Você está na página 1de 64

PavementDistress

Causes&RemedialMeasures

HighwayMaintenance
Involves
Assessmentofroadcondition
Diagnosisofproblem
Adoptingappropriatemaintenancesteps

Classifiedinto

RoutineMaintenance patchrepairs,maintenanceof
shouldersandcrossslope,upkeepofdrainsetc
PeriodicMaintenance Renewalofwearingcourseof
surfaceandpreventivemaintenance
SpecialRepairs Strengtheningofpavementstructure
oroverlayconstruction,wideningofroadsetc

SurfaceDistress
SurfaceDistress Anyindicationofpooror
unfavourablepavementperformanceorsigns
ofimpendingfailure;anyunsatisfactory
performanceofapavementshortoffailure
(HighwayResearchBoard,1970)
Broadlyclassifiedintothefollowingthree
groups:
Fracture
Distortion
Disintegration

Fracture Thiscouldbeintheformofcracking
(inflexibleandrigidpavements)orspalling
resultingfromsuchthingsasexcessiveloading,
fatigue,thermalchanges,moisturedamageetc
Distortion. Thisisintheformofdeformation
(e.g.,rutting,corrugationandshoving),whichcan
resultfromsuchthingsasexcessiveloading,
creep,densification,consolidation,swelling,or
frostaction.
Disintegration. Thisisintheformofstripping.
ravelingorspalling,whichcanresultfromsuch
thingsaslossofbonding,chemicalreactivity,
trafficabrasion,aggregatedegradation,poor
consolidation/compactionorbinderaging.

FlexiblePavementDistress
Fatigue(Alligator)Cracking

Fatigue(Alligator)Cracking
Seriesofinterconnectedcrackscausedbyfatiguefailureofthe
HotMixAsphalt(HMA)surface(orstabilizedbase)under
repeatedtrafficloading.
Inthinpavements,crackinginitiatesatthebottomoftheHMA
layerwherethetensilestressisthehighest&thenpropagatesto
thesurfaceasoneormorelongitudinalcracks. Thisiscommonly
referredtoas"bottomup"or"classical"fatiguecracking.
Inthickpavements,thecracksmostlikelyinitiatefromthetopin
areasofhighlocalizedtensilestressesresultingfromtire
pavementinteractionandasphaltbinderaging(topdown
cracking). Afterrepeatedloading,thelongitudinalcracksconnect
formingmanysidedsharpangledpiecesthatdevelopintoa
patternresemblingthebackofanalligatororcrocodile.

Indicatorofstructuralfailure,cracksallowmoisture
infiltration,roughness&mayfurtherdeterioratetoa
pothole
PossibleCauses:
Inadequatestructuralsupport
Decreaseinpavementloadsupportingcharacteristics
Lossofbase,subbaseorsubgradesupport(e.g.,poor
drainageorspringthawresultinginalessstiffbase).
StrippingonthebottomoftheHMAlayer(thestripped
portioncontributeslittletopavementstrengthsothe
effectiveHMAthicknessdecreases)
Increaseinloading(e.g.,moreorheavierloadsthan
anticipatedindesign)
Inadequatestructuraldesign
Poorconstruction(e.g.,inadequatecompaction)

Repair:Afatiguecrackedpavementshouldbeinvestigatedto
determinetherootcauseoffailure. Anyinvestigationshould
involvediggingapitorcoringthepavementtodeterminethe
pavement'sstructuralmakeupaswellasdeterminingwhetheror
notsubsurfacemoistureisacontributingfactor.
Oncethecharacteristicalligatorpatternisapparent,repairbycrack
sealingisgenerallyineffective. Fatiguecrackrepairgenerallyfalls
intooneoftwocategories:
Small,localizedfatiguecrackingindicativeofalossofsubgrade
support. Removethecrackedpavementareathendigoutand
replacetheareaofpoorsubgradeandimprovethedrainageof
thatareaifnecessary. Patchovertherepairedsubgrade.
Largefatiguecrackedareasindicativeofgeneralstructural
failure. PlaceanHMAoverlayovertheentirepavement
surface. Thisoverlaymustbestrongenoughstructurallyto
carrytheanticipatedloadingbecausetheunderlyingfatigue
crackedpavementmostlikelycontributeslittleornostrength.

Bleeding

Bleeding
Afilmofasphaltbinderonthepavement
surface. Itusuallycreatesashiny,glasslike
reflectingsurfacethatcanbecomequitesticky.
Problem: Lossofskidresistancewhenwet
PossibleCauses:
Bleedingoccurswhenasphaltbinderfillsthe
aggregatevoidsduringhotweatherandthenexpands
ontothepavementsurface. Sincebleedingisnot
reversibleduringcoldweather,asphaltbinderwill
accumulateonthepavementsurfaceovertime.

PossibleCauses:
ExcessiveasphaltbinderintheHMA(eitherdueto
mixdesignormanufacturing)
Excessiveapplicationofasphaltbinder
LowHMAairvoidcontent(e.g.,notenoughroom
fortheasphalttoexpandintoduringhotweather)

Repair:Thefollowingrepairmeasuresmay
eliminateorreducetheasphaltbinderfilmonthe
pavement'ssurfacebutmaynotcorrectthe
underlyingproblemthatcausedthebleeding:
Minorbleedingcanoftenbecorrectedby
applyingcoarsesandtoblotuptheexcess
asphaltbinder.
Majorbleedingcanbecorrectedbycuttingoff
excessasphaltwithamotorgraderorremovingit
withaheaterplaner. Iftheresultingsurfaceis
excessivelyrough,resurfacingmaybenecessary

BlockCracking

BlockCracking
Interconnectedcracksthatdividethepavementupinto
rectangularpieces. Blocksrangeinsizefrom
approximately0.1m2 to9m2. Largerblocksare
generallyclassifiedaslongitudinalandtransverse
cracking. Blockcrackingnormallyoccursoveralarge
portionofpavementareabutsometimeswilloccur
onlyinnontrafficareas.
Problem: Allowsmoistureinfiltration,roughness
PossibleCauses: HMAshrinkageanddailytemperature
cycling. Typicallycausedbyaninabilityofasphalt
bindertoexpandandcontractwithtemperaturecycles
becauseof:
Asphaltbinderaging
Poorchoiceofasphaltbinderinthemixdesign

Repair:Strategiesdependupontheseverityand
extentoftheblockcracking:
Lowseveritycracks(<1/2inchwide). Crackseal
toprevent(1)entryofmoistureintothe
subgradethroughthecracksand(2)further
ravelingofthecrackedges. HMAcanprovide
yearsofsatisfactoryserviceafterdeveloping
smallcracksiftheyarekeptsealed
Highseveritycracks(>1/2inchwideandcracks
withravelededges). Removeandreplacethe
crackedpavementlayerwithanoverlay.

CorrugationandShoving

CorrugationandShoving
Aformofplasticmovementtypifiedbyripples
(corrugation)oranabruptwave(shoving)
acrossthepavementsurface.
Thedistortionisperpendiculartothetraffic
direction.
Usuallyoccursatpointswheretrafficstarts
andstops(corrugation)orareaswhereHMA
abutsarigidobject(shoving).

Problem: Roughness
PossibleCauses
Usuallycausedbytrafficaction(startingandstopping)
combinedwith:
Anunstable(i.e.lowstiffness)HMAlayer(causedbymix
contamination,poormixdesign,poorHMAmanufacturing,
orlackofaerationofliquidasphaltemulsions)
Excessivemoistureinthesubgrade

Repair
Aheavilycorrugatedorshovedpavementshouldbe
investigatedtodeterminetherootcauseoffailure. Repair
strategiesgenerallyfallintooneoftwocategories:
Small,localizedareasofcorrugationorshoving. Remove
thedistortedpavementandpatch.
Largecorrugatedorshovedareasindicativeofgeneral
HMAfailure. Removethedamagedpavementandoverlay.

Depression

Localizedpavementsurfaceareaswithslightly
lowerelevationsthanthesurrounding
pavement. Depressionsareverynoticeable
afterarainwhentheyfillwithwater.
Problem
Roughness,depressionsfilledwith
substantialwatercancausevehicle
hydroplaning
PossibleCauses
Frostheaveorsubgradesettlement
resultingfrominadequatecompaction
duringconstruction.

Repair
Apavementdepressionshouldbeinvestigated
todeterminetherootcauseoffailure(i.e.,
subgradesettlementorfrostheave).
Depressionsshouldberepairedbyremoving
theaffectedpavement,thendiggingoutand
replacingtheareaofpoorsubgrade. Patch
overtherepairedsubgrade.

JointReflectionCracking

Cracksinaflexibleoverlayofarigid
pavement. Thecracksoccurdirectlyoverthe
underlyingrigidpavementjoints.
Doesnotincludereflectioncracksthatoccur
awayfromanunderlyingjointorfromanyother
typeofbase(e.g.,cementorlimestabilized).
Problem
Allowsmoistureinfiltration,roughness

PossibleCauses
MovementofthePCCslabbeneaththeHMAsurface
becauseofthermalandmoisturechanges. Generally
notloadinitiated,howeverloadingcanhasten
deterioration.

Repair
Strategiesdependupontheseverityandextentof
thecracking:
Lowseveritycracks(<1/2inchwideand
infrequentcracks). Cracksealtoprevent(1)entry
ofmoistureintothesubgradethroughthecracks
and(2)furtherravelingofthecrackedges. In
general,rigidpavementjointswilleventually
reflectthroughanHMAoverlaywithoutproper
surfacepreparation.
Highseveritycracks(>1/2inchwideand
numerouscracks). Removeandreplacethe
crackedpavementlayerwithanoverlay.

LongitudinalCracking

Cracksparalleltothepavement'scenterlineorlaydown
direction. Usuallyatypeoffatiguecracking.
Problem: Allowsmoistureinfiltration,roughness,indicates
possibleonsetofalligatorcrackingandstructuralfailure.
PossibleCauses:
Poorjointconstructionorlocation. Jointsaregenerallythe
leastdenseareasofapavement. Therefore,theyshouldbe
constructedoutsideofthewheelpathsothattheyareonly
infrequentlyloaded. Jointsinthewheelpath,willgeneral
failprematurely.
Areflectivecrackfromanunderlyinglayer(notincluding
jointreflectioncracking)
HMAfatigue(indicatestheonsetoffuturealligator
cracking)
Topdowncracking

Repair:Strategiesdependupontheseverityand
extentofthecracking:
Lowseveritycracks(<1/2inchwideand
infrequentcracks). Cracksealtoprevent(1)entry
ofmoistureintothesubgradethroughthecracks
and(2)furtherravelingofthecrackedges. HMA
canprovideyearsofsatisfactoryserviceafter
developingsmallcracksiftheyarekeptsealed
Highseveritycracks(>1/2inchwideand
numerouscracks). Removeandreplacethe
crackedpavementlayerwithanoverlay.

Patching

Description: Anareaofpavementthathasbeen
replacedwithnewmaterialtorepairtheexisting
pavement. Apatchisconsideredadefectno
matterhowwellitperforms.
Problem: Roughness
PossibleCauses:
Previouslocalizedpavementdeteriorationthat
hasbeenremovedandpatched
Utilitycuts
Repair:Patchesarethemselvesarepair
action. Theonlywaytheycanberemovedfroma
pavement'ssurfaceisbyeitherastructuralor
nonstructuraloverlay.

PolishedAggregate

Description: AreasofHMApavementwherethe
portionofaggregateextendingabovetheasphalt
binderiseitherverysmallortherearenorough
orangularaggregateparticles.
Problem: Decreasedskidresistance
PossibleCauses:
Repeatedtrafficapplications. Generally,asa
pavementagestheprotrudingrough,angular
particlesbecomepolished. Thiscanoccurquickerif
theaggregateissusceptibletoabrasionorsubjectto
excessivestuddedtirewear.

Repair:Applyaskidresistantslurrysealor
overlay.

Potholes

Description
Small,bowlshapeddepressionsinthepavement
surfacethatpenetrateallthewaythroughthe
HMAlayerdowntothebasecourse. They
generallyhavesharpedgesandverticalsides
nearthetopofthehole. Potholesaremostlikely
tooccuronroadswiththinHMAsurfaces(25to
50mm)andseldomoccuronroadswith100mm
ordeeperHMAsurfaces
Problem
Roughness(seriousvehiculardamagecanresultfrom
drivingacrosspotholesathigherspeeds),
Moistureinfiltration

PossibleCauses
Generally,potholesaretheendresultofalligator
cracking. Asalligatorcrackingbecomessevere,
theinterconnectedcrackscreatesmallchunksof
pavement,whichcanbedislodgedasvehicles
driveoverthem. Theremainingholeafterthe
pavementchunkisdislodgediscalledapothole.

Repair
Inaccordancewithpatchingtechniques.

Raveling

TheprogressivedisintegrationofanHMAlayerfrom
thesurfacedownwardasaresultofthedislodgement
ofaggregateparticles.
Problem: Loosedebrisonthepavement,roughness,
watercollectingintheraveledlocationsresultingin
vehiclehydroplaning,lossofskidresistance
PossibleCauses: Severalincluding:
Lossofbondbetweenaggregateparticlesandthe
asphaltbinderasaresultof:
Adustcoatingontheaggregateparticlesthatforcesthe
asphaltbindertobondwiththedustratherthanthe
aggregate
AggregateSegregation. Iffineparticlesaremissingfrom
theaggregatematrix,thentheasphaltbinderisonlyable
tobindtheremainingcoarseparticlesattheirrelatively
fewcontactpoints.

Inadequatecompactionduringconstruction. High
densityisrequiredtodevelopsufficientcohesionwithin
theHMA.

Mechanicaldislodgingbycertaintypesoftraffic.
Repair:Araveledpavementshouldbe
investigatedtodeterminetherootcauseof
failure. Repairstrategiesgenerallyfallintooneof
twocategories:
Small,localizedareasofraveling. Removethe
raveledpavementandpatch.
LargeraveledareasindicativeofgeneralHMA
failure. Removethedamagedpavementand
overlay.

Rutting

Surfacedepressioninthewheelpath. Pavementuplift
(shearing)mayoccuralongthesidesoftherut. Ruts
areparticularlyevidentafterarainwhentheyarefilled
withwater.
Therearetwobasictypesofrutting:Mixruttingand
Subgraderutting.
Mixruttingoccurswhenthesubgradedoesnotrutthe
pavementsurface&exhibitswheelpathdepressionsas
aresultofcompaction/mixdesignproblems.
Subgraderuttingoccurswhenthesubgradeexhibits
wheelpathdepressionsduetoloading. Inthiscase,
thepavementsettlesintothesubgraderutscausing
surfacedepressionsinthewheelpath.

Problem: Rutsfilledwithwatercancausevehicle
hydroplaning,canbehazardousbecauserutstendto
pullavehicletowardstherutpathasitissteered
acrosstherut.
PossibleCauses: Permanentdeformationinanyofa
pavement'slayersorsubgradeusuallycausedby
consolidationorlateralmovementofthematerials
duetotrafficloading. Specificcausesofruttingcan
be:
InsufficientcompactionofHMAlayersduring
construction. Ifitisnotcompactedenoughinitially,
HMApavementmaycontinuetodensifyundertraffic
loads.

Subgraderutting(e.g.,asaresultofinadequate
pavementstructure)
Impropermixdesignormanufacture(e.g.,excessively
highasphaltcontent,excessivemineralfiller,
insufficientamountofangularaggregateparticles)
Rutscausedbystuddedtirewearpresentthesame
problemastherutsdescribedhere,buttheyare
actuallyaresultofmechanicaldislodgingduetowear
andnotpavementdeformation.
Repair:Aheavilyruttedpavementshouldbe
investigatedtodeterminetherootcauseoffailure(e.g.
insufficientcompaction,subgraderutting,poormix
designorstuddedtirewear). Slightruts(<1/3inch
deep)cangenerallybeleftuntreated. Pavementwith
deeperrutsshouldbeleveledandoverlaid.

Stripping

Thelossofbondbetweenaggregatesand
asphaltbinderthattypicallybeginsatthe
bottomoftheHMAlayerandprogresses
upward. Whenstrippingbeginsatthesurface
andprogressesdownwarditisusuallycalled
raveling.
Problem: Decreasedstructuralsupport,
rutting,shoving/corrugations,raveling,or
cracking(alligatorandlongitudinal)

PossibleCauses: Bottomupstrippingisverydifficultto
recognizebecauseitmanifestsitselfonthepavement
surfaceasotherformsofdistressincludingrutting,
shoving/corrugations,raveling,orcracking. Typically,a
coremustbetakentopositivelyidentifystrippingasa
pavementdistress.
Pooraggregatesurfacechemistry
WaterintheHMAcausingmoisturedamage
Overlaysoveranexistingopengradedsurfacecourse.
Repair:Astrippedpavementshouldbeinvestigatedto
determinetherootcauseoffailure.Generally,the
strippedpavementneedstoberemovedandreplaced
aftercorrectionofanysubsurfacedrainageissues.

Transverse(Thermal)Cracking

Description: Cracksperpendiculartothe
pavement'scenterlinedirection. Usuallya
typeofthermalcracking.
Problem: Allowsmoistureinfiltration,
roughness
PossibleCauses: Severalincluding:
ShrinkageoftheHMAsurfaceduetolow
temperaturesorasphaltbinderhardening
Reflectivecrackcausedbycracksbeneaththe
surfaceHMAlayer
Topdowncracking

Repair:Strategiesdependupontheseverity
andextentofthecracking:
Lowseveritycracks(<1/2inchwideand
infrequentcracks). Cracksealtoprevent(1)
entryofmoistureintothesubgradethrough
thecracksand(2)furtherravelingofthecrack
edges. HMAcanprovideyearsofsatisfactory
serviceafterdevelopingsmallcracksifthey
arekeptsealed
Highseveritycracks(>1/2inchwideand
numerouscracks). Removeandreplacethe
crackedpavementlayerwithanoverlay.

WaterBleedingandPumping

Description: Waterbleedingoccurswhenwater
seepsoutofjointsorcracksorthroughan
excessivelyporousHMAlayer. Pumpingoccurs
whenwaterandfinematerialisejectedfrom
underlyinglayersthroughcracksintheHMAlayer
undermovingloads.
Problem: Decreasedskidresistance,anindication
ofhighpavementporosity(waterbleeding),
decreasedstructuralsupport(pumping)
PossibleCauses:
Porouspavementasaresultofinadequate
compactionduringconstructionorpoormixdesign

Highwatertable
Poordrainage
Repair:
Waterbleedingorpumpingshouldbeinvestigated
todeterminetherootcause.
Iftheproblemisahighwatertableorpoor
drainage,subgradedrainageshouldbeimproved.
Iftheproblemisaporousmix(inthecaseof
waterbleeding)slurrysealmaybeappliedtolimit
waterinfiltration.

ThankYou

References
HighwayEngineering,S.K.Khanna&C.E.G.Justo,
NemChand&Bros.,2001.
PrinciplesofTransportationEngineering,Partha
Chakraborty&Animeshdas,PrenticeHallofIndia
PrivateLtd,2003.
http://training.ce.washington.edu/wsdot/modules/0
9_pavement_evaluation/091_body.htm
http://training.ce.washington.edu/WSDOT/Modules/
09_pavement_evaluation/097_body.htm