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# Abstract:

## The Muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal,

smooth and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body,
maintains posture, and circulates blood throughout the body.
The temporary reduction in muscle strength either in power or
endurance is called muscle fatigue. In this experiment we will
evaluate the grip strength, static endurance and dynamic
endurance.

Apparatus:
In this experiment we will use the dynamometer.

## Experimental Results and Discussion:

after using a hand-grip dynamometer to measure the strength
and endurance of the muscles in two students forearms, and to a
lesser extent their hands, we reached the following results:
the first student:

Trial 1
Trial 2
Trial 3
Average

Maximum Kilograms
Right Hand
Left Hand
31
24
30
20
29
25
30
23

## Hand grip strength (1 RM) = 30

Relative strength =

1 RM
Bodey weig h t

30
85

= 0.353

Static endurance :
The muscle ability to remain contracted for a long period time
of 1RM = 15 Kg 50%
Static endurance = 0.15 sec
Dynamic Endurance:
This is a muscle ability to contract and relax repeatedly.
2

60% of 1 RM = 18 Kg.
Dynamic Endurance = 20 times
The second student:

Taghhhble
sawsan

Maximum Kilograms
Right Hand Left Hand
Trial 1
25
25
Trial 2
26
25
Trial 3
23
22
Average
24.67
24

(1) for

1 RM

## Relative strength = body weig h t =

24.67
75 = 0.329

Static endurance:
The muscle ability to remain contracted for a long period time
of 1RM = 12.335 Kg 50%
Static endurance = 0.13 sec
Dynamic Endurance:
This is a muscle ability to contract and relax repeatedly.
60 % of RM = 14.802 Kg.
Dynamic Endurance = 17 times
3

Questions:
1.

## - Riding a bicycle on level ground. (No)

- Riding a bicycle up a hill. (Yes)
- Pushing against the wall of the gym. (No)
- doing one pull up (the complete rep). (yes)
- Pulling a rope in a tug- of-war contest with no movement of the rope. (No)
- Keeping the hand-grip dynamometer in a fixed displacement position. (No)
2. Your muscles need Glycogen (muscle sugar) in order to
function. When the glycogen is broken down into energy for
the muscles a waste product called lactic acid is produced. A
buildup of lactic acid decreases the muscles ability to
contract and Muscle Fatigue sets in.
Each of your muscles is subdivided into functional groups of
muscle fibers called motor units. A motor unit is a motor
neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates. To achieve
great things, like lifting a heavy weight, motor units join
together in a systematic way to supply the force required to
achieve strength. This teamwork among motor units is called
"Orderly Recruitment" by scientists, and as stated before,
motor units with the smallest number of muscle fibers begin
contracting first during a movement, followed by the motor
units with the largest number of fibers afterward, to allow for
a smooth, strong muscle contraction
4

## When a muscle cell fires an action potential due to a motor

neuron command, this causes a release of calcium (Ca 2+)
inside the muscle fiber from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The
Ca2+ then flows into the area where the actin and myosin is
(the sarcomere), initiating a complex cellular reaction with
ATP that allows the myosin to pull on the actin. The
movement of myosin pulling on actin in the sarcomeres is
called a "sliding filament model".
As long as calcium and ATP are available, the actin and
myosin will continue pulling on each other and the twitching
will continue. Note that the calcium is rapidly transported
back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum where the process must
be initiated again by the muscle firing an action potential to
cause another twitch. The summing together of many of
these incredibly tiny "pulling events" produces a twitch (a
very tiny, very fast force). When many twitches occur in a
row, the twitches sum together and produce a larger force.
ATP is continually provided in the muscle by breaking down
glucose. If glucose isn't available, fatty acids can be used to
make pyruvate and keep the Krebs cycle and the oxidative
phosphorylation pathway operating. As long as oxygen (O 2)
is present and can be readily transported to the muscle cell,
the oxidative phosphorylation pathway can produce ATP at
incredible rates. This is called aerobic contraction,
meaning "using oxygen."
3. Maintaining strong muscles is a big enough challenge on
Earth. It is much harder to do in space where there is no
gravity. Calf muscles biopsies before flight and after a six
months mission on the ISS show that even when crew
members did aerobic exercise five hours a week and
resistance exercise three to six days per week, muscle
volume and peak power both still decrease significantly.
5

## Overall, the data suggest that current exercise

countermeasures are not enough. The addition of a second
along with more rigorous exercise regimen are giving good
results in preventing muscle loss and preserving overall
muscle health.

4.

## 5. List at five sources of uncertainty you encountered I this

activity.
1) The strength of the muscle depend on the energy stored in the
body from the feed, when we took the readings we were fast.
2) Errors in reading while taking the time from stop watch.
3) Error in handling the device that we use.
4) Error in the device itself, the calibrating of the device was not
accurate.
5) Error in the position of the body while handling the device.

6.In your opinion, what are the five most important new things
you learned from this activity?
1) Training the right use of the device (dynamometer).
2) Recognition on the strength of each hand
3) Formation an initial image of the natural of the work we can do
without a strain of the muscle.
4) Differentiating between static and dynamic endurance for the
strongest arm
5) Distinction between the definition of strength and endurance
on the result of the experiment provides.

Conclusion:
In this experiment we learnt how to use dynamometer to
measure the strength and endurance of the muscles in the
forearm, and how to calculate the static and dynamic endurance.