solar light for batteries
power.

1.

Public dominion property owned by


theState(oritspoliticalsubdivisions)in
its public or sovereign capacity and
intendedforpublicuse.

2.

Privateownershippropertyownedby:

a.

Private persons, either individually


orcollectively;and
The State in its private capacity
(patrimonialproperty).
TheLGUs:
i. Property for public use
roads, streets, squares,
fountains, public waters,
promenadesandpublicworks
for public service paid for by
theLGUs.
ii. Patrimonial Property all
otherpropertiespossessedby
LGUs without prejudice to
speciallaws.(Art.419,NCC)

b.
4.

5.

6.

In general, all things which can be


Transported from place to place
withoutimpairmentoftherealproperty
towhichtheyarefixed;
Obligations and actions which have for
their object movables or demandable
sums;and
Shares of stock of agricultural,
commercial and industrial entities,
although they have real estate. (Art.
416,NCC)

c.

Q: State the tests to determine whether a


propertyisamovableproperty.

Q: What are the kinds of property of public


dominion?

A:MES
1.

1.PUBLICDOMINION

Test of Exclusion everything not


includedinArt.415.
Note:E.g.shipsorvesselsorinterestin
abusiness.

A:Propertieswhichare:USD
1.
2.

2.

3.

ByreasonofaSpeciallawimmovable
bynaturebutmovableforthepurpose
ofthespeciallaw.
Note: e.g. Growing crops for purposes
oftheChattelMortgageLaw.

ForpublicUse;
Intended for public Service and not for
publicuse;and
For the Development of the national
wealth.(Art.420,NCC)

Q: What are the characteristics of properties of


publicdominion?
A:ULEPROB

3.

Test of Mobility if the property is


capable of being carried from place to
placewithoutinjuringtherealproperty
to which it may in the mean time be
attached.

2.
3.
4.

104

1.

In general, they can be Used by


everybody;
CannotbeLevieduponbyexecutionor
attachment;
MayEitherberealorpersonalproperty;
CannotbeacquiredbyPrescription;

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PROPERTY
5.

Cannot be Registered under Land


Registration Law and be the subject of
TorrensTitle;
6. Outsidethecommerceofmancannot
bealienatedorleasedorbesubjectof
anycontract;
7. Cannot be Burdened by voluntary
easement.

Q:Whohastheauthoritytoclassifyorreclassify
publiclands?
A: As provided in the Public Land Act, the
classification or reclassification of public lands
into alienable or disposable, mineral or forest
lands is a prerogative of the executive
department of the government and not of the
courts.
Q:Canpropertyofpublicdominionbeconverted
topatrimonialproperty?
A: Yes, through a formal declaration by the
executive or legislative body that the property is
no longer needed for public use or for public
service.
Q:Maypublicstreetsorthoroughfaresbeleased
orlicensedtomarketstallholdersbyvirtueofa
cityordinanceorresolutionoftheMetroManila
Commission?
A: No. The right of the public to use the city
streets may not be bargained away through
contract.Hence,theagreementbetweenthecity
government and stall holders is contrary to law
andthereforevoid.

Q:Arealiensprohibitedtoprivatelyownlands?
A:Yes.Alienshavenorighttoacquireanypublic
or private agriculture, commercial or residential
lands(exceptbyhereditarysuccession).(Krivenko
v.RegisterorDeeds)
Note:Thesameruleappliestoaforeigncorporation
evenifitisareligiousnonstockcorporation.

Q: What is the patrimonial property of the


State?
A: It is the property not devoted to public use,
publicservice,orthedevelopmentofthenational
wealth.Itisintendedratherfortheattainmentof
the economic ends of the State, that is, for
subsistence.ItisownedbytheStateinitsprivate
orproprietarycapacity.
Note:ItmaybedisposedofbytheStateinthesame
mannerthatprivateindividualsdisposeoftheirown
property subject, however, to administrative laws
andregulations
Note: It may be subject to prescription (Art. 1113)
and it can be the object of ordinary contracts or
agreements.(PinedaProperty,p.28,1999ed)

E.BYNATURE
Q: How are properties classified according to
consumability?
A:
1.

i.e.Aglassofwine

Q: Do LGUs have the power to withdraw a


publicstreetfrompublicuse?

2.

A: LGU cannot withdraw a public street from


public use, unless it has been granted such
authoritybylaw.(Dacanayv.AsistioJr,,G.R.No.
93654,May6,1992)

A:AllpropertiesnotbelongingtotheStateorto
its political subdivision are properties of private
ownership pertaining to private persons, either
individuallyorcollectively.

NonConsumable property that which


can be used according to its nature
withoutbeingconsumedorbeingeaten
orusedup.
i.e. Eyeglasses (Art. 418, Pineda
Property,p.21.1999ed)

2.PRIVATEOWNERSHIP
Q: What are properties in private ownership of
privatepersonsorentities?

Consumable property that which


cannot be used according to its nature
withoutbeingconsumedorbeingeaten
orusedup.

Q: How are properties classified according to


susceptibilitytosubstitution?
A:
1.

Fungiblepropertythatpropertywhich
belongstoacommongenuspermitting
itssubstitution.
i.e.grainsofsugarorsalt,oil,vinegar

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2.

Non fungible property that property


which is specified and not subject to
substitution.
i.e. a specific house at a specific
address.

4.

5.

Perpetual ownership lasts as long as


the thing exists. It cannot be
extinguished by non user but only by
adversepossession.

1.BUNDLEOFRIGHTSPERSONALORMOVABLE

A.JUSUTENDI,FRUENDI,ABUTENDI,
VINDICANDI,DISPODENDI,POSSIDENDI

Note: As to whether a property is fungible or non


fungible is determined by the agreement of the
parties and not on the consumability of the thing.
(PinedaProperty,p.22,1999ed)

III.OWNERSHIP

A.RIGHTSINGENERAL

Q:Whatisownership?

A: The juridical relation of a person over a thing


by virtue of which said person has the exclusive
powerorauthoritytoreceiveallthebenefitsand
advantages arising from said thing, save those
restricted by law or the recognized rights of
others.

Q:Whatarethekindsofownership?

A:FNSC
1. Full ownership includes all the rights
ofanowner;

Note:Nakedownership+Usufruct

2. Naked ownership ownership where


the rights to the use and to the fruits
havebeendenied;

Note:FullownershipUsufruct

3. Soleownershipownershipisvestedin
onlyoneperson;

4. Coownershipownershipisvestedin2
ormorepersons.
Q:Whatarethecharacteristicsofownership?
A:
1. Elastic power/s may be reduced and
thereafter automatically recovered
upon the cessation of the limitingq;
rights.

2. General the right to make use of all


the possibilities or utility of the thing
owned, except those attached to other
realrightsexistingthereon.

3. Exclusive there can only be one


ownershipoverathingatatime.There
may be two or more owners but only
oneownership.

106

Independent other rights are not


necessaryforitsexistence.

Q:Whataretheattributesofownership?
A:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Righttoenjoy
Righttothefruits
Righttoabuse
Righttodispose
Righttorecover

(jusutendi)
(jusfruendi)
(jusabutendi)
(jusdispodendi)
(jusvindicandi)

REMEDIESTORECOVERPOSSESSION

1.ACTIONSTORECOVEROWNERSHIPAND
POSSESSIONOFREALPROPERTY

Q: What are the legal remedies to recover


possessionofonesproperty?

A:
1. Personalpropertyreplevin
2. Realproperty
a. AccionInterdictal
i. ForcibleEntry
ii. Unlawfuldetainer
b. AccionPubliciana
c. AccionReinvindicatoria

A.DISTINCTIONSBETWEENACCION
REIVINDICATORIA,ACCIONPUBLICIANA,ACCION
INTERDICTAL
ACCIONINTERDICTAL
Q:Whatisaccioninterdictal?
A: A summary action to recover physical or
material possession only and must be brought
withinoneyearfromthetimethecauseofaction
arises.
1.
2.

ForcibleEntry
Unlawfuldetainer

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ACCIONPUBLICIANA
Q:Whatisaccionpubliciana?
A:Ordinarycivilproceedingtorecoverthebetter
right of possession, except in cases of forcible
entry and unlawful detainer. What is involved
hereisnotpossessiondefactobutpossessionde
jure.
ACCIONREINVINDICATORIA
Q:Whatisaccionreinvindicatoria?
A: Action to recover real property based on
ownership.Here,theobjectistherecoveryofthe
dominionoverthepropertyasowner.
Q: What are the requisites of accion
reinvindicatoria?
A:Requisites:
1.
2.

IdentityofProperty
Plaintiffstitletotheproperty

leased from Alava. Jaimes possession was in


behalfofhismother,andnotinhisownright.
Q: What is the effect of nonregistration of the
contractoflease?
A:Althoughtheleasecontractwasnotfiledwith
the Register of Deeds, nevertheless, Rudy was
bound by the terms and conditions of said
contract.Thelease,ineffectbecameapartofthe
contract of sale. However, Rudy had no cause of
action for unlawful detainer against Anita
because of the subsisting contract of lease;
hence,hecouldnotfilethecomplaintagainsther.
(Laov.Lao,G.R.No.149599,May16,2000)

B.DISTINCTIONBETWEENFORCIBLEENTRYAND
UNLAWFULDETAINER
Q: Distinguish forcible entry from unlawful
detainer.
A:

ForcibleEntry
Note: Where the facts averred in the complaint
reveals that the action is neither one of forcible
entrynorunlawfuldetainerbutessentiallyinvolvesa
boundarydispute,thesamemustberesolvedinan
accion reinvindicatoria (Sarmiento v. CA, G.R. No.
116192,Nov.16,1995).

Q:AcontractofleaseexecutedbyAlava(lessor)
and Anita Lao (lessee) was not registered with
the Register of Deeds. Aside from Anita, Rudy
Lao also leased a portion of the same property
whereheputuphisbusiness.Atthattime,Rudy
knew that Anita and her husband were the
owners of the said building. He also knew that
shehadleasedthatportionoftheproperty,and
that Jaime Lao, their son, managed and
maintainedthebuilding,aswellasthebusiness
thereon. Rudy eventually purchased the entire
propertyfromAlava.Rudythenfiledacomplaint
forunlawfuldetaineragainstJaimeallegingthat
thelatterhadoccupiedaportionofhisproperty
without any lease agreement and without
payinganyrentals,andprayedthatanorderbe
rendereddirectingJaimetovacatethepremises.
Shouldthecomplaintbedismissed?
A: Yes. The records in this case show that the
respondent has been in possession of the
property in question, not by mere tolerance or
generosity of Rudy, but as the manager of his
mother, who conducted her business in the
buildingwhichstoodonaportionoftheproperty

UnlawfulDetainer

Astowhenpossessionbecameunlawful
Possessionisinceptively
lawful but becomes
illegal from the time
defendant unlawfully
withholds possession
after the expiration or
Possession of the termination of his right
defendant is unlawful thereto.
from the beginning as
he acquires possession
by force, intimidation,
strategy, threat or Note: The question of
stealth(FISTS).
possession is primordial,
while the issue of
ownership is generally
unessential in unlawful
detainer.(RosaRicaSales
Center v. Sps. Ong, G.R.
132197,Aug.16,2005)

Astonecessityofdemand
No previous demand Demandisjurisdictional
for the defendant to if the ground is non
vacateisnecessary.
payment of rentals or
failure to comply with
theleasecontract.

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Astonecessityofproofofpriorphysical
possession
Plaintiff must prove
that he was in prior
physical possession of
the premises until he
was deprived thereof
bythedefendant.

Plaintiff need not have


been in prior physical
possession.

3.

Note: The fact that


petitioners
are
in
possession of the lot
does not automatically
entitlethemtoremainin
possession. (Ganilla v.
CA, G.R. No. 150755,
June28,2005)

Q:Whataretherequisitesinanactionto
recoverproperty?
A:
1.

2.

Astowhen1yearperiodiscountedfrom
1 year period is
generally counted from
thedateofactualentry
oftheland.

1yearperiodiscounted
from the date of last
demandorlastletterof
demand.

2.ACTIONSFORRECOVERYOFPOSSESSIONOF
MOVABLEPROPERTY
REPLEVIN

REQUISITESFORRECOVERYOF
PROPERTY

Clearlyidentifythelandheisclaimingin
accordancewiththetitle/sonwhichhe
baseshisrightofownership;and
Provethathehasabettertitlethanthe
defendant

Note: Plaintiffs title must be founded on positive


right or title and not merely on the lack or
inefficiencyofthedefendantstitle.Inotherwords,
heshallnotbepermittedtorelyuponthedefectsof
the defendants title (Art. 434, Pineda Property, p.
59,1999ed)
Q:Whyis theplaintiffnotallowedtorelyonthe

weaknessofdefendantstitle?
A:

Q:Whatisreplevin?
A:Itistheremedywhenthecomplaintpraysfor
the recovery of the possession of personal
property.

1.

Q:Mayapropertyincustodialegisbesubjectof
areplevinsuit?

2.

A: No. A property validly deposited in custodia


legiscannotbesubjectofareplevinsuit.(Calubv.
CA,G.R.No.115634,Apr.27,2000)

3.

4.

Possibility that neither the plaintiff nor


the defendant is the true owner of the
property. In which case, the defendant
whoisinpossessionwillbepreferred.
Oneinpossessionispresumedtobethe
owner and he cannot be obliged to
showorproveabettertitle
Possessorintheconceptofanowneris
presumed to be in good faith and he
cannotbeexpectedtobecarryingevery
now and then his proofs of ownership
overtheproperty
Hewhoreliesontheexistenceofafact,
should prove that fact. If he cannot
prove, the defendant does not have to
prove.(PinedaProperty,p.59,1999ed)

108

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PROPERTY
2.DISTINCTIONBETWEENREALANDPERSONALRIGHTS
Q:Distinguishrealfrompersonalrights
A:
RealRight

PersonalRight
Creation
Createdbytitlealonesavewhentitleisalsothe
madeasinsuccession.Itisnotdirectlycreatedover
athingbutisexercisedthroughanotheragainst
whomtheactionistobebrought.

Createdbybothtitleandmodedirectlyoverathing

Object
Generallycorporealortangible.Objectisspecific
prorpertyorthing

Incorporealorintangible.Objectcoversallthe
presentandfuturepropertyofthedebtor(Art.2236)

Subjects
(a) Onedefiniteactivesubject(e.g.owner)
(b) Oneindefinitepassivesubjectwhichisthe
wholeworld

(a) Anactivesubject(creditor)
(b) Adefinitepassivesubject(debtor)

Rightofpursuitisthereforeavailable.Real
rightfollowsitsobjectinthehandsofany
possessor
Enforceability
Enforceableonlyagainsttheoriginaldebtororhis
transfereechargedwithnoticeofthepersonalrights

Enforceableagainstthewholeworld

Limit
Limitedbyusefulness,valueorproductivityofthe
thing

Nosuchlimitation

Extinguishment
Notsoextinguished.Claimfordamagesmaystillbe
pursuedincaseoflossordestructionofthething

Extinguishedbylossordestructionofthething

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B.MODESOFACQUIRINGOWNERSHIP

IV.ACCESSION

Q:Whatarethemodesofacquiringownership?
A:
1.

Originalarethosewhichdonotarise
ordependuponanypreexistingright
ortitleofanotherperson
i.e.Occupation,IntellectualCreation,
AcquisitivePrescription

2.

Derivativearethosewhichariseor
dependuponapreexistingor
precedingrightortitleofanother
person
i.e.Law,Donation,Successionmortis
causa,tradition(delivery)
C.LIMITATIONS

Q: What are the limitations on the right of


ownership?
A:Thoseimposedbythe:CCSLOG
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Stateintheexerciseof:
a. Poweroftaxation
b. Policepower
c. Powerofeminentdomain
Law
a. Legaleasementsand
b. The requirement of legitime in
succession;
Ownerhimself
a. Voluntaryeasement
b. Mortgage
c. Pledge
d. Lease;
Grantorofthepropertyonthegrantee,
eitherby:
a. Contract
b. Donationor
c. Will;
Those arising from Conflicts of private
rights
a. Those which take place in
accessioncontinua;
Constitution
a. Prohibition against the acquisition
ofprivatelandsbyaliens.

A.RIGHTTOHIDDENTREASURES

SeeII.Classification;A.HiddenTreasuresp.89

B.GENERALRULES

1.FORIMMOVABLES

ACCESSIONDISCRETA

Q:Whatisaccessiondiscreta?

A:Itistherightpertainingtotheownerofathing
overeverythingproducedthereby.

Q:Whataretherequisitesofaccessiondiscreta?

A:
1. Increaseoradditiontotheoriginalthing
2. Atrepeatedintervals
3. Byinherentforces

Q:Whatarethekindsoffruits?

A:NIC
1. Natural
a. Spontaneousproductsofthesoil;
b. Theyoungand
c. Other products of animals,
whether brought about by
scientificmeansornot.
2. Industrial produced by lands of any
kindthrough:
a. Cultivationor
b. Labor
3. Civilfruits
a. Derived from the use of property
or
b. Income from the property itself.
They consist of rents of buildings
and the prices of leases of lands.
(Art.442,NCC)

Q:Towhomdothefruitsbelong?

A:
GR:Totheowneroftheland.(Art.441,NCC)

XPNS:Ifthethingis:[PULPA]
1. In Possession of a possessor in good
faith (Art 546, NCC); before the
possessionislegallyinterrupted.

2. SubjecttoaUsufruct(Art.566,NCC)

3. Leaseofruralland

110

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4. Pledged (Art. 1680 and Art. 2102, par.
7, NCC); pledge is entitled to the fruits
buthastheobligationtocompensateor
setoff what he receives with those
whichareowingtohim.

5.

5. In possession of an Antichretic creditor


(Art.2132,NCC)

6.

4.

Q: What does the maxim pratus sequitor


ventremmean?

7.

A:Theoffspringfollowsthedam(mother).
ACCESSIONCONTINUA
Q:Whatisaccessioncontinua?
A:Itistherightpertainingtotheownerofathing
overeverythingincorporatedorattachedthereto
eithernaturallyorartificially;byexternalforces.
1.

2.

ACCESSIONINDUSTRIAL
Q: What are the maxims in connection with
accessionindustrial?
A:
1. Theaccessoryfollowstheprincipal.
2. Theaccessoryfollowsthenatureofthat
towhichitrelates.

Withrespecttorealproperty[IN]
a. Accession Industrial (building,
plantingorsowing)
b. Accession Natural (alluvium,
avulsion, change of a river course,
andformationofislands)

Note: In case of uprooted trees, the


ownerretainsownershipifhemakes
a claim within 6 months. This does
not include trees which remain
planted on a known portion on land
carriedbytheforceofthewaters.In
this latter case, the trees are
regarded as accessions of the land
through gradual changes in the
course of adjoiningstream. (Payatas
v. Tuazon, No. 30067, March 23,
1929)

3. Whatisbuiltuponthelandgoeswithit;
or the land is the principal, and
whatever is built on it becomes the
accessory.
Q: What is the rule on ownership regarding
accessionindustrial?
A:
GR: The owner of the land is the owner of
whatever is built, planted or sown on that land,
including the improvements or repairs made
thereon.
XPN:

Withrespecttopersonalproperty[SAC]
a. Specification
b. Adjunctionorconjunction
c. Commixtionorconfusion

Q: What are the basic principles in accession


continua?
A:BADONGE
1.
2.
3.

He who is in Bad faith is liable for


damages.
Accessoryfollowstheprincipal
Union or incorporation must generally
be effected in such a manner that to
separate the principal from the

accessory would result in substantial


Damagetoeitherordiminishitsvalue.
To the Owner of the thing belongs the
extensionorincreasestosuchthing.
Bad faith of one party Neutralizes the
badfaithoftheothersothattheyshall
beconsideredingoodfaith.
He who is in Good faith may be held
responsiblebutnotpenalized.
No one shall unjustly Enrich himself at
theexpenseofanother

1.

Whenthedoerisingoodfaiththerule
ismodified.

2.

Improvementsonthelandofoneofthe
spouses at the expense of the conjugal
partnership will belong to the
partnershiportothespousewhoowns
thelanddependingonwhichofthetwo
propertieshasahighervalue(Art.120,
FC)

Note:Ifthedoerisinbadfaith,heisentitledonlyto
necessaryexpensesforthepreservationoftheland
(PinedaProperty,p.98,1999ed)

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ACCESSIONNATURAL
Q: To whom does the offspring of animals
belong when the male and female belong to
differentowners?
A: Under the Partidas, the owner of the female
was considered also the owner of the young,
unlessthereisacontrarycustomorspeculation.
Thelegalpresumption,intheabsenceofproofto
thecontrary,isthatthecalf,aswellasitsmother
belongstotheownerofthelatter,bytherightof
accretion. (US v. Caballero, G.R. No. 8608, Sept.
26,1913).
Note: This is also in accord with the maxim
pratussequitorventrem
2.FORMOVABLES

A.ACCESSIONCONTINUA

Q: What is the basic principle of accession with


respecttomovableproperty?

A: Accession exists only if separation is not


feasible. Otherwise, separation may be
demanded.

Q: Enumerate different kinds of accession


continuaasregardmovables.

A:AMS
1.Adjunctionorconjunction
2.Mixture
3.Specification

ADJUNCTION

Q:Whatisadjunction?

A: The process by virtue of which two movable


thingsbelongingtodifferentownersareunitedin
such a way that they form a single object and
each of the things united preserves its own
nature.(Art.466,NCC)

Q:Whatareitscharacteristics?

A:Thatthereare:2BUS
1. 2movables;
2. Belongingtodifferentowners;
3. Unitedformingasingleobject;
4. Separationwouldimpairtheirnatureor
result in substantial injury to either
thing.

112

Q: What are the classes of adjunction or


conjunction?

A:PEWWS
1. Painting(pintura)
2. Engraftment like setting a precious
stoneonagoldenring)
3. Writing(escritura)
4. Weaving
5. Soldering joining a piece of metal to
anothermetal)
a. Ferruminacion principal and
accessoryareofthesamemetal
b. Plumbaturadifferentmetals(Art.
468,NCC)

Q: Who owns the movables subject to


adjunction?
A: The owner of the principal by law becomes
owner of the resulting object and should
indemnify the owner of the accessories for the
valuesthereof

Q: What are the tests to determine the


principal?
A:VVUM
1. ThatofgreaterValueIftwothingsare
ofequalvalue.(Art.468)
2. ThatofgreaterVolumeIftwothings
areofequalvolume.(Art.468)
3. ThattowhichtheotherhasbeenUnited
as an ornament, or for its use or
perfection If it cannot be determined
fromArt.467.(Art.467)
4. That which has greater Merits, utility
andvolumeifthings.

Q: How is ownership determined if the


adjunctioninvolvesthreeormorethings?
A: The court should first distinguish the principal
and apply Art. 466 in an equitable manner such
that the principal acquires the accessory,
indemnifying the former owner thereof for its
value.
Q:Howaboutiftheadjunctioninvolvesthreeor
morethings?
A: The principal should first be distinguished,
after, Art. 466 will be applied in an equitable
manner, such that the principal acquires the
accessory, indemnifying the former owner
thereofforitsvalue.
Note: Art. 466 states that Whenever two movable
things belonging to different owners are, without
bad faith, united in such a way that they form a

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single object, the owner of the principal thing
acquires the accessory, indemnifying the former
ownerthereofforitsvalue.

Q:Whenisseparationofthingsallowed?
A:WAB
1.
2.
3.

SeparationWithoutinjury
Accessory is more precious than the
principal
OwneroftheprincipalactedinBad
faith.(Art.469,NCC)

Q:Whataretherulesasregardsrightsofowners
overthethinginadjunction?

A:

OWNEROFTHE
PRINCIPLE
GoodFaith

1. Acquireaccessory
andpayownerof
theaccessoryforits
value;OR
2. Demandseparation
providedthething
suffersnoinjury.

OWNEROFTHE
ACCESSORY
GoodFaith
1. Receivepaymentfor
valueofaccessory;OR
2. GR:Demand
separationprovided
thethingsuffersno
injury
XPN:Ifaccessoryismore
preciousthan
principal,hemay
demandseparationw/
orw/oinjurytothe
thing.

GoodFaith
BadFaith
Acquireaccessoryw/o
Loseaccessoryandpay
payingtheownerof
damages.
accessoryandentitled
todamages.
BadFaith
GoodFaith
1. Payvalueof
1. Receivepaymentand
accessoryandpay
damages;OR
damages;OR

2. Havethethings
separated,even
2. Haveaccessory
thoughthereis
separatedw/orw/o
injurytothe
injurytoprincipaland
principalandpay
receivedamages
damages.
BadFaith
BadFaith
Sameasthoughbothactedingoodfaith

Q:Howistheindemnitymade?

A:
1. Delivery of a thing equal in kind and
value;or
2. Payment of its price including the
sentimentalvalue.(Article471,NCC)

MIXTURE
Q:Whatisamixture?
A: It is the combination of materials where the
respective identities of the component elements
arelosteithervoluntarilyorbychance.(Arts.472
473,NCC)

Q:Whatarethekindsofmixtures?

A:COMCON
1.Commixtionmixtureofsolids
2. Confusionliquids

Q:Whataretherulesregardingmixtures?

A:
1st Owner

ByWillofBothOwnersofbyAccident
GoodFaith
1.
2.

GoodFaith

Rightissubjecttostipulations;OR
Rightisinproportiontothepart
belongingtohim(Coownershiparises)
ByWillofOnly1Owner/ByChance
GoodFaith

GoodFaith

Havethethingsseparatedprovidedthethingsuffers
noinjury;OR
If cannot be separated w/o injury, acquire interest
onmixtureinproportiontohispart(coownership)
BadFaith
(causedthemixture)

GoodFaith

2nd owner will acquire


1st owner will lose his part
entire mixture and
on the mixture and pay
entitledtodamages
nd
damagestothe2 owner
BadFaith

2ndOwner

As if both acted in GF,


becausethe2ndownerinGF
was the one who caused
theratification,becausethe
1stowner

GoodFaith
(causedthemixture)
AsifbothactedinGF,
sincethe1stowneris
inBFandthe2nd
ownerwhocausedthe
mixtureinGFinaway
ratifiestheBFof1st
owner.

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SPECIFICATION

Q:Distinguishadjunction,mixtureand
specification.

Q:Whatisaspecification?
A:
A: It is the giving of new form to anothers
material thru application of labor. The material
undergoesatransformationorchangeofidentity.

ADJUNCTION

MIXTURE

SPECIFICATION

Q: What are the respective rights of the maker


andtheownerofthematerialsinspecification?

Involvesatleast
2things

Involvesat
least2things

Mayinvolve1
thing(ormore)
butformis
changed

Accessory
followsthe
principal

Coownership
results

Accessory
followsthe
principal

A:
Maker(M)

OwnerofMaterials
(OM)

GoodFaith

GoodFaith

Appropriatethething
transformedandpaythe
ownerofthematerialsfor
itsvalue
XPN:Ifthematerialis
morepreciousthanthe
Receivepaymentfor
thingtransformed,the
valueofmaterials
ownerofthematerials
hastheoptionto:

Thingsjoined
retaintheir
nature

Thingsmixed
Thenewobject
orconfused
retainsor
mayeither
preservesthe
retainorlose
natureofthe
theirrespective
originalobject
natures

B.RULESFORDETERMININGTHEPRINCIPALAND
ACCESSORY
Q:Whatarethefactorstodeterminethe
principalandtheaccessory?

1. acquiretheworkand
indemnifythemaker
forhislabor;or
2. demandindemnityfor
thematerial.
GoodFaith

GoodFaith

new
1. Receive payment for 1. Appropriate
thing and pay the
valueofhiswork;OR
maker for the work;
2. Appropriate the new
OR
thing and pay the
owner of materials for 2. Receivepaymentfor
valueofmaterials
itsvalue.
BadFaith

GoodFaith

1. Losethenewthingand 1. Appropriatethenew
thingwithoutpaying
pay damages to owner
and
receive
ofthematerials;OR
damages;OR

2. Pay value of materials Note: Not available if the


and damages to owner new thing is more valuable
thanmaterialsforscientific
ofthematerials.
orartisticreasons

2. Receive payment for


the value of materials
anddamages.

A:PrimaryFactors(Importance/purpose)
1. The thing which is incorporated to
another thing as an ornament is the
accessory.Theotheristheprincipal
2. Thethingtowhichisaddedtoorjoined
toanotherfortheuseorperfectionof
thelatteristheaccessory.Theotheris
theprincipal

SecondaryFactors
1. Theonewhichhasagreatervalueshall
beconsideredprincipal
2. Iftheyhaveequalvalue,theonewith
greatervolumeshallbeconsidered
principal(Art.467468.PinedaProperty,
p.141142,1999ed)

Note: In painting and sculpture, writings, printed


matter,engravingandlithographs,theboard,metal,
stone,canvas,paperorparchmentshallbedeemed
theaccessorything.(Art.468)

114

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
V.QUIETINGOFTITLE

A.REQUIREMENT

Q:Whataretherequisitesforanactiontoquiet
title?
A:LCDR
1.

2.
3.

4.

PlaintiffmusthaveaLegalorequitable
titleto,orinterestintherealproperty
which is the subject matter of the
action;
TheremustbeCloudinsuchtitle;
SuchcloudmustbeDuetosome
a. Instrument;
b. Record;
c. Claim;
d. Encumbrance;or
e. proceeding which is apparently
valid but is in truth invalid,
ineffective,
voidable
or
unenforceable,andisprejudicialto
theplaintiffstitle;and
Plaintiffmust
a. Returntothedefendantall
benefitshemayhavereceived
fromthelatter;or
b. reimbursehimforexpensesthat
mayhaveredoundedtohis
benefit.

Q: What are the requisites for existence of a


cloud?
A:ATP
1.
2.

3.

ThereisanApparentlyvalidoreffective
instrument.
ButsuchinstrumentisinTruth:
a. Invalid;
b. ineffective;
c. voidable;
d. unenforceable;
e. has been extinguished or
terminated;
f. has been barred by extinctive
prescription.
Such instrument may be Prejudicial to
thetitle.

Q: What is the purpose of an action to remove


cloudontitle?
A: It is intended to procure the cancellation, or
delivery of, release of an instrument,
encumbrance, or claim constituting a claim on
plaintiffs title, and which may be used to injure
orvexhimintheenjoymentofhistitle.

B.DISTINCTIONBETWEENQUIETINGTITLE.
ANDREMOVING/PREVENTINGACLOUD.

Q:Differentiateanactiontoquiettitlefroman
actiontoremovecloudontitle.

A:
ACTIONTOREMOVE
ACTIONTOQUIETTITLE
CLOUDONTITLE
Toputanendto
troublesomelitigation
withrespecttothe
propertyinvolved

Fortheremovalofa
possiblefoundationfor
afuturehostileclaim

Aremedialaction

Apreventiveaction

Involvingapresent
adverseclaim

Topreventafuture
cloudonthetitle

C.PRESCRIPTIONORNONPRESCRIPTION
OFACTION
Q:Whataretheprescriptiveperiodsforbringing
anactiontoquiettitle?
A:
1.
2.

Plaintiffinpossessionimprescriptible
Plaintiff not in possession 10 years
(ordinary)or30years(extraordinary)

Note:Lachesisdefinedasthefailureorneglect,for
unreasonableandunexplainedlengthoftime,todo
that which by exercising due diligence, could or
shouldhavebeendoneearlier.
Thenegligenceoromissiontoassertarightwithina
reasonabletime,warrantingapresumptionthatthe
partyentitledtoassertiteitherhasabandoneditor
declinedtoassertit.(TijamvSibonghanoy,L21450,
Apr.15,1968)

Q: May an action filed within the period of


limitations,stillbebarred?
A: Yes, by laches. (See Arts. 1431, 1433, 1437,
NCC)
Q:Isanactiontoquiettitleimprescriptible?
A: Yes. Even though the Civil Code does not
include an action to quiet title as one of those
actions which are imprescriptible, the SC in this
caseheldthatsuchactionisimprescriptible.The
basis of the court is Art. 480. The
imprescriptibility of an action to quiet title is a
general principle from American jurisprudence.
(Buctonv.Gabar,G.R.No.L36359,Jan.31,1974)

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115

UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011

VI.COOWNERSHIP

Q: What happens when a coowner sells the


wholepropertyashis?

A.CHARACTERISTICSOFCOOWNERSHIP

1.INGENERAL

Q:Whatiscoownership?

A: It is a state where an undivided thing or right


belongs to two or more persons. (Art. 484). It is
the right of common dominion which two or
morepersonshaveinaspiritual(orideal)partof
thethingwhichisnotphysicallydivided.

Q:Whatarethecharacteristicsofcoownership?
A:PRESLG
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Pluralityofsubjects/owners;
There is no mutual Representation by
thecoowners;
It exists for the common Enjoyment of
thecoowners;
There is a Single object which is not
materiallydivided;
IthasnodistinctLegalpersonality
ItisGovernedfirstofallbythecontract
of the parties; otherwise, by special
legal provisions, and in default of such
provisions, by the provisions of Title III
oftheNewCivilCodeoncoownership.

Q:Whataretherequisitesofcoownership?
A:POL
1.
2.
3.

Pluralityofowners;
Object, which is an undivided thing or
right;
Each coowners right must be Limited
only to his ideal share of the physical
whole

Note: By the very nature of coownership, a co


ownercannotpointtoanyspecificportionofthe
property owned in common as his own because
his share remains intangible and ideal (Spouses
Avila et al vs. Spouses Barabat, GR. No. 141993,
May17,2006).

116

A:Thesalewillaffectonlyhisownsharebutnot
those of the other coowners who did not
consenttothesale.
Note:Asaleoftheentirepropertybyonecoowner
without the consent of the other coowners is not
null and void but affects only his undivided share
andthetransfereegetsonlywhatwouldcorrespond
tohisgrantorinthepartitionofthethingownedin
common(Paulmitanvs.CA,GRNo.51584,Nov.25,
1992.)

Q:Cantherebeanagreementtokeepthething
undividedforacertainperiodoftime?
A: Yes. An agreement to keep the thing n
undivided for a certain period of time, not
exceedingtenyears,shallbevalid.Thistermmay
beextendedbyanewagreement.
A donor or testator may prohibit partition for a
periodwhichshallnotexceedtwentyyears.
Neither shall there be any partition when it is
prohibitedbylaw.
Q:Distinguishcoownershipfromjointtenancy
A:
COOWNERSHIP
JOINTOWNERSHIP
Tenancyincommon
JointTenancy
Astotheextentofownership
Eachcoowneristhe
Eachjointownerowns
ownerofhisownideal
thewholething.
share.
Astodisposition
Jointownermaynot
Eachcoownermay
disposeofhisown
disposeofhisundivided
sharewithoutofallthe
sharewithouttheother
rest,becausehereally
coownersconsent.
hasnoidealshare.
Astotransferofsharesincaseofdeath
Upon the death of a
Uponthedeathofaco
joint owner, his share
owner, his ideal share
goes to the other joint
goestohisheirs.
ownersbyaccretion.
Astominorityorlegaldisability
In case of a minor who The legal disability of
isacoowner,thisdoes one
joint
owner
notbenefittheothers. benefitstheothers.
Prescription
Prescription
will
Prescriptionwillnotrun
continue to run among
amongthem.
coowners

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
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PROPERTY
Q:Distinguishcoownershipfrompartnership.
A:
ORDINARY
PARTNERSHIP
Nolegalpersonality.
Withlegalpersonality.
Canbecreatedwithout Canbecreatedonlyby
theformalitiesofa
contract,expressor
contract.
implied.
Bycontractorbywill.
Bycontractonly.
Agreementtoexistfor
Notermlimitissetby
morethan10yearsis
law.
void.
Nomutual
Thereismutual
representation.
representation.
Notdissolvedbythe
Dissolvedbydeathor
death/incapacityofa
incapacityofapartner.
coowner.
Acoownercandispose
ofhissharew/othe
Apartnercannotbe
consentoftheothers
substitutedw/othe
henceinawayaco
consentoftheothers.
ownerissubstituted.
Profitsmaybe
Profitsofacoowner
stipulatedupon(for
dependonhis
e.g.,profitsharing
proportionateshare.
agreements)
Forcollective
Forprofit.
enjoyment.
Nopublicinstrumentis
neededevenifthe
Maybemadeinany
objectoftheco
formexceptwhenreal
ownershipisan
propertyiscontributed.
immovable.

2.SPECIALRULES:

A.CONCEPTOFCONDOMINIUM

(1)CONDOMINIUMCORPORATION

Q:Whatisacondominiumcorporation?
COOWNERSHIP

A: A condominium may include, in addition, a


separate interest in other portions of such real
property. Title to the common areas, including
the land, or the appurtenant interests in such
areas, may be held by a corporation specially
formed for the purpose (known as the
condominium corporation) in which the
holdersofseparateinterestshallautomaticallybe
members or shareholders, to the exclusion of
others,inproportiontotheappurtenantinterest
oftheirrespectiveunitsinthecommonareas.

Therealrightincondominiummaybeownership
or any other interest in real property recognized
by law, on property in the Civil Code and other
pertinentlaws.(Sec.2,RANo.4726)
(2)INTERESTINREALPROPERTY
Q:Whatisacondominium?
A:Aninterestinrealpropertyconsistingof;
1.

2.

a separate interest in a unit in a


residential, industrial or commercial
building;and
an undivided interest in common,
directlyorindirectly,inthe
a. landonwhichitislocated;and
b. In other common areas of the
building.

(3)CONCEPTOFCOMMONAREAS,AMENDMENT
Q:Whatarecommonareas?
A: The entire project excepting all units
separatelygrantedorheldorreserved.
Q:Whatisaproject?
A:Theentireparcelofrealpropertydividedorto
be divided in condominiums, including all
structuresthereon.
Q: Where the common areas in the
condominium are held by the owners of
separate units as coowners thereof, to whom
cantheunitsthereinbeconveyed?
A:
GR:OnlytoFilipinocitizens.
XPN: To aliens in case of hereditary
succession.
(4)DOCUMENTSTOCONSIDER
Q:Whataretherequirementsbeforeaproperty
be considered divided or to be divided into
condominiums?

A:Anenablingormasterdeedmustberecorded
intheRegisterofDeedsoftheprovinceorcityin
whichthepropertyliesanddulyannotatedinthe
correspondingcertificateofthetitleoftheland,if
thelatterhasbeenpatentedorregisteredunder
either the Land Registration or Cadastral Acts.
(Sec.4,RA.No.4726)

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Q: What must an enabling or master deed


contain?
A:
1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Description of the land on which the


buildingorbuildingsandimprovements
areoraretobelocated;
Descriptionofthebuildingorbuildings,
stating the number of stories and
basements, the number of units and
theiraccessories,ifany;
Description of the common areas and
facilities;
A statement of the exact nature of the
interest acquired or to be acquired by
thepurchaserintheseparateunitsand
in the common areas of the
condominiumproject.Wheretitletoor
the appurtenant interests in the
common areas is or is to be held by a
condominium corporation, a statement
tothiseffectshallbeincluded;
Statement of the purposes for which
thebuildingorbuildingsandeachofthe
units are intended or restricted as to
use;
A certificate of the registered owner of
the property, if he is other than those
executingthemasterdeed,aswellasof
all registered holders of any lien or
encumbrance on the property, that
they consent to the registration of the
deed;
The following plans shall be appended
tothedeedasintegralpartsthereof:
a. A survey plan of the land
includedintheproject,unless
a survey plan of the same
property had previously bee
filedinsaidoffice;
b. A diagrammatic floor plan of
thebuildingorbuildingsinthe
project, in sufficient detail to
identify each unit, its relative
location and approximate
dimensions;
Any reasonable restriction not contrary
tolaw,moralsorpublicpolicyregarding
therightofanycondominiumownerto
alienateordisposeofhiscondominium.

shallincludetheregisteredownersofcondominiums
intheproject.Untilregistrationofarevocation,the
provisionsofRA.No.4726shallcontinuetoapplyto
suchproperty.(Sec.4,RA.No.4726)

B.RIGHTSANDOBLIGATIONSOF
CONDOMINIUMOWNER

(1)CONTRIBUTIONS/DUES

Q: What are the incidents of a condominium


grant?
A: Unless otherwise expressly provided in the
enabling or master deed or the declaration of
restrictions,theincidentsofacondominiumgrant
areasfollows:
1.

2.

3.

4.
Note:Theenablingormasterdeedmaybeamended
or revoked upon registration of an instrument
executed by the registered owner or owners of the
propertyandconsentedtobyallregisteredholders
of any lien or encumbrance on the land or building
or portion thereof. The term registered owner

118

5.

The boundary of the unit granted are


the interior surfaces of the perimeter
walls, floors, ceilings, windows and
doors thereof. The following are not
partoftheunitbearingwalls,columns,
floors, roofs, foundations and other
common structural elements of the
building; lobbies, stairways, hallways,
and other areas of common use,
elevator equipment and shafts, central
heating, central refrigeration and
central airconditioning equipment,
reservoirs, tanks, pumps and other
central services and facilities, pipes,
ducts,flues,chutes,conduits,wiresand
other utility installations, wherever
located, except the outlets thereof
whenlocatedwithintheunit.
There shall pass with the unit, as an
appurtenance thereof, an exclusive
easement for the use of the air space
encompassed by the boundaries of the
unit as it exists at any particular time
andastheunitmaylawfullybealtered
or reconstructed from time to time.
Such easement shall be automatically
terminated in any air space upon
destruction of the unit as to render it
untenantable.
Unless otherwise, provided, the
common areas are held in common by
the holders of units, in equal shares,
oneforeachunit.
A nonexclusive easement for ingress,
egress and support through the
common areas is appurtenant to each
unitandthecommonareasaresubject
tosucheasements.
Each condominium owner shall have
theexclusiverighttopaint,repaint,tile,

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PROPERTY

6.

7.

wax, paper or otherwise refinish and


decoratetheinnersurfacesofthewalls,
ceilings, floors, windows and doors
boundinghisownunit.
Each condominium owner shall have
the exclusive right to mortgage, pledge
or encumber his condominium and to
havethesameappraisedindependently
of the other condominiums but any
obligation
incurred
by
such
condominiumownerispersonaltohim.
Each condominium owner has also the
absolute right to sell or dispose of his
condominium unless the master deed
contains a requirement that the
property be first offered to the
condominium owners within a
reasonable period of time before the
sameisofferedtooutsideparties.(Sec.
6,RANo.4726)

C.GROUNDSFORPARTITIONOFCOMMON
AREAS,ORDISSOLUTIONOFTHE
CONDOMINIUM
Q:Canthecommonareasbedivided?

aggregate, more than 70% interest in


the common areas are opposed to
continuation of the condominium after
suchexpropriationorcondemnation;or

5. That the Conditions for such partition


bysalehavebeenmet.

Q:WhencanaCorporationCondominiumbe
voluntarilydissolved?
A:
1.

2.

By the affirmative vote of all the


stockholders or members thereof at a
general or special meeting duly called
for the purpose: Provided all the
requirements of Section 62 of the
CorporationLawarecompliedwith.

GR:Whentheenablingormasterdeed
isrevoked

XPN:
1.

A:
GR:No,therecanbenojudicialpartition.
XPNs: A partition shall be made only upon a
showingthat:COURE
1.

2.

3.

4.

That 3 yrs after damage to the project


whichrenderedamaterialpartthereof
unfitforitsusepriorthereto,ithasnot
been Repaired substantially to its state
priortosaiddamage;or

That damage to the project has


rendered 1/2 or more of the units
therein Untenantable and owners
holding, in aggregate, more than 30%
interest in the common areas are
opposedtotherepair;or

That the project has been in existence


formorethan50yrs,isObsoleteandis
uneconomic, and owners holding, in
aggregate, more than 50% interest in
the common areas are opposed to the
repairormodernizing;or

That the project or a material part


thereof has been condemned or
Expropriated, the project is no longer
viable and owners holding, in

2.

3.

4.

That 3 years after damage or


destruction to the project which
renders a material part thereof
unfitforitsusepriorthereto,ithas
not been rebuilt or repaired
substantiallytoitspriorstate;or
Thatdamageordestructiontothe
project has rendered 1/2 or more
of the units therein untenantable
and that more than 50% of the
members of the corporation, if
nonstock, or the shareholders
representingmorethan30%ofthe
capital stock entitled to vote, if a
stock corporation, are opposed to
therepairorreconstructionofthe
project,or
That the project has been in
existence in excess of 50 years,
that it is obsolete and
uneconomical,andmorethan50%
of the members of the
corporation, if nonstock, or the
stockholders representing more
than 50% of the capital stock
entitled to vote, if a stock
corporation, are opposed to the
repairorrestorationorremodeling
ormodernizingoftheproject;or
Thattheprojectoramaterialpart
thereof has been condemned or
expropriated and that the project
is no longer viable, or that the
members holding in aggregate

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UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011

5.

2. ToShareinthebenefitsinproportionto
his interest, provided the charges are
borneinthesameproportion.(Art.485,
NCC)

more than 70% interest in the


corporation, if nonstock, or the
stockholders representing more
than 70% of the capital stock
entitled to vote, if a stock
corporation, are opposed to the
continuation of the condominium
regime after expropriation or
condemnation of a material
portionthereof;or
That the conditions for such a
dissolution have been met. (Secs.
13&14,RA4726)

Note: A contrary stipulation is void. Hence,


benefits cannot be stipulated upon by the co
owners.

3. Each coowner may bring an Action for


ejectment.(Art.487,NCC)
Note:Actionforejectmentcovers;forcibleentry,
unlawful detainer, accion publiciana, quieting of
title,accionreivindicatoria,replevin.

B.SOURCEOFCOOWNERSHIP
4.
Q:Whatarethesourcesofcoownership?

To Compel other coowners to


contributetoexpensesforpreservation
ofthething(Art.488,NCC)

A:LOSTCC
1. Law ex. easement of party walls
(Article658,NCC)

2. Occupancy ex. when two persons


gather forest products or catch a wild
animal

3. Succession ex. heirs of undivided


propertybeforepartition

4. Testamentary (or mortis causa) /


Donationintervivos
i.e. Where the donor prohibits
partition of the property for a
certainperiodoftime
5. Contract

5. ToOpposetoanyactofalteration(Art.
491, NCC) even if beneficial to the co
owners.
6. To Protect against acts of majority
which are prejudicial to the minority
(Art.492,par.3,NCC)
7.ToExerciselegalredemption.
8.

ToaskforPartition(Art.494,NCC)
EJECTMENT

Q: Borromeo, a coowner of a parcel of land,


allowed Resuena to reside in said land. After
sometime, Borromeo later demands that
Resuena should vacate the property, but the
latter refused. May Borromeo file an ejectment
suitevenifheisamerecoownerofthelot?

6. byChanceorfortuitousevent
Example:Hiddentreasure
C.RIGHTSOFCOOWNERS
Q:Whataretherightsofeachcoownerasto
thethingownedincommon?
A:USACOPEP
1. To Use the thing according to the
purposeintendedprovidedthat:

Q: Does the filing of an ejectment suit require


theconsentoftheothercoowners?

a. It is w/o prejudice to the interest


ofthecoownership;and

A: No. Art.487 states that any one of the co


ownersmaybringactionforejectment.Thelaw
does not require that consent of the coowners
must be first secured before bringing an action
forejectment.

b. W/opreventingtheuseofother
coowners.(Art.486,NCC)

120

A: Yes. Art. 487 of the Civil Code which provides


that anyone of the coowners may bring an
action in ejectment is a categorical and an
unqualified authority in favor of Borromeo to
evict Resuena from the portion occupied.
BorromeosactionforejectmentagainstResuena
is deemed to be instituted for the benefit of all
coowners of the property. (Resuena v. CA, G.R.
No.128338,Mar.28,2005)

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
2.ACTSOFALTERATION

Q: What if the case does not prosper, are the


othercoownersboundbythejudgment?

Q:Whatisanalteration?

A:
GR:No.
XPN: They were also served with summons,
evenasunwillingplaintiffs.
Q:Cansuitforejectmentbebroughtbyoneco
owneragainstanothercoowner?
A: No, since the latter also has a right of
possession;theonlyeffectoftheactionwillbeto
obtainrecognitionofthecoownership.
1.DISTINCTIONBETWEENRIGHTTOPROPERTY
OWNEDINCOMMONANDFULLOWNERSHIP
OVERHIS/HERIDEALSHARE

A: Alteration is a change which is more or less


permanent, which changes the use of the thing
andwhichprejudicestheconditionofthethingor
itsenjoymentbytheothers.(Paras,p.344)
Q:Whatdoesalterationinclude?
A: It includes the act by virtue of which a co
ownerchangesthethingfromthestateinwhich
the others believe it should remain. It is not
limited to material charges. (Viterbo v. Quinto,
35226R,Dec.19,1973)
Q:Distinguishactsofadministrationfromactsof
alteration.
A:

Q: Distinguish right to property owned in


common and full ownership over his/her ideal
share
A:
a.

Righttopropertyownedincommon

Eachcoownerisgrantedtherighttousethe
propertyownedincommonforthepurposefor
whichitisintended.
Therearetworestrictionsintheenjoymentof
thisright:
i.
ii.

ACTSOF
ADMINISTRATION

ACTSOFALTERATION

Refertothe
enjoyment,
exploitation,
alterationofthe
thingwhichdonot
affectits
substance,form,
orpurpose

Acts,byvirtueofwhich,aco
owner,inoppositiontothe
expressedortacitagreement
ofallthecoowners,andin
violationoftheirwill,changes
thethingfromthestatein
whichtheothersbelieveit
wouldremain,orwithdraws
itfromtheusetowhichthey
believeitisintended

Transitoryin
character

Permanent

Donotaffectthe
substanceorform

Affectorrelatethesubstance
oressenceofthething

Inrelationtothe
rightofaco
owner,they
requirethe
consentofthe
majority

Requirestheconsentofall
coowners

Canbeexercised
bythecoowners
throughothers

Mustbeexercisedbytheco
ownersthemselves

thecoownershipshallnotbeinjured;
theexerciseshallnotpreventtheother
coownersfromusingtheproperty
accordingtotheirownrights.
b.

Fullownershipoverhis/heridealshare

Acoownerhasfullownershipofhisshare
(undividedinterest)andthefruitsandbenefits
arisingtherefrom.Beingthefullownerthereofhe
mayalienate,assignormortgageit;hecanalso
substituteanotherpersonintheenjoymentofhis
share,exceptonlywhenpersonalrightsare
involved.

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UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011

Q:Whatistheliabilityofacoownerwhomakes
an alteration without the express or implied
consentoftheothers?
A:Heshall:LDP
1. Losewhathehasspent;
2. be obliged to Demolish the
improvementsdone;and
3. Pay for the loss and damages the
community property or other co
ownersmayhavesuffered.

Q:Whatisconversion?
A: It refers to the act of using or disposing of
anotherspropertywithoutlawfulauthoritytodo
so in a manner different from that with which a
property is held by the trustees to whom the
ownerhadentrustedthesame.Itisnotnecessary
that the use for which the property is given be
directly to the advantage of the person
misappropriating or converting the property of
another. (People v. Carballo, 17136CR, Nov. 17,
1976)

Q: What is the rule as regards to the right to


demandpartition?

A:
GR:Everycoownerhastherighttodemand
partition.

XPNs:EASPAUL
1. When partition would render the thing
Unserviceable;or

2. WhenthethingisessentiallyIndivisible;

3. PartitionisprohibitedbyLawbyreason
of their origin or juridical nature ex.
partywallsandfences;

4. WhenthecoownersAgreetokeepthe
propertyundividedforaperiodoftime
butnotmorethan10yrs;

5. PartitionisProhibitedbythetransferor
(donor/testator)butnotmorethan20
yrs;

Note: 10 years ordinary prescription, 30


yearsextraordinarypartition.

3.RIGHTTOPARTITION
Q: What are the rights of coowners as to the
idealshareofeach?

A:FARTS
1. EachhasFullownershipofhispartand
ofhisshareofthefruitsandbenefits;

2. RighttoAlienate,disposeorencumber;

3. RighttoRenouncepartofhisinterestto
reimburse necessary expenses incurred
byanothercoowner;

4. RighttoenterintoTransactionaffecting
hisidealshare;

Note: The transaction affects only his


ideal share not that of the other co
owners.

5.

RighttoSubstituteanotherpersoninits
enjoyment,exceptwhenpersonalrights
areinvolved.

Note:Personalrightsorjusinpersonamis
the power belonging to one person to
demand from another, as a definite
passivesubjectdebtor,thefulfillmentofa
prestation to give, to do, or not to do.
(Paras,p.773)

122

6.

7.

8.

When a coowner possessed the


property as an Exclusive owner for a
period sufficient to acquire it through
prescription.(AcquisitivePrescription)
CoownersmayagreethatitbeAllotted
tooneofthemreimbursingtheothers;

Iftheycannotagree,maySellthething
anddistributetheproceeds.

Q: May the right to ask for partition be waived


orrenouncedpermanently?

A:No,suchwaiverorrenunciationisvoid.

Q: Can prescription run in favor of or against a


coowner?

A:
GR: As long as he expressly or impliedly
recognizesthecoownership,itcannot.

Reason:Possessionofacoownerislikethatof
atrusteeandshallnotberegardedasadverse
totheothercoownersbutinfactisbeneficial
to all of them. Acts considered adverse to
strangers may not be considered adverse
insofar as coowners are concerned. (Salvador
v.CA,G.R.No.109910,Apr.5,1995)

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
XPN: Coowner's possession may be deemed
adversetothecestuiquetrustortheotherco
owners provided the following elements must
concur:

1. Thathehasperformedunequivocalacts
of repudiation amounting to an ouster
of the cestui que trust or the other co
owners;

2. That such positive acts of repudiation


have been made known to the cestui
quetrustortheothercoowners;and

3. That the evidence thereon must be


clear and convincing. (Salvador v. CA,
G.R.No.109910,Apr.5,1995)

Note:Prescriptionbeginstorunfromthe
timeofrepudiation.

Exampleofactsofrepudiation:filingof
anactionto:
1. Quiettitle;or
2. Recoveryofownership.

XPNtoXPN:Constructivetrustscanprescribe.
Express trust cannot prescribe as long as the
relationship between trustor and trustee is
recognized.(Paras,p.362)

Q: The two lots owned by Alipio was inherited


by his 9 children, including Maria, upon his
death. Pastor, Marias husband, filed a
complaintforquietingoftitleandannulmentof
documents against the spouses Yabo, alleging
thatheownedatotalof8sharesofthesubject
lots,havingpurchasedthesharesof7ofAlipio's
children and inherited the share of his wife,
Maria, and that he occupied, cultivated, and
possessed continuously, openly, peacefully, and
exclusively the parcels of land. He prayed that
hebedeclaredtheabsoluteownerof8/9ofthe
lots. His coheirs then instituted an action to
partition the lots. Did Pastor acquire by
prescription the shares of his other coheirs or
coowners?

A: No. The only act which may be deemed as


repudiation by Pastor of the coownership over
thelotsishisfilingofanactiontoquiettitle.The
period of prescription started to run only from
this repudiation. However, this was tolled when
his coheirs, instituted an action for partition of
thelots.Hence,theadversepossessionbyPastor
beingforonlyabout6monthswouldnotvestin
himexclusiveownershipofhiswife'sestate,and
absent acquisitive prescription of ownership,
lachesandprescriptionoftheactionforpartition

willnotlieinfavorofPastor.(Salvadorv.CA,G.R.
No.109910,Apr.5,1995)

Q:Shouldcreditorsand/orassigneesbenotified
oftheproposedpartition?

A:Thelawdoesnotrequirethatanotificationbe
givenbut:

1. If notice is given it is their duty to


appear to concur /oppose, otherwise
creditorsclaimsaredeemedwaived.

2. If no notice is given creditors and/or


assignees may still question the
partitionmade.

Q: Can a partition already executed or


implementedbestillimpugned?

A:
GR:No.

XPN:
1. In case of fraud, regardless of
notificationandopposition;

2. Incaseofpartitionwasmadeovertheir
objection even in absence of fraud
(Article497,NCC)

Q:Whatarerightsofcoownersarenotaffected
bypartition?

A:MRSP
1.Rightsof:
a. Mortgage;
b. Servitude;
c. any other Real rights existing
beforepartition.

2. Personal rights pertaining to third


persons against the coownership (Art.
499,NCC)

Example:A,BandCwherecoownersofparcelof
land mortgaged to M. If A, B, and C should
physicallypartitiontheproperty,themortgagein
Ms favor still covers all the three lots, which,
together, formerly constituted one single parcel.
If A alone had contracted an unsecured
obligation, he would of course be the only one
responsible.(Paras,p.376)

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123

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4.RIGHTTOCONTRIBUTIONSFOREXPENSES
Q: What are the expenses which the coowners
canbecompelledtocontribute?
A:Onlynecessaryexpenses.Usefulexpensesand
thoseforpureluxuryarenotincluded.
Q: Differentiate necessary, useful, expense of
pureluxury.
A: Necessary expenses are those made for the
preservationofthething,orthosewithoutwhich
the thing would deteriorate or be lost, or those
that augment the income of the things upon
which are expended, or those incurred for
cultivation, production, upkeep, etc. (Mendoza v
DeGuzman,52Phil.171)
Useful expenses incurred for the preservation of
the realty in order that it may produce the
natural, industrial, and civil fruits it ordinarily
produce.(Marcelinov,Miguel,53OG5650)
Ornamentalexpensesaddvaluetothethingonly
for a certain persons in view of their particular
whims, neither essential for preservation nor
usefultoeverybodyingeneral.
Q: When may acts of preservation made in the
propertyofthecoowners?
A: At the will of one of the coowners, but he
must, if practicable, first notify the others of the
necessityofsuchrepairs.
Q: What are those acts which require the
majorityconsentofthecoowners?
A:IME
a. Management
b. Enjoyment
c. Improvementorembellishment

Q: What is the remedy in case the minority


opposes the decision of the majority in co
ownership?
A: Minority may appeal to the court against the
majoritys decision if the same is seriously
prejudicial.
Q: Who shall decide on matters relating to
expensesfortheimprovementorembellishment
ofthething?

124

A: Expenses to improve or embellish the thing


shall be decided upon by the majority. (Art. 489,
NCC)
Note: There is no majority unless the resolution is
approved by the coowners who represent the
controllinginterestintheobjectofthecoownership
(par.2Art.492,NCC)

1.WAIVER
Q:Mayacoowneroptnottocontributetothe
expenses for the preservation of the property?
How?
A:
GR: Yes, by renouncing his undivided
interestequaltotheamountofcontribution.
XPN: If the waiver or renunciation is
prejudicial to the coownership, otherwise
he cannot exempt himself from the
contribution(Art.488,NCC)
Note: The value of the property at the time of the
renunciation will be the basis of the portion to be
renounced.

Q: Is the failure or refusal of a coowner to


contribute pro rata to his share in expenses
tantamounttorenunciation?
A: No, there must be an express renunciation,
otherwiseheisrequiredtoreimbursetheothers
fortheexpensestheyincurred.
Q:Whatistheeffectofrenunciation?
A:Itisineffectadacionenpagosincethereisa
change in the object of the obligation (i.e. from
sum of money to interest in the coownership).
Consequently, the consent of the other co
ownersisnecessary.
Note:Dacionenpagoisajuridicalconceptwhereby
a debtor pays off his obligations to the creditor by
the conveyance of ownership of his property as an
accepted equivalent of performance or payment.
Theendresultmaybethesame,buttheconceptis
entirelydifferentfromthatofapurchase.(Damicog
vDesquitada,CV43611,Oct.3,1983)

Q: Can the renunciation be made without the


consentofanyunpaidcreditor?
A:No,foritisineffectanovationbysubstitution,
itwillprejudicetherightsoftheunpaidcreditor.
Note:Novationbysubstitutionisthesubstitutionof
thepersonofthedebtor.

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
6.RIGHTTOREDEMPTIONOFCOOWNERS
SHARE
Q:Whosesharesmayacoownerredeem?
A:Thesharesofalloranyothercoownerifsold
toathirdperson.
Q: What if two or more coowners want to
redeem?
A: They may do so in proportion to the shares
theyrespectivelyhave.
Q: What is the effect of redemption by a co
owner?
A: Redemption of the whole property by a co
owner does not vest in him sole ownership over
said property. Redemption within the period
prescribed by law will inure to the benefit of all
coowners. Hence, it will not put an end to
existing coownership (Mariano v. CA, GR. No.
101522,May28,1993).
Q: Fortunato, his siblings and mother are co
owners of a parcel of land. Lumayno purchased
the shares of Fortunatos coowners. When
Fortunatodied,hiswifeclaimedthatshehasthe
right of redemption over the shares previously
soldbythecoownerstoLumaynobecausethey
have not formally subdivided the property.
However, although the lot had not yet been
formallysubdivided,still,theparticularportions
belonging to the coowners had already been
ascertained. In fact the coowners took
possession of their respective parts. Can
Fortunatos wife be entitled to right of legal
redemption?
A: No. She is no longer entitled to the right of
legal redemption under Art. 1632 of the Civil
Code.Aslegalredemptionisintendedtominimize
coownership, once the property is subdivided
and distributed among the coowners the
community ceases to exist and there is no more
reason to sustain any right of legal redemption.
The exercise of this right presupposes the
existence of a coownership at the time the
conveyanceismadebyacoownerandwhenitis
demanded by the other coowners. Even an oral
agreement of partition is valid and binding upon
theparties.(Vda.deApev.CA,G.R.No.133638,
Apr.15,2005)

Q: Villaner, upon death of his wife, sold the


conjugal property to Leonardo. Villaners 8
children, as coowners of the property, now
claim that the sale does not bind them as they
didnot consent to suchundertaking. Is thesale
bindingonthechildren?
A: No. While a coowner has the right to freely
sell and dispose of his undivided interest,
nevertheless, as a coowner, he cannot alienate
thesharesofhisothercoowners.Thedisposition
made by Villaner affects only his share pro
indiviso, and the transferee gets only what
correspondstohisgrantor'sshareinthepartition
ofthepropertyownedincommon.Theproperty
being conjugal, Villaner's interest in it is the
undivided onehalf portion. When his wife died,
her rights to the other half was vested to her
heirs including Villaner and their 8 legitimate
children.
Q:Whatisthestatusofthesale?Isitvalid,void
orvoidable?
A:Asaleoftheentirepropertybyonecoowner
without the consent of the other coowners is
valid. However, it will only affect the interest or
share in the undivided property of the coowner
whosoldthesame.
Q:Whatistheremedyoftheotherheirsinthis
case?
A: The proper action in cases like this is not for
the nullification of the sale or the recovery of
possession of the thing owned in common from
thethirdpersonwhosubstitutedthecoowneror
coowners who alienated their shares, but the
division of the common property or that is, an
action for partition under Rule 69 of the Revised
Rules of Court. (Acabal v. Acabal, G.R. No.
148376,Mar.31,2005)
D.TERMINATION/EXTINGUISHMENT
Q:Howiscoownershipextinguished?

A:CALSTEP
1. Consolidation or merger in one co
owner;
2. Acquisitive prescription in favor of a
third person or a coowner who
repudiates;
3. Lossordestructionofthingcoowned;
4. Saleofthingcoowned;
5. Terminationofperiodagreedupon;
6. Expropriation;
7. JudicialorextrajudicialPartition.

ACADEMICSCHAIR:LESTERJAYALANE.FLORESII
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UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011

VII.POSSESSION

A.CHARACTERISTICS

1.EFFECTOFPARTITION
Q:Whataretheeffectsofpartition?
A:
1.

2.

It confers upon the coowner exclusive


title over the property adjudicated to
him(Art.1091);
Possession of the coowner over the
property adjudicated to him shall be
deemedexclusivefortheperiodduring
which the copossession lasted (Art.
543,NCC).Inotherwords,itisdeemed
continuous. (Pineda Property, p. 206,
1999ed)

Q:Whatispossession?

A: Possession is the holding of a thing or the


enjoymentofaright(Art.523)

Q:Whataretherequisitesofpossession?

A:PAP
1. Possession in fact or holding or control
ofathingorright;
2. Animus possidendi or the deliberate
intentiontopossess;

2.RIGHTSAGAINSTINDIVIDUALCOOWNERSIN
CASEOFPARTITION
Q: What are the obligations of coowners upon
partition?

A:WARD
1. Mutual Accounting for benefits
received,fruitsandotherbenefits
2. MutualReimbursementsforexpenses
3. Indemnity for Damages caused by
reasonofnegligence/fraud
4. Reciprocal Warranty for defects of title
and quality of the portion assigned to
thecoowner(Art.500501,NCC)

3. Possessionbyvirtueofonesownright
Q: What are the degrees of possession?
Distinguish.
A:NJJS
1.

e.g.Possessionofathieforausurperof
land.
2.

3.PARTITIONINCASECOOWNERSCANNOT
AGREE
Q:Howispartitioneffected?

A:
1. Byagreementbetweentheparties;or
2. Byjudicialproceedings(Art.496)

With Juridical title possession


peaceably acquired and will not ripen
intofullownershipaslongasthereisno
repudiationoftheconceptunderwhich
propertyisheld.
e,g. Possession of a tenant, depositary,
agent.

3.

Q: What is the remedy in case the co owners


cannotagreeinthepartition?
A: If realty is involved, an action for partition
(underRule69oftheRulesofCourt)againstthe
coownersmaybefiled.Incaseofpersonaltyand
actualpartitioncouldnotbemade,itmaybesold
under the discretion of the court and the
proceeds be divided among the owners after
deducting the necessary expenses (Pineda
Property,p.198,1999ed)

With Just title or title sufficient to


transfer ownership, but not from the
trueownerripenstofullownershipby
thelapseoftime.
e,g.Possessionofabuyerofapieceof
land from one who pretends to be the
ownerthereof.

4.

Possession with No right or title


possessor knows that his possession is
wrongful,

WithatitleinfeeSimplespringsfrom
ownership;
highest
degree
of
possession.

126

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
Q:Whataretheclassesofpossession?
A:OVALOHGBC
1.
2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

In ones Own name possessor claims


thethingforhimself
Voluntarybyvirtueofanagreement
In the name of Another held by the
possessorforanother;agent,subjectto
authority and ratification; if not
authorized,negotiorumgestio
Legalbyvirtueoflaw;
e.g. possession in behalf of
incapacitated
IntheConceptofanownerpossessor,
by his actions, is believed by others as
theowner,whetherheisingoodorbad
faith
In the concept of a Holder possessor
holds it merely to keep or enjoy it, the
ownership pertaining to another; ex.
usufructuary

Note:Noneoftheseholdersmayasserta
claim of ownership for himself over the
thing but they may be considered as
possessorsintheconceptofanowner,or
underaclaimofownership,withrespect
to the right they respectively exercise
overthething.

7.
8.
9.

PossessioninGoodfaith
PossessioninBadfaith
Constructive possession does not
meanthatamanhastohavehisfeeton
everysquaremeterofground.

Q:Whatkindofpossessioncanserveastitle?
A:Possessionwithtitleinfeesimple.

Q: Is it possible for a person who has been


declaredastheownerofacertainpropertynot
tobeentitledtoitspossession?
A: Yes. Possession and ownership are distinct
legal concepts. Ownership confers certain rights
totheowneramongwhicharetherighttoenjoy
the thing owned and the right to exclude other
persons from possession thereof. On the other
hand, possession is defined as the holding of a
thing or the enjoyment of a right. Literally, to
possessmeanstoactuallyandphysicallyoccupya
thingwithorwithoutaright.Thusapersonmay
be declared an owner but not entitled to
possession.(HeirsofRomanSorianov.CA,GRNo.
128177,August15,2001)
Note: Possession is merely one of the attributes
ownership.(JusPossidendi)

B.ACQUISITIONOFPOSSESSION
Q:Whatarethewaysofacquiringpossession?
A:FAMS
1.
2.
3.

By Material occupation/exercise of a
right
BySubjectionofthething/righttoour
will
ByproperActsandlegalFormalities
establishedforacquiringsuchright
(Art.531,NCC)

Q:Whatifthepossessionisacquiredbya
stranger?

A:Wherepossessionisacquirednotbyanagent
or representative but by a stranger without
agency,possessionisnotacquireduntiltheactof
the agent or representative is ratified (Art. 532,
NCC).

Q:Differentiatepossessionandoccupation
Q: What are the acts which do not give rise to
possession?

A:
POSSESSION
Applytoproperties
whetherwithorwithout
anowner
Possessiondoesnot
conferownership
Therecanbepossession
withoutownership

OCCUPATION
Appliesonlyto
propertywithoutan
owner
Occupationconfers
ownership
Therecanbeno
occupationwithout
ownership

A:Possessionthrough:FATV
1.

Forceorintimidationaslongasthereis
a possessor who objects thereto. (Art.
536,NCC)

2.

Acts executed clandestinely and


withouttheknowledgeofthepossessor
whichmeansthat:
a.actsarenotpublic;and

b.unknowntotheownerorpossessor
ACADEMICSCHAIR:LESTERJAYALANE.FLORESII
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3.

Mere Tolerance by the owner or the


lawfulpossessor.
4. Acts executed by Violence. (Art 537,
NCC)

Q: What kind of possession can serve as a title


foracquiringdominion?
A: Only the possession acquired and enjoyed in
theconceptofowner.(Art.540,NCC)
C.EFFECTSOFPOSSESSION

1.POSSESSORINGOODFAITH

Q:Whenisapossessoringoodfaith?

A: When he is not aware that there exists in his


title or mode of acquisition any flaw which
invalidatesit.(Art.526,NCC)

Q:Whendoespossessioningoodfaithcease?

A: Possession in good faith ceases from the


moment defects in his title are made known to
thepossessor.
Thisinterruptionofgoodfaithmaytakeplace:
1. atthedateofsummonsor
2. that of the answer if the date of
summonsdoesnotappearatthedate

However,thereisacontraryviewthatthedateof
summons may be insufficient to convince the
possessorthathistitleisdefective.

Q: What is the effect in case possession ceases


tobeingoodfaith?

A:Possessorinbadfaithisrequiredtopayrentor
in case vacate the property, in both cases he is
required to pay damages to the lawful owner or
possessoroftheproperty.

Q: Jose offered to sell his lot to Rosario which


the latter accepted. They executed a document
containing the sale. Later, Rosario sought the
execution of the formal deed of sale, but Jose
couldnotcontinuethesalebecausehesoldthe
lot to Emma with whom he executed a formal
deed of sale. Informed that the sale in favor of
Emmawasnotregistered,Rosarioregisteredher
adverse claim.Later, Emma registeredher deed
of sale and a TCT was issued to her but with
Rosarios adverse claim. Emma then took
possessionof the lot. Who has a better rightto
theland?

A: Rosario. To merit the protection of Art 1544


(double sale) it is essential that the buyer of the

128

realty must act in good faith in registering his


deedofsale.Rosariospriorpurchaseoftheland
wasmadeingoodfaith;shewastheonlybuyerat
thattime.HergoodfaithdidnotceaseafterJose
toldhimofthesecondsaletoEmma.Becauseof
that information, Rosario wanted an audience
with Emma but was snubbed by the latter. In
ordertoprotectherright,Rosarioregisteredher
adverse claim. Said recording is deemed to be in
good faith and emphasize Emmas bad faith.
(Carbonellv.CAG.R.No.L29972,Jan.26,1976)

Q: Is Emma entitled to the improvements she


introducedinthelot?

A: No. Emmas rights to the improvements she


introduced are governed by Arts. 546 and 547
(necessaryandusefulexpensemadebypossessor
in good faith). These provisions seem to imply
that the possessor in bad faith has neither the
rightofretentionofusefulimprovementsnorthe
right to demand refund for useful expenses.
(Carbonellv.CAG.R.No.L29972,Jan.26,1976)

Q:Whataretherightsofapossessor?

A:
GOODFAITH
BADFAITH
Astofruitsreceived
Reimburse
fruits
Entitled
while
receivedorwhichlawful
possession is in good
possessor would have
faith
received
Astopendingfruits
Liable to the lawful Norighttosuch
possessorforexpenses pendingfruits
of cultivation and shall
shareinnetharvestto
timeofpossession
Astoexpenses:
(Necessaryexpenses)
Right
of Rightof
reimbursement and reimbursementand
retention
retention
(Usefulexpenses)
Rightofremoval
Norightofremoval
Astoliabilityincaseof
deteriorationorloss
No liability, unless due Alwaysliablefor
tohisfault/negligence deteriorationorloss

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
A.RIGHTTOPENDINGFRUITS
Q:Whenarefruitsconsideredreceived?

Q:Whatareusefulexpenses?
A:Thosewhichincreasethevalueorproductivity
oftheproperty.

A:
1. Natural and industrial fruits from the
timetheyaregatheredorsevered

Q: Who has the right to be refunded for useful


expenses?

2. Civil fruits from the time of their


accrual and not their actual receipt.
(Art.544,NCC)

A: Only to the possessor in good faith with the


samerightofretentionasinnecessaryexpenses.
(Art.546)

Q: What if there are ungathered natural or


industrialfruitsatthetimegoodfaithceases?

Note: Possessor in good faith need not pay rent


during the period of retention. (Pineda Property, p.
280,1999ed)

A: The possessor shall share in the expenses of


cultivation,netharvest,andchargesinproportion
tothetimeofpossession.(Art545,NCC)
Q: What are the options of the owner in case
there are pending fruits at the time good faith
ceases?
A:
1. To pay the possessor in good faith
indemnity for his cultivation expenses
and charges and his share in the net
harvest;or
2. To allow him to finish the cultivation
andgatheringofthegrowingfruits.

Q:Whatifthepossessorrefuses,foranyreason,
tofinishthecultivationandgathering?
A: He forfeits the right to be indemnified in any
othermanner.(Art.545,par.3,NCC))
B.RIGHTTOBEREIMBURSED

(1)NECESSARYANDUSEFULEXPENSES

Q:Whatarenecessaryexpenses?
A: Expenses incurred to preserve the property,
without which, said property will physically
deteriorateorbelost.
Q: Who is entitled to reimbursement for
necessaryexpenses?

Q:Whatistheeffectofvoluntarysurrenderof
property?
A: It is a waiver of the possessors right of
retentionbuthisrighttoberefundedmaystillbe
enforced, unless he also waived the same.
(PinedaProperty,p.282,1999ed)
Q: May a possessor remove the useful
improvementsheintroduced?
A:Yes,butonlybyapossessoringoodfaithand
onlywhennosubstantialdamageorinjurywould
becausedtotheprincipalthing.(Art.547)
Note: However, this right of removal is only
subordinate to the owners right to keep the
improvements himself by paying the expenses
incurredortheconcomitantincreaseinthevalueof
the property caused by the improvements. (Pineda
Property,p.283,1999ed)

(2)EXPENSESFORPURELUXURY
Q:Whatareluxuriousexpenses?
A: Expenses incurred for improvements
introduced for pure luxury or mere pleasure.
(PinedaProperty,p.281,1999ed)
Q:Areluxuriousexpensesrefundable?

A: Every possessor, whether the possessor is in


goodfaithorbadfaith.
Note:However,onlythepossessoringoodfaithmay
retain the thinguntil he has been reimbursed. (Art.
546,PinedaProperty,p.279,1999ed)

A:No,evenifthepossessorisingoodfaith.
Note: But he may remove the luxurious
improvementsiftheprincipalthingsuffersnoinjury
thereby,andifhissuccessorinthepossessiondoes
not prefer to refund the amount expended. (Art.
548)

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2.POSSESSORINBADFAITH

Q:Whenisapossessorinbadfaith?
A: When he isaware that there exists in his title
ormodeofacquisitionanyflawwhichinvalidates
it.
Note: Only personal knowledge of the flaw in
onestitleormodeofacquisitioncanmakehima
possessorinbadfaith.
Q: When is good or bad faith material or
immaterial?
A:Itisimportantinconnectionwiththe
1.
2.
3.

receiptoffruits,
indemnityforexpenses,and
acquisition
of
ownership
by
prescription.

Itbecomesimmaterialwhentherighttorecover
isexercised.(Article539,NCC)
Q: What are the requisites to constitute
possessionwhetheringoodfaithorinbadfaith?

Q When Dolorico died, his guardian Ortiz


continued the cultivation and possession of the
property, without filing any application to
acquire title. In the homestead application,
DoloriconamedMartin,ashisheirandsuccessor
ininterest.Martinlaterrelinquishedhisrightsin
favorofQuirinohisgrandsonandrequestedthe
Director of Lands to cancel the homestead
application which was granted. Quirino filed his
sales applications and the said property was
awarded to him being the only bidder. Is Ortiz
entitledtorightofretention?
A:Yes.Apossessoringoodfaithhastherightof
retention of the property until he has been fully
reimbursed for all the necessary and useful
expensesmadebyhimontheproperty.Itsobject
is to guarantee the reimbursement for the
expenses, such as those for the preservation of
theproperty,orfortheenhancementofitsutility
orproductivity.Itpermitstheactualpossessorto
remain in possession while he has not been
reimbursed by the person who defeated him in
thepossessionforthosenecessaryexpensesand
useful improvements made by him on the thing
possessed. (Ortiz v. Kayanan, G.R. No. L32974,
July30,1979)
Q: What is the rule when two or more persons
claimpossessionoverthesameproperty?

A:
1. Possessor has a title/mode of
acquisition;
2. There is a flaw or defect in said
title/mode;
3. The possessor is aware or unaware of
theflawordefect.

Q: May mistake upon a doubtful questions or


difficult question of law be the basis of
possessioningoodfaith?

A: Yes. Mistake upon a doubtful or difficult


questions of law (provided such ignorance is not
gross and therefore inexcusable) may be a basis
ofgoodfaith.Itistruethatignoranceofthelaw
excuses no one but error in the application of
the law, in the legal solutions arising from such
application, and the interpretation of doubtful
doctrinecanstillmakeapersonignoranceofthe
law may be based on an error of fact. (Paras, p
463)

A:Itdepends.
GR: Possession cannot be recognized in two
differentpersonalities
XPNincaseofcopossessionwhenthereisno
conflict.
Q:Whatarethecriteriaincasethereisadispute
ofpossessionof2ormorepersons?
A:Criteriaincaseofdispute:[A2DE]
1.
2.
3.
4.

Note:Mistakeuponadoubtfulordifficultquestion
oflawreferstothehonesterrorintheapplication
or interpretation of doubtful or conflicting legal
provisions/doctrines,andnottotheignoranceofthe
law.(Article526,par.3,NCC)

130

Present/Actual possessor shall be


preferred
Ifthereare2possessors,theonelonger
inpossession
IftheDatesofpossessionarethesame,
theonewithatitle
IfalloftheaboveareEqual,thefactof
possession
shall
be
judicially
determined, and in the meantime, the
thingshallbeplacedinjudicialdeposit.
(Article538,NCC)

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
D.LOSSORUNLAWFULDEPRIVATIONOFA
MOVABLE

3.

Reimbursetheexpensesforpublication
if there was a public auction sale.
(PinedaProperty,p.505,1999ed)

Q:Whatisalostthing?
1.PERIODTORECOVER
A:Itisonepreviouslyunderthelawfulpossession
and control of a person but is now without any
possessor.

See:PrescriptivePeriods
2.FINDEROFLOSTMOVABLE

Note:Itisnotanabandonedproperty(Pineda
Property,p.503,1999ed)

Q:Whatisthedutyofafinderofalost
movable?
A: Whoever finds a lost movable, which is not a
treasure,mustreturnittoitspreviouspossessor.
If the latter is unknown, the finder shall
immediatelydeposititwiththemayorofthecity
ormunicipalitywherethefindinghastakenplace.
Note:Themayorinturnmustpubliclyannouncethe
findingofthepropertyfortwoconsecutiveweeks.

Q: When is public auction of the lost movable


authorized?

Q:Whatistherightofapossessorwhoacquires
amovableclaimedbyanother?

A:
1. Badfaithnoright
2. Good faith presumed ownership. It is
equivalenttotitle.
Requisites:
a. possessioningoodfaith
b. owner has voluntarily parted with
thepossessionofthething;and
c. Possessor is in the concept of an
owner.

Q: Is the possession of movable property


acquiredingoodfaithequivalenttoatitle?
A:Yes.

A: If the movable cannot be kept without


deterioration, or without expenses which
considerablydiminishitsvalue,itshallbesoldat
publicauctioneightdaysafterthepublication.

GR: Doctrine of irrevindicability The


possession of movable property acquired in
goodfaithisequivalenttotitle.
Note: This is merely presumptive as it can be
defeatedbythetrueowner.(Art.559,NCC)

Q: May the lost movable be awarded to the


finder?
A:Yes.Iftheownerorpreviouspossessordidnot
appear after 6 months from the publication, the
thingfoundoritsvalueorproceedsiftherewasa
sale, shall be awarded to the finder. The finder ,
however, shall pay for the expenses incurred for
thepublication.(Art.719,NCC)
Q:Whatisthedutyoftheownerwhoappeared?
A:
1.

2.

Give a reward to the finder equivalent


toonetenth(1/10)ofthesumorofthe
priceofthethingfound.(Art.720,NCC)
Reimburse to the finder for the latters
expenses incurred for the preservation
of the thing. (Art. 546,NCC) and
expenses spent for the location of the
owner

XPNs:
1. Whentheownerhaslost;or
2. Has been unlawfully deprived of a
movable.
In which case the possessor cannot
retain the thing as against the owner,
whomayrecoveritwithoutpayingany
indemnity

XPN to the XPNs: Where movable is


acquired in good faith at a public sale, the
owner must reimburse to recover. (Art. 559
par.2,NCC)

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Q: Using a falsified manager's check, Justine, as


thebuyer,wasabletotakedeliveryofasecond
handcarwhichshehadjustboughtfromUnited
Car Sales. Inc. The sale was registered with the
Land Transportation Office. A week later, the
United Car Sales learned that the check had
been dishonored, but by that time, Justine was
nowhere to be seen. It turned out that Justine
hadsoldthecartoJerico,thepresentpossessor
whoknewnothingaboutthefalsifiedcheck.Ina
suitfiledbyUnitedCarSales.Inc.againstJerico
for recovery of the car, United Car Sales alleges
it had been unlawfully deprived of its property
through fraud and should, consequently, be
allowed to recover it without having to
reimbursethedefendantforthepricethelatter
hadpaid.Shouldthesuitprosper?
A: Yes, the suit should prosper because the
criminalactofestafashouldbedeemedtocome
withinthemeaningofunlawfuldeprivationunder
Art.559,CivilCode,aswithoutitUnitedCarSales
wouldnothavepartedwiththepossessionofits
car.(1998BarQuestion)
Note:Thepossessionofmovablepropertyacquired
in good faith is equivalent to a title. Nevertheless,
one who has lost any movable or has been
unlawfullydeprivedthereof,mayrecoveritfromthe
person in possession of the same. (Art. 559, Civil
Code)

3.DISTINGUISHEDFROMVOIDABLETITLE
Q: What is the rule in case the seller of a thing
hasvoidabletitleonthethingsold?
A: Where the seller of goods has a voidable title
thereto,buthistitlehasnotbeenavoidedatthe
timeofthesale,thebuyeracquiresagoodtitleto
the goods, provided he buys them in good faith,
forvalue,andwithoutnoticeoftheseller'sdefect
oftitle.(Art.1506,NCC)

Q: During his lifetime, Velasco acquired Lot A


from spouses Sacluti and Obial evidenced by a
deed of sale. In 1987, spouses Padilla entered
thesaidpropertyastrusteesbyvirtueofadeed
ofsaleexecutedbytheRuralBank.ThePadillas
averred that the Solomon spouses owned the
propertywhichwasidentifiedasLotB.However,
itwasprovedduringtrialthatthelandoccupied
by spouses Padilla was Lot A in the name of
Velasco, whereas the land sold by the bank to
the spouses Padilla was Lot B. The heirs of
Velasco demanded that spouses Padilla vacate
the property, but they refused. Thus, the heirs
filedacomplaintforaccionpubliciana.Whohas
thebetterrightofpossession?
A: The heirs of Velasco has the better right.
Accion publiciana, or for recovery of the right to
possessisanactionfiledintheRTCtodetermine
the better right to possession of realty
independently of the title. The objective of the
plaintiffs in accion publiciana is to recover
possession only, not ownership. Lot A was the
subjectofacadastralcase.TheOCTwasissuedto
Sacluti and Obial who sold the same to Artemio.
From the date of sale, until Artemios death, he
wasincontinuouspossessionoftheland.
Q:Hastheactionalreadyprescribed?
A:No.Theremedyofaccionpublicianaprescribes
after the lapse of ten years. In the present case,
theactionwasfiledwiththeRTCin1991.Spouses
Padilla dispossessed the heirs of Velasco of the
property in 1987. At the time of the filing of the
complaint, only 4 years had elapsed from the
timeofdispossession.Therealrightofpossession
is not lost till after the lapse of 10 years. (Art.
554(4),NCC).(SpousesPadillav.Velasco,G.R.No.
169956,Jan.19,2009)
Q: What are the presumptions in favor of a
possessor?
A:GCENCE

E.INCONCEPTOFOWNER,HOLDER,INONES
OWNNAME,INNAMEOFANOTHER

F.RIGHTSOFTHEPOSSESSOR

Q:Whataretherightsofapossessor?

A:RPR
1. tobeRespectedinhispossession
2. to be Protected in said possession by
legalmeans
3. tosecureinanactionforforcibleentry
the proper writ to Restore him in his
possession(Article539,NCC)

132

1. Goodfaith
2. Continuityofinitialgoodfaith
3. Enjoyment in the same character in
whichpossessionwasacquireduntilthe
contraryisproved
4. Noninterruptioninfavorofthepresent
possessor
5. Continuous possession by the one who
recovers possession of which he was
wrongfullydeprived
6. Extensionofpossessionofrealproperty
toallmovablescontainedtherein.

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
Q:Whataretherightsofapossessorasregards
necessaryexpenses?

A:
GOODFAITH

BADFAITH

1.Righttorefund;
2.Rightofretention;

Rightto
refund

Note: During his possession, he is not The possessor


obligedtopayrentnordamagesincase hasnorightof
herefusestovacatethepremises.
retention

Q: Why is there no right of retention in case of


badfaith?

A:Aspunishmentforhisbadfaith.

Q:Isthererightofremoval?

A:None,whetheringoodfaithorbadfaith.

Reason: Necessary expenses affect the existence


orsubstanceofthepropertyitself.

Note: Improvements be so incorporated to the


principalthingthattheirseparationmustnecessarily
reducethevalueofthethingnotcurablebyordinary
repairs.

Q:Whataretherightsofapossessorwithregard
tousefulexpenses?

A:Ifingoodfaith:
1.Righttorefund
2.Rightofretentionuntilpaid
3.Rightofremoval,provided:
a. withoutdamagetotheprincipalthing
b. subject to the superior right of the
prevailing party to keep the
improvements by paying the expenses
ortheincreaseinvalueofthething

Note:Ifthepossessorisinbadfaith,hehasnoright.

Q:Whataretherightsofapossessorwithregard
toexpensesforpureluxury?

A:
GOODFAITH

BADFAITH

Rightofremoval,
Provided:
1.withoutinjuryto
principalthing;
2.successorin
possessiondoesnot
prefertorefund
amountexpended.

samerights,butliable
onlyforthevalueofthe
ornamentsatthetime
heentersinto
possession,incasehe
preferstoretain

Q:Whatareotherrightsofpossessor?
A:
Withrespectto
Oncapital
Taxesand
Onfruits
Charges
Charges

GOODFAITH
Chargedtoowner
Chargedtopossessor
Prorata

Gatheredorseveredfruits

Possessorisentitledtothefruits

Cultivationexpensesofgathered
fruits

Possessorisnotentitledtobe
reimbursed
Shareproratabetweenpossessor
Pendingorungatheredfruits
andownerofexpenses,net
harvest,andcharges
indemnitytopossessorinprorata:
(ownersoption)
Productionexpensesofpending
a. money
fruits
b. allowingfullcultivationand
gatheringofallfruits
Improvementsnolongerexisting
Noreimbursement
Liableifactingwithfraudulent
Liabilityforaccidentallossor
intentornegligence,after
deterioration
summons
Improvementsduetotimeor
Inuretotheownerorlawful
nature
possessor
Note:Apossessorisprotectedregardlessofthemannerofacquisition.

BADFAITH
Chargedtoowner
Chargedtoowner
Chargetoowner
Possessormustreturnvalueoffruits
alreadyreceivedaswellasvalueof
fruitswhichtheownerorlegitimate
possessorshouldbeentitled
(doesnotapplytopossessorinBF)
Possessorisentitledtobereimbursed
Ownerisentitledtothefruits

Noindemnity

Noreimbursement
Liableineverycase
Inuretotheownerorlawfulpossessor

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4. Destructionortotallossofthethinga
thingislostwhenitperishesorgoesout
of commerce, or disappears in such a
waythatitsexistenceisunknown,orit
cannot be recovered. (Art. 1189, Civil
Code)

Q: May the owner of a property eject the


possessorforciblywithoutcourtintervention?
A: No. The owner must resort to the courts and
cannotforciblyejectapossessor(Bagovs.Garcia,
No.2587,January8,1906).

5. Assignment complete transmission of


thething/righttoanotherbyanylawful
manner.

G.LOSS/TERMINATION
Q:Howispossessionlost?

VIII.USUFRUCT

A.CHARACTERISTICS

A:PRADA
1. Possession of another subject to the
provisionsofArt.537,ifapersonisnot
in possession for more than one year
but less than 10 years he losses
possession de fact. This means that he
cannolongerbringanactionofforcible
entry or unlawful detainer, since the
prescriptive period is one year for such
actions. But he may still institute an
accionpublicianatorecoverpossession
de jure, possession as a legal right or
the real right of possession. (Paras, p.
548)

Q:Whatarethecharacteristicsofusufruct?
A:ENA
1. Essential those without which it
cannotbetermedasusufruct:
a. real right (whether registered in
theregistryofpropertyornot);
b. constitutedonproperty.
i.real
ii.personal;
iii.consumable;
iv.nonconsumable;
v.tangible;
vi.intangible.
c. temporaryduration;
d. purpose:toenjoythebenefitsand
derive all advantages from the
objectasaconsequenceofnormal
useorexploitation.

2. Natural that which ordinarily is


present, but a contrary stipulation can
eliminateitbecauseitisnotessential.
a. The obligation of conserving or
preservingtheformandsubstance
(value)ofthething.
b. Transmissible

3. Accidental those which may be


present or absent depending upon the
stipulationofparties
a. Whetheritbepureoraconditional
usufruct
b. Thenumberofyearsitwillexist
c. Whether it is in favor of one
personorseveral,etc.

Note: Acts merely tolerated, and those


executed clandestinely and without the
knowledgeofthepossessorofathing,or
byviolence,donotaffectpossession.(Art.
537,CivilCode)

2. Abandonment
Note: Abandonment involves a voluntary
renunciationofallrightsoverathing
Requisites:
a.

b.

c.
d.

the abandoner must have been a


possessor in the concept of owner
(either an owner or mere possessor
may respectively abandon either
ownershiporpossession)
the abandoner must have the
capacitytorenounceortoalienate(
for abandonment is the repudiation
ofpropertyright)
there
must
be
physical
relinquishmentofthethingorobject
there must be no spes recuperandi
(expectation to recover) and no
more anumus revertendi ( intention
to return or get back) (Paras, pp.
344345)

3. Recoveryofthethingbythelegitimate
owner

134

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
Q: Is the usufructuary bound to preserve the
formandsubstanceofthethinginusufruct?
A:
GR:Yes.
XPN: In case of an abnormal usufruct,
whereby the law or the will of the parties
mayallowthemodificationofthesubstance
ofthething.
Q: Chayong owned a parcel of land which she
mortgaged to Michael. Upon the OCT was an
annotation of usufructuary rights in favor of
Cheddy. Is Michael obliged to investigate
Chayongstitle?
A: No. The annotation is not sufficient cause to
require Michael to investigate Chayongs title
becausethelattersownershipovertheproperty
remains unimpaired despite such encumbrance.
Only the jus utendi and jus fruendi over the
propertyaretransferredtotheusufructuary.The
owner of the property maintains the jus
disponendi or the power to alienate, encumber,
transform,andevendestroythesame.(Hemedes
v. CA, G.R. Nos. 107132 and 108472, Oct. 08,
1999)
Q:Differentiateusufructfromlease.
A:CRONEC
USUFRUCT

LEASE
Natureoftheright

Realrightonlyif,asinthecaseofa
leaseoverrealproperty,thelease
Alwaysareal
isregistered,orisformorethan
right
oneyear,otherwiseitisapersonal
right
CreatorofRight
Ownerorhis
agent

Maynotbetheowner,asinthe
caseofasublessorora
usufructuary
Origin

Bycontract,bywayofexceptionby
Bylaw,
law(asinthecaseofanimplied
contract,
newlease,orwhenabuilderhas
willoftestator
builtingoodfaithonthelandof
or
anotherabuilding,whenthelandis
by
considerablyworthmoreinvalue
prescription
thanthebuilding.
ExtentofEnjoyment
Allfruits,uses
andbenefits

Onlythoseparticularorspecific
use.

Apassive

Anactiveownerwhomakesthe

Cause

ownerwho
allowsthe
usufructuary
toenjoythe
objectof
usufruct

lesseeenjoy

RepairsandTaxes
Usufructuary
paysfor
ordinary
repairsand
paysfor
annual
chargesand
taxesonthe
fruits

Lesseeisnotobligedtopayfor
repairs/taxes

B.CLASSIFICATION

Q:Whatarethekindsofusufruct?
A:ONESE
1. AstoOrigin:
a. Legal created by law such as
usufruct of the parents over the
property of their unemancipated
children
b. Voluntary created by will of the
parties either by act inter vivos
(e.g. donation) or by act mortis
causa e.g. in a last will and
testament)
c. Mixed (or prescriptive) created
by both law and act of the person
(e.g. acquired by prescription: I
possessedingoodfaithaparcelof
land which really belonged to
another.Stillingoodfaith,Igavein
my will to X, the naked ownership
of land and to Y, the usufruct. In
due time, Y may acquire the
ownership of the usufruct by
acquisitive prescription.) (Paras, p.
572)
2. AstoNumberofbeneficiary
a. Simple if only one usufructuary
enjoystheusufruct
b. Multipleifseveralusufructuaries
enjoytheusufruct
i. simultaneous at the same
time.
ii. successive one after the
other.
Note: In this latter case, if usufruct is
created by donation, all the donees must
bealive,oratleasedalreadyconceived,at
thetimeoftheperfectionofthedonation.

ACADEMICSCHAIR:LESTERJAYALANE.FLORESII
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3. AstoExtentofobject:
a. Total constituted on the whole
thing
b.Partialconstitutedonlyonapart

4. AstoSubjectmatter:
a. Overthings
i. Normal(orperfectorregular)
involves non consumable
things where the form and
substancearepreserved
ii. Abnormal (or imperfect or
irregular)

involves
consumablethings
b. Over rights involves intangible
property; rights must not be
personal or intransmissible in
character so present or future
support cannot be an object of
usufruct.

5. AstoEffectivityorextinguishment:
a. Purenotermorcondition
b. With a term there is a period
whichmaybeeithersuspensiveor
resolutory
i. exdiefromacertainday
ii. indiemuptoacertainday
iii. exdieindiemfromacertain
dayuptoacertainday.
c. Conditionalsubjecttoacondition
whichmaybeeithersuspensiveor
resolutory.
C.RIGHTSANDOBLIGATIONSOF
USUFRUCTUARY

Q:Whataretherightsoftheusufructuaryasto
thethinganditsfruits?
A:RISERICR
1.

2.

3.

4.

136

ToReceivethefruitsofthepropertyin
usufructandhalfofthehiddentreasure
he accidentally finds on the property
(Arts.566,438,NCC)
ToenjoyanyIncreasewhichthethingin
usufructmayacquirethroughaccession
(Art.571,NCC)
TopersonallyEnjoythethingorleaseit
to another (Arts. 572577, NCC)
generallyforthesameorshorterperiod
astheusufruct
To make such Improvements or
expensesonthepropertyhemaydeem
proper and to remove the
improvements provided no damage is
causedtotheproperty(Art.579,NCC)

5.

6.

7.

8.

To Setoff the improvements he may


havemadeonthepropertyagainstany
damagetothesame(Art.580,NCC)
To Retain the thing until he is
reimbursed
for
advances
for
extraordinary expenses and taxes on
thecapital(Art.612,NCC)
To Collect reimbursements from the
owner for indispensable extra ordinary
repairs, taxes on the capital he
advanced,anddamagescausedtohim
ToRemoveimprovementsmadebyhim
ifthesamewillnotinjuretheproperty

Q: 120hectares of land from the NHA property


were reserved for the site of the National
GovernmentCenter.7hectaresfromwhichwere
withdrawn from the operation. These revoked
lands were reserved for the Manila Seedling
Bank Foundation, Inc. (MSBF). However, MSBF
occupied approximately 16 hectares and leased
aportionthereoftoBulacanGardenCorporation
(BGC). BGC occupies 4,590 sqm. Implementing
suchrevocation,NHAorderedBGCtovacateits
occupied area. BGC then filed a complaint for
injunction. Has BGC any right over the leased
premises?

A: A usufructuary may lease the object held in


usufruct.Theownerofthepropertymustrespect
theleaseenteredintobytheusufructuarysolong
astheusufructexists.MSBFwasgivenausufruct
overonlya7hectarearea.NHAcannotevictBGC
ifthe4,590squaremeterportionMSBFleasedto
BGCiswithinthe7hectareareaheldinusufruct
byMSBF.However,theNHAhastherighttoevict
BGC if BGC occupied a portion outside of the 7
hectare area covered by MSBF's usufructuary
rights. (NHA v. CA, G.R. No. 148830, Apr. 13,
2005)

Q:Whataretherightsoftheusufructuaryasto
theusufructitself?

A:ARC
a. To Alienate or mortgage the right of
usufruct(Art.572,NCC)
XPN: parental usufruct (Arts. 225, 226
FC)
b. In a usufruct to Recover property/real
right, to bring the action and to oblige
the owner thereof to give him the
proper authority and the necessary
proof to bring the action (Art. 578,
NCC)

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
c. In a usufruct of part of a Common
property, to exercise all the rights
pertainingtothecoownerwithrespect
to the administration and collection of
fruitsorinterests.
Q:Canusufructuaryexerciseactsofownership?
A:
GR:Ausufructuarycannotexerciseacts
of ownership such as alienation or
conveyance.
XPNs: When what is to be alienated or
conveyedisa:CIA
1.
2.
3.

Consumable
PropertyIntendedforsale;
Property which has
Appraisedwhendelivered.

Note: Civil fruits accrue daily, stock dividends and


cashdividendsareconsideredcivilfruits.

Q:Whatiftheexpensesexceedtheproceedsof
thegrowingfruits?
A:Theownerhasnoobligationtoreimbursethe
difference.(Art.567,NCC)
Q: May the usufructuary lease the thing in
usufructevenwithouttheownersconsent
A: Yes, but not being the owner, he cannot
alienate,pledgeormortgagethethingitself.
Q: May the usufructuary alienate, pledge, or
mortgagetherightofusufruct?

been

A: Yes, he, being the owner of the right itself.


(Art.572,NCC)

Note:ifithasnotyetbeenappraisedorifitisnota
consumable:returnthesamequality(mutuum)

Q: Up to when may the transferee enjoy the


rightstransferredtohimbytheusufructuary?

Q:Whataretherightsoftheusufructuaryasto
advancesanddamages?

A:Tobe:ITD
a. reimbursed
for
Indispensable
extraordinaryrepairsmadebyhim
Note: The reimbursement shall be in the
amount equal to the increase in value of
theproperty(Art.594,NCC)

b. reimbursed for Taxes on the capital


advancedbyhim(Art.597,par.2,NCC)
c. indemnified for Damages caused by
usufructuary to the naked owner (Art.
581,NCC)

A:Untiltheexpirationoftheusufruct.Transferof
usufructuary rights, gratuitous or onerous, is co
terminouswiththetermofusufruct.
Q:Whathappensifthethingsubjectofusufruct
ismortgagedbytheowner?
A: Usufructuary has no obligation to pay
mortgage.Butifthesameisattached,theowner
becomes liable for whatever is lost by the
usufructuary.
Q:Towhatmaytheusufructuarybeliablefor?
A: For the damages suffered by the usufructuary
onaccountoffraudcommittedbyhimorthrough
hisnegligence.

Q: What are the rights of a usufructuary on


pendingnaturalandindustrialfruits?

Q:Whenistheusufructuarynotliable?

A:

A:

Fruits
Growing:

Rightsoftheusufructuary

Atthe
beginning
ofthe
usufruct

notboundtorefundtotheowner
theexpensesofcultivationand
production

Atthe
termination
ofthe
usufruct

belongtotheownerbutheisbound
toreimbursetheusufructuaryof
theordinarycultivationexpenses
(Art.545,NCC)outofthefruits
received(Art.443,NCC)

1.
2.

Fordeteriorationduetowearandtear
For deterioration due to a fortuitous
event

ACADEMICSCHAIR:LESTERJAYALANE.FLORESII
UNIVERSITYOFSANTOTOMAS
VICECHAIRSFORACADEMICS:KARENJOYG.SABUGO&JOHNHENRYC.MENDOZA
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g.

Pay interest on taxes on capital


paidbythenakedowner
h. Pay debts when usufruct is
constituted on the whole
patrimony
i.
Secure the naked owners/court's
approval to collect credits in
certaincases
j.
Notifytheownerofanyprejudicial
rd
actcommittedby3 persons
k. Payforcourtexpensesandcosts

3.Atthetermination

Q: What are the rights and obligations of the


usufructuarywithrespecttoconsumablethings?
A: The usufructuary shall have the right to make
useoftheconsumablething.Atthetermination
of the usufruct, the usufructuary has the
obligationto:
1. If the thing hasbeen appraised, pay its
appraisedvalue;
2. Ifthethinghasnotbeenappraised:
a. Return the same quantity and
quality;or
b. Pay its current price at such
termination.

a.

Q:Whatifthedamagesexceedthevalueofthe
improvements?

A:Theusufructuaryisliableforthedifferenceas
indemnity.
Q: What if the improvements exceed the
amountofdamages?
A: He may remove the portion of the
improvementsrepresentingtheexcessinvalueif
it can be done without injury; otherwise, the
excessinvalueaccruestotheowner.

b.
c.

Returnthethinginusufructtothe
nakedownerunlessthereisaright
ofretention
Paylegalinterestforthetimethat
theusufructlasts
Indemnifythenakedownerforany
losses due to his negligence or of
histransferees

Note: If the animals all perish w/o fault but due to


contagious disease / uncommon event deliver
remains saved. If the young of animals perished in
part due to accident, usufruct continues on
remaining portion. If the usufruct is constituted on
sterileanimals,theyareconsideredasiffungibleand
havetheobligationtoreplacesamekindandquality.

OBLIGATIONSBEFORETHEUSUFRUCTT

Q:Whydoimprovementsaccruetotheowner?
A: Because there is no indemnity for
improvements.

Q:Whataretheeffectsoffailuretopostabond
orsecurity?

Q: What are the obligations of the


usufructuary?

A:
1. The owner shall have the following
options:
a. receivershipofrealty;
b.saleofmovables;
c.depositofsecurities;or
d.investmentofmoney;or
e. retention of the property as
administrator.
2. The net product shall be delivered to
theusufructuary;
3. The usufructuary cannot collect credit
dueormakeinvestmentsofthecapital
withouttheconsentoftheownerorof
thecourtuntilthebondisgiven.

A:
1.Beforetheusufruct
a.
b.

Makeaninventory
Givesecurity

2.Duringtheusufruct
a.
b.

c.
d.
e.

f.

138

Takecareofproperty
Replace the young of animals that
die or are lost or become prey
when the usufruct is constituted
onaflockorherdoflivestock;
Makeordinaryrepairs
Notify the owner of urgent extra
ordinaryrepairs
Permit works & improvements by
thenakedownernotprejudicialto
theusufruct
Pay annual taxes and charges on
thefruits

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
Q:Whenmaytheusufructuarybeexemptfrom
theobligationtogivesecurity?

Q:Whatareextraordinaryrepairs?
A:

A:When:SIR
1. NoonewillbeInjuredbythelackofthe
bond;
2. The donor (or parent) Reserved the
usufructofthepropertydonated;
3. The usufruct is Subject to caucion
juratoriawhere:
a. Theusufructuary:takesanoathto
takecareofthethingsandrestore
them to its previous state before
theusufructisconstituted.
b. The property subject to such
cannot
be
alienated
or
encumberedorleased.

Reason: because this would mean


that the usufructuary does not
need the property if the thing or
propertycanbealienated.

1. Those required by the wear and tear


due to the natural use of the thing but
notindispensableforitspreservation.
2. Those required by the deterioration of
or damage to the thing caused by
exceptional circumstances and are
indispensableforitspreservation.

Q:Whopaysforextraordinaryrepairs?

A: Depends on the kind of extraordinary repairs:


(Art.594,NCC)
1.Ifmadebytheownerhecanmakethem
buttohisexpenseandheshallhavethe
right to demand from the usufructuary
the payment of legal interest on the
amount expended during the duration
oftheusufruct.

Q:Whatiscaucionjuratoria?

2. Ifmadebytheusufructuary
GR:theusufructuarymaymakethembut
he is not entitled to indemnity because
theyarenotneededforthepreservation
ofthething.

A: The usufructuary, being unable to file the


requiredbondorsecurity,filesaverifiedpetition
inthepropercourtaskingforthedeliveryofthe
houseandfurniturenecessaryforhimselfandhis
familywithoutanybondorsecurity.(Art.587)

XPN: He shall have the right to demand


the payment of the increase in value at
theterminationoftheusufructprovided
that:

Q: When does the usufructuary start to have a


right to the proceeds and benefits after the
securityhasbeengiven?

1. He notified the owner of the


urgencyoftherepairs
2. The owner failed to make repairs
notwithstandingsuchnotification
3. The repair is necessary for the
preservationoftheproperty.

A: He shall have a right to all the proceeds and


benefits from the day on which he should have
commencedtoreceivethem.(Retroactivity)(Art.
588,NCC)
Q:Whatareordinaryrepairs?
A:Suchasarerequiredbythewearandteardue
to the natural use of the thing and are
indispensableforitspreservation.(Art.592,NCC)
Note:
GR: Usufructuary has no liability when the
thingdeterioratesduetowearandtear.Heis
obligedtoreturnthethinginsuchstate.
XPNs:whenthereisfraudornegligence

Q: Does the usufructuary have a right of


retention even after the termination of the
usufruct?

A: Yes, until he is reimbursed for the increase in


value of the property caused by extraordinary
repairsforpreservation.
Q:Howistheincreaseinvaluedetermined?
A: It is the difference between the value of the
property before the repairs were made and the
valueaftertherepairshavebeenmade.

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D.RIGHTSOFTHEOWNER
Q:Whataretherightsofanakedownerandthe
limitationsimposeduponhim?
A:
Rights
Alienation
Alteration
Enjoyment

Constructionand
Improvement

Limitations
Canalienatethethingin
usufruct
Cannotaltertheform
andsubstance
Cannotdoanything
prejudicialtothe
usufructuary
Canconstructanyworks
andmakeany
improvementprovided
itdoesnotdiminishthe
valueortheusufructor
prejudicetherightsof
theusufructuary.

Q: What is theeffect of thedeath of thenaked


ownerontheusufruct?
A: It does not terminate the usufruct. His rights
aretransmittedtohisheirs.

Q: A usufruct is constituted on an immovable


where a building is erected, and the building is
destroyed,whatwillhappen?
A:Usufructuarywillhavetherighttomakeuseof
thelandandmaterials.
Q: An insurance covering the object of
usufructuary was obtained, who gets the
proceeds?
A:Ifbothofthempaidpremium:bothwillshare
in the insurance proceeds. If it was only the
owner who paid, then proceeds will go to him
alone.
Q: What is the effect of improper use of the
thingbytheusufructuary?
A: The owner may demand the delivery of and
administration of the thing with responsibility to
delivernetfruitstousufructuary.
Q: On 1 January 1980, Minerva, the owner of a
building granted Petronila a usufruct over the
propertyuntil01June1998whenManuel,ason
of Petronila, would have reached his 3oth
birthday.Manuel,however,diedon1June1990
whenhewasonly26yearsold.

Q:Isrenunciationanassignmentofright?
A: No, it is really abandonment by the
usufructuaryofhisrightanddoesnotrequirethe
consent of the naked owner but it is subject to
therightsofcreditors.
Q: What is the obligation of the owner if the
property held in usufruct is expropriated for
publicuse?
A:Theownerisobligedto:
1.
2.

eitherreplaceit;or
paylegalinteresttousufructuaryofthe
netproceedsofthesame.

Q: What happens when a part of the thing


subjectoftheusufructislost?
A:Theremainingpartshallcontinuetobeheldin
usufruct.

MinervanotifiedPetronilathattheusufructhad
been extinguished by the death of Manuel and
demanded that the latter vacate the premises
and deliver the same to the former. Petronila
refused to vacate the place on the ground that
theusufructinherfavorwouldexpireonlyon1
June1998whenManuelwouldhavereachedhis
30th birthday and that the death of Manuel
th
before his 30 birthday did not extinguish the
usufruct.
Whosecontentionshouldbeaccepted?
A:Petronilascontentioniscorrect.UnderArticle
606 of the Civil Code, a usufruct granted for the
time that may elapse before a third person
reachesacertainageshallsubsistforthenumber
ofyearsspecifiedevenifthethirdpersonshould
die unless there is an express stipulation in the
contractthatstatesotherwise.

A:Yes,butitcannotbeformorethan50years.

Inthecaseatbar,thereisnoexpressstipulation
that the consideration for the usufruct is the
existence of Petronilas son. Thus, the general
rule and not the exception should apply in this
case.(1997BarQuestion)

Q: Can usufruct be constituted in favor of a


town,corporationorassociation?

140

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
Q:Whatareconsideredspecialusufructs?

IX.EASEMENTS

A.CHARACTERISTICS

A:Theseareusufructon:
1. Pensionorincome(Art.570,NCC)
2. Property owned in common (Art. 582,
NCC)
3. Cattle(livestock)(Art.591,NCC)
4. OnVineyardsandwoodland
(Arts575576,NCC)
5. Rightofaction(Art.578,NCC)
6. Mortgagedproperty(Art.600,NCC)
7. over the Entire patrimony (Art. 598,
NCC)
8. thingswhichGraduallydeteriorate
(Art.573,NCC)
9. Consumableproperty(Art.574,NCC)

E.EXTINCTION/TERMINATION

Q:Howisusufructextinguished?

Q:Whatisaneasementorservitude?

A: It is an encumbrance imposed upon an


immovableforthebenefitof:
1. another immovable belonging to a
differentowner;or
2. for the benefit of a community or one
or more persons to whom the
encumbered estate does notbelong by
virtue of which the owner is obliged to
abstain from doing or to permit a
certain thing to be done on his estate.
(Arts.613614,NCC)

Q: Distinguish Dominant Estate from Servient


Estate.
DOMINANTESTATE
Immovableinfavorof
which,theeasementis
established

A:PLDTERM
1.

AcquisitivePrescription
Note:theusebyathirdpersonandnot
thenonusebytheusufructuary

2.

TotalLossofthething
Note: if the loss is only partial, the
usufruct continues with the remaining
part.

3.

Death of the usufructuary; unless a


contraryintentionappears.
Reason: Usufruct is constituted
essentially as a lifetime benefit for the
usufructuary or in consideration of his
person.

4.

Termination of right of the person


constitutingtheusufruct
Expirationoftheperiodorfulfillmentof
theresolutorycondition
Renunciationbytheusufructuary.

5.
6.

Whichtherightbelongs

Theimmovableinfavorofwhich,theeasementis
established is called the dominant estate; that
whichissubjectthereto,theservientestate.

Q:Cantherebeaneasementoveranother
easement?Explain.

A: There can be no easement over another


easement for the reason that an easement may
be constituted only on a corporeal immovable
property. An easement, although it is real right
overanimmovable,isnotacorporealright.(1995
BarQuestion)
Q:Differentiateeasementfromservitude.
A:

Note: it partakes the nature of a


condonation or donation, it must comply
withtheformsofdonation.

7.

Merger of the usufruct and ownership


in the same person who becomes the
absolute owner thereof. (Art. 1275,
NCC)

SERVIENTESTATE
Thatpropertyorestate
whichissubjecttothe
dominantestate
Uponwhichan
obligationrests.

EASEMENT

SERVITUDE

AnEnglishlawterm

Usedincivillaw
countries

Real

Realorpersonal

Therightenjoyed

Burdenimposedupon
another

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Q:Whatarecharacteristicsofeasement?

Q:Distinguisheasementfromusufruct.

A:NICELIAR

A:

1.

Is a right limited by the Needs of the


dominant owner or estate, without
possession;
2. IsInseparablefromtheestatetowhich
it is attached cannot be alienated
independently of the estate; (Art. 617,
NCC)
3. Cannot consist in the doing of an act
unlesstheactisaccessoryinrelationto
arealeasement;
4. Involves 2 neighboring Estates: the
dominant estate to which the right
belongs and the servient estate upon
whichanobligationrests;
5. Is a Limitation on the servient owners
rightsofownership;
6. Is Indivisible not affected by the
division of the estate between two or
morepersons;(Art.618,NCC)
7. It is enjoyed over Another immovable
neverononesownproperty;
8. Is a Real right but will affect third
personsonlywhenregistered.

Q:Whatareessentialqualitiesofeasements?

EASEMENT
Constitutedon
Onrealproperty

Includesallusesand
fruits

Astorightofpossession
Nonpossessingrightover
animmovable

Involvesarightof
possessioninan
immovableormovable

Astoeffectofdeath
Notextinguishedby
Extinguishedbydeathof
deathofdominantowner
usufructuary
Natureofright
Realrightwhetherornot Realrightwhetherornot
registered
registered
Astotransmissibility
Transmissible

Transmissible

Howitmaybeconstituted
Maybeconstitutedin
favor,or,burdening,a
pieceoflandheldin
usufruct

Cannotbeconstitutedon
aneasementbutitmay
beconstitutedonthe
landburdenedbyan
easement

Q:Cantherebe:
a.Aneasementoverausufruct?
A: There can be no easement over a
usufruct. Since an easement may be
constituted only on a corporeal immovable
property, no easement may be constituted
onausufructwhichisnotacorporealright.

Q:Whatismeantbyeasementestablishedonly
onanimmovable?

b.Ausufructoveraneasement?

A:Thetermimmovablemustbeunderstoodin
itscommonandnotinitslegalsense.

A: There can be no usufruct over an


easement. While a usufruct may be created
over a right, such right must have an
existence of its own independent of the
property.Aservitudecannotbetheobjectof
a usufruct because it has no existence
independent of the property to which it
attaches.

142

Realorpersonal

Usegranted
Limitedtoaparticularor
specificuseofthe
servientestate

A:
1. Incorporeal;
2. Imposeduponcorporealproperty;
3. Confernorighttoaparticipationinthe
profitsarisingfromit;
4. Imposed for the benefit of corporeal
property;
5. Has2distincttenements:dominantand
servientestate;
6. Causemustbeperpetual.

USUFRUCT

CIVILLAWTEAM:
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PROPERTY
Q:Distinguisheasementfromlease.

A:
Easement

Lease
Nature

Real right whether


Real right only when
registeredornot
registered OR when the
(whether
real
or
leaseexceeds1yr.
personal)
Whereconstituted
Onlyonrealproperties

Realorpersonal

Limitationsontheuseofright
There is limited right to
Limited right to both
the use of real property
possession and use of
of another but w/o right
anothersproperty
ofpossession
ScopeandUses
Coversallfruitsanduses Generally covers only a
asarule
particularorspecificuse
Whomaycreate
The lessor may or may
Can be created only by
not be the owner as
the owner, or by a duly
whenthereisasublease
authorized agent, acting
orwhenthelessorisonly
inbehalfoftheowner
ausufructuary
Howitiscreated

Maybecreatedby:
law,
contract,
lastwillor
prescription

GR:onlybycontract;

XPN: by law as in the


case of an implied new
lease, or when a builder
has built in GF on the
land of another a
building,whenthelandis
considerably worth more
invaluethanthebuilding

APPARENTSIGN
Q:Whatisthedoctrineofapparentsign?
A: Easements are inseparable from the estate to
which they actively or passively pertain. The
existence of apparent sign under Art. 624 is
equivalenttoatitle.Itisasifthereisanimplied
contract between the two new owners that the
easement should be constituted, since no one
objected to the continued existence of the
windows.
Note: It is understood that there is an exterior sign
contrarytotheeasementofpartywallwhenever:
1. there is a window or opening in the
dividingwallofbuildings
2. entire wall is built within the boundaries
ofoneoftheestates
3. the dividing wall bears the burden of the
binding beams, floors and roof frame of
oneofthebuildings,butnotthoseofthe
others
4. the lands enclosed by fences or live
hedges adjoin others which are not
enclosed
In all these cases, ownership is deemed to belong
exclusivelytotheownerofthepropertywhichhasin
its favor the presumption based on any of these
signs.

Q:Whatistheeffectofacknowledgementofan
easementinoneownsproperty?
A: An acknowledgement of the easement is an
admission that the property belongs to another
(BOMEDCOv.HeirsofValdez,G.R.No.124669).
PARTIESTOANEASEMENT

PassiveorActiveOwner
Theownerismoreorless The owner or lessor is
passive, and he allows moreorlessactive
theusufructuarytoenjoy
the thing given in
usufruct

Q:Whoarethepartiestoaneasement?
A:
1.

Whohasthedutytomakerepairs
Usufructuary has the Lessee generally has no
duty to make the dutytopayforrepairs
ordinaryrepairs
Whobearspaymentoftaxesandchargesonthe
property

2.

Dominant estate refers to the


immovableforwhichtheeasementwas
established.

Servient estate the estate which


providestheserviceorbenefit.

Usufructuarypaysforthe Lessee generally pays no


annualchargesandtaxes taxes
andonthefruits
Limitationontheuseoftheproperty
The
lessee
cannot
Usufructuary may lease
constitue a usufruct on
thepropertytoanother
thepropertyleased
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DOMINANTOWNER

Q: What are the obligations or limitations


imposedontheservientowner?

Q:Whataretherightsofthedominantowner?
A:IC
A:MARE
1.
Exerciseallrightsnecessaryfortheuse
oftheeasement(Art.625,NCC)
2. Make on the servient estate all works
necessary for the use and preservation
oftheservitude(Art.627par.1,NCC)
3. Renouncetheeasementifhedesiresto
exempt from contributing necessary
expenses(Art.628,NCC)
4. Askformandatoryinjunctiontoprevent
impairment of his right. (Resolme v.
Lazo,27Phil416)

Q: What are the obligations of the dominant


owner?

He cannot Impair the use of the


easement.
He must Contribute to the necessary
expensesincaseheusestheeasement,
unlessotherwiseagreedupon
(Art.628par.2,NCC)

1.

2.

B.CLASSIFICATIONSOFEASEMENT
Q:Whataretheclassificationsofeasements?
A:
1. Astorecipientofthebenefit:
a. Real(orPredial)Theeasementis
infavorofanotherimmovable.
b. PersonalTheeasementisinfavor
ofacommunity,orofoneormore
personstowhomtheencumbered
estate does not belong (easement
of right of way for passage of
livestock).

A:CANC
1.

2.

3.

4.

He cannot Alter the easement or


render it more burdensome. (Art. 627
par.1,NCC)
He shall Notify the servient owner of
works necessary for the use and
preservationoftheservitude.(Art.627
par.2,NCC)
He must Choose the most convenient
time and manner of making the
necessary works as to cause the least
inconveniencetotheservientowner.
Ifthereareseveraldominantestateshe
must Contribute to the necessary
expenses in proportion to the benefits
derived from the works (Art. 628 par.
1,NCC)

SERVIENTOWNER

2.Astopurposeornatureoflimitation:
a. PositiveOnewhichimposeupon
the servient estate the obligation
of allowing something to be done
orofdoingithimself.
b. Negative That which prohibits
the owner of the servient estate
from doing something which he
could lawfully do if the easement
didnotexist

3. Astothemannerofexercised:
a. ContinuousTheirusemayormay
notbeincessant

Q:Whataretherightsoftheservientowner?

Note:
For
acquisitive
prescription, the easement of
aqueduct and easement of light
and view are considered
continuous.

A:RMC
1.

2.

3.

Retaintheownershipoftheportionof
the estate on which easement is
imposed
Makeuseoftheeasementunlessthere
is an agreement to the contrary. (Art.
628par.2,NCC),
Changetheplaceormanneroftheuse
oftheeasement,provideditbeequally
convenient(Art.629,par.2,NCC)

Discontiuous used at intervals


anddependupontheactsofman.

Right of way because it may be


exercised only if a person passes or
setsfootonsomebodyelsesland.

4. As to whether their existence is


indicated:

144

b.

CIVILLAWTEAM:
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PROPERTY
a.

Apparent Made known and


continually kept in view by
external signs that reveal the
use and enjoyment of the
same

e.g.rightofwaywhenthereis
an alley or a permanent
path

b.

NonapparentTheyshowno
external indication of their
existence.

e.g. easement of not building


to more than a certain
height.

5.

Astotherightgiven:

a. Right to partially use the


servientestate

e.grightofway
b. Right to get specific materials
or objects from the servient
estate
c. right to participate in
ownership
e.geasementofpartywall
d. Right to impede or prevent
the neighboring estate from
performing a specific act of
ownership.

e.g. Easement of light and view


where the owner is prohibited from
obstructingthepassageoflight.

1.LEGALEASEMENT
Q:WhatisaLegalEasement?
A:Aneasementestablishedbylawforpublicuse
orfortheinterestofprivatepersons.
Q:WhatisaPublicLegalEasement?
A: A Public Legal Easement is for public or
communaluse.
Q:WhatisaPrivateLegalEasement?
A:APrivateLegalEasementsisfortheinterestof
privatepersonsorforprivateuse.
Q:Whatarethekindsoflegaleasements?
A:WINDPLW
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

6. Astosource:
a. Legal those created by law for
publicuseorprivateinterests.
b. Voluntary constituted by will or
agreement of the parties or by
testator.
c. Mixed created partly by
agreementandpartlybylaw.

7. Astothedutyoftheservientowner:
a. PositiveImposesupontheowner
of the servient estate the
obligationofallowingsomethingto
bedoneordoingithimself.

e.g. right of way imposes the duty


toallowtheuseofsaidway.

b. Negative Prohibits the owner of


the servient estate from doing
somethingwhichhecouldlawfully
doiftheeasementdidnotexist.

EasementrelatingtoWaters
EasementrelatingtorightofWay
Intermediate distances and works for
certainconstructionandplantings
EasementagainstNuisance
DrainageofBuilding
EasementofPartywall
EasementofLightandview
A.RIGHTOFWAY

Q:Whatisrightofway?
A:Itistherighttodemandthattheownerofan
estatesurroundedbyotherestatesbeallowedto
pass thru the neighboring estates after payment
ofproperindemnity.
Q:Caneasementofrightofwaybeacquiredby
prescription?
A:No,becauseitisdiscontinuousorintermittent
(Ronquillo, et al. vs. Roco, GR No. L10619, Feb.
28,1958).
Q: What kind of servitude in favor of the
government is a private owner required to
recognize?
A: The only servitude which he is required to
recognizeinfavorofthegovernmentis:
1.
2.

theeasementofapublichighway,
privatewayestablishedbylaw,or

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3.

any government canal or lateral that


hasbeenpreexistingatthetimeofthe
registrationoftheland.

Note: If the easement is not preexisting and is


sought to be imposed only after the land has been
registered under the LR Act, proper expropriation
proceedings should be had, and just compensation
paid to the registered owner (Eslaban v. Vda De
Onorio,G.R.No.146062).

Q:Whataretherequisitesforeasementonright
ofway?
A:POOND
1.

The easement must be established at


the point least Prejudicial to the
servientestate
2. ClaimantmustbeanOwnerofenclosed
immovableorwithrealright
3. TheremustbenoadequateOutlettoa
publichighway
4. The right of way must be absolutely
Necessarynotmereconvenience
5. The isolation must not be Due to the
claimantsownact
6. There must be payment of proper
Indemnity.

Q: What if the property is not the shortest way


and will not cause the least damage to the
servientestate?
A: The way which will cause the least damage
shouldbeusedevenifitwillnotbetheshortest.
Theeasementofrightofwayshallbeestablished
atthepointleastprejudicialtotheservientestate
andwherethedistancefromthedominantestate
to a public highway is the shortest. In case of
conflict, the criterion of least prejudice prevails
overthecriterionofshortestdistance
Q: What does least prejudicial mean in
determiningtherightofway?
A: It means it is the shortest way and the one
whichwillcausetheleastdamagetotheproperty
to the servient estate in favor of the dominant
estate.
Q: The coconut farm of Federico is surrounded
bythelandsofRomulo.Federicoseeksarightof
waythroughaportionofthelandofRomuloto
bringhiscoconutproductstothemarket.Hehas
chosen a point where he will pass through a
housingprojectofRomulo.Thelatterwantshim
to pass another way which is 1km longer. Who
shouldprevail?

146

A: Romulo will prevail. Under Art. 650, the


easement of right of way shall be established at
the point least prejudicial to the servient estate
andwherethedistancefromthedominantestate
to a public highway is the shortest. In case of
conflict, the criterion of least prejudice prevails
over the criterion of shortest distance. Since the
route chosen by Federico will prejudice the
housingproject ofRomulo,Romulohastheright
to demand that Federico pass another way even
thoughitwillbelonger.(2000BarQuestion)
Q:SpousesdelaCruzareoccupantsofaparcelof
landlocatedatthebackofRamiscalsproperty.
They use as their pathway, to and from the
nearest public highway from their property, a
longstripoflandownedbyRamiscal.Theyalso
enclosed such strip of land with a gate, fence,
and roof. Ramiscal demanded that the spouses
demolishthesame.Thespousesrefused.Arethe
spousesentitledtoarightofway?
A: No. There is no voluntary nor legal easement
established.Thespousesfailedtoshowthatthey
entered into an agreement with Ramiscal to use
thepathway.Art649providesthattheeasement
of right of way is not compulsory if the isolation
of the immovable is due to the proprietors own
acts. Mere convenience for the dominant estate
is not enough to serve as its basis. There should
benootheradequateoutlettoapublichighway.
Also,underArt.649,itistheowneroranyperson
whobyvirtueofarealrightmaycultivateoruse
any immovable surrounded by other immovable
pertaining to other persons, who is entitled to
demand a right of way through the neighboring
estates. Here, the spouses fell short of proving
that they are the owners of the supposed
dominantestate.(Eslabanv.VdaDeOnorio,G.R.
No.146062)
Q: David owns a subdivision which does not
haveanaccesstothehighway.Whenheapplied
for a license to establish the subdivision, he
represented that he will purchase a ricefield
located between his land and the highway, and
develop it into an access road. However, when
thelicensewasgranted,hedidnotbuytherice
field, which remained unutilized. Instead, he
chose to connect his subdivision with the
neighboringsubdivisionofNestor,whichhasan
access to the highway. When Nestor and David
failed to arrive at an agreement as to
compensation, Nestor built a wall across the
road connecting with Davids subdivision. Is
David entitled to an easement of right of way
through the subdivision of Nestor which he
claims to be the most adequate and practical
outlettothehighway?

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
A: No, David is not entitled to the right of way
beingclaimed.Theisolationofhissubdivisionwas
duetohisownactoromissionbecausehedidnot
developanaccessroadtothericefieldswhichhe
was supposed to purchase according to his own
representation when he applied for a license to
establish the subdivision. (Floro vs. Llenado, 244
SCRA713)
Q: How much is the proper indemnity to the
servientestate?
A:Ifthepassageis:
1.

2.

Continuous and permanent the


indemnity consists of the value of the
land occupied plus the amount of
damagescausedtotheservientestate.
Temporary indemnity consists in the
paymentofthedamagecaused

Q:Howwideshouldaneasementofrightofway
be?
A:Thewidthoftheeasementshallbethatwhich
is sufficient for the needs of the dominant
estate.(Art.651,NCC)
Q: Can a dominant owner demand a driveway
forhisautomobile?
A: Yes, due to necessity of motor vehicles in the
presentage.

Q:Issaidextinguishmentautomatic?
A: No. There must be a demand for
extinguishmentcoupledwithtenderofindemnity
bytheservientowner.
Q:EmmaboughtaparceloflandfromEquitable
PCI Bank, which acquired the same from Felisa,
theoriginalowner.Thereafter,Emmadiscovered
that Felisa had granted a right of way over the
landinfavorofthelandofGeorgina,whichhad
no outlet to apublic highway, but the easment
wasnotannotatedwhentheservientestatewas
registeredundertheTorrenssystem.Emmathen
filed acomplaint for cancellation of the right of
way, on the ground that it had been
extinguished by such failure to annotate. How
wouldyoudecidethecontroversy?
A:Thecomplaintforcancellationofeasementof
rightofwaymustfail.Thefailuretoannotatethe
easement upon the title of the servient estate is
not among the grounds for extinguishing an
easementunderArt.631oftheCivilCode.Under
Art 617, easements are inseparable from the
estatetowhichtheyactivelyorpassivelybelong.
Once it attaches, it can only be extinguished
underArt631,andtheyexisteveniftheyarenot
stated or annotated as an encumbrance on the
Torrens title of the servient estate. (2001 Bar
Question)
OTHERLEGALEASEMENTS

Q:Whoisresponsibleforrepairsandtaxes?
A:
1.

As to repairs the dominant owner is


liablefornecessaryrepairs.
2. Astoproportionateshareofthetaxesit
shall be reimbursed by said owner to
the proprietor of the servient estate.
This applies only to permanent
easements.(Art.654,NCC)

Q: What are the special causes of


extinguishmentofrightofway?

WATERS
Q:Whatarethedifferenteasementsrelatingto
waters?
A:Theseare:DRAWBN
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

A:

6.
1. Theopeningofapublicroad,or
2. Joining the dominant tenement to
another which has an exit to a public
road.

Naturaldrainage(Art.637)
drainageofBuildings(Art.674)
easementonRiparianbanksfor
navigation,floatage,fishing,
salvage,andtowpath(Art.638)
easementofaDam(Arts.639,647)
easementfordrawingWaterorfor
wateringanimals(Arts.640641)
easementofAqueduct(Arts.642
636)

NATURALDRAINAGE

Note: Lowerestates must receivewaterswhich are


naturally and without intervention of man descend
from higher estates including earth and stones
carriedwiththem.

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PARTYWALL

Q:Whatareitslimitations?
A:

Q:Whatisapartywall?
a. Dominantownermustnotincreasethe
burdenbuthemayerectworkstoavoid
erosion.
b. The servient owner must not impede
thedescentofwater(butmayregulate
it).
EASEMENTFORDRAWINGWATERORFOR
WATERINGANIMALS

A: A common wall which separates two estates,


built by common agreement at the dividing line
suchthatitoccupiesaportionofbothestateson
equalparts.
Note:itisakindofcompulsorycoownership.

Q: Distinguish easement of party wall from co


ownership.
A:

Note:Thisisacombinedeasementfordrawingof
waterandrightofway.
Q:Whataretherequisitesforeasementfor
wateringcattle?
A:
1.
2.

Itmustbeimposedforreasonsofpublic
use
Itmustbeinfavorofatownorvillage
indemnitymustbepaid

Note:therighttomakethewaterflowthruor
underinterveningorlowerestates

Q:Whataretherequisitesfordrawingwateror
forwateringofanimals?
A:
1.
2.
3.

4.

Owner of the dominant estate has the


capacitytodisposeofthewater;
The water is sufficient for the use
intended
Proposed right of way is the most
convenient and the least onerous to
thirdpersons.
Pay indemnity to the owner of the
servientestate(Art.643)

EASEMENTOFAQUEDUCT

Q:Howistheeasementofaqueductconsidered?
A:Forlegalpurposes,itisconsideredcontinuous
andapparenteventhoughtheflowofwatermay
not be continuous or its use depends upon the
needsofthedominantestateoruponaschedule
ofalternatedaysorhours.(Art.646,NCC)

PARTYWALL

COOWNERSHIP

Canbedivided
Sharesofcoowners
physically;acoowner
cannotbephysically
cannotpointtoany
segregatedbuttheycan definiteportionofthe
bephysicallyidentified propertybelongingto
him
Noneofthecoowners
mayusethecommunity
Nolimitationastouse
propertyforhis
ofthepartywallfor
exclusivebenefit
exclusivebenefitofa
becausehewouldbe
party
invadingontherightsof
theothers
Anyownermayfree
himselffrom
contributingtothecost
Partialrenunciationis
ofrepairsand
allowed
constructionofaparty
wallbyrenouncingALL
hisrights

Q: What are the presumptions (juris tantum) of


existenceofapartywall?
A:
1. in adjoining walls of building, up to
commonelevation
2. in dividing walls of gardens and yards
(urban)
3. individingfences,wallsandlivehedges
ofruraltenements
4. Inditchesordrainsbetweentenements

Rebuttalofpresumption:
1. Title
2. bycontraryproof
3. bysignscontrarytotheexistenceofthe
servitude(Arts.660&661,NCC)
Note: If the signs are contradictory, they
canceleachother.

148

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
Q: Who spends for the cost of repairs and
constructionofpartywalls?
A: The partowners. They are obliged to
contribute in proportion to their respective
interests.

Q: What are the conditions for drainage of


buildings?
A:
1.
2.

Noadequateoutlet
The outlet must be at the point where
egress is easiest and establishing a
conduitforthedrainageofwater
3. Properindemnity

LATERALANDSUBJACENTSUPPORT

Q:Mayanownerrefusetocontribute?
A:
GR: Yes, any owner may free himself from
the obligation to contribute by renouncing
hisrightsinthepartywall.
XPN: When the party wall actually supports
his building, he cannot refuse to contribute
fortheexpensesorrepairandconstruction.
(Art.662,NCC)
XPNtoXPN:Iftheownerrenounceshispart
ownership of the wall, in this case he shall
bear the expenses of repairs and work
necessary to prevent any damage which
demolitionmaycausetothepartywall.(Art.
663,NCC)
Q:Mayanownerincreasetheheightofaparty
wall?

Q: Can there be a stipulation or testamentary


provision allowing excavations that could cause
dangertoanadjacentlandorbuilding?
A:No,thesameshallbevoid.(Art.685,NCC)
Reason:apersonisprotectedevenagainsthisown
folly,intheinterestofpublicsafety.(Paras,p.729)

Q: What should be done first before making an


excavation?
A: Any proprietor who intends to make any
excavation shall notify all owners of adjacent
lands.
2.VOLUNTARYEASEMENT

A:Yes,providedthathemust:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

dosoathisownexpense;
payforanydamagecausedevenifitis
temporary;
He must bear the cost of maintaining
theportionadded;
He must pay the increased cost of
preservationofthewall(Art.664,NCC);
He shall be obliged to reconstruct the
wall at his expense if necessary for the
walltobeartheincreasedheightandif
additionalthicknessisrequired,heshall
provide the space therefore from his
ownland.

DRAINAGEOFBUILDINGS

Q:Whenisaneasementvoluntary?
A:itisvoluntarywhenitisestablishedbythewill
oftheowners.
Q:Whomayconstitutevoluntaryeasements?
A: The owner possessing capacity to encumber
property may constitute voluntary servitude. If
there are various owners, all must consent; but
consentoncegivenisnotrevocable.
Q: For whose favor are voluntary easements
established?
A:
1. Predialservitudes:
a. for the owner of the dominant
estate
b. for any other person having any
juridical relation with the
dominant estate, if the owner
ratifiesit.
2. Personal servitudes: for anyone
capacitatedtoaccept.

Q:Definedrainageofbuildings
A: It is the right to divert the rain waters from
onesownrooftotheneighboringestate.

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Q: How are voluntary easements created and


whatarethegoverningrulesforsuch?
A:
1.Ifcreatedbytitle(contract,will,etc.),the
titlegoverns.
2.Ifacquiredbyprescription,itisgoverned
bythemannerorformofpossession.
In both cases, the Civil Code will only
applysuppletorily.

Q:Whatiseasementofview(jusprospectus)?
A: The right to make openings or windows to
enjoytheviewthrutheestateofanotherandthe
power to prevent all constructions or works
whichcouldobstructsuchviewormakethesame
difficult.
Note:Itnecessarilyincludeseasementoflight.

Q: What are its modes of acquisition of


easementoflightandview?
A:

C.MODESOFACQUIRINGEASEMENTS

1.COMPULSORYEASEMENTS

Q:Howareeasementsacquired?

A:FARTP
1. ByTitleAlleasements:
a. Continuous and apparent (Art.
620)
b. Continuous nonapparent (Art.
622)
c. discontinuous,
whether
apparentornonapparent(Art.
622)
2. ByPrescriptionoftenyears
continuousandapparent(Art.620)
3. BydeedofRecognition
4. ByFinaljudgment
5. By Apparent sign established by the
ownerofthetwoadjoiningestates

Q:Howistheprescriptiveperiodcomputed?

A:
a. Positive easement the period is
counted from the day when the owner
of the dominant estate begins to
exerciseit
b.

1.bytitle
2.byprescription

Q:Whatistheprescriptiveperiodforacquisition
ofeasementoflightandview?

A:10years.
Q:Fromwhendoestheprescriptiveperiodstart
torun?
A: The reckoning point depends on whether the
easementispositiveornegativewhich,inturn,is
dependent on where the opening is made if it is
made:
1.

On ones own wall and the wall does


notextendoverthepropertyofanother
Theeasementisnegative.

Commencement
of
Period
of
prescription starts from the time
formalprohibitionismade.
Reason: The owner merely exercises his
rightofdominionandnotofaneasement.
Negative easement is not automatically
vested as formal prohibition is a pre
requisite.

2.

Negative easement from the day a


notarial prohibition is made on the
servientestate
2.EASEMENTOFLIGHTANDVIEW

Q:Whatiseasementoflight(jusluminum)?

Thru a party wall or on ones own wall


which extends over the neighboring
estateTheeasementispositive.

CommencmentofPeriodofprescription
starts from the time the window is
opened.
Reason: owner of the neighboring estate
who has a right to close it up allows an
encumbranceonhisproperty.

A: The right to admit light from neighboring


estate by virtue of the opening of a window or
themakingofcertainopenings.

150

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
Q:Howaboutwithregardtoopeningsatheight
ofceilingjoists?

Q: How is easement of light and view


extinguished?
A:

A: The owner of a wall which is not a party wall


maymakeanopeningtoadmitlightandair,but
notviewsubjecttotheff:
1.
2.

3.

1. Merger
2. When the easement can no longer be
used
3. Expirationoftheterm(iftemporary)or
fulfillment of the condition (if
conditional)
4. Renunciation of the owner of the
dominant estate of the redemption
agreedupon
5. Nonuserfor10years

EXTINGUISHMENTOFEASEMENTS

The size must not be more than 30


squarecentimeters
The opening must be at the height of
the ceiling joists or immediately under
theceiling
There must be an iron grating
imbeddedinthewall
Theremustbewireascreen.

4.

Q: What are the restrictions as to easement of


views?

A:
1. Direct Views: the distance of 2 meters
between the wall and the boundary
mustbeobserved
2. Oblique Views: (walls perpendicular or
at an angle to the boundary line) must
notbe60cmtothenearestedgeofthe
window.

Q:Howareeasementsextinguished?
A:MARINECREW
1.

Merger of ownership of the dominant


andservientowner
2. Annulmentofthetitletotheservitude
3. Redemptionagreedupon
4. Impossibilitytousetheeasement
5. Nonuser:10years
6. Expiration of the term or fulfillment of
theresolutorycondition
7. Bad Condition when either or both
estates fall into such a condition that
theeasementcouldnotbeused
8. Resolution of the right of grantor to
create the easement (as when the
vendoraretroredeemstheland)
9. Expropriationoftheservientestate
10. Waiver by the dominant owner
gatheredfrompositiveacts

Note: Any stipulation to the contrary is void (Art.


673,NCC).

Q: What if the wall upon which an opening is


made,becomesapartywall?

A: A partowner can order the closure of the


opening. No partowner may make an opening
thru a party wall without the consent of the
others.
Note:Ifthewallbecomesapartywallhecanclose
the window unless there is a stipulation to the
contrary(Art.669,CivilCode,Parasp.715)

Q: Does nonobservance of the distances


providedinArticle670giverisetoprescription?
A: No, this refers to a negative easement as the
windowisthruawallofthedominantestate.
Note: No windows, apertures, balconies, or other
similar projections which afford a direct view upon
or towards an adjoining land or tenement can be
made, without leaving a distance of two meters
between the wall inwhich they are made andsuch
contiguous property. Neither can side or oblique
viewsuponortowardssuchconterminousproperty
be had, unless there be a distance of sixty
centimeters. The nonobservance of these distances
does not give rise to prescription. (Art. 670, Civil
Code)

X.NUISANCE
Q:Whatisanuisance?
A:Any:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

act,
omission,
establishment,
businessor
conditionofpropertyor
anythingelsewhich:ISAHO
a. Injures/dangers the health or
safetyofothers
b. Shocks, defies or disregards
decencyormorality
c. Annoysoroffendsthesenses
d. Hinders or impairs the use of
propertyor

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e.

Obstructs or interferes with the


freepassagetoanypublichighway
orstreetorbodyofwater

Q:Mayanuisancebebothpublicandprivate?

Q:Distinguishnuisancepersefromnuisanceper
accidens.
A:
PERSE
Asamatteroflaw

A:Yes,itiscalledmixednuisance.
e.g.Ahousewashedontoastreetrailwaytrack:
private nuisance to the railway company and a
publicnuisancebecauseitobstructsthestreet.

Needonlybeproved
inanylocality

Q:Distinguishnuisancefromtrespass.
Maybesummarily
abatedunderthelaw
ofnecessity

A:
Nuisance

Trespass

Useofonesown
propertywhichcauses
injurytoanother

Directinfringementof
anothersrightor
property

PERACCIDENS
Asamatteroffact
Dependsuponits
locationand
surroundings,the
mannerofitsconduct
orothercircumstances
Maybeabatedonly
withreasonablenotice
tothepersonallegedto
bemaintainingordoing
suchnuisance

ATTRACTIVENUISANCE
Q:Whatisthedoctrineofattractivenuisance?
Injuryisdirectand
immediate

Injuryisconsequential

Q:Whatarethekindsofnuisance?
A:
1.

2.

Accordingtothenumberofpersons
affected:

a. Public(orcommon)nuisanceis
onewhichaffectsthecommunity
orneighborhoodorconsiderable
numberofpersons
b. Privatenuisanceisonewhich
affectsanindividualorfew
personsonly.
Otherclassificationofnuisance:

a. NuisancePerSethatkindof
nuisancewhichisalwaysa
nuisance.Byitsnature,itisalways
anuisanceatalltimesandunder
anycircumstancesregardlessof
locationofsurroundings.

b. NuisancePerAccidensthatkind
ofnuisancebyreasonoflocation,
surroundingorinthemanneritis
conductedormanaged.

152

A. One who maintains on his estate or premises


an attractive nuisance without exercising due
case to prevent children from playing therewith
orresortingthereto,isliabletoachildoftender
years who is injured thereby, even if the child is
technically a trespasser in the premises. (Jarco
Marketing Corp. v. CA, 117 SCAD 818, 321 SCRA
375(1991),Paras,p.741)
Q:Whatisthebasisfortheliability?
A: The attractiveness is an invitation to children.
Safeguards to prevent danger must therefore be
setup.
Q: What are the elements of attractive
nuisance?
A:
1. Itmustbeattractive
2. Dangeroustochildrenoftenderyears.

Q:Isaswimmingpoolanattractivenuisance?
A:
GR:Aswimmingpoolorwatertankisnotan
attractivenuisance,forwhileitisattractive,
it is merely an imitation of the work of
nature.Hence,ifsmallchildrenaredrowned
in an attractive water tank of another, the
ownerisnotliableeveniftherebenoguards
in the premises (Hidalgo Enterprises v.
Balandan,et.al,L3422Jun.13,1952).

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
XPN:Swimmingpoolwithdangerousslides
Note: The doctrine of attractive nuisance does not
generally apply to bodies of water, artificial as well
asnaturalintheabsenceofsomeunusualcondition
or artificial other than the mere water and its
location.

REMEDIESAGAINSTNUISANCE
Q:Whataretheremediesagainstnuisance?

XI.ACTIONTOQUIETTITLE
Q:Whatisanactiontoquiettitle?
A:Itisanactionforthepurposeofputtinganend
to vexatious litigation with respect to the
propertyinvolved.
Note: An action to quiet title is quasi in rem an
action in personam concerning real property where
judgment therein is enforceable only against the
defeatedpartyandhisprivies.

A:Ifthenuisanceis:
Q:Whatarethereasonsforquietingtitle?
PUBLIC
PRIVATE
Civilaction
CivilAction
Abatementw/ojudicial Abatementw/ojudicial
proceedings
proceedings
Prosecutionunder

RPC/localordinance

Q: What are the requisites of extrajudicial


abatement?
A:BARVID
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

ThenuisancemustbespeciallyInjurious
tothepersonaffected.
No Breach of peace or unnecessary
injurymustbecommitted
Demand must first be made upon the
owner or possessor of the property to
abatethenuisance.
DemandisRejected
Abatement is Approved by the district
health officer and executed with the
assistanceofthelocalpolice,and
Value of destruction does not exceed
P3,000

A:
1.
2.
3.

Q:Whataretheinstanceswhereactiontoquiet
titledoesnotapply?
A:
GR:
1.

Toquestionsinvolvinginterpretationof
documents;
2. Tomerewrittenororalassertionsof
claims.

XPNs:
1. Ifmadeinalegalproceeding
2. If it is being asserted that the
instrumentorentryinplaintiffsfavoris
notwhatitpurportstobe
3. Toboundarydisputes
4. Todeedsbystrangerstothetitleunless
purporting to convey the property of
theplaintiff
5. Toinstrumentsinvalidontheirface
6. Where the validity of the instrument
involvespurequestionsoflaw

Q: When can an owner of the thing abated


recoverdamages?
A: If the thing is found by the court not to be a
nuisance,theownercanclaimdamages.
Note: A private person or a public official
extrajudicially abating a nuisance shall be liable for
damages if he causes unnecessary injury or if the
allegednuisanceislaterdeclaredbythecourtstobe
notrealnuisance.

preventlitigation;
protecttruetitleandpossession;
real interest of both parties which
requires the determination of the
precisestateoftitle.

Q:Doestherighttoquestiontheexistenceofa
nuisanceprescribe?
A:No.Itisimprescriptible.

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Q: Edgardo donated a parcel of land to a


barangaysubjecttotheconditionthatitshallbe
usedfortheconstructionofapublicplazawithin
5yearsfromexecutionoftheDeedofDonation.
Otherwise, the deed shall have no force and
effect and ownership of the land will revert to
thedonor.Thebarangaytookpossessionofthe
property and allowed the construction of
buildingsbypublicandprivateentities.Edgardo
filed a complaint for quieting of title and
recovery of possession of the area donated
againstthebarangayclaimingthatthedonation
hadceasedtobeeffective,forfailuretocomply
with the conditions of the donation. Was the
actiontoquiettitleproperlymade?
A:No.Theactiontoquiettitleisunavailinguntil
thedonationshallhavefirstbeenrevoked.Inthe
case at bar, the barangay traces its claim of
ownership over the disputed property to a valid
contractofdonationwhichisyettobeeffectively
revoked.Suchrightfulclaimdoesnotconstitutea
cloud on the supposed title of Edgardo over the
same property removable by an action to quiet
title.(Dolarv.Brgy.Lublub,G.R.No.152663,Nov.
18,2005)
XII.MODESOFACQUIRINGOWNERSHIP

A.OCCUPATION
Q:Whataretherequisitesofoccupation?
A:WISCS
1. TheremustbeSeizureofathing,
2. which must be a Corporeal personal
property,
3. which must be Susceptible of
appropriationbynature
4. ThethingmustbeWithoutanowner
5. There must be an Intention to
appropriate.

Q:Distinguishoccupationfrompossession.
A:
OCCUPATION

Modeofacquiring
ownership

Merelyraisesthe
presumptionof
ownershipwhen
exercisedinthe
conceptofowner

Astopropertyinvolved
Involvesonlycorporeal
personalproperty

Q:Differentiatemodefromtitle.

POSSESSION

Asregardsacquisitionofownership

Anykindofproperty

Asregardsownershipofthethingbyanother

A:
MODE

TITLE

Directly
and Serves merely to give
immediatelyproducesa the occasion for its
realright
acquisitionorexistence
Cause

Means

Proximatecause

Remotecause

Essence of the right


Means whereby that
which is to be created
essenceistransmitted
ortransmitted

Requiresthattheobject
bewithoutanowner

Thepropertymaybe
ownedbysomebody

Asregardstheintenttoacquire
Theremustbeanintent
toacquireownership

Maybehadinthe
conceptofamere
holder

Asregardspossession
Maynottakeplacew/o
someformof
possession

Mayexistw/o
occupation

Astoperiod

Q:Whatarethemodesofacquiringownership?

Generallylonger

Astoleadingtoanothermodeofacquisition

A:OLDTIPS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Shortduration

Occupation

Law
Donation
Tradition
Intellectualcreation
Prescription
Succession

Cannotleadtoanother
modeofacquisition

Mayleadtoanother
modeprescription

154

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
Q:Whatarethethingssusceptibleof
occupation?

A:
1. Thingsthatarewithoutanownerres
nullius;abandoned
Note:Stolenpropertycannotbesubjectof
occupation

death because they partake of a will


(Art.728,NCC)

Q: What are the essential features or elements


ofatruedonation?
A:
1.

2. Animals that are the object of hunting


andfishing
3. Hiddentreasure
4. Abandonedmovables.

Q: May a person acquire ownership over a wild


animalbyoccupation?
A: Wild animals are considered res nullius when
not yet captured. After its capture, animals that
escapedbecomeresnulliusagain.

2.
3.
4.

Alienation of property by the donor


duringhislifetime,whichisaccepted
Irrevocability by the donor of the
donation
AnimusDonandi(donativeintent)
Consequent impoverishment of the
donor(diminutionofhisassets)

Q: What rules govern donations of the same


thingtodifferentdonees?

Q:Whencanlandbetheobjectofoccupation?

A: These are governed by provisions on double


saleassetforthinArticle1544.(Art.744,NCC)

A:Itdepends.

1.
2.

3.

If without an owner, it pertains to the


State(RegalianDoctrine).
If abandoned and the property is
private, it can be the object of
occupation.
And if the land does not belong to
anyoneispresumedtobepublic.

B.DONATION

1.DEFINITION

Q:Whatisdonation?

A:Itisanactofpureliberalitywherebyaperson
disposesgratuitouslyofathingorrightinfavorof
anotherwhoacceptsit.(Art.725,CivilCode.)

Note: If the same thing should have been sold to


different vendees, the ownership shall be
transferredtothepersonwhomayhavefirsttaken
possession thereof in good faith, if it should be
movableproperty.Shoulditbeimmovableproperty,
theownershipshallbelongtothepersonacquiringit
whoingoodfaithfirstrecordeditintheRegistryof
Property. Should there be no inscription, the
ownership shall pertain to the person who in good
faithwasfirstinthepossession;and,intheabsence
thereof,tothepersonwhopresentstheoldesttitle,
providedthereisgoodfaith(Art.1544,CivilCode)

OBJECTOFDONATIONS
Q:Whatmaydonationcover?
A: Donation may cover all present property.
Donationscannotcomprehendfutureproperty.

Q:Whataretherequisitesofdonation?

(Art.751,NCC)

A:ACID

Q:Canfutureinheritanceortheinchoaterightto
inheritbedonated?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Donor must have Capacity to make the


donation
He must have donative Intent (animus
donandi)
TheremustbeDelivery
Donee must Accept or consent to the
donation during the lifetime of the
donor and of the donee in case of
donation inter vivos (Art. 746, NCC);
whereas in case of donation mortis
causa,acceptanceismadeafterdonors

A:No,becauseitisfutureproperty.
Q: May property, the acquisition of which is
subjecttosuspensiveconditionbedonated?
A: Yes, because once the condition is fulfilled, it
retroacts to the day the contract is constituted.
(Art.1187par1,NCC)

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Q: May ownership and usufruct of property be


donatedtodifferentpersonsseparately?
A: Yes, provided all the donees are living at the
timeofdonation.(Art.756,NCC)
Q: Is there a limitation on the amount that can
bedonated?
A:
1.

Ifthedonorhasforcedheirshecannot
give or receive by donation more than
whathecangiveorreceivebywill.
2. If the donor has no forced heirs,
donation may include all present
property provided he reserves in full
ownershiporinusufruct:
a. the amount necessary to support
himandthoserelativesentitledto
supportfromhim.
b. property sufficient to pay the
donors debt contracted prior to
thedonation.

2.CHARACTERISTICS

A.EXTENTTOWHICHDONORMAYDONATE
PROPERTY

It is merely reducible to the extent that the


supporttohimselfandhisrelativesisimpairedor
prejudiced.(PinedaProperty,p.571,1999ed)
Q:Whatisreversionindonation?
A: It is a condition established in the deed of
donation which has for its effect the restoration
orreturnofthepropertydonatedtothedonoror
hisestateorinfavorofotherpersonswhomust
belivingatthetimeofthedonationforanycause
orcircumstances.(Art.757)
Note: If the reversion is in favor of other persons
whoarenotalllivingatthetimeofthedonation,the
reversion stipulated shall be void, but the donation
shallremainvalid.

3.KINDS
Q:Whatarethekindsofdonation?

A:
1.

Q:Uptowhatextentmayadonationcover?
2.

A:Itmaycomprehendallthepresentpropertyof
thedonor,orpartthereof,providedhereserves,
in full ownership or in usufruct, sufficient means
for the support of himself, and of all relatives
who, at the time of the acceptance of the
donation,arebylawentitledtobesupportedby
thedonor.(Art.750,NCC)

3.

Q:Canfuturepropertiesbesubjectofdonation?

A: No, donations cannot comprehend future


properties

Note: Future property means anything which the


donorcannotdisposeofatthetimeofthedonation.
(Art.751,NCC)

B.RESERVATIONSANDREVERSIONS
Q:Whatistheeffectifthedonorviolatesthe
requirementforreservationunderArticle750?

Accordingtomotiveorcause:SRMO
Simple
Remuneratory(1stkind)
Remuneratory(2ndkind):
ConditionalorModaldonations
d. Onerousdonations
Astoperfectionorextinguishment:
a. Pure
b. Withacondition
c. Withaterm
Accordingtoeffectivity:
a. Intervivos(Art.729,CivilCode)
b. MortisCausa(Art.728,CivilCode)
c. PropterNuptias

a.
b.
c.

A: A donation where the donor did not reserve


propertyorassetsforhimselfinfullownershipor
in usufruct sufficient for his support and all
relativeslegallydependentuponhim,isnotvoid.

156

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
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PROPERTY
Q:Discussthekindsofdonationaccordingto
motiveorcause?

2.

A:
3.
PURPOSE

FORM

Simple
sametothatofformsin
pureliberality
donations
Remuneratory(1stkind)
torewardpastservices
providedtheservicesdo sametothatofformsin
donations
notconstitutea
demandabledebt.
Remuneratory(2ndkind)
1. rewardfuture
services;or
1. Oneroussame
2. becauseof
formofthatof
futurecharges
contracts
orburdens,
2. Gratuitious
whenthevalue
sameformof
ofsaidservices,
thatof
burdens,or
donations
chargesisless

thanthevalueof
thedonation.
Onerous
Burdens,chargesor
sameasthatof
servicesareequalin
contracts
valuetothatofthe

donation.

Q:Discussthekindsofdonationaccordingto
motiveorcause?
A:
1. Pure donation is one which is not
subjecttoanycondition
2. Conditionalisonewhereinthedonor
imposes on the donee a condition
dependentonthehappeningofafuture
event or past event unknown to the
parties.
3. WithaTermisonewhereinthedonor
imposes on the donee a condition
dependent upon the happening of a
futureandcertainevent.

Donation cannot comprehend Future


property except donations between
future husband and wife (See Art. 84
FC)
Nopersonmaygivebywayofdonation
Morethanhemaygivebywill

B.DONATIONBYREASONOFMARRIAGE

Q:Whataredonationsbyreasonofmarriageor
donationspropternuptias(DPN)?

A: Those donations which are made before the


celebration of the marriage, in consideration of
thesame,andinfavorofoneorbothparties.

Q: What are the grounds for filing an action for


revocationofaDPN?

A:
1. Marriageisnotcelebrated
2. Marriageisjudiciallydeclaredvoid
3. Marriagetookplacewithoutconsentof
parents,whenrequiredbylaw
4. Marriageisannulledanddoneeactedin
badfaith
5. Uponlegalseparation,doneebeingthe
guiltyspouse
6. Donation subject to resolutory
conditionandittookplace
7. Doneecommittedanactofingratitude
C.DONATIONMORTISCAUSA

Q:Whatisdonationmortiscausa?
A: These are donations which are to take effect
uponthedeathofthedonor.
NOTE: it partakes of the nature of testamentary
provisionsandgovernedbytherulesonsuccession.
(Art.728,NCC)

A.DONATIONINTERVIVOS
Q:Whatarethelimitationsimposedbylawin
makingdonationsintervivos?

A:RFM
1. Donor must Reserve sufficient means
forhissupportandforhisrelativeswho
are entitled to be supported by him
(Art.750,NCC)

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Q: Distinguish donation inter vivos from


donationmortiscausa.
A:
INTERVIVOS

MORTISCAUSA

Astowhenittakeseffect
Takeseffectduringthe
Takeseffectupon
lifetimeofthedonor,
donorsdeath
independentlyofthehis
death
Astocauseorconsideration
Incontemplationof
donorsdeathwithout
Causeisdonorspure
intentiontodisposeof
generosity
thethingincaseof
survival
Onpredecease
Validifdonorsurvives
Voidifdonorsurvives
thedone
Onrevocability
Alwaysrevocableatany
Generallyirrevocable
timeandforanyreason
exceptforgrounds
beforethedonors
providedforbylaw
death
Onformalities
Mustcomplywiththe
Mustcomplywiththe
formalitiesofdonations
formalitiesofawill
Onwhenacceptanceismade
Acceptanceduring
Afterdonorsdeath
donorslifetime
Onwhenpropertyisconveyedtothedonee
Propertyretainedbythe
Propertycompletely
donorwhileheisstill
conveyedtothedonee
alive
Ontaxpayable
Donorstax
Estatetax

D.ONEROUSDONATION

Q:Whatisanonerousdonation?

A:Adonationgivenforwhichthedonorreceived
a valuable consideration which is the equivalent
ofthepropertysodonated.

Q:Whatarethekindsofonerousdonations?

A:

1. Totally onerous when the burden is


equaltoorgreaterthanthevalueofthe
propertydonated

2. Partially onerous when the burden is


lesser than the value of the donation.
(PinedaProperty,p.547,1999ed)

158

Q:Whatlawswillapplytoonerousdonations?

A:

1. Totallyonerousrulesoncontracts

2. Partiallyonerous
a. Portionexceedingthevalueof
the burden simple
donations
b. Portion equivalent to the
burden law on contracts
(PinedaProperty,p.547,1999
ed)
E.SIMPLE,MODAL,CONDITIONAL

Q:Whatisasimpledonation?

A:Onewhichisnotsubjecttoanycondition

Q:Whatisaconditionaldonation?

A:Onewhereinthedonorimposesonthedonea
condition dependent on the happening of a
future event or past event unknown to the
parties.

Q: What is the effect if a suspensive condition


may take place beyond the natural expectation
oflifeofthedonor?

A: The condition does not destroy the nature of


theactasadonationintervivos,unlessacontrary
intentionappears.(Art.730)

Q:Whatisamodaldonation?

A: A donation subject to burdens or charges.


(PinedaProperty,p.536537,1999ed)

4.FORMALITIESREQUIRED

A.HOWMADEANDACCEPTED

Q:Whomustmaketheacceptance?

A:Acceptancemaybemadebythedoneehimself
or thru an agent with special power of attorney
otherwise,donationshallbevoid.(Art.745,NCC)

Q:Whyisthereaneedforanacceptance?

A:Becausethedoneemaynotwanttoacceptthe
donors liberality or if donation is onerous, he
maynotagreewiththeburdenimposed.

CIVILLAWTEAM:
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PROPERTY
Note:Donationisperfectedoncetheacceptanceof
the donation was made known to the donor.
Accordingly,ownershipwillonlyreverttothedonor
iftheresolutoryconditionisnotfulfilled.

Q: What is the effect of donations made to


incapacitatedpersons?

A:Donationsmadetoincapacitatedpersonsshall
be void, though simulated under the guise of
another contract or through a person who is
interposed(Art.743,NCC)

Q: Who may accept donationsmade in favor of


minors?

A:Ifthedonationispureandsimpleanddoesnot
require written acceptance, the minors can
acceptthedonationbythemselves
Ifthedonationneedswrittenacceptance,itmay
be accepted by their guardian or legal
representatives

Q: Who may accept donations made to


conceivedandunbornchildren?

A: Donations made to conceived and unborn


children may be accepted by those who would
legally represent them if they were already born
(Art.742,NCC)
B.PERFECTION

Q:Whenisadonationperfected?

A: Donation is perfected from the moment the


donorknowsoftheacceptancebythedonee(Art.
734,NCC).
C.DIFFERENCESBETWEENFORMALITIESFOR
DONATIONOFREAL,PERSONALPROPERTIES

Q:Whatistheformalitiesrequiredfordonation
ofrealandpersonalproperties?

A:
1. Ofmovableproperty:
a. With simultaneous delivery of
propertydonated:
i. for P 5,000 or less may be
oral/written
ii. for more than P 5,000
written in public or private
document
b. Withoutsimultaneousdelivery:
i. The donation and acceptance
mustbewritteninapublicor

privateinstrument(Statuteof
Frauds),regardlessofvalue.
Otherwise,
donation
is
unenforceable

2.

Ofimmovableproperty:
a. Must be in a public instrument
specifying
i. thepropertydonatedand
ii. the burdens assumed by the
donee
b. Acceptancemaybemade:
i. Inthesameinstrumentor
ii. In another public instrument,
notified to the donor in
authentic form, and noted in
bothdeeds.
Otherwise,donationisvoid.

5.QUALIFICATIONSOFDONOR,DONEE

Q:Whoqualifiesasadonor?

A: Any person who has capacity to contract and


capacity to dispose of his property. (Art. 735,
NCC)

Q:Whyisthereaneedforcapacitytocontract?

A:Becauseadonationintervivosiscontractualin
natureandisamodeofalienationofproperty.

Q:Whenisthepossessionofcapacitytocontract
bythedonordetermined?

A:Hiscapacityshallbedeterminedasofthetime
ofthemakingofdonation.(Art.737,NCC)
Note: Making of donation shall be construed to
meanperfection.

Q:Whomayqualifyasdonees?

A: All those who are not specially disqualified by


law.

Q:Mayanunbornchildbeadonee?Adonor?

A: An unborn child may be a donee but not a


donor.
As a donee, donations made to conceived and
unborn children may be accepted by those
personswhowouldlegallyrepresentthemifthey
werealreadyborn.(Art.742,NCC)
Note: if the conceived child did not become a
person,thedonationisnullandvoid
An unborn child cannot be a donor because it is
essentialforapersontobeabletomakeadonation,
hemusthavefullcivilcapacity

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6.EFFECTSOFDONATION/LIMITATIONS

A.INGENERAL

c.

B.DOUBLEDONATIONS

Q: What rights and actions does the donee


acquire?
A: The donee is subrogated to the rights and
actionswhichincaseofevictionwouldpertainto
thedonor.
Q:Whenaredonorsliableforevictionofhidden
defects?
A:
1.

If the donation is simple or


remunerative, donor is not liable for
eviction or hidden defects because the
donationisgratuitous,unlessthedonor
actedinbadfaith.
2. Ifthedonationisonerous,thedonoris
liable on his warranty against eviction
and hidden defects but only to the
extentoftheburden.

Q: What are the rules regarding the liability of


thedoneetopaythedebtsofdonor?

Thedoneshallnotbeliable
beyondthevalueofdonation
received.

Q:Whenistheredoubledonation?
A:Whenthesamethinghasbeendonatedtotwo
ormorepersons.
Q:Whatistheruleincaseofadoubledonation?
A:TheruleondoublesaleunderArticle1544
shallbeapplicable:
a.
b.

MovableOwnerwhoisfirsttopossess
ingoodfaith
Immovable
a. Firsttoregisteringoodfaith
b. No inscription, first to possess in
goodfaith
c. No inscription & no possession in
good faith Person who presents
oldesttitleingoodfaith
C.EXCESSIVE/INOFFICIOUS

A:
1. Where donor imposes obligation upon
the done; (Art. 758, NCC) the done is
liable:
a.
b.

to pay only debts previously


contracted;
for debts subsequently contracted
only when there is an agreement
tothateffect;

Note:Notliablefordebtsinexcessofthe
value of donation received, unless the
contraryisintended.

2. Wherethereisnostipulationregarding
thepaymentofdebts:(Art.759,NCC)
a. Doneeisgenerallynotliabletopay
donorsdebts
b. Donee is responsible only if
donation has been made in fraud
ofcreditors.

Note:Thepresumptionthatthedonations
was made in fraud of creditors arises
when the donor has not left sufficient
assets to pay his debts, at the time of
donation.

160

Q: What is the rule in case of an excessive or


inofficiousdonation?
A:
1.

A donor may not donate more than


whathecangivebywill;

Reason: If he donates more than waht he


cannotgivebywill,thedonationwillbecome
excessiveandtoinsistonit,thelegitimesof
the compulsory heirs will be impaired.
Legitimes are reserved for the compulsory
heirs and the same cannot be impaired or
disposedofbythetestator.
2.

The donee cannot receive by way of


donation more than what he may
receivebywill.

Reason:ifthedoneecanreceivebydonation
(devise or legacy) more than what the
testator is allowed by law to give, the
donation is inofficious and it may be
suppressed totally or reduced as to its
excess.

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ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
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FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
D.SCOPEOFAMOUNT

1.

By individuals, associations or
corporations not permitted by Law to
makedonations;
2. By persons guilty of Adultery or
concubinageatthetimeofdonation;
3. By a Ward to the guardian before the
approvalofaccounts;
4. By Spouses to each other during the
marriage or to persons of whom the
otherspouseisapresumptiveheir.
5. Between persons found guilty of the
same Criminal offense in consideration
thereof;
6. To Relatives of such priest, etc. within
the 4th degree, or to the church to
whichsuchpriestbelongs;
7. ToanAttestingwitnesstotheexecution
of donation, if there is any, or to the
spouse, parents or children or anyone
claimingunderthem;
8. TothePriestwhoheardtheconfession
of the donor during the latters last
illness, or the minister of the gospel
who extended spiritual aid to him
duringthesameperiod;
9. To a public Officer or his/her spouse,
descendants or ascendants in
considerationofhis/heroffice;
10. To a Physician, surgeon, nurse, health
officerordruggistwhotookcareofthe
donorduringhis/herlastillness;

Q:Whatpropertiesmaybedonated?
A:Thedonationmaycoverallpresentpropertyof
thedonor.Presentpropertyreferstopropertyof
the donor which he could dispose of at the time
ofthedonation.
Q: What is the standing of the donation where
thedonordidnotreservedpropertyorassetsfor
himself sufficient for his support and all his
relativeslegallydependentuponhim?
A: It is valid. It is merely reducible to the extent
that the support to himself and his relatives is
impairedorprejudiced.(Agapitov.DeJoya,[CA].
40Off.Gaz.P.3526)
Q:Mayfuturepropertiesbedonated?
A: No. The donor is not yet the owner of said
property.Apersoncannotgivewhathedoesnot
own.
NOTE:Futureinheritanceisfutureproperty,butnot
all future property is future inheritance. Future
inheritance like future property cannot be disposed
of bydonation.However, accrued inheritance,even
if not yet delivered, may be alienated by the heir
because hereditary rights are transmitted from the
moment of the death of the decedent. (Art. 777,
NCC)

E.INFRAUDOFCREDITORS

Q: What is the remedy in case of donations


executedinfraudofcreditors?
A:Thecreditorsmayrescindthedonationtothe
extentoftheircredits.Theactionisknownas
accionpauliana.

REVOCATIONORREDUCTION

A.GROUNDSFORREVOCATIONANDREDUCTION

Q: What are the grounds for revocation of


donation?
A:
1.

NOTE:Ifthedonordidnotreservedenough
assetstopayhiscreditorswhomheowned
beforethedonation,thedonationispresumedto
beinfraudofcreditors.
7.VOIDDONATIONS

2.

Q:Whatarethedonationsprohibitedbylaw?
A:Donationsmade:LAWSCRAPOP
3.

UnderArt.760
a. Birthofadonorschildorchildren
(legitimate,
legitimated,
or
illegitimate) after the donation,
eventhoughbornafterhisdeath.
b. Appearanceofadonorschildwho
is missing and thought to be dead
bythedonor
c. Subsequentadoptionbythedonor
ofaminorchild.

UnderArt.764
When the donee fails to comply with
any of the conditions which the donor
imposeduponthedonee.

Under Art. 765 by reason of


ingratitude

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a.

If the donee should commit some


offense against the person, the
honor or the property of the
donor, or of his wife or children
underhisparentalauthority
b. Ifthedoneeimputestothedonor
any criminal offense, or any act
involving moral turpitude, even
though he should prove it, unless
the crime or act has been
committed against the donee
himself, his wife or children under
hisauthority
c. If he unduly refuses him support
when the donee is legally or
morally bound to give support to
thedonor

Q: What are the grounds for reduction of


donation?
A:ThesamegroundsforrevocationunderArticle
760. The donation shall be reduced insofar as it
exceeds the portion that may be freely disposed
ofbywill,takingintoaccountthewholeestateof
thedonoratthetimeofthebirth,appearance,or
adoptionofachild.(Art.761)
B.HOWDONE
Q: Can a donation be revoked once it is
perfected?
A: Once a donation is perfected, it cannot be
revokedwithouttheconsentofthedoneeexcept
ongroundsprovidedbylaw(Arts.760,764,765,
NCC)

Q: Can a donor execute a donation subject to a


condition?
A: Yes. A donor may execute a donation subject
to a condition, the non fulfilment of which
authorizes the donor to go to court to seek its
revocation(notreduction).
Note:thewordconditionshouldbeunderstoodin
its broad sense and not in its strict legal sense. It
meanschargesorburdensimposedbythedonor.

Q: In a conditional donation, can revocation be


doneunilaterallybythedonor?
A: No. A donor cannot revoke a conditional
donation unilaterally, that is, without going to
court,evenifthedoneehadbreachedanyofthe
obligations imposed in the donation. A Judicial
action is essential if the donee refuses to return
theproperty,orpayitsvaluetothedonor,orto
lattersheirsorassigns.However,theactionmust
be filed within the prescriptive period fixed buy
law, otherwise, it will be barred. (Ongsiaco v.
Ongsiaco,101Phil1196)
Q: Can the creditors of the deceased file an
actionforreductionofinofficiousdonation?
A: No. Only compulsory heirs or their heirs and
successors in interest may sue for reduction of
inofficiousdonations.Theremedyofthecreditor
istosue,duringthelifetimeofthedonor,forthe
annulment of inofficious donation made in fraud
ofcreditors(Art.1387);ortheycangoagainstthe
estate of the deceased and not against the
donees.
C.EFFECTS

Q:Isrevocationorreductionautomatic?
A: No. The emergence of the circumstances
enumerated in Art. 760 does not automatically
revokeorreducethedonation.Therevocationor
reduction is authorized only if the amount or
value of the property donated exceeds the
disposablefreeportion.

Q: What are the obligations of the donee upon


therevocationorreductionofdonation?
A:
1.

Q:Forpurposesofprescriptionofaction,whatis
the rule in case of concurrence of two or more
groundsforrevocationorreduction?
A: In the event that two or more causes are
present, the earliest among them shall be the
starting point in the reckoning of the period of
prescriptionoftheaction.

162

2.

Return the thing or the object of the


donation
If the property had already been
alienated and could not be recovered
anymore, its value shall be paid to the
donor. The value shall be the price of
the property estimated at the time of
theperfectionofthedonation

3.

If the property had been mortgaged,


the donor may pay the mortgage
obligations, subject to reimbursement
bythedonee.(Art.762)

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PROPERTY
Q:Isthedoneerequiredtoreturnthefruits?

A:
1. If due to noncompliance with any
condition imposed on the donation
fruits acquired after noncompliance
shallbereturned
2. If due to causes stated under Art. 760,
ingratitude, or inofficious donations
fruits acquired from the time the
complaintisfiledshallbereturned(Art.
768)
D.PRESCRIPTION
Q: What is the period of prescription of action
forrevocationorreduction?
A:

Birthofchild

PRESCIPTIVE
PERIOD
4years

Legitimation

4years

Recognition
ofan
illegitimate
child

4years

Adoption

4years

Appearance
ofachild
believedto
bedead

Non
compliance
withany
condition
imposed
Actof
ingratitude

4years

4years

1year

RECKONING
PERIOD
From the birth of
thefirstchild
From Birth of the
legitimated child,
not from the date
of marriage of the
parents
From the date the
recognition of the
childbyanymeans
enumerated
in
Article 712 of the
FamilyCode
From the date of
filingoftheoriginal
petition
for
adoption, provided
a
decree
of
adoption is issued
thereafter
From the date an
information was
received as to the
existence
or
survivalofthechild
believed to be
dead
From the non
compliance with
thecondition

From the time the


donor had learned
of the donees act
of
ingratitude,
provided it was
possible for him to
fileanation.

Q: What if the donor dies within the fouryear


prescriptiveperiod?
A: The right of action to revoke or reduce is
transmittedtohisheirs.(PinedaProperty,p.589,
1999ed)
E.INOFFICIOUSDONATIONS
Q:Whenisadonationinofficious?
A:Adonationisinofficiousorexcessivewhenits
amount impairs the legitimes of the compulsory
heirs.
Note: Donations must be charged only against the
disposable free portion. If its amount exceeds the
same,theexcessisvoidforbeinginofficious(Pineda
Property,p.598,1999ed)
Q:Whatisthestatusofaninofficiousdonation?

A:Duringthelifetimeofthedonor,theinofficious
donation is effective since the excessiveness of
the donation can only be determined after the
donorsdeath.
Note: Consequently, the donee is entitled to the
fruitsofthepropertydonatedduringthelifetimeof
the donor (Art. 771, Pineda Property, p. 599, 1999
ed)

Q: May an heir waive his right during the


lifetime of the donor to file an action for
suppression or reduction of an inofficious
donation?
A: No. Such waiver, in whatever form it is
extended,isvoid.(Art.772)
F.INGRATITUDE
Q:Arethereanyothergroundsforrevocationof
donation by reason of ingratitude other than
thoseenumeratedunderArticle765?
A: None. The grounds under Article 765 are
exclusive.

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Q: Suppose the husband of the donee had


maligned the donor, is there a ground for
revocationbyreasonofingratitude?
A:None.Theactmustbeimputabletothedonee
himself and not to another. (Pineda Property, p.
593,1999ed)
Q: What if there are mortgages and alienations
effectedbeforethenotationofthecomplaintfor
revocationintheRegistryofProperty?

Q:Whatistheremedyofthedonor?
A: If the property is already transferred in the
name of the buyer or mortgagee, the remedy of
thedonoristorecoverthevalueoftheproperty
determined as of the time of the donation. (Art.
767,PinedaProperty,p.594,1999ed)
Q:Canthedonormakearenunciationofactions
torevokeinadvance?
A:No.Suchwaiverisvoid.

A: Such alienations and mortgages shall remain


validandmustberespected.(Art.766)
Note: Alienations and mortgages after the
registration of the pendency of the complaint shall
bevoid.

Note: However, the donor may renounce an action


torevokeiftheactofingratitudehadalreadybeen
done.

SUMMARYOFTHERULESONREDUCTIONOFDONATIONS
TIMEOFFILINGOFTHE
ACTION

TRANSMISSIBILITYOF
ACTION

EXTENTOFREDUCTION

RIGHTSTOTHEFRUITS

1.Failureofthedonortoreservesufficientmeansforsupport(Art.750,NCC)
Nottransmissible
Note:thedutytogive
andrighttoreceive
supportarepersonal(Art.
195,FC)

Anytimebythedonoror
byrelativesentitledto
supportduringthe
donorslifetime(Art.750,
NCC)

Donationreducedto
extentnecessaryto
providesupport(Art.750,
NCC)

Doneeisentitledtothe
fruitsasownerofthe
propertydonated(Art.441,
NCC)

2.Inofficiousnessforbeinginexcessofwhatthedonorcangivebywill(Art.750,771,NCC)
Transmissibletodonors
heirsasdonationshallbe
reducedasregardsthe
excessatdonorsdeath
(Art.771,NCC)

Within5yearsafterthe
donorsdeath(Art.771,
1149,NCC)

Donationeffectiveduring
thedonorslifetime
subjecttoreductiononly
uponhisdeathwith
regardtotheexcess(Art.
771,NCC)

Doneeappropriatesfruits
(Art.441,NCC)

retumthosefromfilingof
complaint

3.Birth,appearanceoradoptionofachild (Art.760,NCC)
[Sameasin#1
Revocation]
W/in4yearsfrombirth
of1stchild,legitimation
(recognition),adoption,
judicialdeclarationof
filiationorreceiptofinfo
ofexistenceofthechild
believedtobedead
(Art.763,NCC)

[Sameasin#1Revocation]

Tochildren&descendants
ofdonoruponhisdeath
(Art.763,2,NCC)

[Sameasin#1
Reduction]

Donationreducedto
extentnecessaryto
providesupport(Art.
750,NCC)

Doneeappropriatesfruits
notaffectedbyreduction
(Art.441,NCC).When
donationisrevokedforany
ofthecausementionedin
article760,thedoneeshall
notreturnthefruitsexcept
fromthefilingofthe
complaint(Art.768,NCC).

4.Fraudagainstcreditors(Art.759,NCC)
Within4yearsfrom
perfectionofdonationor
fromknowledgebythe
creditorofthedonation
(Art.1389,NCC)

164

Tocreditorsheirsor
successorsininterest
(Art.1178,NCC)

Propertyreturnedforthe
benefitofcreditors
subjecttotherightsof
innocent3rdpersons(Art.
1387,NCC)

Fruitsshallbereturnedin
casedoneeactedinbad
faith;ifimpossibleto
return,indemnifythe
donorscreditorfor
damages(Art.1388,,NCC)

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PROPERTY
MODESOFEXTINGUISHINGOWNERSHIP
Q:Whatarethemodesofextinguishing
ownership?

A:
1. Absoluteallpersonsareaffected
a. physicallossordestruction
b. legal loss or destruction (when it
goesoutofcommerceofman)

2. Relative only for certain persons for


othersmayacquiretheirownership
a. law
b. succession
c. tradition as a consequence of
certaincontracts
d. donation
e. abandonment
f. destruction of the prior title or
right
i.e. expropriation , rescission,
annulment, fulfillment of a
resolutorycondition)

g.

Prescription(Paras,p.779)

Q:Whatisadefactocaseofeminentdomain?
A: Expropriation resulting from the actions of
nature as in a case where land becomes part of
thesea.Inthiscase,theownerloseshisproperty
infavorofthestatewithoutanycompensation.

ACADEMICSCHAIR:LESTERJAYALANE.FLORESII
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PRESCRIPTION

DEFINITION

Resultsintheacquisition
Resultsinthelossofa
ofownershiporotherreal
realorpersonalright
rightsinapersonaswell
orbarsthecauseof
asthelossofsaid
actiontoenforcethe
ownershiporrealrightsin
right
another

Q:Whatismeantbyprescription?

Howproved

A: One acquires ownership and other real rights


through the lapse of time in the manner and
under the conditions laid down by law. In the
same way, rights and actions are lost by
prescription.(Art.1106,NCC)

Shouldbe
Canbeprovenunderthe
affirmativelypleaded
generalissuewithoutits
andprovedtobarthe
beingaffirmatively
actionorclaimofthe
pleaded
adverseparty
Relationshipbyownerandpossessor

Q:Whatarethekindsofprescription?

Relationshipbetweenthe
occupantandthelandin Onedoesnotlookto
theactofthe
termsofpossessionis
capableofproducinglegal possessorbuttothe
neglectoftheowner
consequences;itisthe
possessorwhoistheactor

A:
1.

Acquisitive prescription one acquires


ownershipandotherrealrightsthrough
the lapse of time in the manner and
undertheconditionslaiddownbylaw.

a. Ordinary requires the


possession of things in good
faith and with a just title for
thetimefixedbylaw;

b. Extraordinary does not


requiregoodfaithorjusttitle
but possession for a period
longer
than
ordinary
acquisitiveprescription

Q:Whomayacquirebyprescription?
A:PSM
1. Persons who are capable of acquiring
propertybyotherlegalmodes
2. State
3. Minors through guardians of
personally

Q: Who are the persons against whom


prescriptionruns?

2.

Extinctiveprescriptionlossofproperty
rightsoractionsthroughthepossession
by another of a thing for the period
provided by law or failure to bring the
necessary action to enforce ones right
withintheperiodfixedbylaw.

Q: Differentiate acquisitive from extinctive


prescription.

A:
ACQUISITIVE

EXTINCTIVE

Howacquired

A:MAPJ
1.

Minors and other incapacitated persons


who have parents, guardians or other
legalrepresentatives.
2. Absenteeswhohaveadministrators.
3. Persons living abroad who have
managersoradministrators
4. Juridicalpersons,exceptthestateandits
subdivision

Q:Againstwhomdoesprescriptionnotrun?
A:SPG

Inactionoftheowner
ofpossessionor
neglectofhisrightto
bringanaction

Requirespossessionbya
claimantwhoisnotthe
owner

1.

Rightscovered

2.

Applicabletoallkinds
ofrightswhetherreal
orpersonal

Applicabletoownership
andotherrealrights

3.

Effect
Producesthe
extinctionofrightsor
barsarightofaction

Vestsownershipand
otherrealrightsinthe
occupant

166

BetweenSpouses,eventhoughtherebe
a separation of property agreed upon in
the marriage settlements or by judicial
decree.
Between Parents and children, during
theminorityorinsanityofthelatter.
Between Guardian and ward during the
continuanceoftheguardianship

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PRESCRIPTION
Q:Whatcanbesubjectofprescription?
A:PP

Q:Whenisapossessoringoodfaith?

1. Privateproperty
2. Patrimonialpropertyofthestate

Note: Patrimonial property of the state is the


propertyitownsbutwhichisnotdevotedtopublic
use, public service, or the development of national
wealth.Itiswealthownedbythestateinitsprivate,
as distinguished from its public, capacity. (Paras, p.
58)

A.ACQUISITIVE

1.CHARACTERISTICS

Q: What is thebasisof acquisitiveprescription?

A:Itisbasedontheassertionofausurperofan
adverse right for such a long period of time,
uncontestedbythetrueowneroftheright,asto
give rise to the presumption that the latter has
given up such right in favour of the former.
(Tolentino,CivilCodeofthePhilippines,Vol.IV,p.
2)
Q: What are the basic requirements of
prescription as a mode of acquiring ownership?

A:
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

A.GOODFAITH

Actual possession of a property, which


issusceptibleofprescription
Possessionmustbeintheconceptofan
owner and not that of a mere holder
(Art.1118)
Possessionmustbepublicoropen(Art.
1118)
Possessionmustbepeaceful(Art.1118)
Possessionmustbecontinuousandnot
interrupted(Art.1118)
Possession must be adverse, that is,
exclusiveandnotmerelytolerated
Possession must satisfy the full period
requiredbylaw(PinedaSuccessionand
Prescription,p.606,2009ed)

A:Ifheisnotawareoftheexistenceofanyflaw
ordefectinhistitleormodeofacquisitionwhich
invalidates it (Art. 526 in relation to Art. 1128)
and has reasonable belief that the person from
whom he received the thing was the owner
thereof, and could transmit his ownership (Art.
1127)
Q:Whenmustgoodfaithexist?
A: It must exist not only from the beginning but
throughout the entire period of possession fixed
by law. (Pineda Succession and Prescription, p.
643,2009ed)
B.JUSTTITLE
Q:Whatdoesjusttitlemean?
A: It means that the possessor obtained the
possession of the property through one of the
modesrecognizedbylawforacquiringownership
but the transferor or grantor was not the owner
of the property or he has no power to transmit
theright(Art.1129)
Note: Just title is never presumed, it must be
proved.(Art.1130,NCC)
Note: The title for prescription must be true and
valid(Art.1130)

Q:Whatisatruetitle?
A: One which actually exists and is not just a
pretendedone.
Note: An absolutely simulated or fictitious title is
voidandcannotbeabasisforordinaryprescription.
(PinedaSuccessionandPrescription,p.646,2009ed)

Q:Whatisavalidtitle?
2.ORDINARY
Q:Whatisordinaryprescription?
A: It requires possession of things in good faith
andwithjusttitleforthetimefixedbylaw.

A:Atitlewhichissufficienttotransmitownership
of the property or right being conveyed had the
transferor or grantor been the real owner
thereof.

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3.EXTRAORDINARY
Q:Whatisextraordinaryprescription?
A: Prescription where the possessor is in bad
faith. It does not require good faith or just title
but possession for a period longer than ordinary
acquisitive prescription (Pineda Succession and
Prescription,p.607,2009ed)

5.PERIOD
Q: What are the periods as regards prescription
asamodeofacquisitionofownership?
A:
1. Movables
a. 4yearsgoodfaith
b. 8yearsbadfaith

2. Immovables
a. 10yearsgoodfaith
b. 30yearsbadfaith

Q: How does ownership of personal property


prescribe?
A:Throughuninterruptedpossessionfor8years,
withoutneedofanyothercondition.(Art.1132)
Q: How about ownership and other real rights
overimmovables?
A:Theyprescribethroughuninterruptedadverse
possession for 30 years, without need of title or
ofgoodfaith(Art.1137)

Q: What are the rules for the computation of


timenecessaryforprescription?
A:
1.

2.
Q: What are the requisites of extraordinary
prescription?
A:CLASG
3.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Capacityofthepossessortoacquireby
prescription;
Susceptibilityofobjecttoprescription;
Adverse possession of the character
prescribedbylaw;
Lapseoftimerequiredbylaw;
Goodfaithofpossessororproofofjust
title.
4.REQUISITES

Q: What are the basic requirements of


prescription as a mode of acquiring ownership?

A:
1. Capacitytoacquirebyprescription;
2. A thing capable of acquisition by
prescription;
3. Possession of the thing under certain
conditions;and
4. Lapseoftimeprovidedbylaw

NOTE: The first two requisites apply to both


ordinary and extraordinary prescription, but
thelasttworequisitesvaryforeachkind.

Thepresentpossessormaycompletethe
period necessary for prescription by
tacking his possession to that of his
grantororpredecessorininterest.
Itispresumedthatthepresentpossessor
whowasalsothepossessorataprevious
time, has continued to be in possession
duringtheinterveningtime,unlessthere
isprooftothecontrary.
The first day shall be excluded and the
lastdayincluded.(Art1138,NCC)

6.WHATCANNOTBEREQUIREDBYACQUISITIVE
PRESCRIPTION
Q:Whatcannotbesubjectofprescription?
A:PRIM
1. Publicdomain;
2. Registeredland;
3. Intransmissiblerights;
4. Movablespossessedthroughacrime;

Q: Emilio died, leaving 8 children. In 1960, His


eldest child, Flores, took possession of and
cultivated the land, caused the cancellation of
the tax declaration in Emilios name covering a
parcel of land and caused the issuance of
anotherinhisownname.ThecoheirsofFlores
discoveredthecancellation.UponFloresdeath,
theheirsofhissisterstogetherwithhissurviving
sistersfiledacomplaintin1999againsttheheirs
ofFloresforpartitionofthelotanddeclaration
of nullity of the documents. Did the heirs of
Flores acquire ownership over the lot by
extraordinaryacquisitiveprescription?

168

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PRESCRIPTION
A:Yes.Whiletheactiontodemandpartitionofa
coowned property does not prescribe, a co
owner may acquire ownership thereof by
prescription, where there exists a clear
repudiation of the coownership, and the co
owners are apprised of the claim of adverse and
exclusiveownership.Inthiscase,therespondents
neverpossessedthelot,muchlessassertedtheir
claim thereto until 1999 when they filed the
complaint for partition. In contrast, Flores took
possession of the lot after Emilios death and
exercised acts of dominion thereon tilling and
cultivating the land, introducing improvements,
and enjoying the produce thereof. The statutory
period of prescription commenced in 1960 when
Flores, who had neither title nor good faith,
secured a tax declaration in his name and may,
therefore, be said to have adversely claimed
ownership of the lot. On said date, respondents
werealsodeemedtohavebecomeawareofthe
adverse claim. Floress possession thus ripened
into ownership through acquisitive prescription
after the lapse of 30 years. (Heirs of Restar v.
HeirsofCichon,G.R.No.161720,Nov.22,2005)
Q:Sixto,ownerofaparcelofland,died.Hewas
survived by hiswife and 3 children. The subject
land was donated by his wife to Silverio, who
immediatelyenteredintopossessionoftheland,
builtafencearoundit,constructedaresidential
house,declareditfortaxpurposesandpaidthe
taxesthereon,andresidedthereuntilhisdeath.
After 45 years from the time of donation,
Soledad, one of Sixtos children, filed a
complaint for recovery of ownership, and
possession against Silverio. Who is the rightful
owneroftheland?
A: By extraordinary acquisitive prescription,
Silveriobecametherightfulowneroftheland.In
extraordinary prescription ownership and other
realrightsoverimmovablepropertyareacquired
through uninterrupted adverse possession
thereof for 30 years without need of title or of
goodfaith.
When Soledad filed the case, Silverio was in
possessionofthelandfor45yearscountedfrom
the time of the donation. This is more than the
required 30 years of uninterrupted adverse
possessionwithoutjusttitleandgoodfaith.Such
possessionwaspublic,adverseandintheconcept
of an owner. He declared the land for taxation
purposes and religiously paid the realty taxes
thereon. Together with his actual possession of
theland,thesetaxdeclarationsconstitutestrong
evidence of ownership of the land occupied by
him. (Calicdan v. Cendea, G.R.No. 155080, Feb.
5,2004)

Q: Anthony bought a piece of untitled


agricultural land from Bert. Bert, in turn,
acquired the property by forging Carlos
signature in a deed of sale over the property.
Carlohadbeeninpossessionofthepropertyfor
8 years, declared it for tax purposes, and
religiously paid all taxes due on the property.
AnthonyisnotawareofthedefectinBertstitle,
buthasbeeninactualphysicalpossessionofthe
property from the time he bought it from Bert,
whohadneverbeeninpossession.Anthonyhas
sincethenbeeninpossessionofthepropertyfor
oneyear.
CanAnthonyacquireownershipoftheproperty
by acquisitive prescription? How many more
years does he have to possess it to acquire
ownership?
A: Yes, Anthony can acquire ownership of the
property by ordinary acquisitive prescription
whichrequiresjusttitleandgoodfaith(Art.1117,
CC). There was just title because a deed of sale
wasissuedinhisfavoreventhoughitwasforged,
which fact he was not aware of. He needs to
possessthelandingoodfaithandintheconcept
of owner for a total of ten years in order to
acquire ownership. Since Anthony possessed the
landforonlyoneyear,hehasnotcompletedthe
tenyearperiod.EvenifAnthonytacksthe8year
periodofpossessionbyCarlowhointhedeedof
saleissupposedtobehisgrantororpredecessor
in interest (Article 1138[I], CC), the period is still
shortoftenyears.
If Carlo is able to legally recover his property,
can he require Anthony to account for all the
fruitshehasharvestedfromthepropertywhile
inpossession?
A: Since Anthony is a possessor in good faith,
Anthonycannotbemadetoaccountforthefruits
hegatheredbeforehewasservedwithsummons.
A possessor in good faith is entitled to the fruits
received before the possession was legally
interruptedbytheserviceofsummons(Art.544,
CC).AfterAnthonywasservedwithsummons,he
became a possessor in bad faith and a builder,
planter,sowerinbadfaith.Hecanalsobemade
to account for the fruits but he may deduct
expenses for the production gathering and
preservationofthefruits(Art.443,CC).
Q: If there are standing crops on the property
when Carlo recovers possession, can Carlo
appropriatethem?
A: The value of the standing crops must be
prorated depending upon the period of

ACADEMICSCHAIR:LESTERJAYALANE.FLORESII
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UST GOLDEN NOTES 2011

possession and the period of growing and


producingthefruits.Anthonyisentitledtoapart
of the net harvest and a part of the expenses of
cultivation in proportion to his period of
possession.However,CarlomayallowAnthonyto
gather these growing fruits as an indemnity for
theexpensesofcultivation.IfAnthonyrefusesto
accept this concession, he shall lose the right to
indemnityunderArt.443.(Art.545,par.3,NCC).
(2008BarQuestion)
B.EXTINCTIVE

1.CHARACTERISTICS

negligentintheassertionofhisright.(Tolentino,
CivilCodeofthePhilippines,Vol.IV,p.2)
2.REQUISITES
Q:Whatarethebasicrequirementsof
prescriptionasamodeofacquiringownership?

A:
1. Capacitytoacquirebyprescription;
2. Athingcapableofacquisitionby
prescription;
3. Possessionofthethingundercertain
conditions;and
4. Lapseoftimeprovidedbylaw

Q:Whatisextinctiveprescription?
3.PERIODS
A:Itreferstothetimewithinwhichanaction
maybebrought,orsomeactdone,topreservea
right(PinedaSuccessionandPrescription,p.660,
2009ed)

Q: What are the periods as regards prescription


ofactionstorecovermovablesandimmovables?
A:

NOTE:Itisalsoreferredtoasprescriptionofactions,
statuteoflimitations,andstatuteofrepose

Q:Whatisthebasisofextinctiveprescription?
A:Itbasedontheprobability,bornofexperience,
thattheallegedrightwhichaccruedinthepast
neverexistedorhasalreadybeenextinguished;
orifitexists,theinconveniencecausedbythe
lapseoftimeshouldbebornebytheparty

170

1. Movables
c.
d.

4yearsgoodfaith
8 years bad faith (Art. 1140 in
relationtoArt.1132)

2. Immovables
c.
d.

10yearsgoodfaith
30yearsbadfaith(Art.1141)

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM

PRESCRIPTION
II.NOPRESCRIPTIONAPPLICABLE
NOPRESCRIPTIONAPPLICABLE
Whenitispossessedthroughacrimesuchasrobbery,theft,orestafa.
ByOffender

Note:Thepersonwhocannotinvoketherightofprescriptionistheoffenderorpersonwhocommitted
thecrimeoroffense,notasubsequenttransfereewhodidnotparticipateinthecrimeoroffense,
unlessthelatterknewthecriminalnatureoftheacquisitionofthepropertybythetransferor.(Art.
1133,PinedaSuccessionandPrescription,p.651,2009ed)
1.
2.

Anactiontorecoveraregisteredlandbytheowner
Right to petition for the issuance for the issuance of a Writ of Possession filed by the
applicantforregisteredland
RegisteredLands(PD1529)

Note:Similarly,anactiontorecoverpossessionofaregisteredlandneverprescribes.
1.Actionlegaltodemand
arightofway
2.Toabateanuisance

Imprescriptible

Actiontoquiettitleif
plaintiffinpossession
Voidcontracts

Imprescriptible
Appliestobothactionanddefense.
Note:However,anactiontoannulavoidablecontractprescribesafter4years

Actiontodemand
partition
Note:Distinguishedfrom
laches

Aslongasthecoownershipisrecognizedexpresslyorimpliedly(Art.494)

Propertyofpublic
dominion

RightofreversionorreconveyancetotheStateofthepublicpropertiesregisteredandwhicharenot
capableofprivateappropriationorprivateacquisitiondoesnotprescribe
Note: In contrast, where private property is taken by the Government for public use without first
acquiringtitletheretoeitherthroughexpropriationornegotiatedsale,theownersactiontorecover
thelandorthevaluethereofdoesnotprescribe.

III.PRESCRIPTIONORLIMITATIONOFACTIONS
Q:WhataretherespectiveprescriptiveperiodsofactionsspecifiedundertheCivilCode?
ACTIONS
RecoverMovables

RecoverImmovables
MortgageAction
Basedonwrittencontract
Note:Ifcontractisoralorquasi,prescriptiveperiodis6
years(Art.1145)
Basedonobligationcreatedbylaw
Basedonjudgment
Baseduponaninjurytotherightsofplaintiff
Basedonquasidelicts
Forcibleentryanddetainer
Defamation
Allotheractionsnotspecified

PRESCRIPTIVEPERIOD
8years(goodfaith)or4years(badfaith)fromthetime
thepossessionislost(Art.1140,PinedaSuccessionand
Prescription,p.666,2009ed)
30years(Recoverownership)(Art.1141)
10years(Recoverrealrightofpossession)(Art.555(4),
PinedaSuccessionandPrescription,p.667,2009ed)
10yearsfromdefaultofmortgagor(Art.1142)
10years
10yearsfromthetimetherightofactionaccrues
10yearsfromthedayjudgmentbecamefinaland
executory(Art.1144)
4years
4years(Art.1146)
1year
1year(Art.1147)
5years(Art.1149)

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IV.INTERRUPTION
Q:Whatarethegroundsforinterruptionof
prescriptiveperiod?
A:
1.
2.
3.

Whentheyarefiledbeforethecourt.
Whenthereisawrittenextrajudicial
demandbythecreditors
Whenthereisanywritten
acknowledgmentofthedebtbythe
debtor.(Art.1155)
V.NUISANCE

Note:seediscussionunderNuisance(X.Nuisance)

172

CIVILLAWTEAM:
ADVISER:ATTY.ELMERT.RABUYA;SUBJECTHEAD:ALFREDOB.DIMAFELIXII;
ASST.SUBJECTHEADS:KARENFELIZG.SUPNAD,LAMBERTOL.SANTOSIII;MEMBERS:PAULELBERTE.AMON,ALSTONANARNA,OZANJ.
FULLEROS,CECILIOM.JIMENO,JR.,ISMAELSARANGAYA,JR.;CONTRIBUTORS:LOISERAEG.NAVAL,MONICAJUCOM