com
III SEMESTER
` SEMESTER: III
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. APPLICATION OF OPAMP I
2. APPLICATION OF OPAMP II
3. APPLICATION OF 555 TIMER I
4. APPLICATION OF 555 TIMER II
5. STUDY OF BASIC GATES
6. IMPLEMENTATION OF BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS
7. IMPLEMENTATION OF ADDER AND SUBTRACTOR
8. CODE CONVERSION
9. PARITY GENERATORS AND CHECKERS
10. MULTIPLEXER AND DEMULTIPLEXER
11. ENCODER AND DECODER
12. REALISATION OF DIFFERENT FLIPFLOPS USING LOGIC GATES
13. REALISATION OF COUNTERS
14. REALISATION OF SHIFT REGISTERS
15. FREQUENCY MULTIPLICATION USING PHASE LOCKED LOOP
16. VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR USING 566
STAFF INCHARGE
HOD/EEE
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
S. No.
Date
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Marks
Signature
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
1. APPLICATIONS OF OPAMPI
AIM:
To design an inverting amplifier, noninverting amplifier and voltage follower for the
given specifications using OpAmp IC 741
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Ramakant A.Gayakward, Opamps and Linear Integrated Circuits, IV edition, Pearson
Education, 2003 / PHI. (2000).
2. D.Roy Choudhary, Sheil B.Jani, Linear Integrated Circuits, II edition, New Age, 2003.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Sl. No.
Range
Quantity
Function Generator
20 MHz
CRO
30 MHz
Dual RPS
0 30 V
OpAmp
IC 741
Bread Board
Resistors
As required
As required
THEORY:
INVERTING SUMMING AMPLIFIER
Summing amplifier is a type operational amplifier circuit which can be used to sum
signals. The sum of the input signal is amplified by a certain factor and made available at the
output .Any number of input signal can be summed using an opamp. The circuit shown is a
three input summing amplifier in the inverting mode.
In the circuit, the input signals Va, Vb, Vc are applied to the inverting input of the opamp through input resistors Ra, Rb, Rc. Any number of input signals can be applied to the
inverting input in the above manner. Rf is the feedback resistor. Non inverting input of the opamp is grounded using resistor Rm. RL is the load resistor.
NONINVERTING SUMMING AMPLIFIER
A non inverting summing amplifier circuit with three inputs is shown above. The
voltage inputs Va, Vb and Vc are applied to non inverting input of the opamp. Rf is the
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
feedback resistor. The output voltage of the circuit is governed by the equation;
Vo = (1+ (Rf/R1)) (( Va+Vb+Vc)/3)
VOLTAGE FOLLOWER
A unity gain buffer amplifier may be constructed by applying a full series negative
feedback (Fig. 2) to an opamp simply by connecting its output to its inverting input, and
connecting the signal source to the noninverting input (Fig. 3). In this configuration, the entire
output voltage ( = 1 in Fig. 2) is placed contrary and in series with the input voltage. Thus the
two voltages are subtracted according to Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) and their difference is
applied to the opamp differential input. This connection forces the opamp to adjust its output
voltage simply equal to the input voltage (Vout follows Vin so the circuit is named opamp
voltage follower).
PRECAUTIONS:
Output voltage will be saturated if it exceeds 15V.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. + Vcc and  Vcc supply is given to the power supply terminal of the OpAmp IC.
3. By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function generator,
appropriate input voltage is applied to the non  inverting input terminal of the OpAmp.
4. The output voltage is obtained in the CRO and the input and output voltage
waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet.
PIN DIAGRAM:
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Inverting Summing Amplifier
DESIGN:
If resistor Ra, Rb, Rc has same value ie; Ra=Rb=Rc=R
We know for an inverting Amplifier, ACL = RF / R
Vo =  (Rf/R) x (Va + Vb +Vc)
If the values of Rf and R are made equal, then the equation becomes,
Vo =  (Va + Vb +Vc)
Rm = Ra  Rb  Rc  Rf
OBSERVATIONS:
Sl. No.
Va in Volt
Vb in Volt
Vc in Volt
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Vo in Volt
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
NonInverting summing Amplifier
DESIGN:
Assume R1=R2=R3=Rf/2=R
We know for a Noninverting Summing Amplifier
Vo = (1+ (Rf/R1)) (( Va+Vb+Vc)/3)
V0= (V1+V2+V3)
OBSERVATIONS:
Sl. No.
Va in Volt
Vb in Volt
Vc in Volt
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Vo in Volt
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Voltage Follower
Model Graph:
RESULT:
The design and testing of the Inverting, Noninverting amplifier and Voltage Follower is
done and the input and output waveforms were drawn.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
2. APPLICATIONS OF OPAMPII
(Differentiator and Integrator)
AIM:
To design a Differentiator circuit for the given specifications using OpAmp IC 741
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Ramakant A.Gayakward, Opamps and Linear Integrated Circuits, IV edition, Pearson
Education, 2003 / PHI. (2000).
2. D.Roy Choudhary, Sheil B.Jani, Linear Integrated Circuits, II edition, New Age, 2003.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S. No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Range
20 MHz
30 MHz
0 30 V
IC 555
Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
As required
THEORY:
Differentiator
The differentiator circuit performs the mathematical operation of differentiation; that
is, the output waveform is the derivative of the input waveform. The differentiator may be
constructed from a basic inverting amplifier if an input resistor R1 is replaced by a capacitor
C1. The expression for the output voltage is given as, Vo =  Rf C1 (dVi /dt)
Here the negative sign indicates that the output voltage is 180 0 out of phase with the
input signal. A resistor Rcomp = Rf is normally connected to the noninverting input
terminal of the opamp to compensate for the input bias current. A workable differentiator
can be designed by implementing the following steps:
1. Select fa equal to the highest frequency of the input signal to be differentiated. Then,
assuming a value of C1 <1 F, calculate the value of Rf.
2. Choose fb = 20 fa and calculate the values of R1 and Cf so that R1C1 = Rf Cf.
3. The differentiator is most commonly used in wave shaping circuits to detect high
frequency components in an input signal and also as a rateofchange detector in FM
modulators.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :
(Differentiator)
DESIGN:
Given: fa = We know the frequency at which the gain is 0 dB, fa =1 /(2 Rf C1)
Let us assume C1 = 0.1 F; then
Rf =
Since fb = 10 fa, fb = We know that the gain limiting frequency fb = 1 / (2 R1 C1)
Hence R1 =
Also since R1C1 = Rf Cf ;
Cf =
OBSERVATIONS:
Amplitude
Sl. No.
Waveforms
in Volt
Input Waveform
Output Waveform
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :
(Integrator)
DESIGN:
We know the frequency at which the gain is 0 dB, fa = 1 / (2 Rf )
Therefore Rf =
Since fb = 10 fa, and also the gain limiting frequency
fb =1 / (2 R1Cf)
We get, R1 =
OBSERVATIONS:
Amplitude
Sl. No.
Waveforms
Time Period in ms
in Volt
Input Waveform
Output Waveform
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Pin diagram:
THEORY:
Integrator
A circuit in which the output voltage waveform is the integral of the input voltage
waveform is the integrator. Such a circuit is obtained by using a basic inverting amplifier
configuration if the feedback resistor Rf is replaced by a capacitor Cf . The expression for the
output voltage is given as,
Vo =  (1/Rf C1) Vi dt
Here the negative sign indicates input signal. Normally between fa and fb < fb . The
input signal will be integrated or equal to Rf Cf. That is,
that the output voltage is 180 0 out of phase with the the circuit acts as an integrator.
Generally, the value of fa properly if the Time period T of the signal is larger than
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
T Rf Cf
The integrator is most commonly used in analog computers and ADC and signalwave shaping circuits.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. + Vcc and  Vcc supply is given to the power supply terminal of the OpAmp IC.
3. By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function generator,
appropriate input voltage is applied to the inverting input terminal of the OpAmp.
The output voltage is obtained in the CRO and the input and output voltage waveforms
are plotted in a graph sheet.
MODEL GRAPH:
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
DISCUSS QUESTIONS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
What is integrator?
Write the disadvantages of ideal integrator?
Write the application ofintegrator?
Why compensation resistance is needed inintegrator and how will you findit values?
What is differentiator?
Write the disadvantages of ideal differentiator.
Write the application of differentiator?
Why compensation resistance is needed in differentiator and how will you findit
values?
Why integrators are preferred over differentiators in analog comparators?
MODEL GRAPH:
Comparator
OBSERVATIONS:
Amplitude
Sl. No.
Waveforms
Time Period in ms
in Volt
Input Waveform
Output Waveform
RESULT:
The design of the Integrator, Differentiator and Voltage Follower circuit was done and
the input and output waveforms were obtained.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
3. TIMER APPLICATION ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR
AIM:
To design an astable multivibrator circuit for the given specifications using 555 Timer
IC.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Ramakant A.Gayakward, Opamps and Linear Integrated Circuits, IV edition, Pearson
Education, 2003 / PHI. (2000).
2. D.Roy Choudhary, Sheil B.Jani, Linear Integrated Circuits, II edition, New Age, 2003.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Sl. No.
1
2
3
4
5
Range
30 MHz
0 30 V
IC 555
Quantity
1
1
1
1
As required
THEORY:
An astable multivibrator, often called a freerunning multivibrator, is a rectangularwavegenerating circuit. This circuit does not require an external trigger to change the state of
the output. The time during which the output is either high or low is determined by two
resistors and a capacitor, which are connected externally to the 555 timer. The time during
which the capacitor charges from 1/3 Vcc to 2/3Vcc is equal to the time the output is high
and is given by,
tc = 0.69 (R1 +R2) C
Similarly the time during which the capacitor discharges from 2/3 Vcc to 1/3 Vcc is
equal to the time the output islow and is given by,
td = 0.69 (R2) C
Thus the total time periodof the output waveform is,
T = tc + td = 0.69 (R1 +2 R2) C
The term duty cycle is often used in conjunction with the astable multivibrator. The
duty cycle is the ratio of the time tc during which the output is high to the total time period
T. It is generally expressed in percentage. In equation form,
% duty cycle =[(R1 +R2) /(R1 + 2 R2)] x 100
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
PIN DIAGRAM:
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
DESIGN:
Given f= 4 KHz,
Therefore, Total time period, T = 1/f =
We know, duty cycle = tc /T
Therefore, tc =______ and td = _________
We also know for an astable multivibrator td = 0.69 (R2) C
Therefore, R2 =
tc = 0.69 (R1 + R2) C Therefore, R1 =
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
OBSERVATIONS:
Amplitude
Sl. No.
Waveforms
Time Period in ms
in Volt
Output Waveform
Capacitor voltage
PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:
1. Define Offset voltage.
2. Define duty cycle.
3. Mention the applications of IC555.
4. Give the methods for obtaining symmetrical square wave.
5. What is the other name for monostable multivibrator?
6. Explain the operation of IC555 in astable mode..
7. Why negative pulse is used as trigger?
RESULT:
The design of the Astable multivibrator circuit was done and the output voltage and
capacitor voltage waveforms were obtained.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Range
20 MHz
30 MHz
0 30 V
IC 555
Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
As required
THEORY:
A monostable multivibrator often called a oneshot multivibrator is a pulse
generating circuit in which the duration of the pulse is determined by the RC network
connected externally to the 555 timer. In a stable or standby state the output of the circuit
is approximately zero or at logic low level. When an external trigger pulse is applied, the
output is forced to go high (approx. Vcc). The time during which the output remains highis
given by,
tp = 1.1 R1 C
At the end of the timing interval, the output automatically reverts back to its logic
low state. The output stays low until a trigger pulse is applied again. Then the cycle
repeats. Thus the monostable state has only one stable state hence the name monostable.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. + 5V supply is given to the + Vcc terminal of the timer IC.
3. A negative trigger pulse ofless than (1/3 VCC) i.e Groundto pin 2 ofthe 555 IC
4. At pin 3the output time period is observed with the help of a LED or CRO
5. At pin 6 the capacitor voltage is obtained in the CRO and the V0 and Vc voltage
waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
DESIGN:
Consider VCC = 5V, for given tp Output pulse width tp = 1.1 RA C
Assume C in the order of microfarads & Find RA
Typical values:
If C=0.1 F , RA = 10k then tp = 1.1 mSec Trigger Voltage =4 V
PIN DIAGRAM:
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
OBSERVATIONS:
Time Period
Sl. No.
Value of R1
Value of C
Theoritical
MODEL GRAPH:
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Practicle
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
RESULT:
The design of the Monostable multivibrator circuit was done and the input and output waveforms
were obtained.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Range
IC 7408
IC 7432
IC 7404
IC 7400
IC 7402
IC 7486
As required
Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
THEORY:
AND gate:
An AND gate is the physical realization of logical multiplication operation. It is an
electronic circuit which generates an output signal of 1 only if all the input signals are 1.
OR gate:
An OR gate is the physical realization of the logical addition operation. It is an electronic
circuit which generates an output signal of 1 if any of the input signal is 1.
NOT gate:
A NOT gate is the physical realization of the complementation operation. It is an
electronic circuit which generates an output signal which is the reverse of the input signal. A
NOT gate is also known as an inverter because it inverts the input.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
NAND gate:
A NAND gate is a complemented AND gate. The output of the NAND gate will
be 0 if all the input signals are 1 and will be 1 if any one of the input signal is 0.
NOR gate:
A NOR gate is a complemented OR gate. The output of the OR gate will be 1
if all the inputs are 0 and will be 0 if any one of the input signal is 1.
EXOR gate:
An ExOR gate performs the following Boolean function,
A
B = ( A . B ) + ( A . B )
AND GATE
LOGIC DIAGRAM:
OR GATE
LOGIC DIAGRAM:
PIN DIAGRAM OF IC
7432 :
PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7408 :
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
CIRCUIT
DIAGRAM:
TRUTH TABLE:
Sl.
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
TRUTH TABLE:
INPUT
A
0
0
1
1
B
0
1
0
1
OUTPUT
Sl.
Y=A.B
0
0
0
1
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
INPUT
A
0
0
1
1
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
B
0
1
0
1
OUTPU
T
Y=A+
B
0
1
1
1
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
NOR GATE
EXOR GATE
LOGIC DIAGRAM:
LOGIC DIAGRAM
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
TRUTH
TABLE:
TRUTH
TABLE:
INPUT
OUTPUT
Sl.No
1.
2.
3.
4.
A
0
0
1
1
B
0
1
0
1
Y = (A + B)
1
0
0
0
INPUT
OUTPUT
A
0
0
1
1
Y=A B
0
1
1
0
Sl.No
1.
2.
3.
4.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
B
0
1
0
1
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
RESULT:
The truth tables of all the basic digital ICs were verified.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
To design the logic circuit and verify the truth table of the given Boolean
expression, F (A, B, C, D) = (0, 1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 10)
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Raj Kamal, Digital systemsPrinciples and Design, Pearson education 2nd edition,
2007
2. M. Morris Mano, Digital Design, Pearson Education, 2006
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Range
IC 7408
IC 7432
IC 7404
IC 7400
IC 7402
IC 7486
Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
As required
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram
2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply.
3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the given Boolean expression.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
DESIGN:
Given , F (A,B,C,D) = (0,1,2,5,8,9,10)
TRUTH TABLE:
S. No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
A
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
INPUT
B
C
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
D
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
OUTPUT
F=DB+C(B+AD)
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
The output function F has four input variables hence a four variable Karnaugh Map is used to
obtain a simplified expression for the output as shown,
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
RESULT:
The truth table of the given Boolean expression was verified.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Range
IC 7408
IC 7432
IC 7404
IC 7486
As required
Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
THEORY:
The most basic arithmetic operation is the addition of two binary digits. There are four
possible elementary operations, namely,
0+0=0
0+1=1
1+0=1
1 + 1 = 102
The first three operations produce a sum of whose length is one digit, but when the last operation
is performed the sum is two digits. The higher significant bit of this result is called a carry and
lower significant bit is called the sum.
HALF ADDER:
A combinational circuit which performs the addition of two bits is called half adder. The input
variables designate the augend and the addend bit, whereas the output variables produce the sum
and carry bits.
FULL ADDER:
A combinational circuit which performs the arithmetic sum of three input bits is called full
adder. The three input bits include two significant bits and a previous carry bit. A full adder
circuit can be implemented with two half adders and one OR gate.
From the truth table the expression for sum and carry bits of the output can be obtained as,
SUM = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC
CARRY = ABC + ABC + ABC +ABC
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
HALF ADDER
TRUTH TABLE:
Input
Output
Sl.n
o
A
0
0
1
1
1.
2.
3.
4.
B
0
1
0
1
S
0
1
1
0
C
0
0
0
1
From the truth table the expression for sum and carry bits of the output can be
obtained as, Sum, S = A
B
Carry, C = A . B
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
FULL ADDER
TRUTH TABLE:
Input
Sl.n
o
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
A
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
B
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
Output
C
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Sum
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Carry
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Using Karnaugh maps the reduced expression for the output bits can be obtained as,
SUM
CARRY = AB + AC + BC
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams.
2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply.
3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the half adder and full adder circuits.
RESULT:
The design of the half adder and full adder circuits was done and their truth tables were
verified.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
b. HALF SUBTRACTOR AND FULL SUBTRACTOR
AIM:
To design and verify the truth table of the Half Subtractor & Full Subtractor
circuits.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Raj Kamal, Digital systemsPrinciples and Design, Pearson education 2nd
edition, 2007
2. M. Morris Mano, Digital Design, Pearson Education, 2006
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Range
IC 7408
IC 7432
IC 7404
IC 7486
As required
Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
THEORY:
The arithmetic operation, subtraction of two binary digits has four possible
elementary operations, namely,
00=0
0  1 = 1 with 1 borrow
10=1
11=0
In all operations, each subtrahend bit is subtracted from the minuend bit. In case of the
second operation the minuend bit is smaller than the subtrahend bit, hence 1 is borrowed.
HALF SUBTRACTOR:
A combinational circuit which performs the subtraction of two bits is called half
subtractor. The input variables designate the minuend and the subtrahend bit, whereas the
output variables produce the difference and borrow bits.
FULL SUBTRACTOR:
A combinational circuit which performs the subtraction of three input bits is called
full subtractor. The three input bits include two significant bits and a previous borrow bit.
A full subtractor circuit can be implemented with two half subtractors and one OR gate.
From the truth table the expression for difference and borrow bits of the output can be
obtained as,
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Difference, DIFF= ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC
Borrow, BORR = ABC + ABC + ABC +ABC
HALF SUBTRACTOR
TRUTH TABLE:
Input
Output
S.no
A
0
0
1
1
1.
2.
3.
4.
B
0
1
0
1
Diff
0
1
1
0
Borr
0
1
0
0
From the truth table the expression for difference and borrow bits of the output can be
obtained as,
Difference, DIFF = A
B
Borrow, BORR = A. B
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
2. FULL SUBTRACTOR
TRUTH TABLE:
Inpu
t
Output
S.no
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
A
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
B
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
C
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Diff
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Borr
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Using Karnaugh maps the reduced expression for the output bits can be
obtained as,
DIFFERENCE
BORR = AB + AC + BC
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams.
2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply.
3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the half subtractor and full subtractor
circuits.
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
RESULT:
The design of the half subtractor and full subtractor circuits was done and their truth
tables were verified.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
7. a. CODE CONVERSION
AIM:
To design, construct and study the performance of different code converters.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Raj Kamal, Digital systemsPrinciples and Design, Pearson education 2nd edition,
2007.
2. M. Morris Mano, Digital Design, Pearson Education, 2006
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No
1.
2.
3.
Range
Quantity
1
IC 7486
As required
THEORY:
The availability of large variety of codes for the same discrete elements of information
results in the use of different codes by different systems. A conversion circuit must be inserted
between the two systems if each uses different codes for same information. Thus, code converter
is a circuit that makes the two systems compatible even though each uses different binary code.
The bit combination assigned to binary code to gray code. Since each code uses four bits
to represent a decimal digit. There are four inputs and four outputs. Gray code is a nonweighted
code.
The input variable are designated as B3, B2, B1, B0 and the output variables are
designated as C3, C2, C1, Co. from the truth table, combinational circuit is designed. The
Boolean functions are obtained from KMap for each output variable.
A code converter is a circuit that makes the two systems compatible even though each
uses a different binary code. To convert from binary code to Excess3 code, the input lines must
supply the bit combination of elements as specified by code and the output lines generate the
corresponding bit combination of code. Each one of the four maps represents one of the four
outputs of the circuit as a function of the four input variables.
A twolevel logic diagram may be obtained directly from the Boolean expressions
derived by the maps. These are various other possibilities for a logic diagram that implements
this circuit. Now the OR gate whose output is C+D has been used to implement partially each of
three outputs.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
DESIGN:
TRUTH TABLE:
B3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4bit binary
B2
B1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
B0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
G3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
From the truth table the expression for the output gray bits are,
G3 (B3, B2, B1, B0) = (8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15)
G2 (B3, B2, B1, B0) = (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11)
G1 (B3, B2, B1, B0) = (2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13)
G0 (B3, B2, B1, B0) = (1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13. 14)
Hence obtain the reduced SOP expression using Karnaugh maps as follows,
KMap for G3:
G3 = B3
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
G0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams.
2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply.
3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the three bit binary to gray code
converter.
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
RESULT:
The design of the 4bit Binary to Gray code converter circuit was done and its truth table was
verified.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
7. b. PARITY GENERATORS AND CHECKERS
AIM:
To implement the odd and even parity checkers using the logic gates and also to generate
the odd parity and even parity numbers using the generators.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Raj Kamal, Digital systemsPrinciples and Design, Pearson education 2nd edition,
2007.
2. M. Morris Mano, Digital Design, Pearson Education, 2006.
APPARATUS
REQUIRED:
Sl.No
1
2
3
4
Component
Trainer Kit
EXOR
NOT gate
Connecting wires
Type
IC7486
IC 7404

Quantity
1
1
1
Required
THEORY:
Parity checking is used for error detection in data transmission.
Odd parity checkers:
It counts the number of 1s in the given input and produces a 1 in the output when the
number of 1s is odd.
Even parity checker:
It counts the number of 1s in the given input and produces a 1 in the output when the
number of 1s is even.
Odd parity generators:
It generates an odd parity number. The odd parity checker circuit is used with the
inverted output and also the input bits. So when the input is a 4bit number then the output of the
generator circuit will have 5 bits which is an odd parity number.
Even parity generator:
It generates an even parity number. The even parity checker circuit is used with the
inverted output and also the input bits. So when the input is a 4bit number then the output of the
generator circuit will have 5 bits which is an even parity number.
PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
TRUTH TABLE:
A
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Input
B
C
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
D
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Checker output
odd
even
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
Generator output
odd
even
00001
00000
00010
00011
00100
00101
00111
00110
01000
01001
01011
01010
01101
01100
01110
01111
10000
10001
10011
10010
10101
10100
10110
10111
11001
11000
11010
11011
11100
11101
11111
11110
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
RESULT:
The odd and even parity checkers are implemented using the logic gates and the odd
parity and even parity numbers are generated using the corresponding generators.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
8. a. MULTIPLEXERAND DEMULTIPLEXER
AIM:
To design and verify the truth table of a 4X1 Multiplexer & 1X4 Demultiplexer.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Raj Kamal, Digital systemsPrinciples and Design, Pearson education 2nd edition,
2007
2. M. Morris Mano, Digital Design, Pearson Education, 2006
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Range
IC 7432
IC 7404
IC 7411
Quantity
1
1
1
1
As required
THEORY:
Multiplexing means transmitting a large number of information units over a smaller number of
channels or lines. A digital multiplexer is a combinational circuit that selects binary
information from one of many input lines and directs it to a single output line. The selection of
particular input line is controlled by a set of selection lines. Normally, there are 2 n input lines
and n selection lines whose bit combinations determines which input is selected.
A multiplexer is called a data selector, since it selects one of many inputs and steers the binary
information to the output line. A Strobe is also provided to allow the designer to disable all
output data until a specified time. Then, by allowing the STROBE to go low, the proper lead
can be selected. This feature is very useful where data might be changing the same time
DATA SELECT leads change. It is a very useful Medium Scale Integration (MSI) function
and has a multitude of applications. It is used for connecting two or more sources to a single
destination among the computer units and itis useful for constructing acommon bus system.
A decoder with an enable input can function as a demultiplexer. A Demultiplexer is a
circuit that receives information on a single line and transmits this information on one of 2n
possible output lines. The selection of specific output line is controlled by the bit values of n
selection lines. The decoder and demultiplexer operations are obtained from the same circuit; a
decoder with an enable input is referred to as a decoder / demultiplexer. The Strobe lead can
be used to active or deactive the entire IC, allowing time for the address lines to change the
informationis fed to the output. Demultiplexers are useful anytime information from one
source must be fed several places.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
4 X 1 MULTIPLEXER
LOGIC SYMBOL:
TRUTH TABLE:
Selection input
Output
S.no
S1
0
0
1
1
1.
2.
3.
4.
S2
0
1
0
1
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Y
I0
I1
I2
I3
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
1X4 DEMULTIPLEXER
LOGIC SYMBOL:
TRUTH TABLE:
Input
Output
S.no
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
S1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
S2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Din
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Y0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Y1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
Y2
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
Y3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:
1. What is multiplexer?
2. What are the applications of multiplexer?
3. What is the difference between multiplexer & demultiplexer?
RESULT:
The design of the 4x1 Multiplexer and 1x4 Demultiplexer circuits was done and their
truth tables were verified.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
8. b. ENCODER AND DECODER
AIM:
To study the operation of Encoder and Decoder circuits using logic gates
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Ramakant A.Gayakward, Opamps and Linear Integrated Circuits, IV edition, Pearson
Education, 2003 / PHI. (2000)
2. D.Roy Choudhary, Sheil B.Jani, Linear Integrated Circuits, II edition, New Age, 2003.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S. No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
8.
Range
IC 7404
IC 7432
IC7408
IC7404
Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
1
As required
THEORY:
DECODER
In digital electronics, a decoder can take the form of a multipleinput, multipleoutput
logic circuit that converts coded inputs into coded outputs, where the input and output codes are
different e.g. nto2n , binarycoded decimal decoders. Decoding is necessary in applications
such as data multiplexing, 7 segment display and memory address decoding.
The example decoder circuit would be an AND gate because the output of an AND gate
is "High" (1) only when all its inputs are "High." Such output is called as "active High output".
If instead of AND gate, the NAND gate is connected the output will be "Low" (0) only when all
its inputs are "High". Such output is called as "active low output".
A slightly more complex decoder would be the nto2n type binary decoders. These types
of decoders are combinational circuits that convert binary information from 'n' coded inputs to a
maximum of 2n unique outputs. In case the 'n' bit coded information has unused bit
combinations, the decoder may have less than 2n outputs. 2to4 decoder, 3to8 decoder or 4to16 decoder are other examples.
The input to a decoder is parallel binary number and it is used to detect the presence of a
particular binary number at the input. The output indicates presence or absence of specific
number at the decoder input.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
OBSERVATIONS:
Inputs
Outputs
Y3
Y2
Y1
Yo
OBSERVATIONS:
Input
Output
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
A B
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
ENCODER
An encoder is a device, circuit, transducer, software program, algorithm or person that
converts information from one format or code to another. The purpose of encoder is
standardization, speed, secrecy, security, or saving space by shrinking size. Encoders are
combinational logic circuits and they are exactly opposite of decoders. They accept one or more
inputs and generate a multibit output code.
Encoders perform exactly reverse operation than decoder. An encoder has M input and N output
lines. Out of M input lines only one is activated at a time and produces equivalent code on
output N lines. If a device output code has fewer bits than the input code has, the device is
usually called an encoder
PROCEDURE:
1. Make the circuit connections as shown in the figure.
2. Check the corresponding truth table.
RESULT:
The design of the Encoder and Decoder circuit was done and the input and output were
obtained
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Range
Quantity
1
IC 7402
IC 7404
IC 7410
IC 7400
As required
THEORY:
A Flip Flop is a sequential device that samples its input signals and changes its output
states only at times determined by clocking signal. Flip Flops may vary in the number of inputs
they possess and the manner in which the inputs affect the binary states.
RS FLIP FLOP:
The clocked RS flip flop consists of NAND gates and the output changes its state with
respect to the input on application of clock pulse. When the clock pulse is high the S and R
inputs reach the second level NAND gates in their complementary form. The Flip Flop is reset
when the R input high and S input is low. The Flip Flop is set when the S input is high and R
input is low. When both the inputs are high the output is in an indeterminate state.
D FLIP FLOP:
To eliminate the undesirable condition of indeterminate state in the SR Flip Flop when
both inputs are high at the same time, in the D Flip Flop the inputs are never made equal at the
same time. This is obtained by making the two inputs complement of each other.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Circuit Diagram:
SR FLIP FLOP:
S
7400
Q
7400
CLK
7400
7400
R
JK FLIP FLOP:
7411
7400
7400
CLK
7411
K
D FLIP FLOP:
D
7400
Q
7400
CLK
7400
7400
T FLIP FLOP:
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
7408
7400
7400
CLK
7400
7408
7400
RS Flip Flop
Clock
Pulse
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Input
S
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
R
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
Present
State (Q)
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Next
State(Q+1)
0
1
0
0
1
1
X
X
K
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
Present
State (Q)
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Next
State(Q+1)
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
JK Flip Flop
Clock
Pulse
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Input
J
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
D Flip Flop
Clock
Input
Present
Next
Pulse
1
2
3
4
D
0
0
1
1
State (Q)
0
1
0
1
State(Q+1)
0
0
1
1
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
T Flip Flop
Clock
Input
Present
Next
Pulse
1
2
3
4
T
0
0
1
1
State (Q)
0
1
0
1
State(Q+1)
0
0
1
T
JK FLIP FLOP:
The indeterminate state in the SR FlipFlop is defined in the JK Flip Flop. JK inputs
behave like S and R inputs to set and reset the Flip Flop. The output Q is NAND with K input
and the clock pulse, similarly the output Q is NAND with J input and the Clock pulse. When
the clock pulse is zero both the AND gates are disabled and the Q and Q output retain their
previous values. When the clock pulse is high, the J and K inputs reach the NOR gates. When
both the inputs are high the output toggles continuously. This is called Race around condition
and this must be avoided.
T FLIP FLOP:
This is a modification of JK Flip Flop, obtained by connecting both inputs J and K inputs
together. T Flip Flop is also called Toggle Flip Flop.
RESULT:
The Characteristic tables of RS, D, JK, T flip flops were verified.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
10. REALISATION OF SHIFT REGISTERS
AIM:
To implement and verify the truth table of a serial in serial out and
parallel in parallel out shift
register.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Raj Kamal, Digital systemsPrinciples and Design, Pearson education
2nd edition, 2007
2. M. Morris Mano, Digital Design, Pearson Education, 2006
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S. No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
3.
Range
IC 7474
IC 7408
IC7404
IC 7432
Quantity
1
2
1
1
1
As required
THEORY:
A register capable of shifting its binary information either to the left or to
the right is called a shift register. The logical configuration of a shift register
consists of a chain of flip flops connected in cascade with the output of one flip
flop connected to the input of the next flip flop. All the flip flops receive a
common clock pulse which causes the shift from one stage to the next.
The Q output of a D flip flop is connected to the D input of the flip flop to
the left. Each clock pulse shifts the contents of the register one bit position to the
right. The serial input determines, what goes into the right most flip flop during
the shift. The serial output is taken from the output of the left most flip flop prior
to the application of a pulse. Although this register shifts its contents to its left, if
we turn the page upside down we find that the register shifts its contents to the
right. Thus a unidirectional shift register can function either as a shift right or a
shift left register.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Serial in Serial out Shift Register:
Q4
D1
D
Q
1 7 1
D
Q
2 7 2
D
Q
3 7 3
D
4
Q
7 4
cp1 74
4
cp2 74
4
cp3 74
4
cp4 74
4
Clock pulse
Parallel in  Serial out Shift Register
D4
D
3
740
4
D
1
D2
Load/
shift
74
08
7408
740
8
74
32
7432
7432
O/
P
D
Q
1 7 1
cp
1 74
4
D
Q
2 7 2
cp
2 74
4
D
Q
3 7 3
cp
3 74
4
Clock pulse
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
D 7
4 Q4
cp
4 74
4
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7474:
TRUTH TABLE:
For a serial data input of 1101,
Clock
Inputs
Outputs
S.no
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Pulse
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
D1
1
1
0
1
X
X
X
X
D2
X
1
1
0
1
X
X
X
D3
X
X
1
1
0
1
X
X
D4
X
X
X
1
1
0
1
X
Q1
1
1
0
1
X
1
0
X
Q2
X
1
1
0
1
X
X
X
Inputs
Outputs
S.no
1
2
3
4
Pulse
1
2
3
4
D1
1
1
1
1
D2
1
1
1
1
D3
0
0
0
0
D4
0
0
0
0
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Q4
1
1
0
1
Q3
X
X
1
1
0
1
X
X
Q4
X
X
X
1
1
0
1
X
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams.
2. Apply the input and verify the truth table of the counter.
RESULT:
The truth table of a serial in serial out left shiftregister was hence verified.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
11. a. FREQUENCY MULTIPLICATION USING PHASE
LOCKED LOOP
AIM
To perform the frequency multiplication using phase locked loop (NE
565) and to draw the output wave form
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Ramakant A.Gayakward, Opamps and Linear Integrated Circuits,
IV edition, Pearson Education, 2003 / PHI. (2000)
2. D.Roy Choudhary, Sheil B.Jani, Linear Integrated Circuits, II
edition, New Age, 2003.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S. No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Range
NE565
IC 7490
2K, 4.7K,10K
0.001F, 0.01F, 10F
20K
(030V)
Quantity
1
1
3
3
1
1
1
As required
THERORY
To use PLL as a multiplier make connections as shown in fig the circuit
uses and bit binary counter 7490 used as a divide by 5 circuit. Set the lip signal at 1
Vpp square wave at 500 HZ vary the VCO frequency by adjusting the by adjusting
the 20k potentiometer till the PLL is locked Measure the output frequency it
should be 5 times the input frequency repeat steps for input frequency of 1 KHZ
Fo=1.2/4R1 C1
PROCEDURE
1. The connections are made as shown in figure
2. we get a output frequency which is in five times of inputs frequency
then plot the graph
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
OBSERVATIONS:
S. No.
Input Frequency
Output Frequency
MODEL GRAPH:
Input
Vin
Time (ms)
Output
Vo
Time (ms)
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
RESULT
Thus the frequency multiplication using phase locked loop was done and the
output wave forms were drawn.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
+15V
10 K
8
2K
4
5
20
K
3
NE566
7
0.01F
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Range
NE566
2K, 10K
0.01F
20K
Quantity
1
1
2
1
1
As required
THEORY:
In most cases, the frequency of an oscillator is determined by the time constant RC.
However, in cases or applications such as FM, tone generators, and frequencyshift keying
(FSK), the frequency is to be controlled by means of an input voltage, called the control voltage.
This can be achieved in a voltagecontrolled oscillator (VCO). A VCO is a circuit that provides
an oscillating output signal (typically of squarewave or triangular waveform) whose
frequency can be adjusted over a range by a dc voltage. An example of a VCO is the 566 IC
unit, that provides simultaneously the squarewave and triangularwave outputs as a function of
input voltage. The frequency of oscillation is set by an external resistor R1 and a capacitor C1
and the voltage Vc applied to the control terminals. Figure shows that the 566 IC unit contains
current sources to charge and discharge an external capacitor Cv at a rate set by an external
resistor R1 and the modulating dc input voltage. A Schmitt trigger circuit is employed to switch
the current sources between charging and discharging the capacitor, and the triangular voltage
produced across the capacitor and squarewave from the Schmitt trigger are provided as outputs
through buffer amplifiers. Both the output waveforms are buffered so that the output impedance
of each is 50 f2. The typical magnitude of the triangular wave and the square wave are
2.4 V peak.topeak and 5.4 Vpeak.to.peak.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as shown in diagram.
2. The square and triangular wave is obtained in terminal 3&4 respectively.
3. The Modulating Input at Pin 5 Is Changed by varying rheostat the voltage at
pin 5 and corresponding frequency at output are noted and characteristics were
drawn
RESULT:
Thus the voltage controlled oscillator using NE566 was done and the output was verified.
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Muito mais do que documentos
Descubra tudo o que o Scribd tem a oferecer, incluindo livros e audiolivros de grandes editoras.
Cancele quando quiser.