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Vulcanised Splicing

Procedure
(Splicing Manual)

Apex Steel Cord Conveyor Belt

Incorporating

A part of

Vulcanised Splicing Procedure

Apex
Steel Cord Belting
Contents
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
Section 6

Health and Safety ................................................ Page 3


Materials ............................................................ Page 4
Splice Methods & Dimensions ............................ Page 6
Vulcanisation Requirement.................................. Page 7
Belt Preparation .................................................. Page 8
Splice Procedure ................................................ Page 11

Scope
These instructions refer to the materials and techniques involved in splicing Apex Steel Cord
conveyor belt. To maximise performance at the high tensions under which steel cord belting
operates, the procedures in this specification must be strictly adhered to. Fenner Dunlop cannot
be held responsible for any modification or shortcut in the operation of this procedure.1

Note: All recommendations for the use of any product or products described herein and all other data or information
set forth in this document, whether concerning such products or otherwise, are furnished without any guarantee,
warranty, representation or inducement of any kind, whether express or implied, including, but not limited to,
implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, and Fenner Dunlop expressly
disclaims liability under any theory including, without limitation, contract or negligence, misrepresentation or
breach of any obligation relating to the recommendation, data or information set forth herein. Readers and
customers are encouraged to conduct their own tests. Before using any product, read its label and all related
instructions.

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Vulcanised Splicing Procedure Steel Cord Belt (Splicing Manual)
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1. Health and Safety


The following instructions and procedures shall be observed at all times during the
preparation and manufacture of splices in Apex Steel Cord conveyor belt.
1.1 All equipment used in the splicing of Apex Steel Cord conveyor belt must comply
with site regulations relating to the use of electrical equipment.
1.2 Only the materials listed in 2.0 are to be used.
1.3 Consult Materials Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for precautions be taken when handling
solvents, cements and primers and for First Aid treatment. A guide for first aid
treatment and precautions to be taken follows:
a)

The work area should be adequately ventilated as the process emits vapours
during the cleaning and cementing operations. In the event that a person should
experience any respiratory irritation, move them into fresh air. If the symptoms
persist, follow procedures as described on the MSDS and obtain medical
attention.

b)

Skin contact should be avoided and eye contact or ingestion should be


prevented. Full protective clothing, including overalls, suitable PVC or rubber
gloves and eye protection should be worn at all times during the mixing and
application of the vulcanizing cement and bare cord primer.

c)

Clear accidental spillages immediately. The application of any absorbent dry


powder such as sepiolite sand will help remove stickiness and facilitate removal
of the spillage.

d)

Empty and/or unused tins are not to be left behind and should be disposed of in
an approved method.

e)

Most solutions and solvents are flammable and the splice station should be clear
of any ignition source. Smoking should specifically be prohibited at or near the
splice station.

1.4 Make sure the conveyor belt is properly tagged out, de-energised and secured prior
to initiating any work on the system. Ensure that all Fenner Dunlop and site Safe
Work Procedures are adhered to.

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2. Materials
2.1 Fenner Dunlop supplies complete splicing materials, in custom-made kit form, each
kit being sufficient to effect one splice. The following information is required to provide
the correct components and quantities:

ST Rating
Belt Width
Cover gauges and grade designation
Number of cords, pitch and diameter
Presence of Breakers and type

2.2 All splice kits contain the following basic components:


Top and bottom cover panels with bonding gum attached and include breaker
fabric where applicable.
Cord filler strips (noodle)
Edge fill-in strips and end fill-in strips
Cleaning solvent
Splicing solution
Polyethylene sheeting
Release Paper/Fabric

All splicing materials have a limited shelf life. Splice material past their expiry date should
not be used. Each component of the splice kit is marked with its expiration date and they
need to be checked prior to commencing splicing.
If a kit is stored at extremely low temperatures it must be allowed to stand at an acceptable
air temperature for at least 24 hours before use without exposing to direct sun light.
Splice kits should be kept in a cold room below 10oC. Splice kits stored at ambient
temperature have a shorter shelf life.

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2.3 Rubber Compound


The following table is a guide line of the splicing material used for different grades.
The solvent shown in Table-1 is recommended material.

Table-1
Cover
Rubber/
Grade
A
A-Plus
MZ-AR
M
M-Plus
XCG
LRR

Bonder /
bonding
gum

1535

Orange

3535

S*

1530

White

3533

Plastic
Colour

Cover

Plastic
Colour

Rubber
Cement

Cleaning Solvent

Class

S19

Toluene or X3B
(Light
Hydrocarbon)

S17

Toluene

3526
1525

Yellow

Blue
3525
Dark
Green
Light
Green

*Grade S materials above are approved for above ground use only. If splice is to be carried
out underground or in a hazardous environment, contact Fenner Dunlop for advice.

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3.0 Splice Methods & Dimensions


3.1 When the distance between cords in the belt does not permit the interlayer of
opposing cords with the minimum of intermediary rubber, then opposing cords must
be cut off and butted together in a prescribed pattern to allow for the necessary
thickness of rubber. When these cords are cut and butted around the centre of the
splice length, it is termed a two-step splice. When the cut-offs are at one third and two
thirds of the splice length, it is termed a three-step splice.
3.2 Each belt is provided with its own splice diagram to be followed when laying up splice.
3.3 Since so many different constructions are possible for each ST rating, it makes it
impractical to give details for each. In all cases splice diagram for the specific belt
must be obtained from Fenner Dunlop.
3.4 A steel cord splice may be made square or on a bias. The most common splice angle
is 22, a bias length of 0.4 x belt width. The normal splice allowance is, therefore
(splice length, L) + 0.4W, where W=Belt Width, (refer to Diagram 1). However, to
match the splice to the vulcaniser bias, this angle may be modified.

General Splice Layout


A

0.4 W

CL

A
Bias A ngle
Q :R :S :D/ d 14 -1

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0.4 W

Diagram 1

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4.0

Vulcanisation Requirements
4.1 The first step in making a quality splice is preparing the work area so that it is
efficient, bright, clean and adequately protected. Outside installations should be
protected by a shelter against adverse weather conditions. Inside installations should
be cleaned of excessive dust (especially overhead), have good lighting and protected
against dripping water.
4.2 The temperature should be 16C minimum. The humidity should be 75% maximum. If
humidity is over 70%, the surface temperature and dew point must be carefully
monitored during the laying up of the splice.
4.3 The edges of the platen must be parallel to the direction of the belt run travel.
4.4 A splicing table extending at least 2m from each end of the bottom platen and 25mm
wider than the belt should be constructed. In addition, a separate table of sufficient
size should be constructed on which to prepare the rubber splice components. The
splicing table must be level or 5mm lower than the platen surface.
4.5 The vulcaniser must be large enough to cure the splice in one heat with a minimum
175mm overlap onto the original belt cover at each end of the splice and 200mm
wider than the belt width. For multi platen vulcanisers a common plate to cover entire
surface with a minimum overlap of 100mm on the end should be used.
4.6 The vulcaniser must be capable of a curing pressure of 1000 to 1400kPa (150
200psi). Consult splice diagram provided for the specific belt.
4.7 The curing temperature must be accurately controlled over the whole platen area to
+/-8C during heat-up and +/-5C when at the required curing temperature. For this
reason, vulcanisers with thermostats must be carefully checked for function and
monitored continuously with thermocouples to ensure they are operating properly.
The thermocouples should be strategically placed over the surface of both top and
bottom platens. Over cured and/or under cured splices do not provide the sufficient
splice quality. Refer to splice diagram for curing times.

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5.0

Belt Preparation
5.1 The belt should be centrally located on the troughing idlers on each side of the splice
area. This allows final adjustments to be made easily for splice alignment. The two
belt ends are then overlapped on the bottom platen of the vulcaniser and aligned
visually.
5.2 Mark centre points on each belt end (three or four times) at 1 to 2m intervals that are
then joined using a chalk line. Do not use belt edge as a reference. The centre lines
are used to make final alignment.
Now clamp the belt to the work surface to prevent movement.
Do not nail belt. Nails can damage the cords and the nail holes may allow moisture
to come in contact with cords causing corrosion and premature failure.
5.3 Marking the Splice Bias Lines
5.3.1 On the belt edges, mark the splice bias lines on both ends. Match the bias
angle to the vulcaniser angle and mark a bias line on the top end parallel to the
end of the platen and at least 175mm in from the end.
5.3.2 Measure a distance equal to the splice length from the ends of the bias line
toward the belt and mark a second bias line parallel to the first line. Make sure
this line is at least 175mm in from the other end of the platen.
5.3.3 Fold back the top end, use edge mark to draw the bias line on the bottom end.
Make sure that the belt ends are still in alignment.
5.4 Stripping the Covers
5.4.1 Starting with the upper belt end make a vertical cut down to the cords
approximately 50mm past the cut off end. (This allows extra room to cut cords
to the length at a later stage.)
5.4.2 A second cut at 30 - 45 skive angle is then made along the other bias line
making sure not to damage the cords.
5.4.3 Next remove the rubber edges along the length of the splice on the outer
cords.
5.4.4 After removal of edge rubber, make at least 2mm deep insertion along the top
of cords from the bottom of skive through to the cut off end.

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5.4.5 Start stripping the top cover at the leading point of skived cut by pulling with
pincers and cutting under the cover just above the cord. Try to leave thin layer
of rubber on the cord.
5.4.6 When there is sufficient rubber free, attach a stripping jaw and put the cover
under tension to facilitate cutting. Control the tension in the cover so that the
rubber between the cords is not distributed.
5.4.7 Freeing the cords can be achieved by either hooking or piano wires. It is
recommended for belts with cord diameter over 5.5mm the piano wire method
is used.
Hook knife method

Hook wires as per Fenner Dunlop hook knife procedure.


After hooking, the rubber at the end of landing needs to be cut to facilitate
the removal of bottom cover.
Clean excess rubber off from cords to ensure uniform shape prior to cutting
cords to length. Refer to Diagram 2.
Cut cords to length using approved cord cutters as per splice diagram.
Cut off waste belt and fold belt end back.
Cut bottom skive as per splice diagram.
Repeat process for other end.

Piano wire method

From bottom of the skive, cut rubber between cords parallel to skive.
Fold belt end back, cut skive and remove approximately 200mm window.
Cut 20 to 25mm window between cords from end of skive.
Insert folded piano wire around every cord.
Fold belt end back to the table and proceed to pull piano wires by using
pulling plate.
Clean excess rubber off from cords to ensure uniform shape prior to cutting
cords to length. Refer to Diagram 2.
Cut cords to length using approved cord cutters as per splice diagram.
Cut off waste belt and fold belt end back.
Repeat process for other end.

5.4.8 Buff the skive with a rotary wire brush taking great care not to expose any
cords or burn rubber. And extend buffing back onto the top and bottom cover
surface and edge of the cover approximately 100mm.

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5.5 Preparing the Cords


5.5.1 Brush thoroughly to remove all buffing dust and dirt.
5.5.2 At this point, reconfirm belt end alignment before cementing and building the
splice. Using a chalk line check the alignment of the original centre lines and
then with a tape measure confirm the step length and that the cover skives are
the correct distance apart for the splice being performed, and at least 175mm
in from the ends of the platen. Mark edge of belts and skives on common plate.
5.5.3 Clamp the belt firmly to the work surface, and fold back the belt ends.
Do not nail belt. Nails can damage the cords and the nail holes may allow
moisture to come in contact with the cords causing corrosion and premature
failure.
5.5.9 Place polyethylene under the cords to keep them clean.

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6.0 Splice Procedure


6.1 Preparing the Splice
6.1.1 If required, wash the cords and the buffed surfaces carefully using approved
solvent sparsely and a lint-free cloth. Allow solvent to dry.2
6.1.2 Install thermocouples on bottom platens. Cover the bottom platen/common
plate with release paper/fabric and lay the extra layers of release paper in
strips on the area of the bias cover joints.
6.1.3 Place the bottom panel into position, bonding gum side up, as marked.
6.1.4 Mark and cut the skives to match the bottom skives.
6.1.5 Fold the cords back out of the way.
6.1.6 Wash the bonding gum surface of the back cover panel with solvent.
6.1.7 For belts other than Grade S, apply a coat of cement to all cord surfaces, the
back cover bias skive and the bonding gum surface of the bottom panel.
For Grade S belts both cover panel and parent belt skives must be kept
dry and free of solution - solution is only applied to the bonding gum
surface.
6.1.8 Allow to dry thoroughly.
6.1.9 Match the skives on the belt and the bottom panel.
6.1.10 Stitch and roll the cover joints firmly.
6.1.11 Count number of cords and separate to equal numbers on each side. Mark the
centreline of the belt on the bottom panel using the back side of a knife to
provide a reference for laying the cords.3

2
3

Take great care not to get solvent into the ends of the cords as blisters may result during curing.
Excessive chalk on the back cover could affect adhesion.

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6.2 Laying in the Cords


6.2.1 For the correct splice layout refer to the splice diagrams for the specific belt.
6.2.2 Wash the cord filler strips with solvent to remove all dust and/or chalk if
necessary.4
6.2.3 Starting with the centre cord (uneven number of cords) or the cords either side
of centre for even number of cords lay in the cords as straight as possible.
When butting cords leave the gap shown in the splice diagram.
6.2.4 Build out from the centre in both directions.
6.2.5 Roll each subsequent cord from the side to ensure complete contact with the
preceding cord filler rubber and to keep the cords as straight as possible.5
6.2.6 Do not cut the cords out to correct bow.
6.2.7 Completely fill the gaps at the ends of the cords with end filler rubber.
6.2.8 When all the cords are in position, build up the edges of the splice to cord
height using edge filler strips provided.

6.3 Closing the Splice


6.3.1 Cover the splice surface with polyethylene and lay in the face cover panel
(bonding gum side down) so that the skives can be marked and cut to match
the face cover bias skives.
6.3.2 Remove the polyethylene, make holes on top panel with awl with 50 to
100mm interval from bonding surface. Wash the bonding gum surface of the
back cover panel with solvent.
6.3.3 For belts other than Grade S, apply one coat of cement to the cover panel
bonding gum surface and bias skive surfaces if it is necessary. For Grade S
belts both cover panel and parent belt skives must be kept dry and free of
solution - solution is only applied to the bonding gum surface.
6.3.4 When dry, the cover panel is laid into position making sure that the bias skives
fit. 6
4
5

The surfaces must be perfectly clean to obtain a good adhesion.


Periodically check the straightness with a line held parallel to the belt centreline. Occasionally in order to lay straight,
the filler strip may be stretched out slightly to reduce its thickness. If the cords are stripped properly and they are being
laid properly, i.e., pushed tightly together and straight, this should not be necessary.

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6.3.5 Stitch and roll the cover joints firmly then lightly hammer the entire splice
surface.
6.3.6 Mark the belt edges on the splice with a chalk line approximately 5mm wider
and trim excess rubber using a straight edge.
6.3.7 Install Splice Identification Brand

6.4 Curing the Splice


6.4.1 Check the alignment of the splice for last time using a chalk line and the
centrelines.
6.4.2 Cover the entire splice with release paper/fabric.
6.4.3 Place 100mm edge irons at the sides of the splice 0.8 to 1.5mm less in gauge
than the belt, and at least 0.6m longer than the splice. Hold the irons in place
against the belt edges with sash clamps or come-a-longs.
6.4.4 Install thermocouples on top side.
6.4.5 Place the top common plate if it is necessary and top platen in position and
assemble the vulcaniser.
6.4.6 Vulcaniser beams should be positioned so that they are parallel with the bias
angle and evenly spaced. A pair should be positioned over each cover joint
and at each transverse sectional platen joint.
6.4.7 Switch on the power, and adjust control box to the temperature specified in
splice diagram. By monitoring all thermocouple readings, manual adjustment
may be required to ensure temperature increases evenly.
6.4.8

Tighten edge bar sash clamps, check that the edge bars are not tilted and then
apply platen pressure of 400kPa (60psi).

6.4.9

After the pressure has reached 400kPa (60psi), check the edge bars and sash
clamps, and tighten again if necessary.

6.4.10 When temperature reaches 75 C, increase platen pressure to 700kPa


(100psi).

To prevent air entrapment the practice of holding and rolling must be used, i.e., gradually lowering the cover panel into
place while rolling.

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6.4.11 When one of the thermocouples reaches 110oC, increase pressure to 850kPa
(125psi) and shut down control box.
6.4.12 After 5 minutes switch control boxes back on and Increase platen pressure to
950kPa (140psi).
6.4.13 When temperature reaches 120C, increase platen pressure to 1100kPa
(160psi) and hold until the temperature rises to the curing temperature
specified in splice diagram.
6.4.14 After the temperature reaches the curing temperature specified in the splice
diagram, if necessary increase the platen pressure to the curing pressure
specified in splice diagram and maintain this pressure.
6.4.15 Cure the splice for the recommended time specified in splice diagram.
6.4.16 In order to assure uniform temperature the vulcaniser must be protected from
drafts during the cure.
6.4.17 Temperature and pressure must be monitored every 5 minutes during curing
process.
6.4.18 When the cure is complete, water cool to 60C and hold for 15 min before
releasing the pressure.
6.4.19 Dismantle the vulcaniser and trim the splice.
6.4.20 Buff over flow rubber from skives only after surface has cooled.
6.4.21 It is recommended to check dimension of splice (thickness, width and length),
straightness and durometer on top and bottom cover to ensure proper cure.

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Appendix I
Using foreign splicing materials with Apex Belts
In some circumstances, it can be necessary to carry out a splice on an Apex belt,
using materials other than Fenner Dunlop materials as are listed in the Fenner Dunlop
Vulcanised Splicing Procedure.
For standard grades, such as M, N, A, XCG etc., where Fenner Dunlop 1525 Bonder
and S19 Solution are specified, there is a reasonable expectation that similar basic
"chemistry" would be employed and consequently a reasonable expectation of
adequate compatibility when the splicing materials are used correctly, as intended by
the manufacturer.
With "special" grades, such as Fire Resistant, there is a likelihood of incompatibility
and the correct materials must be used.

Where materials other than Fenner Dunlop are being used there are two important
considerations:

NOTWITHSTANDING THE ABOVE REMARKS, FENNER DUNLOP CANNOT


GUARANTEE THE COMPATIBILITY OF THE MATERIALS BEING USED AND IT IS
THE CARE OF THE PROVIDER OR MANUFACTURER OF THE MATERIALS TO
PROVIDE ANY GUARANTEE OR ASSURANCE THAT MAY BE REQUIRED BY THE
BELT USER.
and..
THE CURE RATE OF MATERIALS MAY DIFFER CONSIDERABLY AND THE
FENNER DUNLOP CURING CHART AND TEMPERATURES ARE NOT
APPLICABLE.
A CURING CHART OR SPECIFIC TIME/TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS MUST BE
SUPPLIED BY THE PROVIDER OR MANUFACTURER OF THE MATERIALS BEING
USED.

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Status

Title/Signature
National Service Manager

Date
P RUSCOE

01/05/2010

R DAY

01/05/2010

Authorised by:
Technical Manager

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