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Karnataka, a state in South India has a well-developed transport system

The total length of rail track in Karnataka is 3089 km[2] For a long time after independence
Among the network of roads in Karnataka, 3973 km. of roads are National Highways.
[9]
Karnataka also has state highways of length 9829 km.
The public bus transport in Karnataka is managed by the Karnataka State Road Transport
Corporation (KSRTC). It was set up in 1961 with the objective of providing adequate,
efficient, economic and properly coordinated road transport services.[10] It operates 5100
schedules using 5400 vehicles covering 1.95 million kilometres and an average of 2.2 million
passengers daily. About 25000 people are employed in KSRTC.[10] For better management of
public transport, KSRTC was bifurcated into three Corporations viz., Bangalore Metropolitan
Transport Corporation, Bengaluru on 15th Aug 1997, North-west Karnataka Road Transport
Corporation, Hubballi on 1st Nov 1997 and North-East Karnataka Road Transport
Corporation, Gulbarga on 1st Oct 2000. The reservation system is networked and
computerised and tickets can be availed at designated kiosks in towns and cities. An online
reservation system called AWATAR has also been devised by KSRTC using which travellers
can reserve tickets online. KSRTC plies various categories of buses viz. Airavat Club-Class
(high-end luxury Volvo, Scania, Mercedes-Benz multi-axle AC buses),Airavat (high-end
luxury Volvo and Mercedes Benz AC buses),Ambaari(Corona AC and non AC Sleeper
buses), Rajahamsa Executive (Deluxe buses built on Leyland, Eicher and Tata chassis),
Karnataka Vaibhav (Semi-Deluxe buses built on Leyland, Eicher and Tata chassis),
Karnataka Saarige (Bus service linking rural areas to major settlements as well as the
cheapest alternative for inter-city or town routes. The buses are built on Tata and Leyland
chassis). Grameena Sarige is another initiative by KSRTC to provide bus service to the rural
populace of the state.
Buses run by private persons are allowed to operate in few districts of Karnataka.Inter district
transportation are run by private operators, connecting capital Bangaluru and main cities
KSRTC was set up in 1961 under the provisions of Road Transport Corporation Act, 1950. It
is wholly owned by the Government of Karnataka. In August 1997, KSRTC was divided to
form Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC). In November 1997, another
new road transport corporation called North Western Karnataka Road Transport Corporation
(NWKRTC) was formed to cater to the transportation needs of North Western parts of
Karnataka. Later, the North Eastern Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NEKRTC) was
also formed with its corporate office in Gulbarga.
KSRTC services covers 92% villages in Karnataka.[4] KSRTC operates with a total fleet of
17310 buses (Ksrtc-8280,Nekrtc-4300,Nwkrtc-4720). It transports, on an average, 74.57 lakh
passengers per day. It also operates to the neighboring states ofMaharashtra, Andhra
Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Goa and Kerala. KSRTC was the first state
transport corporation to introduce Volvo B7RLE low floor city buses in India in 2005. At
present, KSRTC operates Volvo, Mercedes Benz, Scania buses under the Airavat services
(named after the mythical white elephant). [3]
Flybus

Fully air conditioned nonstop luxury, Volvo multi axle bus service between Bangalore International
Airport and Mysore with pantry, chemical toilets, live display of flight timings, GPS, wifi facilities and
in-bus live entertainment. [5]

Airavat Bliss CD

Fully air conditioned luxury Volvo multi axle bus service with chemical toilets, wifi, pantry and
individual TV screens.[6]

Airavat Superia

Fully air conditioned luxury Volvo multi axle bus service with chemical toilets, wifi and individual TV
screens.

Airavat Diamond Class

Fully air conditioned luxury bus service operated using Scania multi-axle buses with hi-definition
night vision cameras for recording inside the bus and fleet management system for performance
monitoring in the bus.[7]

Airavat Club Class

Fully air conditioned luxury bus service operated using Volvo and Mercedes Benz multi-axle buses
with semi-recliner seats and with calf support.[8]

Airavat

Fully air conditioned luxury bus service operated using Volvo and Mercedes Benz buses with semirecliner seats.

Rajahamsa

Non air conditioned deluxe bus service with recliner seats in 2+2 configuration built
on Tata and Ashok Leyland chassis.

Suhasa

Fully air suspension non AC reclinable seat bus, other than Raajahamsa which normaly ply over
north Karnataka regions.

Corona Ambari

Fully air conditioned sleeper bus service.

Corona Non A\C Sleeper

Non air conditioned sleeper bus service.

Corona

Fully air conditioned and air suspension bus with 2+2 reclinable seats. Can consider it to be an
alternate option for Airavat.

Sheethal

Fully air conditioned and air suspension vehicle with 3+2 non-reclinable seats built on Ashok Leyland
chassis. Mostly opreates between Mysore and Bangalore, but nowadays its replaced with Volvo
Airavat.

Vaibhava

Non air conditioned sitter buses in white livery with recliner seats in 2+2 configuration.

Suvarna Sarige, Vayavya Karnataka Saarige and EEshanya Karnataka Saarige

Cheapest and widely abundant mode of bus service in KSRTC, NWKRTC and NEKRTC found in
red-white or light green-white livery.

Grameena Sarige

Buses which connects villages with ordinary fare (slightly costs lesser than suvarna sarige).

The following are the special services apart from ordinary services run by BMTC:

Suvarna: Similar fare to ordinary buses serving important feeder routes, painted in red or
green/white scheme

Pushpak: Single door buses with coffee coloring scheme

BIG 10: Suvarna class buses with special green and bottle green livery plying on 12 major
corridors towards the central commercial district. These buses are numbered with a G prefix.

BIG Circle: Suvarna class buses with special white colored BIG Circle livery. These buses
ply on inner and outer ring roads . Buses are numbered with a C prefix or a K prefix.

Atal Sarige: Low fare buses painted with Indian tri-colour livery.[6][7]

Vajra: Air conditioned Volvo buses painted in red livery running on important routes serving
the IT companies and major residential areas.

Vayu Vajra: Green coloured Volvo buses operated in 12 routes connecting to Kempegowda
International Airport. Free Wi-Fi access is provided to the commuters in these buses.[8]

Marcopolo AC and Corona AC: Air conditioned buses with lower fare than Vajra services
plying on select routes.

Metro Feeder: Special buses running on 10 routes as feeder network to the Metro stations

Hop On Hop Off: This service was introduced for sightseeing in Bangalore. It covers a route
connecting about twenty landmarks of great historic, religious and scientific significance.

BMTC has also introduced Mercedes Benz buses on a trial basis.[9] BMTC has also introduced buses
powered by solar energyon trial basis in Bangalore.[10]

Introduced on 4 February 2010, Bus Day is an event calling all the citizens of Bangalore to
use public transport. The idea behind Bus Day is to observe the changes which can be
brought in the city in trying to respect environment, traffic situation, health of individuals
perception.[12]The 4th of every month is observed as a "Bus Day".[13]

BMTC (Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Organization) , The organization is not


just men-driven, but women also make wheels run. Hundreds of women work as
conductors in BMTC and also mechanical department for the Volvo segment. It has
over 6000 buses and carries 4.95 million passengers.

In a first-of-its-kind in the country, an electric passenger bus, with zero emission level
was made available to Bangalore by BMTC.

BMTC also has won 57 awards, Bangalore Metropolitan Transport


Corporation.

I. Physical Performance:
2012-13
2010-11

2011-12

PARAMETER

2015-16
2013-

2014-

14

15

(upto
15)

1.Depots

35

37

39

39

40

40

2.Schedules Added

91

73

217

334

-229

-43

3.Schedules Operated

5849

5922

6139

6473

6244

6201

4.New Vehicles added

58

385

549

838

197

5.Vehicles Scrapped

40

299

268

492

450

70

6.Vehicles Held

6111

6162

6431

6775

6522

6451

7.%age Cancellation

2.5

3.2

5.4

4.8

8.4

10.6

8. Effective Kms.

12.55

12.72

12.71

13.14

12.90

12.30

222.1

224.6

221.1

218.2

214.5

210.0

92.3

92.9

90.8

91.2

92.2

90.3

11.K.M.P.L (HSD)

4.01

3.97

3.84

3.82

3.79

3.79

12.No.of Breakdowns

1865

2396

3488

3521

2754

655

13.Rate of

0.04

0.05

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.06

556

485

378

370

381

87

per day(Lakh)
9.Veh. Utilisation
(Kms.)
10.Fleet Utilisation
(%age)

Breakdowns/
10,000 Kms.
14.No. of Accidents

june-

2012-13
2010-11

2011-12

PARAMETER

2015-16
2013-

2014-

14

15

(upto

june-

15)

15.Rate of Accidents/

0.11

0.10

0.08

0.07

0.07

0.08

30996

32297

34278

36076

36474

36037

Lakh Kms.
16.Staff Position

Bangalore (officially known asBengaluru)

also
rd

th

known as the Silicon Valley of India is the 3 most populous city and 5 most populous urban
th

agglomeration of the country and 18 most populous city in the world.


With a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$83 billion, Bangalore is listed fourth among the top 15 cities
contributing to India's overall GDP. With an urban spread of 741 sq.kms. and population of 8.5 million,
Bangalores 523 billion (US$8.7 billion) economy makes it one of the major economic centers in India.
I has an economic growth of 10.3%, making Bangalore the second fastest-growing major metropolis in
India, and the country's fourth largest fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) market. Forbes magazine
considers the city as one of "The Next Decade's Fastest-Growing Cities".
The city is the third largest hub for high-net-worth individuals and is home to over 10,000 dollar
millionaires and about 60,000 super-rich people who have an investable surplus of 45
million (US$751,500) and 5 million (US$83,500) respectively.

Bangalore is called as the Silicon Valley of India because of the large number of information technology
companies located there, which contribute over 33% of India's IT exports. The city is also a hub for the
biotech-related industry in India, and in 2005 around 47% of the 265 biotech companies in India were
located here; including Biocon, India's largest such company.
Bangalore has 4.9 million registered vehicles as of today (1 vehicle for every 2

nd

person) of which 70%

consists of two wheelers, 4% auto rickshaws and 15% cars. The average speed observed on city streets
is 15kph (9.32mph).

History of BMTC
The Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation is the sole public transport provider for Bangalore,
serving urban, sub-urban and rural areas. BMTC was originally BTC (Bangalore Transport Company Ltd.),
founded in 1940, catering for the entire city with a fleet of 98 buses.
The government of Mysore State took over city transport from this private company in 1956 and named it
Bangalore Transport Service (BTS).
In 1997, KSRTC (Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation) split and BMTC was incorporated as its
division. BMTC is the first STU of India to operate air-conditioned city buses for urban commuting. Buses
operated by BMTC are an important and reliable means of public transport available in the city.
Variety of Bus Services: BMTC has been offering a variety of buses and services along with airconditioned buses, special airport services, free service from the central bus station to the railway station,
concessions in fares, daily and monthly bus passes for regular commuters, etc.
Red buses: introduced in 2011, the buses belong to a new batch of ordinaries that have arrived in the city
with Euro IV emission norms, the majority of them having red and some with a light blue colour.

Suvarna: silver colored with a red lining. Many Suvarna buses are now being re-painted into the white
and blue color or converted into Big Circle/Small Circle buses/Metro Feeder services.
BIG 10: BIG10 services deploy (a Suvarna class of) buses branded in green and bottle green on 12 major
corridors coming in from surrounding sub-urbs in the city.
These buses are run on a direction-based concept where the commuter takes the next (high frequency,
every 15 minutes) bus in his/her direction of travel, and if need be, makes a changeover to another bus to
reach the destination. The service terminates on different points on the radius of the city core, to avoid
congesting the city centre. These buses are numbered with prefix G. (below left: Suvarna Bus (right) Red
Bus and bottom: Big10 bus)

BIG Circle: These buses are white colored with BIG Circle written on the sides and it also has arrows
painted in green, red, orange and black. These buses ply on ring roads connecting various parts of the
city. Some of these buses are numbered with prefix C and with prefix K (small circle on Inner Ring
road).

Pushpak: Launched in the late '90s. Single door bus with/without conductors. Driver acts as conductor
when there is no conductor (Janapriya Vahini). These are coffee coloured buses with fares similar to
Suvarna, generally provided on contract to IT companies and schools. (below left: Big Circle, Orange Line
Bus and different types of Pushpak buses)

Vajra: Hi-tech buses with LED destination boards running on routes serving the IT companies' locations
and various residential routes as well. Higher fares - about 1.5 to 3 times that of ordinary ones depending
on the route.
Vayu Vajra: luxurious buses to the airport operated on 12 routes. Free Wi-Fi access is provided to
commuters in these buses.
Atal Sarige: Low-cost buses with single seats along the windows and an LED display. Have a tri-colour
outside. On 1 June 2009, to celebrate their first anniversary, the government of Karnataka and
the Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation sold off a pro-poor bus service called the Atal Sarige.
The service aims at providing low-cost connectivity for the economically backward sections of the society
to the nearest major bus station. (Below left: Vajra and right: Vayu Vajra buses. Bottom left: Atal Sarige
and (right) ordinary buses)

Other Air Conditioned and Regular Buses: Operate on routes where luxury buses arent popular and
their fare is 1.5 times higher than ordinary buses. Besides, regular buses are a part of BMTC fleet.
Metro Feeder: Introduced in 2011 after the launch of the 1st line of metro train, these buses have exterior
paint similar to the colour of the Metro train and run on 10 routes as feeder to the Metro stations. (Below
left: Metro Feeder and (right) Big Circle bus. Bottom: other modern buses of BMTC)

BMTC is expected to be introducing buses powered by solar energy in near future. BMTC has introduced
fully electric and hybrid electric buses in public transport to reduce ticket prices against increasing diesel
prices and keep environment clean.
Fares of BMTC are considered the highest in the country but, along with that, BMTC offers a variety of
concessions and subsidized daily travel passes. Besides these, BMTC has been exploring initiatives to
maximize use of IT systems in public transport by providing Electronic Ticketing Machines, integration of
common fare payment mechanism by smart card which can be used in BMTC, as well as metro rail
system, LED destination boards, vehicle tracking system and real time passenger information system.
(Below: Articulated bus of BMTC and fare tickets)

Infrastructure Creation: Bangalore has also achieved milestones in Infrastructure upgradation for public
transport in recent years. The below picture is the famous 'Majestic' Bus Terminus of Bangalore. Traffic
Transit Management Centrer (TTMC's) have been created in several areas as an exmaple of innovation in
modern transport terminal which are a mix of transit hub as well as commercial activity.

Other Transport Systems Metro Rail and Auto Rickshaws


Rapid Rail project named Namma Metro is under construction. 7 kms. stretch was opened to public on
20 October 2011, while another 10 kms. stretch was opened on 1 March 2014. Once completed, this will
encompass a 42.3 km elevated and underground rail network comprising 41 stations.
This much-delayed project is the city's primary response to the worsening intra-city transport
infrastructure which has become a major deterrent to continued business growth. Bangalore is a divisional
headquarters in the South Western Railway zone of the Indian Railways.
Bangalore is well connected by rail to most cities. The sprawling Rail Wheel Factory is Asia's second
largest manufacturer of Wheel & Axle for Railways and is headquartered here. (Below (left) Namma Metro
Smart Card and (right) Metro Train. Bottom: India's first zero emission electric bus introduced by BMTC).

Three-wheeled, green and black auto-rickshaws, referred to as autos, are a popular form of transport.
They are metered and can accommodate up to three passengers. Taxis, commonly called City Taxis, are
usually available only on call. Taxis are metered and are generally more expensive than auto-rickshaws.
Milestone Achievements

14.5 m long multiaxle luxury bus introduced for the 1 st time in India for local commute. It can
house 55% more passengers compared to ordinary buses;

Profit making STU for more than a decade;

Youngest fleet compared to other transit agencies and so fuel efficiency achieved is great;

Introduced 1st zero emission electric buses in India;

Has one of the longest circular routes of the country which is 117 kms. for a complete round trip;

Every 4th of the month celebrated as Bus Day initiating citizens to use public transport more.

DECADAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT


BMTC at a Glance (as on April 2014)
Fleet Held

6747

Fleet Operated

6436

Average Fleet Age (in years)

4.3

Breakdowns (total)

3184

Daily Service kms. (in lakhs)

13.12

No. of Bus trips

82824

Every Day Traffic Revenue (in Crores)

4.70

Passenger Trips Per Day

4.95 million

Manpower

36,076

Depots

39

Bus stations

50 (6 of which are major)

Staff Employed

36076

Bus Staff Ratio

5.5

Fuel Efficiency

3.82 kms per litre of HSD

Accidents

333

Fatal Accidents (average of decade)

81 (16% of total accidents)

Fleet Utilization

91.2%

Revenue Surplus (decadal average)

867 millions

The decadal graph of fleet held vs. actual operated shows that the gap was minimal during 2002 to 2004
(i.e. maximum fleet under operations with 97% fleet utilization achieved in 2003-04). Thereafter it differed
a bit, but not beyond a certain limit (92% fleet utilization is the minimum observed in the decade) as seen
from the graph below. Yet, the decreasing pattern in the graph of fleet utilization performance remains a
fact and a matter of concern for BMTC.

Maintaining the level of fleet age up to a certain limit is an appreciable best practice of BMTC (maximum
average vehicle age in the decade was 5.1 years which no other STU of India is able to achieve).
As well, the decreasing pattern in percentage of over-aged vehicles in the total fleet is also worth noting,
as seen from the graph below. This clearly represents BMTCs policy of operating over-aged vehicles as
little as possible, thereby increasing overall fuel efficiency and a reduction in carbon and NOx emissions.

BMTC's management definitely deserves applause for achieving remarkable progress in ridership
increase along with fleet operations as can be seen from the graph below.

The increase in fleet as well as staff strength has been following a continuous pattern, as can be seen
from the graph (top left). But the graph of fleet held vs. bus-staff ratio gives us a sense of the degree of
intervention by BMTC in human resource management.
As we can see, the staff-to-bus ratio was reduced from 2002 to 2006, then increased again until 2009 and
again decreased thereafter. It seems BMTC has been trying out with managing human resources to
achieve optimum efficiency. From the above graphs, one more thing becomes clear: that although BMTC
has been experiencing changes in staff-bus ratio, it hasnt affected bus operations, passenger kms.
performed and ridership trends.
But it has definitely affected the fuel efficiency as can be seen from the graph below.
Although BMTC has been able to achieve and maintain highest fuel efficiency compared to other STUs of
India, yet the decreasing graph is a matter of concern.
The peak 4.8 kms./litre of HSD reached in 2003-04 hasnt been achieved again; instead, efficiency has
been dropping down, recording a minimum of the decade in recent years.

Control over accident occurrence adds to the credibility of BMTC. The number of fatal accidents hasnt
crossed certain limits and the decreasing trend of accident occurance since 2009 is noteworthy.

Financial Performance
BMTC is the only public transport agency in India which, inspite being a large establishment, is profit
making. This unique feature of the organization can be credited to its management.
The proximity of the lines and increasing curve of total cost and income as well as the curve of total profit
earned in the decade are seen in the graph below. The graph of profit saw continuous rise from 2002 to
2007 and reached the highest profit of the decade in the year 2006-07.
But thereafter the profit graph started decreasing, back to the minimum level recorded in 2002-03. The
decrease may not be a serious worry, but from a future investment requirements point of view, is a matter
of concern.

Now, if we look at the division of average annual expenses of BMTC under various heads, the costs
towards fuel/lubricants and staff share almost equal, whereas other maintenance costs include tyre/tubes
and spares together account for 5% of total expenses, 5% of the total goes into various taxes.

BMTC can accumulate considerable capital for future use if these 5% taxes are waived off in some
manner by State Government.
With the increase in fleet size and operations, income and expenses have increased too but with some
consistency and control which is a good sign. Henceforth, no doubt BMTC is performing very well from a
finance viewpoint.

Is the Financial Well-Being of BMTC due to High Fares?


Certainly not, as can be seen from the table below. In fact, the increase in fares becomes minimal as trip
length increase and fares become cheaper for long distance travel.

Base Fares of Different Public Transit Agencies of India (distance =2 kms) in Rupees
Regular Buses

Air Conditioned Buses

Mumbai (BEST)

20

Navi Mumbai (NMMT)

20

Bangalore (BMTC)

15

Delhi (DTC)

2.5

Bhubaneshwar (BPTSL)

10.67

Ahmedabad (AMTS)

Ahmedabad BRTS

Surat (BRTS)

Pune (PMPML)

Chennai (MTC)

3 (ordinary), 5 (express), 7 (deluxe)

15

So what can be accounted as the reason for good performance?


Definitely its the institutional structure and management of the organization.
Its not that other STUs of India do not have a proper organizational structure. Rather, there is something
to be learnt from BMTC because its performance card speaks for its achievement.
Indian transit agencies have to learn from experiences and best practices and in coming years make
themselves able to promote public transport usage. For public transit operations, achieving financial
sustainability is the only future for survival and BMTC is the best example for Indian transit agencies to
study.
BMTC may not be a fully perfect model to adopt, but it is definitely the one and only light of hope at the
moment for the promotion and survival of bus-based public transport in India.
I am honored to write an article on this system as it is the only benchmark of quality and service
satisfaction in worlds 2nd most populous country.

Also,BMTC plies 287 buses for 42 schools and five colleges in Bangalore. Sophia, Vidyashilp
Academy and Kumaran's are some of the top schools using BMTC services.
Besides, there is this "class" and style about BMTC which makes it awesome!