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5) Can you call Germany as Indias natural ally?

Justify and also critically

examine why strong relationship between two countries is said to be
important in bringing stability to their respective regions. (200 Words)
A natural ally would be a nation which shares our interests and has a mutually
compatible agenda. Germany qualifies as a natural ally on many grounds.

As part of the G4 alliance, both countries are pushing for expansion of the
permanent membership of UNSC, to make it more representative of current
economic and geo-political realities.
In the renewable energy sector, Germany is collaborating with India on
important projects like the Green Energy Corridor.
Germany is the largest trade partner of India in Europe. The complementary
trade baskets of the two countries have contributed to this high volume of
Germany is looking for investment outlets and is facing a rapidly ageing
workforce. India would serve as the perfect complement in this situation.
India and Germany are collaborating extensively in the knowledge-driven
sectors like IT, ITES, biotechnology, auto components, green technology,
urban mobility and development.
Cultural relationship between the two countries has been strengthening. For
instance, 14 of Germanys top universities are teaching courses in Sanskrit,
classical and modern Indology, considering the unprecedented demand
among students.

However, there are also some dampeners in the bilateral relation.

India lacks a strategic defence relationship with Germany. The Bilateral

Defence Cooperation Agreement signed in 2006 focusses only on anti-piracy
According to the 2014 BBC Country Rating Poll, Germany leads the world in
anti-India sentiments.

A strong relationship between the two countries would play a stabilizing role in their
respective regions.

Multipolarity- an alliance between the two nations would ensure that Europe
and Asia do not suffer from the hegemony of UK and China, respectively.
Economic stability- Germany emerged as the strongest European economy in
the aftermath of the Great Recession (2007-09). Indian economy has also
shown great resilience in the face of the Recession and the Chinese
slowdown. Thus, an alliance between the two would have a stabilizing impact
on the global economy.

Peace and tranquility- Germanys exemplary handling of the refugee crisis in

Europe is similar to the role played by India during influx of Tamil migrants,
Tibetans, Bangladeshis during the 1971 War.

The Indo-German alliance defeinitely holds much potential and can play a crucial
role at the global level.

7) It is argued that it is imperative for India to safeguard its development

space even while contributing positively towards global climate action based
on the principle of common but differentiated obligations. How does India
seek to do this? Examine. (150 Words)
The US-China climate deal, which has happened in the run up to the Paris climate
talks, has been used by the Western media to pressurize India. It is being demanded
that India should also make binding commitments towards emission reduction.
However, there are many reasons why the demand is unjustified.

India's per capita carbon emissions is less than 2 tonnes/annum, compared to

18 tonnes for USA. As per the US-China climate deal, both have agreed to
effectively equalize their carbon emissions at 12-14 tonnes/annum by 2030.
At the current pace, India's emissions are likely to grow to a measly 4
tonnes/annum by then.
India is a fast emerging economy. Its energy needs cant be met entirely
through renewable sources. Putting such restrictions on India would be
tantamount to denying it the right to growth.
India harbours the worlds largest population of poor and one of the largest
shares in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD). Thus, India's challenges are
unique and require massive interventions.
India has declared that its emissions wouldnt exceed the global average,
which is effectively a voluntary cap on emissions.

Clearly, the onus of emission reduction cant be justifiably put on India. The
principle of common but differentiated responsibilities defends such interests of the
developing world, by reposing a greater responsibility on the advanced
industrialized nations which are responsible for the current state of affairs.
In spite of this, India has taken many proactive measures to adopt sustainable

100GW of solar power generation capacity to be installed by 2020

60 MW wind power generation capacity to be installed by 2022
Mandated blending of ethanol to the extent of 5-10% in petroleum under the
Ethanol Blending Programme (EBP)
BS IV guidelines are soon to be applicable all over India.

Carbon taxation
Tax breaks and generation-linked incentives for renewable energy producers.

This reflects India's commitment towards climate action, while steadily pursuing its
development agenda.