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Promotes a degree of
autonomy for pupils
Incorporates a preventive
approach to discipline
Helps pupils learn correct
Promotes mutual respect
between teachers and pupils
Helps teachers focus on
causes for behavior before
they take action


Teachers have trouble determining the
actual motives of the pupils. Pupils may
not admit their real motives

Teachers may find it difficult to respond

to pupils in a non-controlling way
Teacher may have problem dealing
with the complexity of engaging in a
dialogue with pupils

of classroom


Lack comprehensive and cohesive
Less effective in dealing with severe
behaviour infractions


1. Identifying and addressing
mistaken goals:

Confront mistaken-goal behavior and

help students redirect it in positive
Help all pupils meet their need for belonging

Attention getting
Power seeking
Feelings of inadequacy

2. Using logical consequences

Set classroom rules

Outline a sequence of logical consequences
Pupils must accept responsibility
for their own behavior

Confronting mistaken goals after misbehaviour happen
The teachers role is helping
pupils to impose limit on themselves.
Teachers can model democratic
behavior by providing guidance

Help teachers manage

classroom discipline
Reducing behavior
problems to minimum
Help teaching and
learning process run
Promote a positive
classroom environment

3. Using encouragement rather

than praise

Harmonious communication between

a teacher and pupils.
Pupils learning and behavior are
greatly influenced by the way teachers
communicate with them

Teacher should always be respectful of pupils needs.
Teacher must model communication that is congruent with pupils; emotions and surroundings
Teacher must include cooperative learning

Kounins Theories of
Instructional Management

1. Whititness: aware of all events, ac-

tivities and pupils behavior

2. Overlapping: multitasking
3. Momentum: appropriate pace and
progression through lesson

4. Smoothness: smooth transitions between activity

5. Group Focus: keep the whole class

Ginots Theories of
Congruent Communication

Dreikurs Theories of
Democratic Teaching

Focus on positive treatment.
Acceptance and acknowledgement
Positive rapport enhance
classroom learning environment
Develop positive self-esteem
by encouraging pupils to take
responsibility for their behaviour

involved and interested

Teachers behaviors have a positive and

negative impact on learners behaviors.
Good discipline depends on how the teachers presented the lesson and dealt with various groups in class

Focuses on preventative
discipline: - using techniques and strategies to
prevent misbehaviours
from occurring
Teacher was primarily responsible for the pupils

Group focus helps in gaining pupils
attention. It also allows teachers to
present to pupils expectations that
they have for the class.
Overlapping provides teacher with
control over several activities
Interesting lesson can avoid satiation
Teacher develop a pace with the
class to achieve a precise momentum to teach a lesson appropriately

1. Express anger appropriately
2. Use sane message
3. Invite cooperation
4. Accept and acknowledge
pupils feeling
5. Avoid labeling/ sarcasm
6. Use direction as a means
of correction
7. Avoid harmful questions
8. Accepts pupils comments
9. Avoid hurried help
10. Be brief when dealing with
minor mishaps

Teachers eyes cannot be on every
pupil at all times
Teacher can get distracted by pupils
or other outside variables
Teacher can lose track of time when
performing a lesson
Teacher can lose control over a disruptive pupil