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GRAMMAR

FRENCH

MADE

CLEAR

BY

IN
La

Religieuse

Pensee

AUTHOR

SAME

THE

FRENCH:
i.'Angleterre

dans

ContemporAine.

1933.

Paris, Lecoffre,
Figures

Moineo

de

(crowned

by

French

the

Academy).
Perrin,

1908.

Paris, Bloud,

1910.

Paris,
Soeurs

Les

Bronte.

Anglaise

Grammaire

Simplifiee.

Paris,

Bourget,

March

to

"

Chatto

London,
The

Literary Biography.
London,

Windus;

New

Tendencies

of

French

Chatto

Gained

France

Anything

by

(Lowell
Grammar

Latin

Clear

Made

Petitmangin

Putnam,

1914.

and

John

"

Windus,

1915.

Thought.
Oxford

Has

York,

Timbuctoo.

London,
The

Constable, 1911.

Again.

Herself

France

in

Essay

an

A.

the

University Press,

Neighbor

her

liamstown

Institute

and

of

her

(in collaboration

almost

with

Paris

Professor

Problems

(six lectures

Roman

de

Gigord.
the

at

Wil-

University

Press.

Balcony.

IN

de

H.

Politics.

London,

Latine

ready.

Fitzgerald).

Yale
From

1916.

War.?

Lectures, 1919)

Paris,
France,

1919.

Gigord,

ENGLISH:

IN

Paul

de

Grant

Richards.

LATIN:

is.

Paris, de

Gigord.

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

CLEAR

MADE

USE

FOR

IN

SCHOOLS

AMERICAN

BY

ERNEST

DIMNET

Agrege
Professor

FUNK

"
NEW

at

de

rUniversite

College

WAGNALLS
YORK

Stanislas, Paris

COMPANY
AND

LONDON

"!V

1922,

Copyright,
FUNK

"

WAGNALLS

[Printed

in

the

Copynghi

Under
of

the

the

Articles

Pan-American

United

COMPANY
States

United

Published

States,

by

in

May,

of

the

1922

Copyright

Republics
August

America]

of

11,

and

Convention
the

1910

10-24

9o^
OF

TABLE

CONTENTS

Page
1

Foreword
This

written

grammar

is

What

French

The

this grammar

Language

Where

spoken

6,7.8,9

it is

What
Whether
Its

of

or

2
3

grammar

Characteristics

for students

difficult to

not

9,10
10,11
11,12

learn

vocabulary

Its pronunciation
Where
spoken the

12

best

13

Advice
About

5
13,14,1
15,16,17

the grammar
French
words
think in French

learning

How

to

How

to

learn

Alphabet

17

18
19

Pronunciation

Differences between
French and English pronunciation
19,20
Pronunciation
20,21
of French
vowels
21
Pronunciation
of French
diphthongs
of nasal sounds
Pronunciation
21,22
of consonants
Pronunciation
22,23
is meant
What
23
by liaison
French sounds
ill-pronouncedby English-speakingpeople..24,25
Grammatical

Terms

Articles
Translation
Elision and

26,27
28

of the
contraction

697624

28

28,29

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

Page

Use

of

29,3^3

genders in French

of

Distinction

31

le, la, les


of

Translation
Partitive
Resume

a,

31

an

31,32

article du, de la, des


of rules concerning articles

32,33
34

Nouns
Feminine

of

Modifications

Plurals

of

Plurals

of

the

beyond

addition

of

35
36

nouns

compound

Plurals

of proper
Collective
nouns
Resume

34

nouns

of

rules

36,37

nouns

37

names

^7
for

37,38

nouns

39

Adjectives

39
adj ectives
39
Adjectives of quality
Feminine
of adjectives
39,40,41
Plurals
of adjectives
:
41,42
42
used
noun
as
a
Adjective
of adjectives
Place
42,43,44
44
Comparative degree of adjectives
44
of
Superlative degree
adjectives
in
and
45
Irregularities comparative
superlative of adjectives..
45
Agreement of adjectives
Possessive
46
adjectives
47
of
Agreement
sa
son,
Demonstrative
47
adjectives
Their
modifications
47,48
48
Interrogative adjectives
Indefinite adjectives
48
Varieties

of

"

Cardinal
Their

"

"

49
49.50

numerals

formation

Ordinal
numerals, their formation
How
cardinal numbers
used in French
are
How
time is expressed in French
Resume
of rules on
adjectives
Pronouns
Personal
Personal

50,51
.51

51,52

52,53,54
55

nominative

pronouns

in

pronouns

in accusative

Disjunctive personal
Meaning and use of
Meaning and use of

55

pronouns

56
56,57

lui

57,58
58

leur

VI

TABLE

CONTENTS

OF

."

Meaning
Meaning

and

use

and

use

Reflexive

moi-meme,
pronouns
pronouns
of it is

of

Meaning

celui

Demonstrative

use

and

Relative

referring to
mine, etc

several

61

people

62

de
:

pronouns

and

Meaning
Meaning
Meaning
Meaning
Meaning

59,60
60,61

etc

Possessive

use

and

use

and

use

and

use

of

celui-ci
of celui qui
of ceci,cela
oi ce
of ce qui

.-

of

64

64,65
66

relative pronouns

Interrogative pronouns
Interrogative pronouns
other

62
62
62
63
63

63,64

pronouns

Declension

In

58
59

Possessive
Translation

s/

58

of en
of y

pronouns

of

Use

Page

66
used

in

speaking of

66,67

persons

67
67

oases

Translation
of what
Translation
of which
Indefinite pronouns
and its use
On
between
Difference
personne
of
Meaning
plusieurs
Meaning and use of rien
Resume
of rules on pronouns

67
68

'.

and

une

68
69

personne

69
69

70,71,72,73
74

Verbs
Plan
Are

74

of chapter
verbs
French

difficult?
and
between
French

Differences
How

conjugations
French
conjugations

Best

method

French

Personal
Tense

of

endings
endings in

Exercises
Formation

74
76

learning French

78

verbs

78,79
80,81

in present indicative
each
conjugation

81,82

verbs

on

of

77

simplified

are

*-'"

74,75,76

English verbs

82

tenses

Auxiliary verbs in French


Irregularitiesin conjugation of avoir
Conjugation of avoir
Compound
tenses
Conjugation of etre
The
four conjugations
Their
unequal importance
VII

83,84
84

84,85,86,87,88
89

89,90,91,92,93
93
,.,,..,.

.93,94,

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

Pact
1.

Conjugation of aimer
is noticeable

What

in the

of

Irregular verbs

the

in

100,101,102,103,1("4
105,106,107

ir
recevoir

Characteristics

of

the

108,109,110,111,112

third

Irregular verbs in oir


Conjugatfori of rendre

Use

of

in

verbs
in

112

conjugation

113,114

4.

Irregular verbs

105

conjugation

second

of

of

9?

99,10C

5: Conjugation

Classification

.94,95,96,97,98
98,9S

Its irregularities
_Ip:"gttlarverbs^ in er
2. Conjugation
of Twlr
Characteristics

first conjugation

115,116,117,118,119
119,120

re

121,122,123,124

re

124

Tenses

124,125
125,126

Infinitive

participle
participle

Present
Past

-"f\

126
127
127

\/.

Present

indicative

used

instead

Present

indicative

used

instead

of past
of future

127,128
128,129
129,130
130,131

Imperfect
Simple past
Pluperfect
Future
Future

131

anterior

132,133

Conditional

Subjunctive
What

tense

Concord

of

133,134,135,136,137
used

after

si

137,138

subjunctive
How
rules concerning subjunctive
to
master
Interrogative conjugation
Negative conjugation
Resume

Classes

of rules

of

138

in

tenses

on

the

use

of tenses

139

139,140,141
142,143
143,144,145,146,147

147

Verbs

148

ft

Passive
Intransitive

148,149

Reflexive

150,151,152
152,153
153,154,155
155,156

Impersonal
avoir

Verb

Verb

falloir

Resume
verbs

of

rules

on

and
passive, intransitive,

reflexive

157,158

^^ABLE

CONTENTS

OF

Page

1^9

Adverbs
in

Adverbs

j59
159

ment

used

Adjectives

as

adverbs

Mieux
and comment
Comme
Position of adverbs in French
of quality,
List of adverbs
time,place,manner,
and

160
etc.

160,161,162,163

J63
163

Done
Si

J^
loO

oui

164,165

Prepositions

Conjunctions

166,167,168,169

Exclamations

170,171,172,173
176

Gallicisms

Referring to definite article


Referring to indefinite article
Referring to partitive article
Referring to noun
Referring to adjective
Referring to pronoun
Referring to personal pronoun
Repetition of pronouns
Le, la, les

Demonstrative
pronouns
Relative pronouns
Indefinite pronouns
to

Inversion

of

178,179,180
180

180,181,182,183
183

188

verb

of

Agreement

178

184,185
185,186
186,187
187,188

En

Referring

177

177,178

184

pronouns

as

176,177

subject
subjects with

verbs

188,189
189,190
190

Use

of

Use
Use

of indicative
of conditional

190,191

Use
Use

of present participle
of infinitive

191,192

tenses

190
191

;"""".".

Prepositions before an infinitive


Prepositions suppressed
translated
To
by a
To translated by pour
To translated
by de
Remarks

Remarks

on

on

few

192

193,194
193,194
194

194,195,196
196

verbs

196,197,198

faire
IX

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

Page

Remarks

on

alter

198,199

Remarks

on

vouloir

199,200

Adverb

200

200

si

peine

200,201

Combien

201

D'oti,

201

Encore
Pas

201,202

Peu

202

Par

202

ou

202

Pres

2Q2

Preposition

202,203

Dans,

204,205

en

205,206

De

206

Jusqu'a

207

Par

208

Conjunctions

208,209

Ne

208,209,210

Que

210

Quelque
Suppression

210

conjunctions

of

Frequent

.211,212,213,214

Mistakes

Century

Twentieth

Current

Phrases

216,217,218,219,220,221

223

Appendices
1.

French

2.

Main

225

Versification

periods

3.

Landmarks

4.

Measures,

5.

Polite

French

of
of

French

6.

Advice

7.

Bibliography

on

232

Literature

237

Coins

Weights,
formulas

229

History

Letter
"

238

Writing

240

Translating
"

241

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

MADE

CLEAR

FOREWORD

TO

This

book

has

who

for

This

appears.

needs

to

the

learn

we

the

that

speak

result

it with
is

But

certainly know,

who

you

have

governess

their
who
lines

mistakes
read
in

good

read

French

French

who,
in

the

of

but

Your

prefer.

that

who

for

in your

Europe

easily

correctly.

as

Ask

in

or

surprise
you

few

even

is

the

and

is

that

language.

with
their

next

girls

or

French

teacher

know

by

people

cannot

write

questions

and

but

no

language

probably

English
a

they

school, boys

own

nevertheless,
And

leatning

written

books

fact, there

it well,

know

in

In

language

language

way.

method

learn

can

we

that

speaking.
as

the

occasionally

order

sometimes

of

French

learned
and

that

it better

people

in

with

English

arbitrariness

of

grammar

quickest

to

contrary

ment
arrange-

although

that

in

you.

everything.

in

quickest

notice

will

you

contend

people
learning

doubt

the

considered

Some

that

the

what

of

were

without

after,

for

but

typographical

first

given

are

is not

consideration

will

teacher

your

works,

every

You

for

you^not

learned

of

you.

translation

French

for

chosen,

was

examples

cases

say

it

of

devised
most

written

was

large Hbrary

word

Every

STUDENT

THE

six
you

will

invariablyfind

French

other

no

ready

are

CLEAR

people have

that these

and

grammar

have

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

than

cause

tations
that their hesi-

admit

to

studied

never

their

the

of

ignorance

grammar.

Nobody knov^s, really know^s, a language, v^^ithout


of that language.
knov^ringthe grammar
Is it the work
of a legislator
But what is a grammar?
have to obey implicitly?Is it a collection of formulas
we
so

be

final that
remembered

Some

But

merely

"

they

as

the

explanation of

asks

another

''Cinqcents''
dix" ;
cent
'"'Cinq
points out to the
there

is

if it is followed

collection of

language from
This

will

to

formulas

nor

that

they

are

in French

ten"?

French
s

an

figureafter it,but

and

knows

takes

cent

way

speaking. When

of

is *'five hundred
who

long

grammars.

what

other

given in simple but


of

it goes

ways

person

must

all?

at

is "five hundred"

if the

other

no

certain

syllableand

one

what

And

"

not

or

are

neither codes

are

grammars

person

when

be altered in

cannot

people imagine this, and


explaining their antagonism

towards

they

does

better

in the
not

"

plural

take

the

figure,a grammatical rule is


excellent language. A grammar
is merely
such explanations
: it is the
description

by

another

well-chosen

explain to

examples.
this grammar

why

you

consists

of

like the conversation


mentioned
questionsand answers
above, why the technical language of grammarians is as
much
as
possibleavoided in it,and why examples are of
such
capitalimportance in its composition. You are not
rules: you
verbatim
are
pected
exexpected to remember
any
to

understand

the difference

phrasing,in English
in

which

difference
of

the

one

you

show

can

is to invent

given

and

in

an

in

between

French, and

that

you

example

the grammar.

have

of your

two

the

ways

best

understood
own

of

manner

this

in imitation

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

is

grammar

short

enough
in

omit

class,

it

the

been

leave

to

himself

that

nothing
is

known

the

burden

which

of

memory
French

Altogether

you

been

composed

being

your

advice

it

the

to

know

new

its

its

to

you

decided

progress

efforts

anxiety
in

already

natural

their

its

gfves,

(see

to

order

who

one

all

are

his

your

be

clear

of

only
has

the

you

niceties

with

the

aims

the

well

as

on

of

pupils

are

you

to

what

the

sure

be

may

page

133),

friendly

and

rejoiced

life.

ERNEST

at

is

as

eye

what

has

book
It

subjunctive,

aspects

guided

Why

teacher

to

of

use

lead

that

all

out

you.

own

as

to

adtnit

this

that

dazzle

make

to

treatment

optimism,
to

much

as

set

know?

not

not

author

girl

or

realize

soon

enlighten,

to

friend

mind,

to

will

has

Frenchman.

boy

may

Clear"

leave

and

American

an

tendency

adhered

educated

an

writer

even

to

The

The

throug^hout

complicate

unduly

may

generally

not

has

he

in.

to

rassment,
embar-

Made

crowd

versation
con-

not

cause

anxiety.

Grammar

than

and

enough

might

be

it must

reading

complete

which

"French

which

to

for

ultimately

rather

out

rule

of

or

of

composition

be

must

helpful

not

time

of

absence

astonishment,
in

it is

plenty

but

the

anything,

if

nothing

leave

to

CLEAR

MADE

DIM

NET.

tude
attiin

FRENCH

drawn

GRAMMAR

to be

not

learned

or

is the

at

knowledge

well

as

Latin

as

text

Latin

that

of

Italian

be called

from

of

most

the

Romans

hundred

of

Christian

the

French

of

of

words

transformation

Gauls, established

are

took

50

in

very

cities which

had

which
ed
inhabitable
favor-

at

developed, the
graduallydisseminated

the

so

of

course

four

and

half

they held possession. When


Franks

(fifthcentury of

era) compelled them

the new-comers,

derivative

larger rivers,and separated,


In
other, by thick woodlands.

during which

invasions

language,

the

their civilization in the

the

this

kept garrisonsand

centuries

French

France, this territorywas

points along
one

the

with

one

clearly.When,
conquered the country

by communities
the

distinguished

will tell any

Spanish, is

or

B.C., Julius Caesar


to

importance

over.

French

origin. How
place, history tells us
was

in

happens

language?

Latin

of

the

French

world

ninety-ninein

of

France

Hence

them.

knowledge

French

CLEAR

when

even

circl'esthe

glance

French,

signatoryto

the

given to

2. What

in

up

MADE

the presence

to

make

of the Roman

way

the
for

armies,

schools, and shops,as well as frequent


magistrates,
had made
Gaul as completelyLatin
inter-marriages,
Mexico, originallyIndian, had become
as
Spanish
when
her rightsthere. Except
Spain had to renounce
in a few
out-of-the-way districts where the
Gallic language (akin to Gaelic) was
still spoken,
the Gauls had wholly forgotten their own
dialects
and
Was
with

spoke only Latin.


this Latin
which

the

exactly similar

works

of

Cicero

to

and

the

language
Virgil have

FRENCH

made

GRAMMAR

familiar?

us

as

American

of

Lincoln.

used

by the Roman

this inferior

different

as

from

there

from

English

the

ties
varie-

two

were

it

by cultivated people who

and

equns

spoken by the lower


words
by cahallns and
used

was

is different

one

CLEAR

in Rome

Even

horse

No, it

slang

Latin

of

called

MADE

house

clas'ses who
mansio.

armies

Latin, made

other

the

domus,

replaced these

The

Latin

language

was
(sermo castrensis)

even

different

more

from

classical Latin

by the miscellaneous origin of the


legions,as k well
spoke it. The Roman

who

men

known,

largelyrecruited from barbarous tribes


speaking various languages; necessitycompelled
these soldiers to adopt the language of their Roman
were

comrades, (that is
above),
born
an

did.

men

R^ others

but

they

Some

of

could, not

to

say,

seldom

the

spoke
could

them

pronounce

cribed
des-

Latin

low
it

as

not

Italian-

pronounce

G, many

ed
sound-

distinguish
from
B
a
were
a
utterly
v, while nearly all of them
ignorant of the delicate rules of Roman
prosody
and accented
wrongly all but the simplestwords.
This was
the majority of
the kind of Latin which
a

like

Gallo-Romans
"

had

t, many

"

chance

others

not

Gauls

Romanized

as

could

were

called

learn.

to

only abojit
far from
30,000 and they were
being superiorin
civiljizaitionto the people whom
they were
parently
apdominating; in a generationor two they
The

Franks

were

not

numerous

"

"

Teutonic
began to
forgot their own
tongue and
with
speak the language of the Gallo-Romans
However, the departure
hardly any modifications.
of

French

the

Romans

without

left

standard

these
of

ancestors

language,and

of

the

hence-

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

Latin

forth

purity as

MADE

treated

was

English may

americanized
different

CLEAR

with
in

be

factory full

foreignerscoming

countries.

The

little reg-ard for

as

from

half

niceties of

of

dozen

Latin

un-

sions
declen-

and

conjugationswere
forgotten; consonants
were
interchangedin an apparentlyextraordinary
manner
(cf. "y^P" ^^^ y^s), many
were
suppressed
ty)
(cf. "goo'bye" for good-bye, "twenny" for twendelicate,passed through
; the vowels, being more
deformations
worse
even
(cf.girlpronounced"goil,"
American

*'Amarican"

pronounced

"room"

in

pronounced

States,as in the South


French

of

in every

tended

word

of

England, as

etc., etc.); above

u,

South

the

"Amurrican,"

or

to

United

the
if

oo

were

all,the accented
weaken

or

ble
syllato

even

kill

its

for "do
neighbors (cf. "d'you 'member"
you
remember,'' and the suppressionsfrequent in lish
Engversification.)

In the

case

of the

authorities

Gallo-Romans, having no

dard
stan-

popular faults and


ening
corruptionsof speech,the results were:
1), a shortof Latin words, due to the incapacity
of untrained
to perceiveclearlyany
cented
ears
except the acto

the

correct

syllables(bonitatem,
hontat, and graduallyhonta
of

varying

with

vowels
the

within
RE,

in

These

few

and

into

(for

'even

miles

now

instance, became

bonte) ; 2), a

very

districts and

dialects

''roi/'whilch

for

different

giving

instance,
is

sounds

rise

regem

formation
trans-

to

merous!
nu-

became

pronounced "rwcx"

of Paris, while

in Italian it is

Spanish rey).
transformations

during

the

were

quick and

dinous
multitu-

stage of the language known

as

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

French

Old

(from

of

the end

MADE

the

CLEAR

beg^innlngof the ninth

thirteenth century). There

the

standard

of

language

of culture

to
no

was

erable
spelHng or speaking, and the innumdialects were
supposed to be one as good as
the King, from
his rather
the other. However,
as
lord
of the Ile-deprecarious position as mere
France
(the province roundabout
Paris), slowly
the language spoken by
to superiorauthority,
rose
him
his court
and
began to be regarded as the
and

.fellto the lower


writers

of

be

to

known

had

hundred

for two

the standard

in

as

(in,

Southern

or

3. Is French

people
No
and

an,

which

French

have

acknowledged
The

un),

the

of
gave

it

currence
frequentre-

softened
so-called
fluid

the tap-tap of the


can

never

as

bration
vi-

ll's
nasal

quality

langue d'oc

possess.

difficult language for English-speaking


to

learn?

language has
the

when

e's,lending fullness and

mute

ecaille, and

on,

harmony

been

years

of
preceding syllable,

fille and

sounds
and

the

direction and

sam.e

polishedFrench.

of

in it of
to

The craving
patois."^
appreciatedat court

invented,the Parisian language

printingwas

last

of
and

in the

naturallyworked
at

rank

lects
dia-

the other

fashion, and

consequence

so

as
English,
simple a grammar
is that English-speakingpeople

of
tendency to look upon the grammars
other languages as complicated. It is a fact that
while English nouns
denotingthingsare uniformly
in French;
feminine
masculine
or
neuter, they are
*

of
ro

The
Norman
French
spoken by
cul'ivated
English people during
the Conqueror
by William
(luest

Heard,

the
the
was

English
centuries

and
Kings
by the majority
the
following
immediately

substantially the

same

as

Parisian

10

FRENCH

the

GRAMMAR

adjective,
too,

follows

in French

varies

and

noun

plural;
Above

which

and

There

contrast

is truth

here.

more

who

effort to master

the

books

if

as

simple rules

is singular or

the

supposed

to

But

is

there

and

cans,
of Ameri-

perfection,

to

sufficient

made

never

French

read

spoken language

tongue.

own

littlepractise(by

books)

easy

less truth

no

thousands

have

through reading very

one's

tax

extraordinary degree.

an

in their

manner.

same

sj"eakFrench

they were
and

accompanying

the

are

especially
women,
many

its

noun

in

undeclined,

is

simplicityof the
puzzling,
conjugationsseem
in

memory

the

to

in the fact that hundreds

and

EngHsh

the gender of

English verb, French


and the irregularverbs
attention

CLEAR

in

again as
change

pronouns

all, by

MADE

few

speaking and
French

the

rob

and the rules


genders of their apparent difficulty,
become
concerning the adjectivesand pronouns
clear in consequence.
Finally,it is doubtful whether
the French
frightenany one
conjugationswould
if the irregularverbs
comparatively very few in
number
not
were
so
constantly described as a
nightmare, which, in simple truth, they are not.
"

"

littlemethod

uniformity

where

is

there

but
dishearteningdiversity,
the
verbs

4. Is the

ought

French

to

hour

people imagine

Seventy

per

in

cent,

of

the

spent

great

so,

the

origin. Several

but

be

to

method

the student

reassure

vocabulary

Some

French

first half

supposed

show

will

attention

moderate

and

"

sucli

portant:
is all im-

the French

over

for

ever.

difficulty?
they

are

mistaken.

English vocabulary
thousand

French

words

is

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

MADE

CLEAR

endinof in ticn

twelve
hundred
(for instance, some
like application,
nation, ration) are

the

to

English
for

papier

words

thousand

ten

some

that any

they
who

one

thousand

are

so

unmistakable.

are

words

French

any

Yes, for people who

they

having

able

to

sciously
con-

this

counts
ac-

guess

at

without

newspaper

teen
fif-

some

all, and

at

said

be

can

really

pronounce?

difficult to

that

before

people being

rpany

meaning of a French
knowing the language.

imagine

It

English knows

knows

the

5. Is French

terparts
English coun-

like their

so

French

learned
for

more

paper)

that

exactly similar
which
they translate, while
(as exigence for exigency,

do

would

not

try

or

foolishly

who

if

ridiculous

appear

they

did try.

Many people,supposed to enjoy exceptional


tion,
opportunitiesfor learning the French pronunciasounding foreign to the end of their
go on
lives because
effort of the sort required;
no
they make
others improve with
astonishingrapidity
because
learn how
they realize that you no more
to pronounce
a
to, or
language merely by listening
even
by livingwith, people who speak it than you
without
learn to sing by going to the opera
ever
practisingsinging. The
mimic

even

the
in
,

the intonation

placing of
keeping with

The

only

the French
the

effort

and

method

sounds,

"

voice.
so

is

to

in

or

copy
a

Progress

word,
will be

made.

ought to aim, from the very first


lesson,at a correct pronunciationof the French r
the real key to proper
placing of the vocal organs
student

"

"

of

the

nasal

sounds

in,

on,

an,

un,

and

of

the

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

12

sounds

represented

these

half

moment

pupils

it

them

only

details

other
"

out

service.

The

French

have

of

safely

every
very

is

between

but

striking.

The

and

large

Paris

In

refined

the
no

all

being
military

proportion
most

people
child

every

the

South,

pronunciation

difficulty
in

in

One

pronunciation.

from

but

above

his

practically

apart

has

speech.
French

pure

foreigner

town,
best

has

that,

say

language
a

and

accent,
there

up

that

well.

speak

to

rare

escapes

during

man

is

not

pronunciation

seldom

consequence

good

brought

words

have

Provincialism

effort.

young

people

.may

of

elegant

they

is

Employers*

any

choice

It

speech.

their

without

laughed

in

for

taste

opportunity

every

distinction

acquire

or

inborn

an

improve

and)

servants

accent

spoken?

have

acquiring

the

The

eu.

some

gain

to

French

French

apparently

of

hour

best

language,

"

with

and

an

the

The

see

and

au,

u,

easy.

is

of

CLEAR

"

become

Where

by

secured

are

takes

6.

MADE

Paris,

difference

English-speaking

is

culiar,
pein

finding

in

models
in

where

this

of

the

respect

countries

is

14

FRENCH

GUAGE

GRAMMAR

USES

thing is

THE

the rule, for

make

in the

his

instead

Not
as

be

may
the

set

differences

of

groups

You

will be

itself than

and

verbs

examine
as

if

the

they

ONS,

EZ, and

"

first
"

but

models

four

were

from

types of

by the thing

less

of

moment

above

ent

are

others

fountain

are

These

alone

endings

coincide

rendre

third
to

three

be

you

"

in the

same

in the first and

singular,which therefore
as
exceptions.

them

pen

3) that,after all,aimer

only

really

you

examine

"

everywhere the

culty
diffi-

the

great satisfaction,1 ) that the

singular;and
the

the various

heard

the

and
2) that finir,recei^oir,
in the

as

indicative

have

you

verbs

four

will find with

simple
You
prepositions.

in the present

what

of French

an

given

that

is

grammar

similarities between

frightenedat

by

of

in class

complicatedlesson, for instance,

more

French

the infinitive after

of

use

pupil'susing

compels the student to


just merely remembering.

of

everythingin

the

the

this

book, because

understand

Some

example given.

making instead

own

oughly
thor-

before

purposes,

the

on

all-importaiit
remembering

at

attempt

examination

teachers wisely insist


of

The

an

understanding

example

CLEAR

INFINITIVE.

to

never

MADE

ral;
plueven

differs
person?
bered,
remem-

statements

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

make

rule

the

up

MADE

expected

are

you

15

CLEAR

find

to

for

yourself.
The

moment

such

see

you

clearly,shut

rule

mentally rehearse the whole thing


it cannot
feel sure
till you
ory.
slipout of your memThis
practisewill not only teach you the
French
and
the
French
language, but
grammar
It will strengthwill also teach you concentration.
en
and

book

your

have

you

just learned

accurate

and

if you

and,

memory

your

and
logically,
clearly,

it will

terms,

teach

explain lucidly,which,

in neat,

think

to

you

what

state

to

try

clearly

all. is the main

after

object of education.
2. Is it advisable

to

learn French

systematically?

words

It is

ly
astonishingthat some
people should seriousask such a question.Anybody who
reallywishes
need:3 to master
all
or
a
language learns words
the tjime. Read
fascinating
John Stuart MilKs
Autobiography: you will see how as a very little
boy he used constantlyto note on cards the Greek
words

his father

which

the time

at

were

child had

the

taught him

Greek-Latin

only

been

started

The

results

there

because

dictionaries and
Greek

on

before

ginning
be-

Latin.

people livingin
forced

into

should

strive

meaning
In

fact

TEN

words

memory

never

nothing
does

FRENCH

day,

at

remember

to

vocabulary. It
LEARN

foreigncountry

their

were

marvelous.

were

in two

have

be revealed

is

easier
not

WORDS,

years

to

than

take

and
you

five

One

turn.

word

to

words

new

every

each

Also

as

if its

again.

one

masiteringthe
to

minutes

if you

learn

will know

ten

nearly

FRENCH

16

MADE

eight thousand,

an

is

ten

learn

to

the

CLEAR

The

supply.

enormous

words

secret

day and

every

the

at

hour.

same

3. How

GRAMMAR

does

words?

French

learn

one

instead
By looking intently,
at

them, by repeating them, and

to

other

Words

words.

by being glanced

in

at

by joining them

dictionary

simply

learned

be

not

can

merely glancing,

of

casually

or

everything else they only


become
familiar upon
long acquaintance. When
the French
you find in an exercise an English word
to you,
naturally
equivalentof which is unknown
in

heard

Like

While

it up.

look

you

class.

examine

it

listen to

its sound,

of

think

few

Do

same

the

on

skimming

when

kept at
read

you

do

you

capacityfor remembering long


will

You

another

be remembered
no

put

the

locomotive

them

chauffeur

in your

while

together in
met

show

surprising

du

charbon

lists of

which

help
two

sur

le

which

chaudiere,

if you

memory
them

and

sentence

feu

one

ing
mean-

some

charbon,

such

words.

new

has

learning
some

just

habit will

easilythan

Feu,

of

valuable

words

more

connection.

chauffeur, will stay


of

four

dwell

text:

instead

their combination

because

can

have

find that

for the purpose.

know,

not

write

done

French

students

some

been

hand

it. In this way,

over

formed

be

this has

when

note-book

word

every

soon

you,

take in its physiognomy,

moments,

and

sentence,
in

before

imagine the objectit represents,


sible
opposite,above all,insert it in a sen-

its

it down

there

it stands

de

think
if you
as

"le

la chaudiere"

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

will

remember

English

into

French

teach

you

You
from

will

Nothing

in

down

having

the

4.

This

may

of

lines

ten

again,

fluently
of

than

to

reverse.

ing
writ-

is dictating

person

pointed
French

be

given

its

think

in

should

done

find

French,

their

syntax,

French

equivalent.

has

one

passage

than

more

the

over

passage

verbatim

not

of

more

need

which

the

construe

freely, thinking

enough

French?

French

and

bering
remem-

by rewriting rapidly

never

it in

you.
lating
trans-

or

English

stopping, reading

repeating

to

is not

to

wards,
after-

are

you

word

able

out

guessing

French

loud

out

without

and

easily be

One

read.

just

another

Merely

are

up

the

infallibly as

so

speak

is to

very

summing

or

words

you

learn

one

translating^

by

by doing

mistakes

your

you

17

English, and, immediately

meaning

when

does

How

in

is necessary

word

than

English.

from

better

what

when

that

Observe

CLEAR

words

French

slowly

very

what

MADE

the

be

not

but
words
at

correct

first.

People who
them

in

more

words

easily
which
like

you
must

know

that

way,

and

without

others.

in time

is

languages

languages

learn

muscle,

many

generally

any

professors.

you

know,

Memory

get filled up

; it is

is
a

strengthened by daily

the
not

habit
use.

learn
The
more

box

which,

Note.
1. Learn

at

give

to

once

French

French

their

letters

name.

2. F,
but

H,

L,

N^

M,

s^

R,

feminine;

are

French

educated

many

ex.:

people

f;

une

une

of

un

say

s;

all

letters.

Accents

There,

are

three

accents

acute

accent.

Ex.

grave

accent.

Ex.

/v

circumflex

e'peler,
a,

Ex.

accent.

ires,
:

pate, tete,

cote, flute.

The

acute

is

accent

opened

the

opened

the

grave

with

pronounced
with

accent

circumflex

with

the

the

the
lips hardly
lips moderately

lips wide

open.

PRONUNCIATION

What

differences

there

are

between

and

of

English

is

substantially

the

the

ciation
pronun-

of

pronunciation

French?

a)

French
WRITTEN,

whereas

from

word

final

from

the

in

French

vowel

first,and
like

in

Vvonoh

have

the

three
The

clearly
For

the

instance,

strat' agem

any

dependent
in-

and

English-speaking

an

and

(exactly

without

accented

is

pronounced

three

the

**one, two,

as

emphasis

on

son
per-

syllables
is

three"
of

any

the

numbers.)
French
THE

VOICE

GEME

is

is

pronounced

the

value

same

should

foreigners.
no

out

neighbors.

geme,

differ

word

to

have

stands

pronounces

the

phasized:
syllable is slightly em-

last

which

stra-ta-

pronounced

c)

its

STRATAGEME,

naturally

the

syllable

from

puzzling
to

vary

should

in this

a's

is

of

sound

naval

said

be

although

word

is

hat

can

each

both

why
in

words

SYLLABLES

word

English

English

the

Why

it

as

in

sounds

another.

to

the

sound

not

b)

one

pronounced

same

always
ON

pronounced

words

( strat'-

stra-ta-geme
The

mo-na-stere.

in
A-GEM

for

VOWEL;

English
;

are

instance
and

stressed
divided

mon'-as-tery).

ing
rest-

by

words

their

divide

strata-

monastere

syllables of
after

The

ants
consonconse-

20

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

is important. We

quence

compelled

in

the

to

though they

CLEAR

tempted and practically

are

English

even

as

MADE

give prominence

to

of

extent

double

were

making

their

softer

than

Long

vowels

d)

THAN

but

are

For

A.

E.

longer than

in the

pronunciation

sounds

like

in

sounds

like

in bar

without

as

in

English;

the first

ex.
E

ex.

like

ex.

in

ay

bay,

word

(long a),
rat;
in

ea

is

rat

cease

six.

fahle.

bdtir.
the end

at

elsewhere

page;

in veneer;

sounds

is mute

dedly
deci-

voweb?

of French

are

English word

English word

; ex.

long

word

French

father;ex.

accent

any

the

six is shorter than

word

less

in hark

in the

is the

less

is much

in the French

than

in

vowel

same

in the French

2. What

in the

the

to

teeth

vowels

instance,a

appreciablylonger than
and

their

slightly

short

and

slightlyshorter

the

harshness

speaking;

French

in

longer.

is

sound

them

in tea.

English

in

baton

in

lips more

sonants,
con-

monn'as(stratt'agcm,

tery),and this imparts inevitable


French
pronunciation. The
use
and

to

of

word,

it sounds

like

venir.
but

shorter

and

clear.

benir.

sounds

like

in

perish^but

trifle longer;

ex.

pere.
E

I.

O.

has

the

sound

same

has the sound

of

ee

but
in

longer again;
shorter ;

feet,but

now-a-days is hardly longer than


like the

sounds

it sounds

like

oa

in

botany;

in roar;

ex.
ex.

ex.

tete.

midi;

i.

:
:

ex.

poli;before
aurore;

an

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

22

and

AN
/

like

pronounced
in sang;

AN

has

the

ex.

approximately

sounds

chicn:

sound;

chemin;

ex.:

approximately

in

it does

as

approximately as

sounds

is not

ex.:

wrong;

bon;

UN

like an(g)

above

as

ex.:

same

sounds

ON

sound

frequently en

not

IN

CLEAR

cent;

sans,
EN

MADE

perceived
;

brun.

ex

the

but

in uncle,

UN

Note.
AN,

F.s, IN,

ON

the

letters

5. How

a)

in

B, p,

:r
IR

the

oir)

sounded

c)

before

: G

ex.

and

a,

^)

pleasure

has

before

o,

sounds

always

is sometimes

become

ex.

l";

generally

are

deux.

in

(not

er

in

verbs

it is

words

the

a, o, and

ex.:

as

before

which

like

it

case

it does
and

in

get

it sounds

ex.

like

geste, giffle.

like
mute;

ex.:

s;

as

it sounds

(cedilla) in

sounds

sound

same

ga,-apergu.

ex.:

; ex.

aspirate
;

word

cher, hier.

gdter,g outer, aigu;


in

of

aimer; ending other

like s;

before

followingexceptions:

verbs

it is printed g

sounds

d)

end

it ends

ex.

cerise,cinema;
unless

the

plomb, bond, loup, chiens, vent,

is silent when
and

their

but

pompe,

pronounced?

consonants

p, s,' T, X, at
:

before

om

im,

em,

am,

same.

with

ex.

to

chambre,

ex:

English but

silent ;

b)

p;

the

French

are

As

and

remains

sound

changed

are

hache.

in

ex.:

When

Vhommc,

pleasure.

histoirc,and
it is mute

sometimes
le

VJiistoire; when

or

la

it is

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

aspirate it
le her OS, la

is not

sounded

hache,

final

UNE

is sound-ed

in

MADE

and

but

le

or

23

stand ;

la

if the article is un,

is not

UN

CLEAR

sounded

while

ex.

the

une,

the

final

in

hache.

une

Note.
No

rule, only

CH

sounds

like

sounds

like

TH

6.

What

ift meant
The

word

like
in

is mute

Us

is caused

This

harsh

any

The

ex.

ex.

of

is

aspirate

chanter;

theatre.

French?

in

final letter

with

is not

sounded

in

gros

un

sont

otherwise
vowel

in

im

for

gros

but

fore
be-

mute

example,

Hire,

arhre; again the

venus,,

it

but

in sont

it is sounded

is

ear

of

Us

in

language

between

the

dra-t-on?
the

and

article

two

vowels

French

offended

harsh

obviates

the

sounding

the

hiatus

; ex.

what

by

vowels

before

the

parle-t-ellefvien-

beginning by

nouns

is

by insertinga

frequently by eHding

more

for

have

consonants.

equally

hiatus,viz., two

French

aversion

the

by

combination

French

called

ex.

when

arjfives.

sont

in

sh

beginning

in gros

sounds

determine

can

by liaison

sounding

the

usage

mute.

or

or

vowel

Varc, I'orme.

Note.
Too

many

consonants

the

liaisons

as

dropped

semi-educated.

well
in

as

the
current

tendency
usage

to

pronounce

characterize

24

FRENCH

What

7.

GRAMMAR

French
treated

o)

Most

MADE

CLEAR

generally illby English-speaking people?


sounds

be

to

seem

which

English-speaking people
double, instead
sharply,as if they were
pronounce
of pronouncing them
softly,using the lips more
than the teeth; ta table should not be pronounced
consonants

tta ttable.

b)

and

: Av

they consisted

of

wrongly pronounced

scale of o's whereas

this sound

to

preserve

often

are

its

purity:

like toe, it is much

c) :

is often

EU

should

d)

the

be

should

AN,

IN,

be
UN

ON,

these

to

like

nounced
pro-

in total.
in

bu}t; it

lipshardly opened.

the

entirelysilent

remarkably

are

name,-

with

uttered

French

is not

tot
to

nearer

wrongly pronounced

the

if

as

in the nasal

sounds

sounds, in spite of their

fluid and

harmonious.

is of
R
pronunciationof the French
from
the
vital importance and ought to be watched
first lesson.
Except in a few provinces the
very
French
the R by vibratingthe base, not
pronounce
is that
the tip,of the tongue.(l) The
consequence
The

e) :

this

correct

is reallya

German
Vorme

or
can

Scotch

be
the

However
effort

word

the
and

In

ch.

fact the

approximated

does, and

as

loch

then
ch

rather

gutturalsound,

as

German
the

adding

should

brieflyas

or

word
nouncing
pro-

man
Scotchloch-M.

letter m,

sounded

be

French

nearly by

very

similar to

with

as

little

possible.

Note.
1.

English-speaking people
as

(1)
tlie

Frenchman
his tongue

tip of

they do

their

has
trouble
in
no
between
his teeth

who

accent

language, for

own

rolling
all

the

succession
time.

French

words

instance, proof

r's, keeping

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

nouncing

la

singing

2.

The
pour

sentence

les

practised.

MADE

cap'

itale

effect

instead
which

Insurgents"

of

does

"Rochambeau

fut
is

25

CLEAR

good

la
not

ca-pi-ta-le,
exist

heureux
test

and

in

duce
pro-

French.

de
should

lutter
be

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

26

MADIC

TERMS

GRAMMATICAL

Grammar,

la

grammaire

CLEAR

Direct

ment
object, le comple-

rule, unc

direct

The

Indirect

alphabet,Valphabet
vowel, line voyelle

consonant,

Adjective,Vadjectif(masc.)

word,

phrase, une

sentence,

regie

consonnc

une

locution

une

phrase

SpellingVorthographe
Etymology, Vetymologie
root, la racinc

The
To

analyser

parse,

Speech,
Parts

le discours

of

indirect

Adjective

mot

un

object,le complement

of

quality,I'adjectifqualiiicatif
Comparative, le comparatif
Positive,positif

Superlative,
siiperlatif
Demonstrative,

demons-

tratif
Pronoun,

le pronom

speech, les parties Personal, personnel

dii discours

Inttix

Article, Vartklc

jgative,interrogatif
Relative, relatif

Noun,

Verb, le verbe

le

nom

Common,

commun

Conjugation,la conjugaison

Material,

concret

Transitive, transitif

Abstract,

abstrait

Intransitive,intransitif

Proper, propre

Compound,
Gender, le

compose

Passive, passif

l^lural, pluriel

Auxiliary,Vauxiliaire
Infinitive,Vinfinitif
Indicative, Vindicatif
Subjunctive, le subjonctif

Subject,le sujet

Present, le present

Number,

genre

le nombre

Singular, singulier

FRENCH

MADE

le

27

CLEAR

Punctuation,

I'imparfait

Imperfect,
Perfect,

GRAMMAR

La

passe

ponctuation

virgiile

Pluperfect,

le

plus-que-

parfait
Future,

les

le

Participle,
Adverb,

Preposition,

Conjunction,

le

futiir
?

participe

le

le

Vadverhe

poini
deux

virgule
points

point

point

d'interro-

gation

la

la

conjonc-

"

"

tes

point

d' exclamation

guillemets

-^

[]

le

tion
preposi-

tion

Exclamation,

le

interjection.

la

parenthese

le

tiret

le

trait

"

d'nnion

ARTICLES

1.

How

do

In

translate

you

English

the

woman,

LE

is used

before

ex.

le

is

gar

We

the?

is used

in

every

feminine,
the

say

without

houses,

ex.

the

the

boy

or

the

man,

change

any

follows

as

nouns

in

the

singular:

nouns

in

the

singular:

feminine
girl;

before

used

varies

m.asculine

before

Me,

is

plural

the

article

masculine,

be

article

g on,

used

la

LEs

the

plural.

house,

the

ex.:

article

noun

or

French

LA

definite

article.

the

In

the

singular

neuter,

in

definite

the

whether

case,

the

les

of

nouns

les

gargons,

either

in

gender

filles, the

boys,

the
the

GIRLS.

2.

What

is

meant

of

the

the

article?

Elision

Before
h,
tree,
the

le

beginning

nouns

and
Vecole
grass.

la

become

(fem.),

and

elision

by

iJ,
the

by

the

traction
con-

silent

with
ex.:

vowel

Varhre

school,

or

(masc),
Vherhe

the

(fern.),

FRENCH

30

masculine

and

in French

while

also
2".

In
be

a)

GRAMMAR

inferred

CLEAR

in Latin

nouns

feminine

most

masculine

arc

in Latin

nouns

are

French.

in

great many
from

cases

the

its

ending.

of the word

gender

can

Masculine

1. Nouns
rot,

in a_, i, o, eau,
zero,

un

2. Nouns

3. Most

those

u^
un

beta,

un

un

ncvcu.

in

nouns

ex.:

te

Ic

ex.:

tie,

or

conge.

in

nouns

age_,

aire,

ege,

le
le vestiaire,
college,

le

menage,
4. Most

and

chapeau,

un

in e, except

hie, le

b)

neuter

feminine
a

MADE

ending

nouns

hereafter

in

stated

otre,

le

lab oral oire.

than

other

consonants

feminine.

be

to

ex.

Feminine
1. Nouns

in te,

tie,

2. Nouns

in ee,

ex.

3. Nouns

in

4. Nouns

ending in

sign

two

5. Most

charite,Vamitie.

la

ex.:

la matinee.

and. tion,

mute

ex.

nouns,
abstract

tension, V applicati

preceded by

consonants,

la

ex.

la gare,

la

ex.:

or

one

la

pecially
es-

bagarre.

gloire,la justice,

la vertu.

Note.
1. One
THE

to

2.

denoting

noun

SENTRY,

it is

Gens,

and

is feminine:

man

the

used

pronoun

la
with

sentinclle,
reference

ELLE.

people, is feminine.

cooD

people,

ex.:

des

gens

except

when

maladroUs,

the

Ex.

de

bonnes

gens,

adjective is placed after,

awkward

people.

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

4. Does

the

French

MADE

language

le, la, les wherever


No,

LE,

LA,

LES

in

the is left out

the

use

there
used

are

CLEAR

definite

is the

in many

English:

31

in

English?
in whicli

cases

abstract

article

nouns,

nouns

of countries,the
relatingto substances, the names
of colors, plural nouns
names
denoting the whole
designatingtitles,which in English
species,nouns
not preceded by the, take the article in French
are
;
LA
ex.:
gourmandise (greediness), la confiture

Connecticut

(Connecticut),
(blue), les paresseux (lazy boys), le
Wilson
(^President Wilson).

(jam),

le

bleu

le

President

Note.
Medieval

French

left

out

the article in practicallyevery

it. As
proverbs are
from
down
generation to generagenerally handed
tion
in their original form
it is not
surprising that
French
not
preceded
proverbs include nouns
many
varie ; Us sont
femme
by the article. Ex.: souvent
chien et chat;
often
(woman
changes;
comme
AND
LIKE
ARE
DOG.)
CAT
THEY
in

case

5. How

English omits

which

article

indefinite

is the

a,

an

translated

into

French?

By

feminine

0,

y^"'^

ex.

nouns,

heure, an
6. What

masculine

before

UN

im

nouns,

couteau,

by
a

before

une

knife,

une

hour.

is meant

by the "partitive"article?

indicatinga "part" of the object


called partitive
denoted
are
by the following noim
articles : they correspondto some
or
any in English.

^y,

DE

but

are

M^

DES,

also used

these w^ords in

in sentences

English. For

too

general

instance

: nous

to

admit

hoirons

FRENCH

32

du

hit

GRAMMAR

shall

we

means:

MADE

given occasion),but it also


MILK
(habitually).

CLEAR

drink

some

means

: we

(on

milk

shall

drink

Note.

infrequentlymade

by ing
English-speakof du lait,
people: nous
of
of genders (one thinks
is caused
by a confusion
hoirons
de
the feminine
I'eau).
partitive:nous
mistake

The

not

hoirons

2. However,

a)

after

pas

de

preceded

forets en

instead

de

pas,

plus,

livres, I
by

of du,

de

books

no

adjective. Ex.
there

are

;
:

large

is necessary,
Ex.: je n'ai

des

la,

peu,

beaucoup,

have

an

France,

lait,instead

de

trop.

b) before
il y
forests

de
in

noun

grandes
France.

Resume

What

or

The

exemplified in the
phrases?

rules

are

following words

le monsieur

The

gentleman
lady
gentlemen

les messieurs

The

ladies

les dames

The

pupil

V eleve

The

clock

The

la dame

je vais au college
envoyez-lesaux
piscines

school

I go

to

Send

thern to the

horloge

swimming

pools
The

teacher's desk

The

badges
collegegirls'

The

wall

pupitredu professeur
les insignes
des etudiantes

le

le

"!
or

The

breeze

la muraille
la brise

-j
or

le vent
la paresse

Laziness

Maple

mur

syrup

'ic jus d'erable

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

MADE

Canada

le

Red

le

Stupid

le

Foch

Marshal
A

les

people

pencil

un

slate

des

slates

pie,

Walks,

too

de

cakes

many

des

walks

33

Canada

rouge
betes

gens

marechal

Foch

crayon
ardoise

une

Pencils,
Some

CLEAR

la

tarte,

ardoises

des

crayons,

des

gateaux

promenades,
promenades

des

Expensive

fountain-pens

stylos

couteux,

"
or

de

couteux

stylos.

trop

dc

II

NOUNS

1. How

does
of

French

the

nouns?

The

feminine

different

of

English

in
queen;

the

form

The

French

the

first

ESSE

to

b)

these

of

two

the

masculine,

feminine

masculine,
oncle

(bull),
but

from

is

femme
language
the

to

the

we

can

language
masculine;
fem.

noun

of

feminine

participles (see

present

lay
forms
ex.:

down
the

Nouns

ending

word

into

French

in

which
became

adjectives

or

39).

page

rule

feminine

by

fem.

in

feminine

Latin

French

letter

ending

word

the

the

the

that

fem.
masc.

the

adding

havarde;

bourgeois,
in

the

adds

as

havard,

commevQante;

taureau

which

peintre),

prefixing

transformation

the

ther)
(mo-

mere

(aunt)

in

cases

femme

of

masculine

from

(une

instead

adding

a)

different

(father),
taHte

few

used

distinctly

So,

(cow)

to

prince, princesse;

entirely

pere,

ex.:

i.e.

ways

forms

(uncle),

vache

apart

ex.

she-wolf.

corresponding

forms

three

masculine,

the

to

she

uses

prefixing

c) by

coiv;

ferent
dif-

king,

ex.

female cousin,

language

using

the

bull,

painter^

totally

masculine,

female,

woman,

woman

: a

the

daughter;

son,

words

ex.

from

word

mascuhne,

the

to

ess

by using

b)

in three

is formed

nouns

a) by addling

ways,

lion, lioness;

ex.:

in

feminine

the

form

language

French
e

to

the

commerganf,

bourgeoise.
do

not

change.

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

2. Are

there

MADE

CLEAR

of the

noun

nc^ modifications

of

addition

35

beyond the

e?

an

Yes.

a)

Some
1.

Some

1.

2.

nouns

in

the

fern,

in

hergere;
in

masculine

the

feminine

have

the

(liar), fem.
However,
in

ICE.

Ex.:

in se^

Spouse, (masc. in old

have

their feminine

that

in

cJmmelle

(the
in the

the French
at

elle.

time

that

the

not

in euse,

their feminine

have

eur

fem.

from

el)

was

sounded.

Ex.

menteiir

menteuse.

some

Ex.:

(hunter)

their fem.

shows

in

original

fem.

borrowed

ended

their

show

to

came

eau

century

tirne

of

course

(camel),

ending in

because

their feminine

(dog), fem. chienne;

in

English word

nouns

Men

in the

chameau

masculine

have

on

v^hich

ending in

eleventh

otte.

lionne.

ending in x
(husband),
epoux
French=ESP0us) ;
nouns

ere.

chatte.
modi'fication,

same

or

Ex.

nouns

Ex.:

3.

ien

ONNE.

modified

form

in

ending

nouns

the

shows

(cat)

lion, fem.

be

their feminine

ending in ot have their feminine


Ex.:linot
(linnet), fem. linotte.

in lENNE,

b)

syllable:

nouns

Chat

3.

have

er

hcrger (shepherd),

Ex.:

2.

in

ending

nouns

last

the

slightlymodify

nouas

has

nouns

acteur,

in

eur

fem.

chasseresse

have

their feminine

actrice,and
in the

chasseur

feminme.

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

36

3. What

changes
plural?
In

addmg^
deux

In

as

the

to

French

do

French

is

CLEAR

in

the

formed

by

undergo

nouns

the

English

plural is

sinifular.Ex.:

livrcSj two

This

MADE

livre,

im

book;

books.

always silent.

Note.

ending in

1. Nouns
^

Ex.:

les

les

(the

nes

2. Nouns

endings

cheval

3. Nouns

ending

j
"

not

les

al

the plural in aux


plural chevaux,
except

in

(1), ex.:

have

have
au,

eau,

'bal

festival (a
plurals in s.

and

their

eu,

voices),

(the

voix

and

plural.

in the

change

oeu

(a

musical

their

have

bateau

Ex.:

plural in

in

which

festivity)
\

do

z,

(horse),
chacal
(a jackal)

dance),

s, x,

(the arms),
noses).

bras

x.
joyau (jewel), pi. joyaux ;
lieu
(place), pi. lieux; v("u
(boat), pi. bateaux;
(vow), pi. VQtUX.
The
words
bijou (jewel), caillou (pebble), chou
hibou
(cabbage),
(knee),
(owl), joujou
genou
(toy), and pou (louse) also add x in the plural.

4. The

bail
words
(lease), corail
(coral), email
travail
soupirail
(enamel),
(cellar-window),
vitrail
and
form
(stained
glass
window)
(work),
their plural in aux
: baux,
soupiraux,
emaux,
coraux,

vitraux.

travaux,

4. How

compound

do
Most

compound
used
hardly ever
be

is

written
to

treat

reveille-matin
as

it is

or

it

their plural?

mentioned

nouns

in

in two

them

form

nouns

the

ways,

plural;
and

the

ordinary nouns.
(alarm-clock) can

can

as

written

be

had
French
tendency
(1) Old
a
in the
Hence
cheval
plural was
of
shorthand
those
days abbreviated
and
s.
X

to

change

spelt
us

in grammars
others

many

are
can

present tendency
For
be

instance,
either

left

reveille-matins.

chevaus.
and
as
x

into
before
consonants.
u
the
S
became
because
x
scribes
gradually confused

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

38

(Alsatian)

Alsacien

(master)

Patron

(wretch)

Malheiireux

CLEAR

MADE

fem.

Alsacienne

fem.

patronne

fem.

malheureuse

Jumeau

(twin)

fem".

jumelle

Buveur

(drunkard)

fem.

buveuse

fem.

ambassadrice

(ambassador)

Afnbassadeiir

une

line

(a

noix

rail

le

cerf

les

nut)

(the
-volant

Bourbons

plumes

deux

noix

les

kernel)

rail)
(the

deux

les

arsenal)

(the

noyau

pen)

(the

r arsenal

le

(a

plume

kite)

(dynasty

arscnaux

noyaux

les

rails

les

cerfs-volants

the

Bourbons,

Ill

ADJECTIVES

Note

Introductory

French

"

first

treat

grammars

to

A.

1.

What

of

what,

this,

chief

the

quality

grand

gender

de

ex.

c)

2.

How

by prefixing
:

the

bigger, plus grand,

they

the

noun

old

house,

is the

placed,

are

by

as

rule
E,

ex.

neuve,

the

feminine

the

feminine

either

because

of
of
the

new

formed

after
an

house.

in French?

page

adjectives

mascuHne

most)

maison,

(see

nouns

all

the

often

vieille

une

English,

plus grand;

le
as

prose,

of adjectives

feminine

Practically
General

maison

une

in

even

it,

before

as

biggest,

big

show

in

(more,

plus,

utt

iille;

never

as

cording
ac-

bov,

big

they

(er, est)
le

plus,

modified

are

grande

b)

able
invari-

not

are

(a

une

gargons)

inflexion

by

a)

number
girl,

adjectives

English?

in

English, they

big

grands

comparison

between

French

and

gargon,

boys,

in

are

etc.

every,

QUALITY

and
in

ing
correspond-

many,

differences

quality

they
to

but

OF

French

in
of

Adjectives
as

Pronominal

of

some,

my,

ADJECTIVES

are

(handsome),

{adjectifs pronominaux)

Adjectives

quality

of

heau

afterwards

and

(plain),

English

as

Adjectives

of

{adjectifs qualUlcatifs),ex.:
laid

well

as

grammars

is

34).

ed
is end-

already

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

40

thus

ended,

added

livre

un

bleu;

of the

feminine

of

stated

feminine

of

etoffebleue.
35

page

nouns

in the

tion
formain the

also found

are

is

book,

blue

an

adjectives:

adjectivesin

have

er

adjectivesin
ETTE,

on

une

stuff,

leger (light),fem.
2.

because

feminine, ex.

blue

modifications

The

1.

the

denote

to

CLEAR

aveugle,blind, or

ex,

MADE

et

ex.

OTTE,

ex.:

legere;

vioUt,

vioUtte

PURPLE,

in

feminine

their

have

ot

or
:

in ere,

their feminine

vieillot

(oldish), vieillotte;
complet, concret, secret, discret,inquiet,

However,

replet(complete,concrete, secretive,discreet,
plump) have their feminine in ete, and
uneasy,
and

and
(idiotic)

IDIOT

and

3.

idiote

become

in the feminine;

devote

adjectivesin
in ANNE,

(devout)

"evot

an,

ENNE,

fem.

en,

and

and

have

on

onne,

ex.:

ancien

paysanne;

their feminine

(peasant),
(old), ancienne;
paysan

poltron (cowardly), poltronne;


4.

have their feminine in


adjectivesin eau
heau
ex.:
(handsome), helle;
(soft) also become
fou (mad) and mou
and

folle

molle.

Besides

these

modifications

and

adjectivesthere
:
adjectives
1.

elle

are

Adjectivesending in

to

common

few

have

others

both

nouns

peculiarto

the feminine

in che,

public (public), fem. publique,and grec


Ex.:
blanc
(greek), fem. grecque.
(white),

except

fem.

blanche;

(long)

becomes

sec,

(dry),

longue.

fem.

seche.

Long,

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

Adjectivesin

2.

niais

ex.:

MADE

have

CLEAR

their

41

feminine,some

(stupid), niaise,some

in se,

in sse,

ex.:

epais (thick), epaisse.


3. The

of

large group

feminine;

adjectivesin

EUSETex.

in

their

(timid), pen-

peureux

have

eux

reuse.

Adjectivesin
meilleur

4.

(better)

and

exterieur

ex.:

erieur,

add

(thievish),

voleur

ex.:

also have their feminine in

eur

fem.

euse

voleuse, except

adjectivesending in
(exterior), which only

becoming meilleure,exterieure.

E,

Adjectivesending in
neuf (new),

ex.:

5. Adjectivesin

el

change

fem.

have

this letter into ve,

neiive.

their feminine

in

elle

and

adjectivesin eil have it in eille : ex. : cruel


(cruel), cruelle; par eil (similar), pareille;
vieux
(old), becomes meille.
6. Favori

becomes

in

(Hebrew)

hebrcu

feminine

the

favoriteand

hehraique; grand

stays

changed,
un-

although feminine, in the compound


nouns
grand'mere (grandmother), grand'messe
(high mass), grand'rue (high street), and
grand'route (h igh w a y )
.

Note.

adjectives end in e or
in the simplest manner,

Most

is

3. How

more

an

French

does

form

brumes

the

form

that

the

an

actuality.

complication

plural of adjectives?

adjectivesall ending in e naturallyform


culty,
plural in s and consequentlyoffer no diffibrume
fog), des
epaisse(a thick
une
ex.:

a) Feminine
their

than

appearance

inine
their fem-

and

so

eux

epaisses.

42

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

Masculine

b)

adjectivesas

their plural in s,

boy),

MADE

ex.

des gargons

However

dogs);

LARGE

3. beau

ex.

and

the adjective be
Yes, and

even

any
not

rate

has

in the

American

man;

des

woman;

blind

man;

une

you

girls.

in French?
in

"

in French
: un

AmSricaine,

aveugle, a
le
the

un

blind

people;

un

une

petite

aveugle,

les

woman;

plus riche, the


oldest

an

American

an

boy;

girl;

it does

Americain,

American

American

an

ex.:

Sieves,

Ics

the

noun

American

an

aveugles,the
blind;
les plus vieux,
one;
do

addition,ex.
une

nou-

English,for
at
accompanied by a noun

AmSricains,

petit AmSricain,
AmSricaine,

Steves,all

as

and

tous

"

such

homnias

(in the masc),

singular whereas

requireany

un

ex.:

des

beaux

school;

les

be

to

except

Aux,

naturallythan

more

English it

man),

the

used

(two

(naval),

tous

; toutes

boys

chiens

(lazy boys);

become

becomes

in the

gros

naval

men)

change

pluralin

their

brutal

all
college,

the

do not

deux

nouveau

tout

le

tout

(a

(brutal

veaux;

5. Where

or

les paresseux

brutal

brutaux

in

adjectivesin al have
frugal (frugal) and
homme

4. Can

nimble

plural masculine,

ALL

agile(a

gargon

agiles.

1. adjectivesending in

2.

have

general rule also

un

CLEAR

richer

ones.

place the adjectiveof quality?

Generally after the


vissante,a lovely

noun,

walk;

ex.

une

une

promenade
grammaire

ra-

fran-

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

French

gaise,a
AN

MADE

CLEAR

grammar;

INTELLIGENT

43

fille

une

intelligente,

GIRL.

Note.
result which

1. The

writers aiming at
or
prose
in English by placing the
is obtained
in French
by

poets

effect

obtain

a
poetic
adjective after the noun
But
the noun
ought to
placing it before the noun.
than
unless
the
be of more
one
syllaWe
adjective ends
in E or ES, ex, : un
resplendissanthorizon^ a glowing

HORIZON

la

vaste

modern

2. The

the

mer,

tendency

ocean.

and

exaggerate,

diffusion

the

degree

to

wide

of

to

English

the

tain
cer-

language

French

the habit of emphasizing


people, encourage
it
before
the
adjective by placing
noun,
in conversation
:
even
une
nobody ever
fransays
because
the
not
adjective would
gaise grammaire
ravissante
bear
but
une
stressing,
promenade,
any
tres intelligente fille,are
une
unfortunately often
among

the

heard.

certain number

3. A

placed

this

for

given

know, why

to

before),
legere, a

The

we

the

soon

it is

while

trunk,

neuve,

accustomed

grows

instance,

malle

new

an

old

but

house,

these

to

(adj.
malle

une

say

we

be

can

vieille maison,

une

maison

reason

lourde

une

ways
al-

are

impossible, for

say

trunk;

une

No

noun.

should

light

HOUSE,

adjectives in daily use


the

usage:

heavy

and

ear

of

before

peculiarities.

are
adjectives to be placed before the noun
the
to
same
generally
applying
following,
usage
their antonyms
or
opposites:

chief

the

ancien,
"

ex.:

ant.

beau,

laid

or

laid visage,
an

bon

devoir,

gros

une

house,

haut,
jeune

a
ex.

vieille
LONG

ant.

fly,

vieux

ant.
A

LONG

court,

good

or

good

fellow,

ex.

fine

tin

picture,

un

exercise,

a
:

bad
une

bon
poor
un

gargon,
man;

son,
mai-

grande

petit oiseau,

large

bird;

ex.

young

speech,

ex.

un

tour,
:

tableau,

ex.:

brave

un

petit,

little

haute

histoire,a

and

recti,

une

mechant,

garcon

ant.

beau

un

or

mouclie,

grosse
big
:

and

and

soldier;

physiognomy;

devoir,
a

old

physionomie,

mauvais

bon

homme,

or

ex.:

ugly

mauvais
un

mechant
grand

an

ant.

un

exercise

vilain,

une

brave,

soldat, an

vilaine

face,

ugly
or

ancien

un

high

un

jeune professeur,

un

professor,
:

tower

an

old

long discours,
short

account;

une

story;
court

un

44

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

LOURD,

ex.

RiCHE

and

lourd

un

ant.

and

ant.

How

do

you

parcel

heavy

banicer,

ex.:

un

real

aristocrat,

form

the

denoted

by

poor

vrai

banquier,

riche

un

rich

faux,
A

CLEAR

ex.

faiissecomtesse,

6.

paquet,

pauvre,

commis,

pauvr:
VRAi

MADE

un

clerk;

gentilhomme,

tess.
coun-

sham

une

in

degree

comparative

French?

a)

Equality is
:

AS

HE

ex.

aussi

HIGH

so

THAT

than),
than

NOT

CAN

denoted

il est

ex.:

by

REACH

tall

as

am
si.

as),

que,

si haut

IT,

atteindre.

Superiorityis

(as.

que

peux

ne

is translated

THAT
.

grand que lui (est),I

So.

IS.

je

que

b)

je suis

ex.

aussi.

by

plus...

vieux

plus

(more...

que

moi, he is older

que

am.

Note.
More

followed

than

PLUS

DE

and

Inferiorityis

e)

than),
SHE

IS

is the

7. How

not

plus dc

TIMES,

ex.:
less

denoted

is translated

number

plus

dix

elle est

by

que,

ex.

more

by
ten

than

fois.

by

moins...

moins

CHARMING

charmante

THAN

superlative formed

HER

(less...

que

sa

que

sceur,

SISTER.

in French?

By prefixingle plus, (masc.) la plus, (fem.) les


le match
le plus
ex.:
(plur.)to the adjective,
PLUS,
la partiela plus captivante,
the
most
interessant,
MATCH,

INTERESTING

les chevaux

les

MOST

THE

plus sauvages,

EXCITING

the

GAME;
horses.

wildest

Note.

Both

much

BEAUTIFUL.

and
MUCH

very

are
ADMIRED,

translated
tvcs

by

tres,

bcaii^

ex,

tvcs

very

admire.

46

FRENCH

B.

The

GRAMMAR

MADE

PRONOMINAL

ADJECTIVES

adjectivesthus

demonstrative,

CLEAR

3.

1.

possessive,2.

inter rog^ative,4.

indefinite, 5.

called

are,

numeral.

/.

1. What

POSSESSIVE

possessive adjectives in French?

the

are

ADJECTIVES

Masc.

Plur

Fern.

Note.
1. For

sake

the

of

euphony

feminine, beginning with


MY
mon
dme, your
SOUL,
ma
dmCf ta histoire.
2.

Ton,

mon,

ton,

placed before

are

masc.,

though

son,

nouns,

vowel

or

mute

ex.

histoire,

ton

story,

clusively
ex-

though

even

not

in friendly conare
constantly heard
lan(tutoieinent); this is a habit of the guage
idiom
and not
with
as
a
special
Quakers.
tes

ta,

vers.ation

3. one's

does

shortcoming:
HIS

money

mon,

in

dear

ma,

merci,

to

both

perdu
mes

friends,

it is

and

money

by:

frequently used

oticle ;
mes

and

translated

addressing people;
mon

French

he

great

has

pcrdrc

lost

son

gent;
ar-

argent.

son

.are

in
one's

lose

are

il
4.

exist

not

yes,

ex.:

sister,

cliers amis.

where

thank

my

you,

oui,

ma

is dropped
uncle,

soeur;

is the

2. What

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

in

sa,

noun

following, whereas

always
HE

and

governs

SOLD

ais (his

of

father

The

out

to

and

THAT,
;
BIG

book,

little

yonder
dictiofifiaire-ld;

QTos

ce

Id-has,or

contraction

ponding
corres-

corresponding to
der
Correspondingto yonthat
ce
petitlivre-ci;

LA-BAs,

clocher

ci

LA

CE

ce

because

companied
generallyac-

are

ce

are

CE

THIS,

DICTIONARY,

steeple,

equallywel:

called

object and

gesture,

: this

ex.

maison;

sa

adjectives?

adjectives,so

some

by

said

arC

ADJECTIVES

demonstrative

they point

HOUSE

HER

be

can

the demonstrative

are

SOLD

so

mother.

DEMONSTRATIVE

//.

1. What

or

object possessed;

SHE

son)

the

the possessor

maison, elle vendit

sa

her

or

with

number

English

the

and

translated il vendit
son

in

not

HOUSE

HIS

and

gender

Son,

47

sa?

of son,

agreement
agree

CLEAR

clocher-ld Id-bas.

ce

Note.

1.

is

CI

2.

CE...CI,

the

3.

ci

and

la

livre,
2. What

ceci;

ce

write

ex.:
that

correspond

cela,
remember

this,

meaning

do the demonstrative

to

rap-

cela;

notes

down,

the

when

left out
clocher.
are

modifications

and

CECi

that;

this,

vous

ici;

spelt

CE...LA,

pronouns

peles

of

is clear

ce

adjectives

undergo?
Ce, masc,
ex.:

THIS

cette

fence,

becomes
atlas,

cet

cct

is the feminine
cette

before

atlas,,that
of

ce

and

vieille bar Here;

vowel

or

cet

man,
cet

ex.

mute

homme:

: that

old

FRENCH

48

GRAMMAR

is the

CEs

HORSES

COWS,

fem. ;

and

masc.

: those

ex.

(masc.)

chevaux

ces

CLEAR

et

ces

(fem).
INTERROGATIVE

///.

What

pluralboth

AND

vaches

MADE

ADIECTIVES

the interrogative
adjectives?

are

English there

In

and

WHAT

Which.

WHICH

has

no

pity.What?

is

Sing.

QUEL

Plur.

QUELS

Ex.

(masc),
(masc),

quelles

WHAT

YOU

DO

SCHOOLS

MEAN?

de

READ.'

YOU

DO

BOOKS

livre,quels Uvres lisez-vousf

quel

(fem.)
(fem.).

quelle

WHAT

BOOKj

WHAT

adjectives^
interrogative
(more definite than What),
and it is
in French
equivalent
translated by
two

are

school;

what

quclleecole,di

quellesecoles parlez-vousf
Note.

homme!

IV.

They
aucun,

exclamative;

is also

Quel

man

quel

few,

quels soldats!

are:

divers,sundry
quelconque,whatever

no
-

chaque,every,

quelque,some, a few
quel que, whatever

each

same

maint, many

what

ex.:

ADJECTIVES

INDEFINITE

autre, other

meme,

soldiers!

what

tel,such
tout, all,the whole.

several
plusieurs,

certain,some
certain,
Note.

does not

Plusieurs
ex.:

BOYS,

mean

plusieurs acves
OR

few

boys,

many,
sont
BROKE

but

sortis des
BOUNDS.

several

or"

linUtes^several

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

are

the

1 un,

une

CLEAR

49

NUMERALS

V.

1. What

MADE

cardinal

numerals?
17

dix-sept

18 diix-huit

deux

3 trois

19

dix-neuf

qiiatre

20

vingt

cinq

21

vingt-et-un

6 six

30

trente

7 sept

40

quarante

8 huit

50

cinquante

neuf

60

soixante

10 dix

70

soixante-dix

11

onze

80

quatre-vingts

12

douze

90

13

treize

14

quatorze

1000

quatre-vingt-dix
cent
(not un cent)
milfe (not un mille)

15

quinze

million,un

million

billion,
un

milliard.

100

16 seize

What

18

noticed in the formation

be

to

of cardinal

numerals?

a)

From
of

b)

un

up

to

they

seize

are

latin numerals.

the

Dix-sept,dix-huit, dix-neuf
to

which

SEPT,

NEUF

HUIT,

consist

numbers

dix

(ten)

et

between

the

two

trente-et un,
vingt-etun,
quarante-etcinquante-et-un,soixante-et-un,soixante-et^

onze;

the other nunjbers

neuf;
vingt,

another

are

vingt-deux;

twenty-two,

d)

of

added.

are

c) 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71 insert

un,

contractions

mere

eighty-five,
cent

take

number;

formed

as

in

sixty-nine,

English:
soixante-

quatre vingt-cinq;
an
ex.:

only

when

preceded by
quatre-vingts (80), trois

50

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

(300),

cents

another

but

number

when

they

vingt-neuf (89),
c)

/)

CENT

and

cent

deux,

ONE

thousand

the

vowel

or

h eurcs

joups

JOURS

do

mute

two;

mille

you

et;

ex.:

dix-sept,

SEVENTEEN;

in

deux,

DTx.

but

ex.

cino,

trots,

viNGT,

not

are

are

is

trots

six.

sounded
before

sounded

trois heures

three)

past

minutes

pronounced

trois-

simply

means

week,

and

quinze

fortni.ijht.
form

By adding-ieme
to

by

troi-minn tes

HUIT

3. How

followed

consonant,

(three minutes
g)

not

NEUF,

(304);

are

and

by

quatre-

ex.

quatre

and

another

followed

also

are

invariable ;

are

hundred

HuiT,

before

they
cent

mille
a

CLEAR

trots

final consonants

SEPT,

MADE

the cardinal

ordinal

numerals?

(correspondingto
form

; ex.

the Latin

imus)

trois-ieme,third.

17th.

dix-septieme

deuxieme

18th

dix-huitieme

3rd

troisieme

19th

dix-neuvieme

4th

20th

5th

quatrieme
cinquieme

6th

sixieme

22nd

vingtieme
vingt-et-unieme
vingt-deuxieme

7th

septieme

30th

trentieme

8th

huitieme

31st

trente-et-unieme

9th

neuvieme

40th

10th

dixieme

50th

quarantieme
cinquantieme

11th

onzieme

60th

soixantieme

12th

douzieme

70th

soixante-dixieme

13th

treizieme

80th

quatre-vingtieme

14th

90th

15th

quatorziemfe
quinzieme

100th

16th

seizieme

1000th

1st

premier

2nd

21st

quatre-vingt-dixieme
centieme

millieme.

51

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

Note.

Fractions
the

"

"

THIRD
"

"

FOURTH

4. Does

the

French

in all

tiers

le

quart.

or

in

English by
exceptions:
as

demi.

number

ordinal

an

use

English

in which

No, the French

these

by moitie

le

language

cases

French

with

number,

is translated

HALF

in

indicated

are

ordinal

it?

uses

the cardinal number

language uses

instead of the ordinal;

a)

in

speaking of days
November

ex.:

h)

in

order

first;

the

ex.

George

Quatorse;

of

succession

of

Louis

:"

nov-embre;

le quatre

fourth,

giving the

except the first;

of the month

Louis

Fourteenth,

the

Third

the

kings, except
America,

lost

Georges Trois perditVAmerique;


c) in speaking of the

5. How

work,

except

deux;

chapter

read
It

is

quart,
The

time
follows

It

is

ten

past

It

is

minuit

un

the hour

is

six, il est six heures

that o'clock
in

(noon),

It

is

moins

il est midi

le

quart.
the half

nine,

il est

neuf

past

twelve

quart.

is left out

French).

and

quarter
et

and

hour

between

as

time?

hour

to

minutes

twelve

moins

or

the

minutes

and

to

quarter

Uvre

second,

inngt-cinq(observe

Enolish

the

literary

chapitre dix.

half

the

five

twenty

moins
in

express

follows

as

book

tenth,

the

between

time

The

the first,
ex.

French

the

do

chaptersof

and

books

the

heures

is read

dix.

(midnight), il

est

52

FRENCH

It

half

is

Idioms.
de

past

It

"

has

two

de

deux

How

heure

one,

une

on

the
a

demic.
vient

heure

quelle heure?

stroke

of

heures

deux

ct

sur

two,

sonnant,

le coup
deux

juste.
old

you?

are

Quel
J'ai

seventeen,

am

une

time?

what

heures,

CLEAR

// est

struck

just

sharp,

heures

MADE

one^

At

sonner.

At

GRAMMAR

avez-vousf

age

dix-septans.

Resume

rules

What

or

Your
Her

exemplified

are

in the

following phrases

words?

cousin

is cheerful,

is
expressioii

never

vere.
se-

Votre
Son

gaie.
mais
expressionn'est jacousine

est

severe.

Your

daughter

Votre

is mute,

trulyChristian woman.
The
magpie is both timid
and

La

boys are
punished,
My friendlyrebukes,
the

trees

often

vraie chretienne.

pie

est

peureuse

eleves indociles sont

punis.
reprochesamicaux.

Mes
Tons

les arbres

fat, lazy fellow!

Gros

You

littlebraggart (fem.) !

Petite vantarde!

gray
Two

White

mare

and

the

La

one.

white

et toutes

les fleurs.

You

white

et

souvent

all the

and

Les

flowers.

The

muette.

voleuse.

thievish,

Disobedient

All

Une

fille est

houses,

wreaths,

jument
grise.

Deux

De

paresseux!
blanche

maisons
blanches

et

la

blanches.

guirlandes.

54

FRENCH

She

lost

husband

her

and

MADE

perdit

sa

his

lost

CLEAR

Elle

sister,

her
He

GRAMMAR

his

and

wife

perdit

baby,

This

this

Ce

angel.

splendid

this

man,

This

good

What

woman,

monk

"Romeo

and

"What

nun

"Measure

in

appears

Juliet"

for

cet

admirable,

heros.

Cette

femme

Quel

moine

dans

Juliette?

parait

religieuse

dans

Measure"?

parait
et

Quelle

bien.

de

Romeo
in

et

ange.

homme
ce

appears

bebe,

Get

hero.

femme

sa

fils.

son

This

et

sceur.

11

son,

mari

son

Mesure

Me-

pour

suref

What

charming

hundred

Two

and

Eighty

men

dred
hun-

two

or

fifty
and

Quel

part!

charmant!

role

Deux

cents

cinquante

men,

eighty-two

Qu^tvG-vingts
quatre

women,

deux

cent

hommes.
hommes

vingt

et

deux
-

femmes.
The

Tenth

History
Second,

chapter
of

James

of

the
the

Le

chapitre
toire

de

dix

Jacques

de

I'hisDeux.

A.

1. Give

PRONOUNS

PERSONAL

list of

personal

the

the

in

pronouns

native?
nomi-

Note.
1. These

It

pronouns.

the
no

CRIED

be

however

of

the

English

that, while

neuter

nouns,

French

two

pronoun,

ex.

s'Scricrent-Us, is

THEY,

Tu, THOU,

no

are

the

to

noticed

has
forms

they;

inversion

English,
3.

should

French
having
language,
equivalent for it, there

translating
2. The

exactly

correspond

pronouns

but

is

in

constant

is in constant

use

use

in

said

only

not

he,

possible

dit-il,
as

friendly conversation.

in

56

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

2. Give

list of the

MADE

same

CLEAR

accusative?

in the

pronouns

Note.
1. These
and

(I

tends

you

le donnerai
follows

2. Le
the

3, Are

there
The

of

part
vous

I hear

the

any

if you

other

French

these

they are
are

ex.

venir

they

Besides

lists above

tw^o

because

so

pouvcs

grammarians

They

English,

ex.

imperative, as in English ; ex.


heiire.
early, appelez-le de bonne
often
whole
a
represents
proposition, and

him

si

in modern

as

do

us

call
are

there

can

call

plays
early, do so,

come

personal pronouns?

correspond

to

wTiat English

conjunctive personal
intimatelyjoined to
are

tot, faites-le.

others

separatedfrom

called

pronouns,
the

verb.

cause
disjunctwe, be-

the verb.

(1)

call the conjunctive pronouns


grammarians
if they were
as
a
pronounced
they are
part
because
(emphasized)
disjunctive pronouns
toniques
more
clearly.
(1)
because

verb

the

(old English:
enje vous
part) ;
you,
it
I
shall
to you,
give
je vous
hear) ;
it shall give) ; however,
the pro(I you
noun

after,

not

till death

always placed before

are

pronouns

I'^rench

of

atones

(unstressed)

the

the
verb, and
are
i)ronounced

they

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

These

MADE

have

pronouns

than

the

They

are

a) exclamatively
;

used

faire

inoi!

RUNG

JUST

Qui lAent

de

prepositions (

we

parlionsd'eux;

in

b)

ex.

w^ho

(did).

c)

tives
geni-

as

generally after

with,

out,
with-

sans,
of

with

come

such

THEY

speaking

were

do
"

"

and

(to)

for, avec,

pour,

etc.). Ex.:

I, HE,

moi, lui,eux;

datives

or

I!

ex.:

question;

BELL?

THE

sonnerf

(of)

nous

closely

more

telle chose!

tine

answering

sentences
elliptical
HAS

examined

others.

thing!

be

to

57

equivalentin English and

no

consequently ought

CLEAR

me,

them,
avec

venez

moi.

Note.

emphasis of the
by its repetition,ex.

1. The

DID

we

AWAY,

2. When

there

SISTER

AND

is the

SHALL

the

nominative

only

to

masc.

nouns;

FALL

WAIT

BACK

and
and

NEVER

accusative

the

HIM

to

say,

SEE

SPEAK

serious
for
HIM,
TO

mistake

to

lui

instance,je lui vois instead


or

HER.

je

la

parlc instead

HIM.

TO

writing

confuse

g-enders: je lui

both

f
am

refers

jamais!

lui, WITH

aveC

to

reculer!

It is

Ct HOUS,

SOeur

'

J-rr
^1
T
I
indifferently

means

is
your

of lui?

use

Luif

ex.:

but, in the dative, it refers


"

VOtre

HERE,

meaning

exact

in

'

somfttes

ftous

ue

non;

ici.

Lui

ecns

fious

of which
subjects, one
is also repeated ; ex. :

pronoun

WE

attcndrons

nous

moi, j'ai dit

no,

fious,

two

are

the

pronoun,

HE

said

enfuis.

pas

4. What

RUN

NOT

in French

is marked

pronoun
:

of

and
of

je

HER.

TO

le,

la,

je le vois,
lui

parte,

58

FRENCH

GRAMxMAR

MADE

CLEAR

Note.
After

the

LUi

is

verbs

two

entendre, to

and

hear,

frequently used instead of


object following entendre

found

be

to

admiration

accompanied

but
is always

adjective indicating
je lui ai vu faire des

by

contempt;

or

voir

or

an

ex.:

perform
exploits extraordinaires, i saw
him
dire
des
lui
ai
entendu
je
feats;
things.
heard
absurd
him
say
absurdes, i

5. What

is the
Leur
ex.

is

they;

meaning

(Latin

but

it is

ex.:

more

to

it is also

habit

of

been

English

do

not

avons

pas

is the

m'en

using en
not

any

to

include

responding
coren

nous

re-

responding
partitivecor-

as

have

some

you

left,

en

sentences

some

of
"

and

has

many

(dictionary)

meaning

there;

again

it

as

use

pronoun

in this connexion

achetez-en

"

ex.

ex.

have

as

of

from

come

it

its

any
avez-

reste;

extended

HAVE

7. What

Yes, I

"

oui, il

still preserves

any

Us,

pronoun

of en?

use

speak

some,

their

them.

to

about

iT^

their;

book,

personal

frequentlyused

very

(tobacco)?

and

shall

to

the

the

their

I
fen mens,
frequentlyused
OF

parlerons,we

vousf

of

thence)

inde,

adverb;

an

dative

parley leur, speak

is the
En

possessiveadjectivemeaning

ex.:

derful
won-

choses

of leur?

use

livre, leurs livres,

b)

books;

6. What

a)

leur

and

meaning

see,

in this

la,

le,

the

case

voir, to

buy

any

which
;

one;

ally
gradu-

ex.
nous

in
we

n'en

un.

of y?

use

(Latin ibi, there) has also an adverbial use; ex.:


j'y hahite, I live
going
there;
j'y vais, I am
THERE,
was

and
thinking

pronominal
of

it.

use

ex.

j'y pensais, I

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

REFLEXIVE

B.

1. What

CLEAR

59

PRONOUNS

reflexive

the

are

They

MADE

in French?

pronouns

are:

me

myself

te

thyself,yourself
himself
herself

se

itself
one's

Ex.
SHE

nous

ourselves

vous

yourselves

se

themselves

je

brosse, I

me

WASHES

brush

HERSELF;

one's

BLAME

TO

self

se

IS

SELF

myself

c'est

hlamev

TO

elle

se

ONE's

IMPROVE

se

lave,

corriger,
SELF.

Note.
1. These

pronouns
in the
pronouns

(Latin

se

2. Being

2.

What

is

or

are

exactly the

accusative

same

with

the

sese).

objects they

are

placed before

and
use
meaning
etc.?
Im-meme^

the

toumeme,

the personal
as
exception of sk

of

the

moi-meme,

Toi-meme

myself
thyself,yourself

Lui-meme

himself, itself

Elle-meme

herself,

Soi-meme

one's

Nous-memes

ourselves

Vous-memes

yourselves

Moi-meme

Eux-memes
Elle s-m

ernes

itself

self

themselves

verb.

60

FRENCH

These

o)

GRAMMAR

differ

inasmuch

as

etc., in which

CONTRE,

omitted

vaille pour
OF

b)

soi

Us
think

to

I, EVEN

even
even

ex.:

write

shall

2. in
he

myself,

he,

WAS

penser

self,

as

ceci moi-meme;
j'ecrirai

correspond

eux-

subjectsin apposition,
they correspond to myself,

which

etc.;

thyself,

qu'a

in

cases

one's

of

tra-

think

they

pensent

fie

je

myself,

moi;

pour

or

to

eiix;

for

w^ork

frequentlyused

are

1. in

themselves^

(-meme)

they

ex.

quently
is fre-

hemes

meme,

case

moi-meme

or

memes,

CLEAR

entirelyfrom the reflexive pronouns


used as objects except
they are never
after prepositionslike a, de, pour,

and
dtirectly

ONLY

MADE

etc. ; ex.

myself,

this

in which

cases

etc.,

himself,

moi-meme

FRIGHTENED,

Or

they
to

or

feus peur,

WAS

MYSELF

FRIGHTENED.

The

meaning

C.

POSSESSIVE

the

are

only
They
IN

be the

same

if

should

one

say:

moi, feus peur.

meme

1. What

would

English

one

PRONOUNS

possessive
person?

pronouns

refer

to

are:

in

mine

le

thine

miens, les

les
one's

le

(sing)
miennes
(pi.)

tien,la tienne (sing.)

le

own,

French

mien, lamienne

les

his, hers, its

that

Hens, les tiennes (pi.)

sien, la siemie

(sing.)

lessiens,les sienncs (pi.)

62

FRENCH

IT

Js

cette

GRAMMAR

NOT

MINE,

hallef

MADE

THINK

IT

n'est pas

ce

CLEAR

Tom's

IS

moi, je

crois

stamps,
rather

than

est

qui

ii

c'est

que

Tom.

Note.
In

plural, speaking

the
should

4. What

is the

These

and

(or

celui

and

of

Tom,

it

the

to
that

is

c'est

and

use

of

celle-ci

(fern.)

PI.

Ceux-ci

(masc),

cellcs-ci

(fern.)

(masc),

cellc-la

(fern.)

(masc),

celles-la

(fern.)

These

demonstratives

THOSE

and
(speaking of thing*s)
or

to

THE

people); ex.:
faime mieux
KNOW

Grant
THE

that

and
latter

correspond

THE

FORMER,

to

to

je connais

one,

the

former

grand soldat,celui-ci

un

that,

one,

that

(speakingof

LATTER,

prefer

these,

soldiers)I
celui-la; (speaking of
was

STRATEGIST,

deep

this,

this

(speaking of pens) I
celles-ci;(speaking

Lee)

c'est

celui-ci,celui-la?

(masc),

ONE,

by

is

Tom.

Celui-ci

Ceux-la

it

ex.

Sing.

PI.

of,

PRONOUNS

meaning

Sing. Celui-la

we

Tom.

that

is translated

Tom)

DEMONSTRATIVE

is the

instance,

both

to

possessivecase

of

c'est celle de

or

for

de, celle de, etc.?

celui

of

meaning

OF,

Tom's

1. What

sont

possessives correspond

THOSE

D.

Us

say:

of

great

Celui-Ul

pro fond stratege.

soldier,

fut

UH

FR'ENCH

is the

2. What

and

meaning

63

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

qui, celle

celui

of

use

qui, etc.?
Sing. Celid qui (masc.)

celle

qui (fern.)

Ceux

qui (masc.)

celles

qui (fern.)

said both

of persons

PJ.
are

to

HE

and

WHICH^

ONE

THE

THE

WHO,

(speaking generally) He who


ccliii qui couvt
CAN
ing
peut lire: (speakREAD,
in particular)I know
of certain persons
the
STAND
WHO
qui sont
je cofinais ccux
THERE,

ONE

which;

RUNS

ONES

la

THAT

WHO^

thingsand correspond

and

ex.:

dehout;

qui

who

celui

est

who

one

the

is

running?

is

court?

qui

Note.

Celui

qui

is the

3. What

dort

as

he

dine,

in

qui

proverbial sentences,

sleeps needs

who

correspond

celui-la,

to

this,

rappelcz-vous ccci;

Tiiis^

THAT,

ne

dinner.

no

of ceci, cela?

meaning

demonstratives, abbreviated

These

OF

is abbreviated

qui

ex.

dites

de

mot

from

celui-ci,

that;

ex.:

never

say

ber
remema

word

cela.

Note.

^A

is

colloquial contraction

dites-nous

THAT,

4.

is the

What
Ce
IT

c'

or

IS

(it is)

and

NOT

c'esf

son

ches

Shazv.

his

ce
esprif,

us

of ce?

use

(before vowels)
true,

tell

ex.:

cela;

ca.

meaning

NOT

of

corresponds to

n'est pas

ce

ideas
ne

THAT

sont

vrai;
I

pas

ses

it

his

is

ENJOY
idees

it;

IN

que

ex.:

wit,

ShAW,
faime

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

64

CLEAR

Note.
1. Ce

replaced by

is

il est

ex.:

2. c'est

vrai

is used
to

jeune
3. SuR

she

c'est

means

sur

CE

whereupon

5. What

is the
Ce

ce

WHICH

; ex.

croyez

pas

WHICH

E.

1. What

: sur

of

use

EXCESS,

you

vous

in

D.

to

A.

whom

says,

ne

le

tout

monde,

whom

which

to

which

two

are

are:

which

the relative pronouns

qui, who,

Gen.

de

whom,

to

(with

que

is used

singular. Ex.

qui

me

whom,

of

which.

A\rhich.

to

1
.

...

whom,

which,.

preposit.)J

in

: the

of

verb)

(with

qui

in French.

which.

qui, whose,

qui,

in French?

relative pronouns

of

sets

Nom.

le medecin

and

what

everybody,

English

of

set

PRONOUNS

whose

This

ex.

que?

ce

he

croyez

G.

Ace

adieux.

exagere.

RELATIVE

both

believe

which

Dat.

is

cette

est

scs

qui,

ce

what

who

are

il Ht

ce

to

believe

N.

There

a)

good-bye

relative pronouns

The

qui

this,whereupon

upon

qu'il dit;

AN

est

cela,

not

do

ce

IS

qui

who

ex.

ferring
re-

is.

she

is,

GIRL

correspond

que

that;

frangaise.

une

and

meaning

true

French

said

he

qui,

Ce

IS

Ullef

is

follows;

de

or

que

English has he
already mentioned

person

GIRL?

THIS

it

que:

where

when

il

the

doctor

plural as
who

soignait; A

well

looked
play

as
after
which

in the
mf,
df.-

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

LIGHTED

ME,

les chauteurs

HEARD,

WE

THE

TEACHER

(tvec

qui foi

WHOM

WITH

65

CLEAR

picccqiiim'a

uiie

WHOM

MADE

ram;

singers

entendions

nous

que
I

the

le llimtre

STUDIED,

travaille.

Note.
De

frequently replaced by

is

qui

whose

to

but

robust

by
BODY,

POWERFUL

WHOSE

LETE

followed

N.

uu

corresponding,'

dont,

article;

an

ex.:

att-

athlete dofit le covins

e...

Singular

b)

the

laquelle(fern.) who,

lequel (masc),

G. duqucl (masc),

de

D.

auquel (masc),

A.

lequel (masc), laquelle(fem.) whom,


Plural

laquelle(fem.)-"

which

laquelle(fem.) "i

which

N. les quels(masc), les quelles(fem.) who, which


G.

des

D.

aiix

A.

les

quels (masc.) des quelles(iem.) '{

quels(masc)

aux

TO

WHICH

WE

referring;
venus,

sommes

nous
WHICH

AM

DUbVE

quelles(fem.) i

(i^m..)whom,
quels(masc) les quelles
le diner auquel je fais allusion,the

Ex.

la voiture
the

which
dinner

dans

carriage

quelle
lain

HERE.

Note.

hardly used except in the genitive,


auquel), and the accusative after
a
preposition (/a voiture dans laquelle,)but it should
in these
when
referring to
always be used
cases
animals
or
things.

Lequel,
the

lesquels

dative

is

(le diner

66

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

MADE

the relative pronouns


inferred from
the two

be

their usage
can
above.
declensions

2. Decline

as

Singular

Nom.

CLEAR

Qui

(persons and things)


Dont, de qui (persons); dont, duquel (things)
A qui,auquel (persons); auquel, (things)
Que (persons and things) with a verb.
Qui (persons); lequel,
laquelle(things)with
a
preposition.

Gen.
Dat
Ace.

Plural

Nom.

Qui (persons and

things)
De qui,dont (personsand things); dont, desquels (things).
A qui,auxquels (pers.and things^; auxquels
(things).

Gen.

Dat.

Ace.

(pers.and things) with verb.


Qui (persons); les quels (things)
preposition.
Que

with

Note.

After
I

CE
WAS

WAS

avait

F.

What
.

and

OF,

NOTHING

rien

relative

the

rien,

THINKING

ce

COULD

Qui?
De

Dat.

Ace.

Quif

ex.

MAKE

FIRE

WITH,

what
there

il

tl'y

feu.

PRONOUNS

interrogative pronouns
of persons?

Gen.

is quoi

quoi je pensais;

quoi je pouvais faire du

avec

INTERROGATIVE

Nom.

0,

are

who?

qidf
quif

of
to

whom?

whom?
whom?

used

in

speaking

FRENCH

MADE

GRAMMAR

Ex.:

Qui

est

VOUSf

TO

WHOM

VOUSf

WHOM

la?

who

qui

SOUfieS

UP?

RINGING

YOU

qui ecrivez-

WRITING?

YOU

ARE
ARE

there?

is

67

CLEAR

Note.
Instead
QUI

nom.

QUI?

EST-CE

WHO

2. What

in the

of qui

cx.

often uses
colloquialFrench
appellef
est-cc
qui vous
QUI

YOU?

CALLS

Quoif

Gen.

quoi? of what?
A
quoi? to what?
Que? qu'estce que?

que?

cases?

qu'est-cequi? what?

Nom.

De

Dat.
Ace.

WHAT?

Ex.:

WHAT

dites-vous?

VOuleZ?

what?

HAS

WHAT

diies?

vous

voulez-vous

que

quoi?

SAYING?

YOU

ARE

qu'est-ceque

or

WANT?

YOU

in other

the interrogativepronouns

are

qu'est-ceque

or

HAPPENED

what

YOU?

TO

que

que
do

vous
VOUS

est-il arrive?

3. What

what
?

by itself is translated, by

it is
preposition
qui? Ex.: what?
a

translated
what

qu* {que) arrive-t-il?


4. Is it possible

of

?, Followed

by

or

QUOi

by QUE.^
is

translate

to

translation

nominative?

in the

What

the

about

noticed

be

is to

by qu'est-ce
quoi?

or

happening?

qu'est-cequi

arrive?

into

accurately

which?

French?

RiDE.^

Followed
a

(speaking

ex.:

QUELs;
YOU

of

lequel voulcz-vous

by

noun

circumlocution:

deux

by lequel?
horses) which

by itself is translated

Which?

juments?)

it
which

can

leswill

monter?

only
mare?

be

translated

by

laquelle {des

68

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

G.

1. What

They
on,

INDEFINITE

the

are

MADE

CLEAR

PRONOUNS

indefinite

in French?

pronouns

are:

each

chacun, every,

one

quelqu'un,somebody

plusieurs,several, some
certains,certain, some

nobody

personne,

quelque chose, something

tel,such

rUn, nothing

tout, all,the whole

aucun,
un,

nul, no

quiconque,
quoi

one

whoever

whatever

que,

autre, other

2. Which

indefinite
used

is the

pronoun

frequently

most

in French?

It is

ON

only

to

(Lat. homo,

(ex.:

ONE,

man)
one

which

often

corresponds not
thinks,

croit

on

souvent) but also corresponds to:

a)

MAN,

ex.

b)

PEOPLE,

WE,

WE

SOMEBODY,

people

or

c)

you;

ex.:
on

d)

say

they;

frappc; they
au
Capitole;
you

somebody

ex.:

work

in

ne

notice

remarquent

rien.

on

dit

on

is

tort;

knocking,

Capitol,

on

on

travaille

Pennsylvania

de

la garc

nothing,

the

from

passive constructions;
to

(said, related, etc.);

IS

wrongly,

start

de

part

IT

tion,
sta-

Pensylvanic ;

ex.:

boys

imagine

are

que

supposed

les gargons

70

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

Resume

What

rules

Personal
lis

exemplified

are

Pronouns

chantent,

Ellcs chantent,
Tu

They sing.
speak too much.
"Right!" he will say.
You

paries trop,

"Bien!"

dira-t-il,

Maman

nous

Je

te le

rappellerai,

Si

vous

Mother

appelle,

If you

faites le

do

pensez-y

think

souvenez-vous

"Qui

viendra

es

brave!

un

moi?"

avec

et

toi,vous

Ltd

est

un

sot,

Je

lui

ai

dit

"

are

Who

is
I

lui

Je

You

He

j'irais

que

ai

dit

j'irais

que

elle^

avec

Qui

resterez

leur

chien?

prisleur

of

you

it.

me

it.

it.

of

You

lui,

avec

do

so,

"

Charles

us.

help

can

it.

remember

en

tu

calls

I /shall
remind

m'aider

pouvez

Toi!

following?

in the

man!

brave

coming w^ith

me?

am.

and

Charles will stay.

is

fool.

told

him

with

him.

told

her

with

her.

Who

would

go

would

go

stole their

dog

from

them?

J'y

reflechirai

et

vous

en

bon

sens

will
write

ecrirai.

Du

! II n'en

pas !

Sense!

think
you
He

it

and

over

about

it.

has none!

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

Boston

arrive !

J' en

etais il y

/' y

MADE

CLEAR

Boston

! I have

six heures!

Va

te

Elle
II est

there

Go

is

She

brosse,
de

temps

and

brosser,

se

Nov^

hours

ago.

Tu

travailles

is the

Ta

mere

You

toi,

pour

elle-meme

le

sait,

herself.

time

brush

to

self.

yourself.
for

v^ork

Even

yourself.

brushing

that

Do

toi-meme,

cela

six

brush

one's

Fais

there!

brosser,

se-

rived
just ar-

from
was

Reflexive

71

yourself.

mother

your

knows

it.

Possessive:
II

Elle

fini le sien
a

fini le

(devoir),
sien (de'voir),

has finished his

He
She

finished

has

(task).
hers

(task).
Have

fini les votresf

Avez-vous

bains

salle de

I'armoire

vous,

N'etait elle pas

Non,
dans

celle

moi,

Louise

est

chambre,

celui-ci

bath

the

yours,

No,

it

closet

be

mine.

Louise's?

not

Louise's

other

will

room

is in

the

room.

(rasoir),

Celui-ci (Jackson) etait democrate,

The

Was

Louise?

Demonstrative

Essayez

sera

()

de

I'autre

(tasks).

(devoirs),
La

finished yours

you

celui-la

ton)
(Hamil-

federaliste,

Try
The
a

this
latter

one

(razor).

(Jackson

Democrat,

(Hamilton)

"i was

the former
a

Federal-

72

FRENCH

Ceux

GRAMMAR

qui arriveront
vois

je

que

tard
re-

CLEAR

Those

punis,

seront

Celui

en

MADE

who

be

le

dans

punished.

The

one

in the

gymnase,

Qui m'aime

gymnasium.

follow

Montrez

moi

cela,

Let

Regardez (moi) gd!


Ce

qu'ilaime

sont

ce

ses

II

Cetait

dit que

ne

ce

qu'ilveut

dire.

that!

at

he loves is his

own

was

He

She

Rachel?

was

famous

only
wants

Relative
Le

look

Who

actrice celebre,

une

me

comfort.

etait Rachel?

Qui

loves

that.

see

What

aises,

who

me.

me

Just

there

over

see

(Let him)

suive,

me

late will

come

what

says

to

actress.

he

say.

Frangais

qui je

avec

The

whom

correspondaisr
La

laquelle
plume avec
j'ecrivais,
Les lettres que jegardais,

The

used

pen

used
The

with

Frenchman

with

to

to

respond.
cor-

which

write.

letters

used

to

keep.
Les choses dont

nous

par-

lions,
Ce

sur

The
we

quoi je vous

con-

What

which

subjectsabout
used
I want

to

talk.
your

advice

about.

suite,
Interrogative:

Qui

va

vous?

la?

Qui cherchez-

Who
are

goes
you

there?

Whom

seeking?

FRENCH

Qu'cst-ce

lisez-vous?

Que

qui

do

What

? What

read

you

do

take

you

terest
in-

an

in?

vous

73

pleases you?

interessez-

vous

CLEAR

What

plait?

vous

quoi

MADE

GRAMMAR

"Ah!

"Johnson

m'a

ecrit*'"

Lequel

des

Johnson?"

"Johnson

has

""Oh!

written
Which

me"

son?"
John-

Indefinite:

On

parle toujours

On

Sonne,

On

chante

On

prend

On

always

Someone
en

haut,

gauche,

(lira

vous

Est-ce

One

trop,

que.

qu'il n'est

venu

personne

est

too

says

is

much.

ringing.

They

are

singing upstairs.

You

turn

You

will

Has

no

Yes,

somebody

the

to

left.

told

be

that...

per-

come?

one

sonnef

Si,

une

Elle

dit

qu'elle

venue,

revien-

He

drait,
11

n'y

said

did
would

he

call.
call

again.
personne

de

plus

is

Nobody

stupid.

more

bete,

Je

ne

Je

ne

Ne

rappelle

me

me

vous

(/'autre

suis

rien

rien,

remember

rappele,

remembered

rappelez-vous
?

rien

Don't

you

nothing.
nothing.
remember

else ?

thing
any-

VERBS

Plan

A.

of

chapter

this

Introductory

B.

French

C.

Differences
in

D.

remarks

verbs.

conjugations.
in

Enghsh

Classes

the

Interrogation

"

in

tenses

INTRODUCTORY

and

French

Negation.

"

(passive, intransitive,

Verbs

of

the

of

use

reciprocal, impersonal,

A.

French

on

reflexive,

defective.)

FRENCH

ON

REMARKS

VERBS

Are

verbs

French

difficult

more

English verbs?

than

The

infinitive

simplicity,the
five

changes
he

walkest,

is
other

2.

What

are

the

Each

the

is

thou

French,

whereas

only by

the

to

sure

its

pronoun.

form

is of

alleled
unpar-

undergoing

only
thou

walking, walked,
and

of

conjugation

verbs

the

sequence
con-

in

any

complicated.

appear

the

between

French

verb?

English

in

verb

walkedst),

differences

has

i)erson

walk,

to

the

that

chief

and

walks,

language

verb

a)

(ex.

English

the

of

conjugation

own

particular ending

English

the

For

instance

person
the

is indicated
word

walk

in

has

definite

no

YOU,

WE,

endings

Ex.

vary.

walk

You

French

they

there

march

cz

the

in

Latin:

all

because

there

the

language

more

accuracy,

French,

(to

aimer

English, but

in

there

as

love),

finir

were

(to

(to render)

(to receive), rendre

conjugated according to different models


their endings (er, ir, oir, re) are different;
the tenses
slightdifferences also between
and
in English,the advantage being in

are

French

favor

bequeathed to
Latin
conjugation;

been

conjugation

four

in

ent

one

finish),RECEvoiR
are

to

harmony

are

march

have

lend

only

is

four

in

vous

by

doubt

no

there

c)

ons

language

variety,and

h)

march

personal endings

These

nous

Us

walk

They

the

je march

walk

We

French

prefixedby I,
the personal

walk

in

whereas

THEY,

it is

unless

meaning

75

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

sometimes

of

one,

of

sometimes

the

other

language:
L

The

present progressive(I

the emphatic present (I


in
is the

2. I

English,do

not

do

walking) and
walk), so expressive
am

exist in French

je marchc

only form;

WALKED

or

WAS

WALKING

cau

be translated

(imperfect), je
je marchais
marchai, (simple past), or j'ai marche
pound
(compast); that is to say, the Englishlanguage
employs only two forms for the imperfect and
into

French

by:

Id

FRENCH

the

GRAMMAR

simple past,
translate

to

MADE

and

the

CLEAR

frequentlyuses

compound

past

pluperfect{f avals marche)


that
3. The

French

is

French

; the

of them

one

clearer;

language

possesses

by the pluperfectbut
mentioned

HAD

EATEN

convenient

very

came

before

SLEPT^

aprcs

language

future

(I

lacks

shall

another

6. the

offers

Division

which

or

the

the

French

only three persons

has

let

me

four

only

not

walk)

will

walk

tenses,

in every

stead
incase

in

additional clarityand

FRENCH

elegance

CONJUGATIONS

Section

this

Preliminary.

B)

Conjugation of

C)

Conjugation
on

has

expressive

very

result.

A)

remarks

: after

English but in many others


the past
Eng'lishlanguage uses

future:

the

our

equivalent for

is used

it is used

in

of

and

one,

in which

B.

real

no

subjunctivein
of

are

; ex.

quifeusjuonge,je

walk,

5. the imperative in French


and

the

^('"^.
|5t"A

French

double

glish
En-

into

indicating that

dormis;
4. the

is

consequence

tense, viz.,the past anterior, translated

action

the

even

or

of

Avoir
verbs

(to have)
in

er,

irregularverbs

ir,

in

and

Eire

oir,

and

(to be).
re,

frequent use.

with

FRENCH

2. What

GRAMMAR

the

is

best

CLEAR:

MADE

method

for

French

learning

verbs?
French

verbs

quickly learned,

are

but
repetition,
their

by

examination

careful

of

personal and

merous
temporal endings, (noticingnuresemblances
and
occasional
differences),

and

2.

of

verbs

hour's

by

easy

but

frequent exercises

suggested by
attention

real

which

3. What

1.

by parrotlike

not

seem

the

are

at

another
the

marvelous

personal

half

person;
will

outset

endings

secure

the

in

an
sults
re-

thoughtless.

the

only to

variety

on

present

indicative?

There
1. Verbs

four

are

conjugations:

the infinitive of which

ends

in er;

IR

oiR

RE

Present

Aimer

II aim

aim

Nous

Vons
Us

aim

aim

ent

ons

ez

ex.

finir
recevoir
rendre

iin is
fin is

Tu

es

ex.

Finir
Je

aim

Tu

; ex.
;

aimer

Indicative

J 'aim. e

ex.

fin it

Nous

fin issons

Vous

fin issez

Us

fin issent

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

Recevoir
Je

CLEAR

Je

ois

rcg

rend

Tu

rend

Nous

recev

ons

Nous

rend

Vous

recev

ez

Vous

rend

lis

lis rend

regoivent
aim, fin,reg,
syllables

The

II rend

oit

II reg

79

Rendre

ois

reg

Tu

MADE

of

the

verbs
is

REND

RE,

that

does

not

change

added

fin

er,

to

in the

ez

ent

called the radical

are

rec

ir,

the

say

radical

the

to

aim

rend

ons

syllable which

root

conjugation.The
called

are

and

evoir,

syllables

terminations

or

endings.
If

examine

we

in

1. that

the

the

are

ENT,

the

of

indicative

four

2. that

in the

person

is

second

is

in the

after

all

need

aime

in

Now

it is all

we

or

only

j'aimeand

shall find

we

ons,

ez,

conjugations:

il

the

except in aimer;
that

observe

one

aime, differs from

important to

remember

found

in the

plural of

each

that

so

form, viz.
the

rest.

above, that the endings ons,

stated

are

four

present

ending of the first


except in aimer; b) the ending of the
in all four conjugations; c) the ending

third is

as

above

the

terminations

singular,a)

of the

1.

verbs

plural the

same

in

terminations

the

tense

ez,

ent

in every

conljugation;
2. that

tense

every

3. that
in

in the second

all

future

or

of

each

singularis
conjugation;
person

in the third person

found

singularis

in

found

conjugationsbut the first,except in the


and the imperativeand subjunctive.

80

FRENCH

What

4.

GRAMMAR

the

are

CLEAR

MADE

in each

(or tense) endings

temporal

conjugation?
The

by

observing

compound
the

verb

this

to

answer

the

tenses

question should

distinction

simple

consists of

only

j'aimais, simple past,

imp.

consist

tenses

etre,

ex.

ex.

pres.

by

the

have

or

part, of

past

past, j'ai aime,

compound

faime,

j'aimai; compound

auxiliary {avoir, to

an

followed

be)

to

verb

of

and

in which

those

are

word

preceded

simple

between

tenses

one

be

future

the
terior,
an-

j'aurai aime;
it

clear

being

end

with
to

past part,

simple

Terminations

that

then

of

need

we

in

tenses

simple

1.

compound
the

tenses

only give

following

aim

ant

iiniss ant

Past.

Part.

aim

fin i

"

"

Pres.

j'aim

je

fin is

Imperfect

faim

ais

je

finiss ais

faim

ai

je

fin is

je

Uni

fini rais

Simple
"

Past

Future

rai

faime

Conditional

j'aime rais

je

Imperative

Aim

'Fin is

Subj.
"

table:

ir.

er.

Part.

"

Present

In^erfect

tion
atten-

2. Finir,

Pres.

Indie.

our

always

in

Aimer,

Infinitive

tenses

e^

que

j'aim

que

j'aimass e

rai

que

je finiss

que

je

finiss

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

CLEAR

4.

3. Recevoir,
oir.

Infinitive
Part.

Pres.

Past. Part.

reg

ois

Pres.

je reg

Imperfect

je

recev

Past

je

reg

Future

je

recev

Conditional

je

recev

Imperative

Reg ois

Indie.
"

"

Simple
"

Subj.
"

rend

ant

rend

je

rend

je

rend

ais

je

rend

is

rat

je

rend

rai

rats

je

rend

rais

ais
lis

Rend

que

je regoiv e

que

je rend

que

je

que

je rendiss

Present

Imperfect

Rendre,
re.

ant

recev

81

regiiss

Note.

of the

termination

1. The

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

past, and
The

of the

conclusion

tenses, except
the
in

same

"

conditional

ant."
ais

"

"

"

RAI

"

"

rats

subj. pres.
subj. imperf.

e...-

"

"

se

"

indie, of the simple


present
in aimer:
is
imperative
s, except
of the

termination

2. The

part, is always

future

"

pres.

imperfect

"

"

the

is that
the

past

conjugation

in every

of

terminations

infinitive and

part.,
and

can

all
are

be

simple
cally
practilearnt

moment.

Exercise

1. To

what

[ parler,to

^ courir,to
^

conjugation do the followingverbs belong?


speak

venir^ to

run.

to
lire,

pourvoir,to provide

to
l\tendre,

stretch

come

read

croire, to

believe

decev.oir, to

disappoin;

82

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

2. What

be

should

the

CLEAR

MADE

personal

the

with

pronoun

following verbs?

3. In what
decev

tense

are

ant

tend

ant

je pari ais
ais

je
je

decev

je

di rai

tend

je croi

ais

rai

je tend rai
What

is

following verbs?

je parle rais
je viend rais
je li rats
que je vienn e
que je lis e
e
que je tend
se
que je inns
que je lus se

ant

pari

the

je

que

the

formation

criis

ai

li sais

je

que

lus

se

croir ais

je

rai

je
je
je
je
je

decev

ais

viend

rai

derivation

of

se

or

lir

je
je

cour

ais

ven

viend

rais

tenses

in

French?
The

1. The
add

present

(1) Medieval
ecrire) which

habeo,

I have

French

wrote

corresponded
to

love

have

French

infinitive;
ex.:

(1), you

AI

AIS, you

in

principaltenses

have

have

j'aimer
to
to

are:

aimer;

the future;

the conditional

an

the low
write.

(i.e.j'ai
Latin

ex.

aimer)

future

j'aimerai;

ex.:

amare

j'aimerais;

j'ecrire ai (i.e. j'ai


habeo,

scribere

substitute

substitute

for

similar

ant;

5. the past

ant;

the

TO

verbs
shall

DONE

; ex.

have

it,

LOSING

French

anterior, conditional

subjunctivepluperfect.

and

etre,

to

have

IT,

avoir, to
and

intransitive

and

WAS

then,

;
to

WAS

aries
auxili-

be,

SHOULD

walked,
HAVE

as

SHALL

in

auxiliary

the

j'ai parle,

is used

reflexive

had

transiti
in-

and

QUESTIONED;

is used
ex.

WAITING,

BEING

have,

verbs

etre,

come,

it

GOING,

am

be.

conjugation?

in

finished

transitive

SPOKEN,
of

terminates

compound past, pluperfect,

have,

used

are

aim as;

tu

ex.

noticed
ought to be particularly
irregularverbs.

studying the

avoir,

aime;

used as
and to be are
English to have
in the conjugationboth of transitive

In

of

subj. pres.;

aime, which

tenses, viz.

principaltenses

ex.

pers. ;

anterior, future

auxiliaries

BE

the

subj.imp., que j'aimas"se;

past, subjunctivepast, and

imperfect;

faime;

in the second

have

compound

Auxiliaries:

have

you

participle
; ex.

past

1. What

the

have

you

imperat.sing.;

the

to

SE_, you

in

aim ons;

indicative; ex.:

simplepast

These

indie, pres.

j'aime;

que

3. the present

add

the

have

you

faim ais;

ex.

ant

for

ais

substitute

all

aim ant;

imperat. plural;ex.:

the

plural and
ex.

for

ons

S3

CLEAR

ex.:
present participle;

2. the

4. the

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

as

verbs ;

have

the auxiliary
ex.

je

suis

84

FRENCH

venu,
GONE

GRAMMAR

HAVE

GROWN

CLEAR

elle etait montee,

COME,

UPSTAIRS,

HAVE

MADE

HOus

iious

had

she

fdches,

sommes

we

ANGRY.

important,therefore,to give the conjugatioti


of
verbs
these two
at
pointing out their
once,
irregularities.
It is

2. What

the

are

in the conjugation of
irregularities

avoir?
Avoir

is

irregularin

the pres.

part. :

ayantf

past. part.:

eu,

sing,of

feus,

simple past:
future

faurai ( 1 )

conditional

faurais,

subjunctive:
All

these
habere

verb

B.

or

OF

CONJUGATION

Conjugate
Infinitive

the

traced

que

to

the

j'aie,
Latin

its transformations.

to

TO

AVOIR,
TO

3.

be

can
irregularities

j'ai,

indie, pres.:

verb

AND

HAVE,

"TRE,

BE

avoir.

Present.

Avoir,

to

have.

Past.
Avoir
(1.) The
rrmembei

i'aurai and

eu,

to

have

had.

the conditional
future
and
French
used
indifferently u and
word.
the same

disappears when

irregularity in the
that

medieval

j'avrai

were

in

writing,

so

wc

that

86

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

MADE

Past.

Compound
J'ai eu,
Tu

II

I have

had

cu

as
a

CLEAR

eu

Nous

avons

Vous

avez

Us

ont

eu
eu

eu

Pluperfect.
ravais

avals

Tu
II

I had

eu,

avait

eu
eu

Nous

avions

Vous

aviez

lis avaient

eus

eu

had

eu

II eut

eu

Nous

eumes

Vous

eutes

lis

eu

I had

eu,

Tu

eu

Anterior.

Past
reus

had, I had

eurent

eu
eu
eu

Future.

raurai,
Tu
II

I shall have

auras
aura

Nous

aurons

Vous

aurez

lis auront

been

having

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

Tu
II

I shall

eu,

auras

have

had

eu
eu

aura

Nons
Vous

S7

Anterior.

Future
Paurai

CLEAR

aurons

eu
eu

aurez

lis auront

eu

Conditional

Present.
have

J'aurais,I should
Tu

aura-is

II aurait

aurions

Nous
Vous

auries

lis auraient

Past.
Faurais
Tu

I should

eu,

aurais

II aurait

eu
eu

Nous

aurions

Vous

auries

lis auraient

Imperative

have

eu
eu

eu

let
Que j'aie,

me

have

Ate, have
Qu'il ait, let him

Ayons,
Ayes,

let

us

have

have

have

Qu'ilsaient,let them

have

had

88

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

Subjunctive:
Present.

Que

faie,

Que

tu

that

may

have

aies

Qu'il ait
Que

nous

ayons

Que

vous

ayes

Qu'ils aient

Imperfect.
that
Que j'eusse,
Que tu eusses

might

have

Qu*il eut
Que

nous

eussions

Que

vous

eussiez

Qu'ilseussent
Past.

Que j'aieeu,
Que

aies

tu

Qu'U ait
Que

nous

Que

vous

I may

that

have

had

eu

eu
eu

ayons
ayes

Qu'ilsaient

eu

eu

Pluperfect.
Que j'eusseeu, that
Que

tu

eusses

Qu'il exit

eu

eu

Que

nous

eussions

Que

vous

eussiez

Qu'ils

eussent

eu

eu
eu

might

have

had

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

MADE

CLEAR

89

Note.

always seem
Compounrl tenses
puzzling at first,
yet they
similar
in
and
in
are
English
exactly
French, as appears
translates
clearly when
one
separately,
very
Ex.

faurais -J- had,

4.

Conjugate

the

had

have

should

verb

cu

divide

should

have,

j'aurais cu.

=.

to

etre,

be.

Infinitive:

-^.

Present.

Etre,

be

to

Past.
Avow

ete, to

Pres.

have

been

Part.

"tant, being
Part.

Past.

"te,

been

Part.

Compound
Ay

ant

etc,

having

Indicative:
Present.
Je suis^ I
Tit

es

II est
Nous

sommes

Vous

etes

lis sont

am

been

90

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

CLEAR

MADE

Imperfect.
J'

etais^ I

was

etais

Tu

II etait
Nous

etions

Vous

eties

lis etaient

Simple
Je fus, I
Tu

Past.

was

fus

fut

II

Nous

fumes

Vous

futes

lis

furent
Past.

Compound

I have

J'ai ete^
Tu
II

ete

as

ete

Nous

avons

Vous

avez

lis

been

ont

ete
ete

ete

Pluperfect.
J'avais
Tu

ete, I had

avals

etc

II avait ete
Nous

aiAons

Vous

avies

lis avaient

ete

ete
ete

been

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

Past

Pens
7

II

I had

ete,

eut

been

ete

ete

Nous

Climes

Vons

elites

lis

91

Anterior.

ens

CLEAR

eurent

ete
ete

ete

Future.
Je

serai, I shall be

Til
II

seras
sera

Nous

serons

Vous

serez

lis

seront

Future

Paurai
Tu
II

e^e,

shall have

et^i

auras

ete

aura

Nous

aurons

Vous

aures

lis

Conditional

Anterior.

auront

ete

He
ete

Present.
le

serais,I

Tu

should

serais

II serait
Nous

serions

Vous

series

lis seraient

be

been

FRENCH

92

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

Past.
ete, I should

raurais
Tu

aurais

II aurait

been

have

ete
ete-.

Nous

aurions

Vous

auries

ete
ete

lis auraient

ete

Imperative

Que je sots, let


Sois, be

me

be

Qu'il soit, let him

be

Soyons, let
Soyes, be

us

be

Qu'ils soient, let


Subjunctive

them

be

Present.

Que

je sois, that

Que

tu

I may

be

sois

Qu'il soit

Que

nous

Que

vous

soyons
soyes

Qu'ilssoient

Imperfect.
Que

je fusse, that

Que

tu

fusses

Qu'il flit
Que
Que

nous
vous

fussions
fussies

Qu'ils fussent

might

be

FRENCH

94

GRAMMAR

3i00 in iR, and


in

end

all the

other

the

invent

French

they conjugate it on aimer


ir), and for this reason
or

verbs

(about 4,000)

er.

Whenever

ER

CLEAR

MADE

IR

are

called

adopt

or

(in
the

few

verb,

new
on

cases

fiu-

conjugationsin
the less important

two

"living"while

conjugationsin oir and re are termed "dead."


The
conjugation in er is the easiest of the four
and has only two irregularverbs in daily use.

First

3.

Conjugate

4000

Conjugation (er)

verb

in

Verbs.

(1)

er,

Infinitive:
Present.

Aim

(2).

er

love

to

Past.
Avoir

Participle

aim

e, to

have

loved

Present.
Aim

ant,

loving

Past.
Aim

e,

loved

Compound

'

Past.

Ayant aime, having


(1)
other

(2)

Tlie
verbs
The

the

moment

in

er,

student

kr

aimer

he

will do

varying the order of the


corresponds to latin verbs in

constantly

termination

knows

loved
well

always

to

practise

tenses.

are,

ex.:

aimer.

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

CLEAR

95

Indicative:

Present.
J'aim

I love

e,

aim

Tu

es

II aim

Nous

aim

Vous

aim

lis aim

ons
es

ent

Imperfect.
J'aim

ais, I loved,
ait

aim

II

Nous

aim

ions

Vous

aim

iez

lis aim

event

Simple

Past.

ai,

I loved

J'aim

aim

Tu

as

II aim

Nous

aim

dmes

Vous

aim

cites

lis aim

erent^

Past.

Compound
aim

Fai
Tu
II

as

aim

avons

Vous

avez

ont

have

Nous

lis

e,

aim

was

ais

aim

Tu

aim

aim

aim
e

e
e

loved

loving

96

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

Pluperfect.
aim

J' avals

aim

avais

Tu

aim

// avail

aim

e
e

aim

lis avaient

I^astAnterior.
aim

reus
Tu

aim

eus

II eut

aim

Nous

eumes

Vous

elites

lis

I had

e,

loved

aim
aim
aim

eurent

e
e

Future.

aimer

Tu

ai,

Maimer

1 1 aimer

aimer

ons

Vous

aimer

ez

lis aimer

out

Anterior.

Future

II

aim

auras

aim

aura

Nous

aurons

Vous

aures

lis

auront

shall have

e, I

J'aurai aim
Tu

shall love

as

Nous

aim

aim
aim

been

[loving

aviez aim

Vous

loved, 1 had

avians

Nous

I had

e,

e
e

loved

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

Conditional

MADE

97

CLEAR

Present.

ais,

J'aimer
Tu

aimer

should

love

ais

aUt

II aimer
Nous

aimer

ions

Vons

aimer

iez

lis aimer

aient

Past.
J'aurais aim
Tu

T sliould have

e,

aim

aurais

II aitrait aim

aim

Nous

aurions

Vous

auriez aim

lis auraient

e
e

aim

Imperative

Que faime, let me


Aim

e, love

Qu'il aim

e,

Aim

ons,

let

Aim

ez,

let him
us

love

love

love

Qu'ils aim
Subjunctive

love

ent,

let them

love.

Present.

Que faim
Que

tu

aim

Qu'il aim

that

e,
es

Que

nous

aim

ions

Que

vous

aim

iez

Qu'ils aim

ent

I may

love

loved

98

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

Imperfect.
Que

faim

Que

tu

aim

Qu'il aim

might

that

as^e,

love

asses

at

Que

nous

aim

assions

Que

vous

aim

assies

Qu'ils aim

assent

Past.

Que faie aim


Que

that I may

e,

aies aim

tu

Qu'il ait
Que

nous

Que

vous

Qu'ils

aim

aim

ayons

aim

ayes

aim

aienf

loved

have

e
e

Pluperfect.
Que

j'eusseaim

Que

tu

Qu'il
Que

vous

eussiez

the

radical

b)

That

the

simple past is

5. Are

a)

past part

in

before

like K,

is in

not

in

ai,

change.
second

person

as,

e.

in the first conjugation?


irregularities

there any
Verbs

does

aim

conjugation?

in this

That

the

aim

aim.

eussent

a)

and

eussions aim

noticed

mii^ht have
[loved

nous

be

is to

aim

Que

Qu'ils
4. What

aim

eusses

eut

that

e,

cer
a

ex.:

(ex.: percer,
and

o,

as

it perga,

to

pierce)

otherwise
he

pierced;

the

take

would

la
cedilsound

b)

in

verbs

like GH,

mute

o,

last

(ex. :

repeter,

ate

syllablebut

one

in e, es, ent,

terminations

of

ex.

fore
be-

would

sound

which

has

or
e

or
:

an

walk)

to

change

repeat)

to

the

he

promener,

se

eat) taV.c

otherwise

as

99

CLEAR

to

manger*

il mangea,

ex.

the

verbs

(ex.:

ger

and

c)

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

Je

into

(ex. :

an
e

before

promene,

me

Us

repetent;
the

however

to

call

chanceler,

to

reel

epeler,

to

spell

etinceler,

to

sparkle

renoiiveler,

to

renew

cachcter,

to

seal

epousseter,

to

dust

feuilleter,

to

thread

jetcr,

to

throw

souffleter*

to

cuff

ending
e

ex.

: tu

verbs

\.

ler

in ayer,

are

AUer,

the

Us

the
to

radicals

or

uyer,

oyer,
:

which
.

of

changing e

of their termination

they
jettent,

throw

change y into i before


ejmpay
; U gmploie,HE

irregular verbs
go,

instead

Us

call;

je paie,I
m'ennuient,they

e_, ex.
;

ter_,

or

you
appelles,

mute

PLOYs

6. What

in

into e, double

or

appeler,

all

d)

verbs

bore

me.

in er?

borrows

in

its tenses

three

100

FRENCH

a)

GRAMMAR

MADE

Inf.

Aller, allant,alle

ind

pres.

allons,

: nous

CLEAR

voiis

allez

imp. : j'allais
simple past. : j'allai
subj.pres. : que j'aille
subj.imp. : que j'allasse
,

b)

Va,
indie, pres.

imperat.:
C)

cond.

Envoyer,
The

il va,

Us vont

firai
:

firais

to

send.

future

Second

Conjugate

7.

va

vas,

IR,

fut.

2.

je vais, tu
(vas-y)

Infinitive

j'enverraiis

the

Conjugation (ir)
verb

in

ir,

only irrcg.tense.

300

V^erhs.

(1)

Present.
Fin

ir^

to

finish

Past.
Avoir

(1)
other

These
verbs

finished

correspond (a) to the Latin verbs in ire and


(b) to
in isco
or
gradually changed their infinitiveg to a form
indicating a beginning and consequemtly called inchoative.

verbs
which

(Ex.: FLORESCO)

fin i, to have

many
esco

;
'

...

"'".'.^'''.

Past.

'Compound

}'aifin
.

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

102

I have

finished

.n\

.'fM^us
II

fin i

iin i

Nous

avons

Vous

avez

fin i
i

Hn

fin i

lis ont

Pluperfect.
finished

fin i

avais

Tu

i, I had

Hn

J'avais

II avait fin i
fin i

Nous

avions

Vous

aviez fin i
fin i

lis avaient

Anterior.

Past

I had

J'eus fin i,
Tu

fin

eus

II eut

fin i

Nous

eumes

Vous

eutes

lis eurent

finished

fin i
fin i
fin i

Future.
le fin irai
Tu

I shall finish

fin iras

II fin ira

Nous

fin irons

Vous

fin ires

lis fin iront

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

MADE

Tu

II

fin

finished

iin i

aura

Nous

fin i

aurons

fin i

aurez

fin i

lis auront

Conditional

I shall have

i,
Hn

auras

Vous

103

Anterior.

Future

J'aurai

CLEAR

Present.
Je fin
Tu

irais, I

should

finish

fin irais

II fin irait
Nous

fin irions

Vous

fin tries

lis fin iraient

Past.
fin

Paurais

i,

I should

have

finished

Tu

aurais

II aurait

fin i
fin i

fin i

Nous

aurions

Vous

aurie:^ fin i

lis auraient

fin i

Imperative:

Que je finisse,let
Fin is, finish
Qu'il fin isse,

me

let him

Fin

issons, let

Fin

issc:, finish

us

Qu'ils fin isscnt.

finish

finish

finish

let them

finish

104

FRENCH

Subjunctive

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

Present.

Que je Hn isse,
Que

isses

Hn

tu

finish

I may

that

Qu^il iin isse


Que

nous

fin issions

Que

vous

fin issiez

Qu'ils fin issent

Imperfect.
Que je fin isse,that
Que tu fin isses
Qu'il fin

might

finish

it

Que

nous

fin issions

Que

vous

fin issies

Quails fin

issent

Past.

Que j'aiefin i, that


Que

tu

I may

have

finished

aies fin i

Qu'il ait fin i

Que

nous

ayons

Que

vous

ayez

fin i
fin i

Quails aient fin i

Pluperfect.
Que feusse fin i, that I might have
Que

tu

eusses

fin i

[ished

Qu'il eut

fin i

Que

nous

eussions

Que

vous

eussies fin i

Qu'ils eussent

fin i

fin-

fin i

8. What

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

noticed

be

is to

in this

(fin) does

o)

The

b)

the

simple past

and

tlie past part, ends

the

syllableiss,

in

isco,

c)

radical

is

the termination

(je iinis,I finished)


i
{Uni,finished) ;

is

in

in

the

betwen

Latin

the

from

borrowed

inserted

conjugation?
change;

not

in

ends

105

CLEAR

radical

verbs
and

{nous iinimperfect (je fin-iss-

indie, present

1. the

iss-ons,\VF. finish), 2. the


ais, I finished), 3. the imperative (Hn-iss-ons,
LET
us
finish), 4. the subj.present (que je Hn-isse,
5. the present

FINISH), and
(Hn-iss-an t, finishing).

THAT

MAY

participle

distinguishbetween the
in this way,
in ir adding the syllableiss
verbs
(about 300), and the verbs in ir not doing so,
used

Grammarians

(about 20),
as

9. What

dorm-ir, dormant,

ex.:

but it is

sleeping,

to

more

rational to treat

irregularverbs.

the

are

irregularverbs

in ir?

Indie,

Infinitive.

Assaillir,to

pres.

j'assaille

assault

je

tressaille

je

couvre

Ciieillir,to gather

je

cueille

Offrir,

j'offre

to give
Tressaillir,

Couvrir,

Ouvrir,

to

to
to

cover

offer
open

Souffrir, to

suffer

start

j'ouvre
je souffre

to

sleep,

the latter

lOf)

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

Simp. past.

Compound

je tressaillis
couvris

je cueiltis

foffris
j'ouvris
je souffris
(The

verbs

above

Moreover

aimer).

in
cueillirai)

the

conjugate their indie, pres. on


cucillir has je cueillerai (not
future.

Indie, pres.

Infinit.

Bouillir, to boil

bo

je

us

houillofis

nous

Courir,

to

Dormir,

run

sleep

to

je

cours

je

dors

je fuis

Fuir, to flee

fuyons

nous

Mentir,
Partir,
Se

to
to

lie
go

repentir, to repent

Sentir,

Sortir,

feel

to

Servir,

to
to

Ve1;ir, to

Simple
je

bouilHs

je

conrus

past.

j^aiassaiUi
j'aitressailli
j'aiconvert
j'aicueilli
j'aioffcrt
j'aiouvert
j'aisonffcrt

j'assaillis
je

CLEAR

serve

go

out

clothe

Past.

je

mens

je pars
je me
repens

je
je

sers

je

sors

je

vets

sens

Past

Participle.

j'aihouilli
j'aicouru

je dormis

j'aidor

mi

je fuis

j'aifui

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

MADE

j^aim^nti
je suis parti
je me suis repenti
j'aisenti
j'aiservi
je suis sorti
j'aivctu

je mentis
je partis
je me repentis
je sentis
je serms
je sortis
je vetis
(The
the

future of
is

others

107

CLEAR

courir

is

je courrai;the

future

of

regular).

Note.

Hair, to hate, in the present indicative is conjugated:


je hais, tu hods, il hait. The imperat. sing, is also
hais.
Only these four forms lose the dieresis (")
over

Benir,

i.
to

phrases
blessed

bless, is
like

box.

eau

in
regular except
benite, holy water,

ecclesiastical
buis

bcnit,

FRENCH

108

GRAMMAR

Conjugation (oir). 25

Third

10.

Conjugate

CLEAR

MADE

verb

Verbs.

(1)

in oir,

Infinitive:
Present.
Recev

oir,

receive

to

Past.
Avoir

reg

received

have

to

u,

Participle
Present.
Recev

receiving

ant,

Past.

Reg

received

u,

Compound.
Ayant
Indicative

reg

having

u,

received

Present.

ois, I

Je reg
Tu

reg

II reg

(1) These

verbs

are

ois
oit

Nous

recev

ons

Voiis

recev

ez

Us

reg

derived

receive

"

oivent
from

Latin

verbs

in

ere

or

ere.

110

Anterior.

Past
J'eus
Tu

I had

u,

reg

reg

ens

received

II eut

reg

Nous

eumes

Vous

elites

lis

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

reg

eurent

reg
u

reg

Future.
Je

recev

Tu

recev

II

ras

ra

recev

Nous

recev

rons

Vous

recev

res

lis

ront

recev

Anterior.

Future
Paurai
Tu

II

reg

reg

aura

Nous

I shall have

u,

aurons

reg

lis auront

reg

reg

aurez

received

reg

auras

Vous

shall receive

rax,

Conditional
Present.
Je
Tu
II

rait

recev

Vous

I should

rais

recev

Nous

lis

rais,

recev

recev
recev
recev

rions

ries
raient

receive

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

111

Past.

Faiirais
Tu

reg

aurais

II aurait

I should

u,

Nous

aurions

Vous

auriez

received

reg
reg

have

reg
reg

lis auraient

reg

Imperative:

Que je regoive,let
Reg ois, receive
Qu'il reg oive,let
let

me

him

receive

receive

receive

Recev

ons,

Recev

ez,

receive

QWils

reg

oivent,let them

us

receive

Subjunctive
Present.

Que je regoiv e, that


Que tu regoiv es

I may

receive

Qu'il regoiv e
Que

nous

recev

ions

Que

vous

recev

iez

Qu'ilsregoiv ent

Imperfect.
Que je
Que tu
Qu'il

reg

usse,

reg

usses

reg

ut

Que

nous

reg

Que

vous

reg

Qu'ils

reg

that

ussions
us

ussent

sie 2

might

receive

112

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

Past.

Que j'aiereg
Que

aies reg

tu

Qu'il

That

u,

ait reg

have

re-

[ceived

Que

nous

ay

Que

vous

ayes

Qu'ils aient

I may

reg

oris

reg
u

reg

Pluperfect.
Que

j'eussereg

Que

tu

Qu'il

eusses

eut

reg

reg

a)

b)

is to

There

nous

eussions

Que

vous

eussiez

in

most

of

noticed

not

are

verbs

them

conjugated

c)

the

these

and

have
SAW.

called

foresee

their

reg

ex.

u;

conceive,

reg' in

reg

however

(but not

simple past

of,
are

is

riable
va-

je regois)

regular;
je

glimpse

their radical

as

becoming

is in us,
ex.

concevoir, to
oir

recev

u,

to
prevoir,

catch

recevoir,and

simple past

past part, in

twenty-five

to

twenty

irregular. Only percevoir,to

hardly be

can

conjugation?

frequent use;

deceive_,

(recev in
even

than

are

like

reg

apercevoir,to

decevoir, to

reg
reg

in this

more

in

oir

PERCEIVE,

Que

be

might have
[received

Qu'ils eussent

11. What

that

u,

in

us,

and

voir, to

pourvoir,to
is,

ex.:

je

the
see,
vide)
pro-

iMs, I

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

12.

What
The

off

dechois

je

dechoyons

nous

to

Falloir, to
Pleuvoir,

fall due

il echoit

be

il

faut

il

pleut

necessary

rain

to

Prevoir,

to

foresee

je prevois

Sursoir,

to

put off

je
je

Valoir,

be

to

worth

sursois
vaux

valons

nous

Simple
je

radical

their

Indie. Pres.

choir, to fall

Echoir,

je

dechus

decherrai

j'aidechu

il echut

il echerra

il est

il

fallut

il

il

il

plut

il

faudra
il pleuvra
je prevoirai

je previs
je sursis
je valus

je
je

manner

vaudrai
their

j'assieds

seat

to

or

asseyons

j'assois

nous

to

owe,

must

je

assoyons
dots
devons

nous

Mouvoir,

radical

Indie. Pres.

nous

Devoir,

fallu
plu

Infinitive.

Asseoir,

echu

j*aiprevu
j'aisursis
j'aivalu

sursoirai

following change

to

move

Part.

Past

Ftiture.

Past.

The

113

in oir?

followinghardly change

Infinitive.
De

CLEAR

irregular verbs

the

are

MADE

je
nous

meus
mouvons

in

marked

114

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

Conjugation (re), 80

Fourth

13.

Conjugate

Infinitive

CLEAR

MADE

verb

in

115

Verbs.

(1)

re.

Prese
Rend

ut.

render

re, to

Past.
Avoir

Participle

rend

u,

to

have

rendered

Present.
Rend

rendering

ant,

Past.

Rend

rendered

u,

Compound.
Ayant

rend

u,

having

rendered

Indicative:

Present.
Je

rend

Tu

rend

s, I render
s

II .rend

Nous

rend

ons

Vous

rend

ez

lis rend

(1) These

verbs

are

derived

ent

mostly

from

Latin

verbs

in

ere.

116

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

Imperfect.
Je

ais, I rendered

rend

Tu

ais

rend

ait

II rend

Nous

rend

ions

Vous

rend

iez

aient

lis rend

Past.

Simple
Je

is,

rend

Tu

rendered

is

rend

II rend

it

Nous

rend

imes

Vous

rend

ites

lis rend

irent-

Past.

Compound
rai

rend

Tu
II

rend

as

rend

avons

Vous

avez

rend

rend

rend

ont

rendered

Nous

lis

I have

u,

Pluperfect.
ravais
Tu

rend

avais

II avait

rend
rend

Nous

avians

Vous

aviez

lis avaient

I had

u,
u
u

rend

rend

rend

rendered

118

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

Past.
Paurais
7\

rend

aurais

II aurait

I should

u,

rend

aurions

Vous

auries

rend

rend

lis auraient

rendered

rend

Nous

have

rend

Imperative

Que
Rend

render

me

render

s,

Qu'il rend

e,

let him

Rend

ons,

let

us

Rend

es,

render

Quails rend

Subjunctive

let

je rende,

render

render

ent, let them

render

Present.

Que je

rend

Que

rend

tu

Qu'il rend

that I may

e,

render

es

Que

nous

rend

ions

Que

vous

rend

ies

Quails rend

ent

Imperfect.
Que

je

rend

isse, that I might render

Que

tu

rend

isses

Qu'il rend

it

Que

nous

rend

issions

Que

vous

rend

issiez

Qu'ils rend

issent

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

119

CLEAR

Past.
that I may

Que fate rend u,


Que tu aies rend
Qu'il ait

rend

have

ren-

[dered

Que

nous

ayons

Que

vous

aye

rend
rend

Qu'ils aient rend

Pluperfect.
Que feusse rend u,
rend
Que tu ettsses
Qu'il

rend

eut

What

is to

Que

nous

eussions

Que

vous

eussiez

a)

It numbers

b)

these

80

1. Verbs
TO

be

noticed
about

verbs

Verbs

conjugation?

classified

in

repondre,

also rompre,
rdre

to

follows:

as

to

sell).

to

melt,

answer,

pondre, to
tondre,

to

break.

(perdre,to

lose,

mordre,

to

bite,

wring)

conjugated
in

vendre,

(fondre, to

ondre

EGGS,

tordre,to

2. Verbs

verbs;

stretch^

in

shear)

are

(descendre,to go down, fendre,


defendre,to forbid, pendre, to hang,

tendre, to

Verbs

might have
[rendered

in endre,

SPLIT,

LAY

rend

rend

be

can

rend

in this

80

Qu'ils eussent

14.

that

like

rendre.

{craindre,to fear,
plaindre,
TO
contraindre,to force).
PITY,
in eindre
Verbs
{ceindre,to gird, feindre,to
a
FEIGN,
enfreindre,to break
geindre.
rule,
aindre

FRENCH

120

GRAMMAR

peindre, to

GROAN,

TO

teindre,to

IMPRINT,

eteindre,to
in

verbs

dre,
have

poindre,to
the

of craindre
01 N

EiN,

AIN,

their present
their

indie, je

imperat. are

tenses, except the future

(crain-

conditional

and

oiN,

EIN,

their real radical

d;

in all the other

drai)

join(sun),

stead
euphony (crainre in-

cradns, je peins,j'oins.and
without

restrict),and
out

harsh) and

hence

compel,

anoint,

to

break

for

is

reach,

astreindre,to

(oindre,

oindre

all added

is AiN,

atteindre,to

dye,

restreindre,to

hug,

join,

TO

empreindre, to

paint,

extinguish,

etreindre,to

CLEAR

MADE

(craindrais)they change
(je craignis,
AiGN,
EiGN, oiGN

into

je peignis,j'oignis)
;
in

3. Vei'bs

paraitre,

BROWSE,

TO

croitre,

decroitre,

the

paitre,

know,

appear,)

to

increase,

to

added

have

(connaitre,to

aitre

in

or

oitre

decrease)

to

for

euphony and this T


in the pres. indie, {je connais)
imperfect {je connaissais)and the tenses
t

appears
disthe.

from

the

them;

simple past,

past part, in u,
4. Verbs
shine,

in

is in

{nuire,

uire

instruire, to

{je connus)

us,

and

the

(connu).

construire,to

enduire,to

rived
de-

to

build,

instruct,

coat,

induire,to
reduire, to

luire,

hurt,

detruire,to
conduire,
induce,

to

destroy,
to

lead,

infroduire,

reduce) have their


radical in uis, (je nuis, je nuisais,je nuisis),
but their future is in uirai
(je nuirai),and their
conditional in uirais
(je miirais),the past part,
to

introduce,

is in ui,

(j'aimti).

FRENCH

5.

GRAMMAR

Irregular verbs

15. What

are

the

absolve

dissolve

to

resolve

je

to

je
je

sew

diss oho

grind

to

je

beat

to

je

Mettre,

put

to

je

Boire,

drink

to

je

none
ns

je

resolus

je

cousis

je

moulus

cousons

mouds
moulons

je boit^tis

bats
battons

je

mets

je bus
(Part.Present

hois
huvons

nous

huvant)

lis boivent

Conclure,
Exclure,

to
to

Confire,to

conclude

y^

mis

mettons

nous
1/

none

couds

nous
/

conclus

exclude

j'exclus

preserve

y^ conHs
Pres.
(Participle

je

conclus

je

coniis

je

maudis

je

crus

je

dis

coniisant)
Maudire,

to

curse

je nrnudis
nous

Croire, to believe

je

maudissons
crois

croyons

nous

Dire,

to

say

je dis
nous

Past,

resolvons

nous

Battre,

re:

Simple

resouds

nous

Moudre,

Pres.

dissous

nous

Coudre,

in

ahsolvons

nous

Resoudrc,

f ah sous
nous

to

121

CLEAR

irregular verbs
Indie.

to

Dissoudre,

below

as

Infinitive.

Absoudrc,

MADE

disons

122

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

123

124

FRENCH

Vaincre,

to

Vivre,

live

Braire,

to

to

GRAMMAR

CLEAR

MADE

j'aivaincu
j'aivecu

jc vainer ai
je vivrai

conquer

il braira

bray

Us braironi

Clore, to close
Rclore, to hatch

j'aiclos
j'aieclos
j'aifrit
j'aitrait

je clorai

j'eclorai
je frirai
je trairai

Frire, to fry
Traire, to milk

C.

USE

THE

TENSES

OF

INFINITIVE

1. Is

not

infinitive frequently used

the

of the

instead

a)

The

constantlyused in French, as the


is constantlyused in English, as
present participle
oner's couna subjector
for
an
try
object,ex. : dying
THE

NOBLEST

(fest le sort
LITTLE

the

instead

sans),

ex.:

de

present

(meaning

w^hile,

in,

mangeant,

this connection

patrie

called

of

the present

ciple
parti-

do

before

think

participleis
by,

not

or
read

on),
while

arriving.

gerund

au

speaking,

parler:

how^ever, the

arrivant,on

In

sa

prepositions(avant de, apres,

after

avant
reflechissez

(1)

pour

punishing
plus beau; I dislike
je deteste punir un petitgargon;

infinitive is used

lieu de, de,

en

mouriv

LOT^

le

BOY,

(1)

participlein English?

present

infinitive is

IS

h)

French

in

by

grammarians.

used

ex.:

ne

after

en

Uses

pas

eating;

cu

126

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

jective (ex.:

my

MADE

CLEAR

convincing

speech

persuaded

him).
In the first case
ex.

voit

: on

YOU

see

those

in the

THE

2. What

a)

highest

is the

les

with

agrees

show

me

the

participle?

past

the past

is accompanied by
participle
the subject; ex. : les Presidents

with

elus

novemhre.

en

when

sont

elected

in

reveillee,the

baby

is accompanied by
participle
the

with

not

object when

if it

so

des

bevues, I

que

j'aifaites,the

made

ex.

cette

this

many

once
a

comes

fai fait bien

ex.:

les bevues

made;

intransitive

house

avoir

object

blunders;

blunders

maison

the

after;

comes

participleof

past

mother,

are

etre

awakened;

it agrees

agrees,

Presidents

petite s'est

la

the past

before,

is

word

the noun,

points dominants,

of

agreement

it agrees

the

the

points.

(girl) has

c)

dominating

adjectiveand

an

montrez-moi

When

VHudson,

tout

{verbal adjective) the

case

as

agreement,

no

November;

b)

mountains

second

regarded

is

dominant

montagnes

ccs

Hudson

whole

ex.

there
(participle)

verbs

never

belonged

appartenii

my

to

ma

mere.

Note.

1. When
ex.:

the

ACTRESSES

WHOM

in favor
2. The
ex.:

past participleis followed

les actrices

past
il a
:

of

que
I

the

SAW

participles

fait tous
faire); he

modern

usage

participleremaining
les
took

pu,

du,

voulu,

infinitive,

an

(or vues)

j'ai vu
ACT,

by

jouer,

is strongly

unchanged.
never

voyages qu'ila voulu


all

the

journeys

the

he

change;
stood
(underwished.

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

MADE

PRESENT

1
.

Is not

Yes, in four
1.

in

cases

vivid narration;

very

il quittcVAmerique, vole

I'or, Lafayette

de

America,
WITH

over

Lafayette comprend,

France,

en

the

avec

situation,

France,

to

revient

et

and

came

viens

de*

left
back

money;

in the

2.

ex.

realized

flew

instead

English?

in

as

in French

used

sometimes

past,

127

INDICATIVE

the present

of the

CLEAR

JUST

frequent phrase; je

very
ex.

il vient

de

sortir,he

has

have
gone

just

out;

3.

in the
sentence

ai ecrit,it

vous

4.

phrases c'est moi, c'est lui,etc., beginning a


referringto the past ; ex. : c'est moi qui

in sentences

was

like:

je suis ici depuis une


je suis ici.

who

wrote

have

been

heure

il y

or

fifth,

;
an

ex.

hour,

heure

une

in French

in English ;
as
Yes, colloquially,
THE

you

here

the present frequently used


of the future?

2. Is not

to

que

instead

sail

on

je nt'embarque le cinq.
IMPERFECT

Does

the

English language
to

The

the
which

French

the

word

imperfect

language
is not,

referred

to.

of
or

possess

ing
correspond-

imperfect?
means

grammarians
was

form

not,

incomplete,and
denotes

entirelypast

an

at

in

action
the

time

FRENCH

128

We

GRAMMAR

the word

past
TO

sentence

SILENT

BE

is

smoked

in

"

English. For instance,


certainlyan imperfect not a
like the following: he
used
in

this tense

possess

"

HE

WHEN

qiiand il fumait.

But

must

notice

action

following

language

he

smoked

would

the past:

il

fume jusqu'a se
should

In

(when

(quand
il

last

imperfect
hier soir;

The

sion
conclu-

of

meaning denoted
frequent in French than

more

English.
dered
realitythe French imperfect is generallyrenin English by the progressive
was
; ex. : he

SMOKING

ex.

two

the French

the

not

malade.

that the shade

be

in the

cigars

qiiatre cigares

rendre

denote

to

ill, which

fume

by the imperfect is
in

four

translate,using
il

word,

same

very

smoked

himself

but
a

the

more

sentences

he

night;

that

taisait gem-

se

frequentlyused
completelypast, for example,

is much

SMOKED,
an

SMOKED,

ralement
we

CLEAR

MADE

he

FATHER

HIS

pere entra), or

son
used

smoke

to

IN), H fumait

WENT

by

more

the words
than

he

used

to;

does

now,

fumait plus qu'd present.

Note.
In

like

sentences

which

be

can

HE

WAS
uses

de

fumer

SIMPLE

1. When

PAST

does

il

fumait

SMOKING

etre

quand
AND

the

French

in the

South

quand

in

translated

EngHsh

the

"

by the

French

en

train

de,

son

pere

entra.

"

ive
progress-

language
il etait

ex.:

COMPOUND

entra

pere

son

en

quently
fre-

train

PAST

language

use

the

simple

past?
Except
West

of

partis) is

and

in

few

regions in the
France, the. simple past
{j'ecrivis,
je
seldom
and
no
longer used colloquially
a

private letter: it is confined to


speechesin formal style. The French
by the compound past (fai ecrit, je
in

even

appears
books

or

replace it

is

parti) which
language; ex.: I
suis

wrote

sentence,

should

run

e.

loss

week,

[But

in

to

wrote

the

to

last

him

dernier

she
:

considerable
to

lui ai ecrit la semaine

stylethe

129

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

je

formal

ingly,
beseech-

me

suppliant.]

elle m'ecrivit d'un ton

Note.
of

tendency

The

to

word

one

(j'ai ecrit)

to

English-speaking people

many

hears
Frequently one
to
plusieurs fois, i wrote
of je lui ai ecrit. We

past.

is to

customed
ac-

two

imperfect
instea I of the compound
them
je lui ecrivais
say:

past

speaking: French

when

instead

(i wrote)
the

denote

of

the

use

should

stead
in-

times,

several

him

that

remember

imperfect, unless
can
mentally retranslate in the progressive, for
we
as
instance, in such a sentence
je lui ecrivais quand
it entra, (i w^as
to
when
in).
writing
him
he
came
are

we

on

account

no

to

the

use

PLUPERFECT

Does

French

1.

French

in every
tried

in
ex.
VAULT

frequently

more

times

circonstances

we

OCCASIONS
THE

oil

j'avaiscchoue.

FENCE

last

at

IN
I

WHICH

FAILED,

j'avaisessaye

the

use

en

ex.:

had

SUCCEEDED,

eniin

fois quand

in which

MANY
OVER

English does;

when

hien des

cases

ON

pluperfect:

in which

case

essaye

many

the

uses

many

favais
2.

pluperfect

English?

than
Yes.

the

use

je

reussis.

simple past;
I

TRIED

TO

de nombreuscs

de sauter

la

palissadc

130

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

Note.

Pluperfect
called
before

than

it denotes

another, also past

back

than

like:

only

"more

means

because

the

past

one

mere

failed

or

and

complete"
past

action

it takes

our

is

which

ther
far-

memory

past, for

instance, in

tried

which

to,

so

came

tence
sen-

conjures

up

occurrence.

FUTURE

1. Does

French

after when,
the

as

soon

the

as,

ever,
when-

moment,

first who, etc.?

No, the meaning here


verb

is in the

future

THE

MOMENT

THE

sitot que

instead of the future

the present

use

in French

DOCTOR

le medecin

call

ex.

the

and

future

implied is

me

up

teUphoneZ-moi

ARRIVES,

arrivera;

imperfectinstead of the conditional in


similar sentences
referringto the past, but here
the conditional,
again the French
language uses

we

the

use

ex.

YOU

WERE

DOCTOR

2. How

le medecin

the

does

going
By

vais

ROOM,

THE

telephonersitot

me

has

ex.

acheter

aller

sort

going

of

buy

to

I
hicyclette,

une

am

infinitive?

an

become

am

translate

language

/ will with

which

je vais

moment

arriverait.

or

future,

the

up

devies

French

vAis"

jE

of the

je

to

me

vous

arrived,

que

call

to

auxiliary
bicycle,

go

will

to

his

chambre.

sa

Note.

1. Partly
because

it is
the

not

je

and

vais

rare

mistake:

je vais.

of

account

on

to

je

hear
veux

meaning

will

je

sound

veux

voulolr, partly
somewhat

alike,

English-speaking people make


aller

sa

chambre

instead

of

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

notice

However,
his

to

that
?"

room

MADE

translated

you

go

aller

voules-vous

chambref

sa

is also

2. Devoir

used

we

are

the

future

move

to

ex.

nous

out.

ANTERIOR

FUTURE

is the

denote

to

dcmcnager^

devons

1. What

interrogation "will

the

is

131

CLEAR

"future

of the term

meaning

anterior"?

English grammarians generally call this tense


future
perfect (i.e.future past) v^hich no doubt
French
is a puzzling expression. The
is clearer.
Anterior
means
previous. So the future anterior
action which
will have already taken
an
announces
another
action happens ; ex. : by
the
place when
YOU

TIME

THERE

GET

HE

WILL

FOUND

arr'iverez il

qiiaud vous

INTERPRETER,

HAVE

AN

trouve

aura

interprete.

un

Note.
The

French
tense

il

than

Yes,

it is

which

the

AFRAID,

For
not

their
HAD
BABY

have.

anterior

THERE

FOUND.

frequent

more

IS

up

and

NO

"'it

must

IS

en

ILL."" In
a

une

malade, je

future

NO

in French

DOUBt""

le crains."

probably,

with

DOUBT,

the paSt.

expecting do

were

for

the

rained""
Or

''I'u

""they

or
AFRAID

sentences

''il aura

plu";

of

causes

all these

doute"

in

sentences

must_,

uses

have

anterior:
sans

ih

about

French

panne,

with

you

cast

you

BREAKDOWN,

English

trouve.

/constantlymet
English language

delay:

include
ront

will

instance, people whom


turn

the

to

English?

in

AM

+
-f-

aura

future

the

exactly similar

''he

2. Is not

is

tense

le bebe

THE

would
"Us
aura

au-

etc

132

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

CONDITIONAL

1. Cannot

the

conditional

be

replaced

by

another

tense?

Yes, the past conditional

frequentlyreplacedby
would
it
have
subjunctive pluperfect; ex.:

the

BEEN

EASY,

eut

He

This

substitution

is

there

not

French

Yes, French
be

se

3. What

ex.

is the

le

in

same

the conditional

is

supposed

to

presidentdemissionnerait, le

reunirait le 18;
probably

French

which

event

an

Senate

RESIGN,

by the

translated

frequentlyuse

newspapers

announce

probable ;

Senat

be

never

conditional

the

English?

in

to

which

in

case

can

tense

facile.
of euphony
largelya matter
can
always be used.

conditional

the

and

Is

is

President
to

expected

meet

translation

on

"if

of

to

18th.

the

you

should

come"?
The

same

YOU

came''^ viz.,si

as

that of

"^if
vous

you

came''

or

'"in

cAsii

venies.

Note.
If

I
HAVE

si

SHOULD
BEEN

HAVE
A

MOVED
DEAD

MAN

(or
is

MOVED) I SHOULD
frequently translated by:
HAD

als
je bougeais, j'etaisun homme
niort, both conditiontranslated
the
This
being
by
imperfect..
usage
recalls the narrative present {see page
120).

134

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

ra,therthan
out

fact

dicare, to
when

we

form

of

things exterior
naturallyuse

we

at);

point

not

are

so

speech ;

to

know

point
(Latin inwe

as

he

the

use

we

if,

When

us.

the indicative

ex.:

sure,

ex.

CLEAR

MADE

am

is

dead,

subjective

more

were

he

afraid

DEAD.

2. What

the

are

that

a)

the

which

In

cases

subjunctive

there

doubt

no

in French?

used

be

must

is

subjunctiveis found in
either
classical or
modern
English, remembering
that the subjunctivein English is denoted
not
only
by the subjunctive proper
{though I he, though I
In

were)

the

also by the

but

THOUGH

1.

in which

case

every

HE

SHOULD;

forms

moins

WHETHER

THAT

Homme

suggest

WOULD

His

ne

son

OR

pent,
re-

repente;

se

NOT,

i hough

non;

he

Get

que
be

sole

heritier;

seul

THAT

and

may

your

CONSENT

ou

qu'ilsoit

hien

HEIR,
1

MAN

cofisente

unless

voire

que

ex.

{Subjunctiveproper) :
a

that

HE

WRITE

je coHsaillerais

qu'ilecrive;
I

THEREFORE

PROPOSE

Done,

.,

CoNGRESS

THAT

je propose

le

que

NIZE.
RECOG-

Congres

re-

connaisse.
.

2.

{May)

say

je dis

that

this

cela pour

you

que

may

fully

alize,
re-

compreniez par-

vous

faitement;
May

his

name

be

blessed!

que

son

nom

soit

beni!
3. {Should)
suis

am

sorry

fdche qu'ellecroie ;

she

should

think;

.je

What
music!

up

la

ahandonne

qu'ilait

quel dommage

given

have

should

he

that

pity

135

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

musique!

HIS

FATHER

pere

vent

It

is

WANTS

SOU

DOCTOR,

BE

TO

qu'ilsoil medecin;

too

late

trop tard
3. In

ex.

HIM

includes

sentence

(1 ) ;

in the infinitive

verb

of

final clause

the

When

h)

him

for

learn

to

la

qu'ilapprenne

pour

music,

il est

musique.
.

the

subjunctive
though the verb is in the indicative (present,
past or future) in English?

what

We

who

mind
I

GLAD

heureux
He

is

that

venies

state

own

etc.);

of

ex.:

TOO,

je

Suis

aussi;

YOUR

AT

SURPRISED

his

COMING

ARE

YOU

vous

que

s'etonm

HEARING

MF.

REFUSING,

refusiez;

vous

que

will,

said above,

we

as

expresses

the reverse,

(joy or
AM

speaks

stead
subjunctivein-

the

uses

indicative wherever,

our

the person

a)

use

French

that

say

may

of

French

does

cases

FURIOUS

WAS

AT

j'staisfurieiixde

YOUR
ce

que

NOT
vous

ne

m'entendiez

pas;
when
especially

and

b)

is felt in the

uncertainty
happens chieflywith
of

certain amount
This

sentence.

indicating:

verbs

1.

2.

je doute qu'elleguerissejamais;
il
may
ex.:
get
she
a
possibility;
well,
possiblequ'elle
guerisse;

doubt;

ex.:

doubt

that

she

will

ever

RECOVER,

(1)
WISH,

This

is the

etc.,

case

with

noting the action

such
of

English verbs
the

will.

as

to

want,

TO

ORDER,

est

TO

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

136

Note.
It

3.

hypothesis;

an

ACCIDENT

is translated

well

get

bility
probaprobable qu'elle guerira, because
if it actually existed.
the fact as
us

il est
shows

by:

will

she

that

probable

is

ex.

Let

suppose

us

supposoHs

OCCURS,

that

an

qu^ufiaccidefit

se

is

so

produise;
4.

negation;

SAW

5.

vois

that

rien

IS

concession

Is

un

bienf

ex.

French

is

Yes,

Though

5. Are

que

je parte;

the

'^

is

; ex.

there

shall

not

verb

be

to

que

tisse;i

had

to

have

is

leave,

is

king,

or

not,

the

junctive
sub-

pour

that,
way

or

followed

to

by

il faut

leave,

fallwtque je paril faudra que je parte.

phrases

always used

{aiin que

purpose

which

after

always used?

denoting:

finalityor

me

adverbial

many

sentences

such

which

when

for

leave,

to

subjunctive

in

parfois

comes

he

after

necessary

subjunctive

ORDER

was

he

necessary,

Yes, the

1.

war

always used?

FALLoiR,
: it

much,

that

true

it

qu'ilfut roi; Whether


qu'ilvienne ou non.

not

very

me

bien

4. Is there

si brave,

est-H vvai que

BENEFIT?

soit

la guerre

he

qu'ilsoit

pas

impressed

interrogation
; ex.

an

that

see

qui m'ait beaucoup frappe;

vii

SOMETIMES

6.

not

do

He

nothing

je n'ai

je

BRAVE,

VERY

ex.

que,
so

that

that,
;

short

or

adverbial

que,

manicre

de
ex.

in

in

que,

GRAMM/TR

FRENCH

SOFTLY

SPEAK

THAT

SO

paries bas pour

MADE

YOURSELF

EXPRESS
WILL

IN

maniere

SLEEP,

s'endorme;
WAY

THAT

BODY
EVERY-

exprimez

UNDERSTAND,

TO

soit

le monde

tout

que

TO

GO

MAY

SUCH

SURE

BE

de

vous

BABY

bebe

que

137

CLEAR

de

sur

comprendre;
2.

sans

by
not

by

loin que,

unless,

de peur
participle,

that

le

followed

without,

que,

uioins que,

OF

afraid

AM

not

lowed
fol-

from,

lest)

que,

HIM,

participle,

far

that,

ex.

pas que

nofi

je

craigne;
OUT

crept

HE

il
3.

restriction {non pas que,

negation or

glissadehors

se

ANYBODY

WITHOUT
sans

que,

UNTIL,

by

present

NOT

DO

attendant

en

BEFORE

bougez pas

avant

WAIT

TILL

jusqu'd ce

followed

while,

que,

ce

ex.:
participle),

MOVE

HERE

jusqu'd

before,

que,

HIM,

Ventendit;

personne

que

previousness (avant

HEARING

LIGHT

THE

la lumiere

que

COMES

SHE

paraisse,
attendez

BACK,

qu'ellerevienne, or

fie

APPEARS,

attendez

tCt

qu'elle

revienne.

Note.
The

subjunctive is always
is restrictive ;

EVER

tortured

jamais
9. What

tense

It

seems

sentence

it h

the

used

superlative because

ME,

ex.

Ic

most

the

clause

meaning

of

cruel

le plus cruel

raseur

ing
containthe

bore

tence
senthat

qui m'ait

torture.

is used
if it

after si, if?

ought to
denotes
inevitably
as

after

the

the
as
subjunctive,
condition,but in reality

be the

indicative,because

the

condition

is ima-

FRENCH

138

gined

GRAMMAR

subordinate
a

CLEAR

already realized. However,

as

the condition

If

MADE

implied in

the

should

man

sentence

is in the

clause, which
appear

the

and

effect

of

in the

appears

subjunctive,ex.:

mock

si

you....,

quelqu'unparaissait(indie.)qui se moqudt (subj.)


de

vous.

Note.
The

elaborate

form

s'il fut vcnu,


by the
s'il etait

7. What

is the

HAD

had

consented,

placed
always be repluperfect si favais voulu,

TURNED

Can

UP,

venu.

of tenses

verb

in

the

subjunctive?

in the

principalclause

(g-enerally

first half of the sentence) is in the present the

the

in

verb

the

subordinate

subjunctivepresent;
payer, I

b)

j'eusse voulu,

HE

indicative

concord

the

When

a)

si

when

past

doubt

the

verb

in

je

ex.:
he

can

the

conditional

the

or

if

clause

should

doute
pay

be

qu'ilpiiissevous
you;

principalclause
the

the

in

the

is in

in the subordinate

verb

clause is in the

subjunctiveimperfect,if the person


who
speaks refers to something having happened
I did
not
think
ex.:
he
was
ing
lysimultaneously;
TO

jc

ME,

it is in

the

made

an

ex.

of
I

croyaispas qu'ilme
subjunctive pluperfectif
action previous to the time
not

did

mcntit;

ne

suspect

he

had

told

is

mention

alluded
a

lie,

je

to ;
ne

menti.

soupgonnais pas qu'ileut


Note.

subjunctive imperfect is gradually being replaced

The

by the

on
present
like de peur

forms
que

vous

in the
avant

account
que

nous

n'oubliassie:^,etc.
third pers.
sing, (dc

qu'iln'ouhliat),which

of
nous

the

comical

sound

moquassions,

However,

of

avant

it is retained

se
moqudt,
peur qu'ilne
is perfectly euphonious.

FRENCH

should

method

8. What

follow

we

139

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

the

master

to

rules given above?

thoroughly when we begin to apply


stinct.
it instinctively.
Only practisewill develop an inbe the
of practiseshould
The
best kind
gin
invention of sentences
exemplifying the rules. Beknow

We

rule

where
with

ex.:

Though

he

LEST

adverbial

to

be

SHOULD

HE

subjunctive;ex.:
etc.
ce
que je menne,
subjunctive will, in
to

will be
in

and

you,

ready to

a
on

go

use

say

English language a;
of the subjunctive;

King,

that

may

ceed,
suc-

etc. ; then

FORGET,

on

go

in

automaticallybringing

sentences

the

natural

the

makes

French

the

as

which

in

sentences

well

is to

will find it easiest,that

you

qu'ilne

avant

will

You

such

quite

seem

being thus created,you


(likethose

cases

little

question3) requiringa

find that the

soon

sentences,

habit
to

parte, jusqu'a

INTERROGATION"

described

attention.

more

NEGATION

INTERROGATION

1.

is there

difference

What

The

verb

French
do

TO

as

verb

I?

do

an

is

Did

YOU?

CAN

May
she

our

faire),and

to
ex.:

we

from

mode

the

in French?

has

HAVE

in
interrogate

mind

think

of

French

we

(unless of

course

simpler forms

THEY?

NEED

I?

write?

puis-jef

Does

ecrivait-ellef

he

come?

like

French

always limit themselves, like


after
simply placingthe pronoun
I?

of

nothing comparable to the


sentences.
auxiliaryin interrogative

language

So whenever
dismiss

English and

in

interrogation

between

the

must

the
may

terrogat
ingoing,
fore-

the verb ;

vient-il?

140

2.

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

Conjugate

interrogatively in the
the past?

verb

indicative

CLEAR

MADE

and

Chanter,

to

sing.

Present

Chante-jef Do
chant es-tuf

Simple

Dost

Chant

sing?
\\\o\\smg}

present

at-

je?

chantas-tuf

Past

Did

sing?

Didst

thou

sing?
chante-t-il?

Does

chantons-nousf

chanta-t-ilf Did

sing?
Tiov^Qsmg}
he

he

chantames-nousf

sing?

Did

we

sing?
chantez-vons?

chantates-voiis?

Doyousing?

Did

you

sing?
chantent'ilsf

Do

chant erent-ilsf

theysing?

Did

they

sing?
Note.
1.

Chante-jef is
an

2. In

is

Chante-je?
No,

it is

The

only

in

mere

inversion

of

je chcinfe:

gives clarityto the sound.

te

on

chante-t-ilf and

3. Chantent-ilsf

3. Is

the

not

accent

acute

chanta-t-ilf

pronounced

frequent

use

is inserted

for

phony.
eu-

like chante-t-ilf

in modern

French?

archaism.

an
practically

dicativ
conjugated in the first person inin that way
are:
ai-jef(qu'ai-je
fait?)
le dire?)
dis-je?{que dis-jef)
dois-jef(dois-je
puis-jef {oil puis-je alter f)
suis-jef{qui
suis-jepour oser,..?)
vois-je?{que vois-jef).
verbs

"

"

"

"

"

Note.

Puisse-je!

is

subjunctive and

means

may

I!

142

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

NEGATION

What

difference

is there

English

in

(I
French

nai

The

w^hich
I

pas;

French

NOT,

the

verb

You

WRITE,

is

do

dare

tences
negative sen-

is that

two,

uses

instead of

ne

in

sentences
have

not,

pas;

French

in

ex.:

n'ose

je

REAd)

NOT

DID

absent;

not,

je ne sais pas.
only difference

NOT,

in

do

Negative sentences
nearly those negative

very

ces
senten-

in French?

not.

English from
je

negative

auxiliary to

NOT

DO

does

resemble

and

the

Eng-lishuses

between

know

negation,

one

pas,

between

which

used

in

speec!i

is inserted.

Note.

t. Je n'ose
for
2. The
Si

,/Vn'ose

3. The

pas

is the

OF

etre,

Hen"

(and

were

tiring

to

not

or

nothing''
not

the French

formal

is

frequent ;
if

ex.

were

not

to

ne

by

''vous

do

etre

.ex.:

ou

nc

be.

do

nothing"?
by ''vous

fakes rien") :
would

sentence

pas;

not

ne

that

faiies
is to

correspond exactly
do

if pas

nothing,

eliminated.

jamais, never,
ni,..ni, neither.
de,

si

fatiguer,

is translated

the illiterate "you


not

after

for "You

Every negative sentence

pas

are

sais pci^.

YOU.

be

French

DO

to

ne

infinitive is placed after

**You

say

sais

ne

je

pas, je

suppression of pas
je ne craignais de vous

AFRAID

2. What

and

aucun,

ne.

no,

includingthe
.

plus, no

.nor,

nulle

personne,

words

more,

part,
nobody,

no

ne

longer,

nowhere,

and

rien.

";*" ;"

*;v"i
GRAMMAR

FRENCH

out

CLEAR

is translated in the

NOTHING^

pas

MADE

ex.

know

same

nobody

143

leaving

manner,

here^

jc ne

connais

ici.

perSonne
Note.

Personne,
are

followed

Rien

came;

difference

3. What

pas is

is

an

ex.

by
ne

ne

Hen,

; ex.

vous

used

nothing,

plait,nothing

nobody

pleases

between

is there

subjects,

as

n'est venu,

Personne

ne

you.

and

pas

de?

pas

Ne

and

norody,

adverb

meaning
adjective
meaning no;
an

not^

argent, I

have

not

have

no

Je n'ai pas

mon

Je n'ai pas

d'argent,

while

my

pas de

money.

money.

Resume

rules

What

are

exemplified in the followingsentences?

J'aime nager,
Avant
de plonger,

En

While

swimming.
diving.
diving.

What

could

Before

plongeant,

Que penserf
le renard

Et

de

love

courir,

Whereupon
ran

Fermer

Des
Ces

livres amusant

fils

mon

As

these
my

fox

close the door.

Amusing

livres amusants,

master

away.

Please

la porte,

I think?

son

books.
books

amuse

144

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

Est-i\ venu?
mais

Non,

CLEAR

come?

Did

he

No,

but

est

soeur

sa

MADE

venue,

his sister did.

J'aifaitde grandes promenades,


long walks.

I took
Les

promenades

grandes

qu'ila faites,
Sa

m'a

%ure

semble

in-

long

walks

His

face

seemed

to

telligente,
ballons

Les

j'ai

que

vii

took.

he

The

gent
intelli-

me.

The

balloons

The

balloons I

saw

flated
in-

saw

gonfler,
Les

ballons

j'ai i^us

que

s'elever.

Je glisse,je tomhe, je

me

le

de

viens

Cest

frere

votre

gronder,
qui tenait

I have

just scolded

It

your

part

en

was

held the

I'eponge,
On

slipped,fell,and

hurt

myself.

b Iesse,

Je

rising.

vacances

de-

The

him.
who

brother
sponge.
breaks

school

up

morrow.
to-

main.

regardaw tandis qu'il


grimpa"7,
Comme
il grimpait !a

Je

le

branche

Je

As

he

was

branch

Un

him

watched

spoiledyou.

prophet

thought

Rentrez

Come

sonnera,

le clairon

he

climbing the
snapped.

prophete s'eleva,
J'avaiscm vous entendre,
sitot que

as

climbed.

cassa,

ai gate,

vous

the

arose.

I heard

home

the

bugle

blows.

you.

moment

FRENCH

II

GRAMMAR

de

promis

m'a

penser,

devez-vous

come

soon

the

as

Are

les voit pas

n^

ils

going to

think

not

buy

you
do

They

se

perdus,

seronf

am

of it.

acheter

pas

terrain?

On

as

to

bugle blew.

Je vais

un

145

promised
home

sonne-

rait.

Ne

CLEAR

Me

rentrer

le clairon

quand

MADE

to

not

; they

appear

have

must

lot ?

losit their

way.

mieux

11 eut

"

II aurait

La

valu

Bourse

rester,J

"

"

le

fermerait

to

Had

vous

venu,

mille dollars,

gagmes

wiser

henceforth

market
close

to

etiez

voiis

been

stay.

Stock

samedi,
Si

have

It would

come

you

have

Saturdays.
would

you

made

thousand

dollars.
Bien

que

suis

Je

la loi soit muette,

d'avis

I suggest

cela

puisseme
Vive

Que

afin

que

je

soient

May

!
paisibles
11 est bon

que

go.
I may

remember.

Long

destinees

that you

Say it again that

rappeler,

la France!
ses

say

vous

que

alUez,
Redites

Act

the
Though
nothing.

live France!
her

future be peaceful

!
vous

sachiez,

It

is

good

should

you

know.

Je voulais
n

est

que

vous

utile que

sachies,
vous

preniez a souffrir,

ap~

I
It

wanted

is useful
learn how

ferinsf.

to

you

for
to

know.
you

bear

to

suf-

146

II

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

s'impatlente de

que

He

differiez,

voiis

II

ce

MADE

douteux

est

passiez

que

bien

votre

CLEAR

is

growing impatient
puttingoff
your

at
vous

It

is doubtful
will pass

exa-

that

you

ation.
examin-

your

.men,

Est-il possible
qu'elle
epoiise
homme?

cet

En

que

vous

Granted

ne

suppose

qu'ilsoit

pas

I do not

is

millionnaire,
n'ai

Je

que

that

are

you

right.

raison,

ayes

man?

that

marry

admettant

Je

Is it possible
that she may

jamais vu de boxeur
be!
j'aie trouve

that he

suppose

millionaire.

pugilistI
some.
really thought hand-

never

saw

homme,

Espere-t-ilque

Je

revienne

fois?

cent

he

Does

expect
back

come

to

me

hundred

times ?
Eaudra-t-il

vingt

Parlez

que

je lui ecriz'c

Shall
him

fois ?

qu*on vous

pour

en-

le

sans

que

personne

He

to

times ?

that you

be

may

went

le soleil fut leve,

le

plus brave

S'il entrait

portaf des

in without

body
any-

noticing him.

que

Before

The

the

bravest

sun
man

rose.

ever

knew.

j'aicconnu,

ne

write

heard.

que

L'homme

Je

so

remarqudt,

Avant

to

twenty

Speak

tendCj
II entra

I have

homrne

un

qui

armes,

crois pas

vienne,
qu'il

If

man

should

in

come

carrying arms.
I do

not

think he is

ing.
com-

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

Je

MADE

did

croyaispas qu'ilvlnt,

ne

CLEAR

147

think

not

he

was

coming.
Je n'aurais

pas

qu'ilfut

cru

Where

coiirent-ellesf

have

not

posed

venu,

Oil

could

he

would

supcome.

they running

are

to?

moi?

moque-t-ilde

Se

qu'il se

Est-ce

Is he

making

fun

of me?

Is he

making

fun

of me?

de

moque

moi?
La

partie commence?

The

La

partie commence-t-elle?

Is

Elles
Si

ne

courent

je n'esperaisvous

the

They

pas,

If

plaire,

do

pas

oser

c'est

ne

Not

pas

Pas

to

not

run.

hope

I heard

rien,

^'effort, pas de

D.

No

succes,

CLASSES

OF

dare

is

not

Passive
Intransitive
Reflexive

Reciprocal
Impersonal

nothing.

effort, no

VERBS

to

you.

succeed.

reussir,

Je n'cntendis

not

did

beginning?
beginning?

game

please
Ne

is

game

success.

to

148

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

MADE

PASSIVE

How

Exactly

is

However,
by

in

as

It

ex.:

written

which

verbs

the
a

THE

qu'on

1. What

has

subject;

in

am

spoken

WERE

to,

to,

auxiliary used

in the

on

parle;
faiitCS

les

past

tenses

it used

century

in

English, (and
people frequentlysay fai venu,
as

have

present etre,
Us

be

; ex.

etaient
avant

even

they

fai

come,
but

is at

it

walked

before

qu'ilsne

avoir,

be

country

have

had

monies,

to
now

upstairs)

walked
to

of

in French?

verbs

seventeenth

downstairs,

with
me

on

ally;
liter-

WITH,

REPROACHED

VERBS

HAVE,

monte,

proached
re-

be

transitive

INTRANSITIVE

intransitive

TO

to

translated

be

not

become

accompanied

reprocha.

vous

Till the

spoken

be

be;

ecrit que...

English are

to

ex.:

YOU

is the

il est

etc.) can

verb

ERRORS

the auxiliaryto

that...

preposition(to

conjugated?

English, with

WITH,

as

VERBS

passive verbs

French

are

CLEAR

stairs.
up-

they

went

fussent descendus.

Note.
The

following verbs:

sleep;

demeurer,

grandir, to
vieillir,to

2. Is the

intransitive

conveniently

grow
grow

Cesser,
to

verb

paraitre,

take

used

in French

French

people who know


of
enough the flexibility

appear

in

frequently
English?

English
our

to

to

fail;

to

and

avoir.

as
as

coucher,

cease;

echouer,

dwell;
;

up

old,

to

can

not

and

admire

intransitive verbs.

An

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

150

MADE

REFLEXIVE

1. Are

there
in

VERBS

French

than

all the verbs

which

verbs

reflexive

more

CLEAR

in

English?

Yes.

a)

French

are

language possesses
reflexive in English,that is

the

subject does

the

verb;

The

THAT

h)

//

knife^

hlcssc soiivcnt

se

other

verbs,

in

French

reflexive pronoun;
U

REMEMBERS,

ex.

verbs

conjugated with

reflexive

in

me

coUteau.

called

are

repens;

hlesser,

Part.

Pres.,

Se

blessanf,

Past.

Part.,

S^etre hlesse,

II

te
se

hlesse,
blesses,
hlesse

Nous

nous

hlessons,

Vous

vous

hlesseB,

lis

se

he

pronominajl,i.e.

Se

Tu

elle s'in-

verb.

me

transit
in-

with

pronoun.

Je

possesses

WORRIES,

Infinitive,

Indie. Pres.,

ce

English

je

SHE

with

conjugated

I repent,

by

action of v^^hich

language

are

are

indicated

avec

which

souvient

sc

quiete. These

French

that

express

himself

hurts

verbs, the boomerang

but

Conjugate

say,

action

the

often

truly reflexive,the

great many

2.

himself

he

ex.:

Besides- these
is

to

to

bless ent,

Imp.,
Simple Past,
Compound Past,

Je

me

blessais.

Je

me

blessai,

Je

me

suis hlesse.

Pluperfect,

Je m*etais hlesse.

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

Je

me

Je

me

fus hlesse,
blesserai,

Je

me

serai hlesse,

Pres.,

Je

me

Past,

Je

me

Anterior,

Past

Future,
Anterior,

Future
Cond.
'*

151

CLEAR

MADE

Que

Imperative,

hlesserais,
serais hlesse,

je

hlesse,

me

Blesse-toi,
Qu'il

se

hlesse,

Blessons-nous,

Blesses-vous,
Qu'ils se hlessenf,
Que je

Subj. Pres.,

3. What

**

Imp.,

"

Past,

"

Pluperf.,

a)

Que

particulars
this
The

hlesse,

me

je me
Que je me
Que je me
especially

are

hlessasse,
sois hlesse,

fusse hlesse,

to

be

noticed

in

conjugation?
reflexive verb

like the transitive

sc

hlcsscr

verb

is

conjugated exactly

hlesser,but preceded by the

reflexive pronouns.

h)

c)

The

auxiliaryin

but

ctre.

and

not

In

the

after

4.

Conjugate

the

have

compound

hurt

je m'ai

myself,

se

je

the

hlesser

interrogatively.

hlesse-jef

Te

hlesses-tiif

Se

hlesse-t-ilf

Nous

hlessons-nousf

Vous

hlessez-vous?

hlessent-ilsf

are

pronouns

foi is substituted

Se

avoir

suis hlcssr

me

verb, and

Me

is not

hlesse.

imperative proper

the

tenses

for

te.

placed

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

152

Note.
Me

there

conjugated

are

intransitive,that

the

verbs, beside

other

placed
re-

Est-ce

by:

5. Are

is constantly
colloquial French
blesse?
me
je
que

hlesse-jef in

verbs?

like reflexive

Yes.

a)

few

passiveverbs

est

hien vendu,

la

maison

HOUSE

idioms,

this

REVILE

other;
les

hdissent,the

balkan

1.

Conjugate

an

ex.

indicatingthat
:

Us

is

two

they
s'injurient,

one

hate

another.

VERBS

impersonal verb.
to

Pres.

Pleuvant,

raining.

rain.

Past

Part.

Phi,

rained.

Ind.

Pres.,

//

it rains.

it rained.

Imp.,
Simple Past,
Comp. Past,
Plup.,

//

pleut,
pleuvait,

//

pint,

//

Past

Jl eut

Ant,

English

house

the

Pleuvoir,

"

hdtie,the

est

[The

Infinitive,
Part.,

deal;

iiafions halkaniqiiesse

nations

IMPERSONAL

great

for

hien for

similar.]

very

OTHER;

EACH

sold

well;

i.e. verbs

each

on

vend

se

QUICKLY.

are

Reciprocal verbs,
subjectsact

is

sells

QUICKLY^

BUILDING

h)

BUILT

book

livre

ce

rapidement

bdtit

BEING

book

this

se

IS

; ex.

plu,

// avait

plu,
plu,

Put,

//

pleuvra,

Fut. Ant,

//

aura

plu,

it rained.

it

has

rained.

it had

rained.

it had

rained, it rained.

it will rain.

it will have

rained.

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

153

Note.
is

1. There

in

verbs
2. A

English

number
il

ex.:

difference

no

French

of

fait froid, it

il fera beau,

whatever
between
French.

it

will

impersonal

in

and

verbs
is

cold,

re

fine

formed

are

il

with

fait noir, it

correspond to English verbs formed


conjugated only in the third
nearly akin to impersonal verbs.

and, being

3. Phrases
APPEAR

like
A

man,

conjugated
temps,

2. Which

They
3.

Conjugate

comes

etc., are
if they
un

verbs

avoir

avoir.

and

translated
were

time,

dark,
ally
gener-

with

it

there

by ordinary

is,
are

person,

will

verbs

impersonal: il vient

un

homme.

are

in French?

with
are

there

il paraitra

impersonal
met

as

is

They

weather.

faire;

falloir.

the

most

frequently

154

FRENCH

1. II y

GRAMMAR

both

IS

it y
2.

singularand

il y

MATCH,

There

MADE

de

being

There

is

by
n'y

4. Does

on

il y

not

Yes, il y
a)

h)

in

de

do

on

II y

New

York

FROM

New

in

IS

York

month

sailed
un

lated
etc., is trans-

which

in sentences

there

il

dire.

de

moyen

is?

Ya-t-il loin?

cinq heures {de chemin


et Washington, it
is
five

qu'ila pris
he

avail

constantlyappears;

mois.

Washington

to

speaking of time;
IT

n'y

pent dire, or

ne

savoir, pas

include

not

il

saying,

speaking of distances; ex.:

FAR?

letes,
ath-

temps.

frequently occur

English

in

no

pent savoir,

ne

fine

lated
etc., is trans-

comme

de

asses

knowing,

no

is

are

time,

ponderously by

pas moyen

no

doctor,

pas de medecin, pas


3.

there

there

superhes lutteurs.

no

rather

plural;ex.:

match;

un

CLEAR

fer)

hours'

it

entrc
ride

ex.:

since

le bateau
month

de

Is

he

sailed,

il y

un

inois

ago,

il

pris le

bateau

il y

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

MADE

CLEAR

155

Note.
When

HAVE

WAITED

THAT

MAN,

void

tends

homme

il

va

MONTH

BEEN

dcputs
avoir

qu'y

SINCE,

i
FOR

MONTPI

f attends

homme,

cet

homme,

ret.

use

ex.:

j'at-

or

mois.

un

mois

un

English;

WATTING

U y a UH
mois que
mois que
fatfends

un

cet

Idioms:

HAVE

Or

in

past

French

the

progress,

translate the

to

present

or

is still in

action

an

the

IS

WHAT

be

soon

will

it

que,

Q-t-llf

MATTER?

THE

Conjugate falloir.

5.

Inf.,
Ind.

Pres.,

"

Imp.,
P^" Simple Past,
Comp.,
"

Cond.
"

it is necessary

II

it

was

necessary

II

fallut,

it

was

necessary

II

fallu,
avail fallu,
cut
fallu,

it has

been

necessary

it had

been

necessary

it had

been

necessary

faudra,
aura
fallu,

II

Ant.,
Pres.,
Past,

"

be necessary

faut,
fallait,

Il

Subj. Pres.,
Imp.,
"

II

II

Ant.,

Fut.,
"

to

il

Plup.,
Past.

Falloir,

it will be

it will have

been

Il fand rait,

it would

necessary

II aurait

it would

fallu,

be

have

sary
neces-

been

cessary
ne-

Qu'il faille,

that it may

Qu'il falliif,

that it might be necessary

Qu'il ait fallu, that

Past,

necessary

be necessary

it may

have

been

have

been

necessary
''

Qu'il

Plup.,

exit

fallu, that

it

might

necessary
Note.
1. Not

only

to

TO,

and

HAVE

in

ex.:

quitfe;
to

are

is
i

must
tell

necessary,

ought

consequence

verb;
HAD

be

must

probably the

the

verbs

must,

to

by falloir,which
most

used

French

// faut que
je vous
you,
faut-ilque vous
partiesf
il fallutque je lui dise.
leave

go?

you
him

but

translated

156

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MADE

CLEAR

like the foregoing,


Devoir, it is true, is also used in sentences
but it only indicates
a
probability; ex.:
we
ARE

TO

aller

GO

TO

2. Remember
AM

6. What
I

I
dictionnaire,

want^

is the
It

IS

necessary

necessary

le

we
fallait,

Analyse the

il

fell

word

for

va

partir
il

il

or

need

faut

me
a

meilleur

uji

better

ary.
diction-

partes

Vinstant* il le

it

once^

hicn

r'lmrs

il

falloir partir.

va

word

falloirpartir

TO

GO,

YOU

found

cessary.
ne-

was

it

qiCil

it is

"

faut

absolutely

we

I, WE,

is

back^

va

or

indic. ;

=:

faut?

me

reculCnnes, iwus

falloir

je parte,

que

(;V pars

LEAVING.

cx.

at

sentence:

Translate

So

ex.

leave
nous

is invariably

fallotr

of il le fautl

meaning

ahsolument,

following

BE

dcvOHS

flOUS

d'aout.

mots

of il

meaning
or

AUGUST,

subj.)

NEED,

7. What

8.

MUST

WANT

au

the verb
I

je parte

is the

IN

subjunctive: je pars, il faut

LEAVING,

que

HARBOR

Harbor

that

in the
I

SEAL

Seal

going

to

be

to

go

it

is
WILL

necessary

going
SOON

to
HAVE

be

sary
necesTO

GO.

must

ought

have

//

-{hurry

to

fauf

to

not

you

me

wanted

deviez-vous

Ne

to

go

camp?

au

II

kit

me

^'

the

Sell

je

que

depeche

to

Were

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

158

Vendez

horses

aller

pas

camp?
fallait

le

un

cheval,

trousseau

il

le

fauf
^

tyou

It

is

to

going
pay.

to

be

must

necessary

//

va

falloir

payer

VI

ADVERBS

adverbs

French

1. What

There

as

are

there

French

many

correspond;
manner),

adverbs

our

adverbs

in

English adverbs

are

to

ly?

in

ending

correspond

as

they generally
poliment (in a polite

gravement,

gravely,

ment

and

ly

politely^

ex.:

in

gaiemcnt.

gaily,

Note.

(Latin

Ment

French

as

before

ment

In

few

ment,

2. Can

was

Latin,
in adverbs

adverbs

like

this

BON,

NET,

RAs,

CHER,
and

DROIT,

viTE,

are

that these words

etc.)used

is the

in

ending

feminine

fort-e-mcnt,

becomes

French

e;

old

inserted

strongly.

obscur-e-

ex.:

adverbs?

HAUT,

LONG,

JUSTE,

frequentlyused adverbially.
are

monosyllableslike

most

high,

straight,

dear,

adverbially.

for

better

MiEUx

(and

not

better,

il

hcaucoup mieux.

va

as

FAUX,

English adjectives(right,

3. What

the

adjectives be used

Yes,

LONG,

feminine

Hence

obscurely.

French

Notice

mente)
in

meilleur)

used
;

ex.:

adverbially?
he

is

much

160

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

4. What

difference

MADE

there

is

CLEAR

between

and

comme

comment?
Comme

is
YOU?

ARE

are!

5. What

allez-vous?

comment

in

used

never

comme

ex.:
interrogatively;

used

never

exclamation

an

and

is the position of adverbs


adverbs

and

ought

we

have

you

remember

to

in French?

always placed

are

that

placed as in English between


past participle
; ex. : I see
ment,

well

allez bien!

vous

French

is

comment
Hov^

ex.

how

repeatedly

after the

they can never


auxiliaryand

the

je vols

clearly,

told

verb,

the

claireai dit

je vous

you,

be

frequemment.
BiEN_,

and

souvENT,
in the

compound

j'aibien dormi;
AssEz

is

ENOUGH,

the

A.

autant,

de

ex.

before

the

slept

noun

ex.

ceptions
ex-

well,

j'aisoiivent

noticed,

serve.
ob-

bread

pain.

used

ADVERBS

OF

adverbs

in the

QUALITY:

moins, less

much,

as

many

pen,

not
little,

beaucoup,

much

plus,

bien,

many

tant,

so

trop^

too

combien,

only

list:

enough
as

past ;

often

the

are

commonly

most

following

asses,

placed
assez

6. Underline

rarement

how

many?

davantage, more

much,

how

un

much, few

more

pen,

much,

as

much

much
a

few
little,
a

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

ADVERBS

B.

la

fois,at

the

time

same

TIME:

last

enfin,at

cnsuite, next

alors, then

apres-dcmain,the day

after

hier, yesterday

jadis, formerly

to-morrow
a

OF

present,

jamais,

now

aujourd'hui,to-day

autrefois,formerly

naguere,

avant-hier, the day before

onques

lately

(archaic) ever

cependant, meanwhile

heure,

betimes,

ly
plus tot, sooner

deja,already

puis, then,

demain,

quand,

to-morrow

depuis,since
depuis quand,
des lors,from

how

temps

long?

that time

autre, from

time

dorenavant, henceforth
still,
again

next

when

quelquefois,sometimes

then

ward
for-

desormais, henceforth

encore,

forth,
hence-

not

plus tard, later,subsequent-

early

to

then

longer

no

at first
d'ahord, first,

de

and

plus (with ne),

hientot,soon

long time

now.

now
parfois,,

yesterday

bonne

for

longtemps,
maintenant,

immediately

aussitot.

(with ne*)

ever

never

auparavnnt, previously

de

161

CLEAR

MADE

sur-le-champ, at

tantot,
time

often

souvent,

once,

mediatel
im-

by and by, just now

tantot,
.

time,

at

tantot,

at

another

toujours,always
tout-a-coup, suddenly

one

FRENCH

162

GRAMMAR

ADVERBS

C.

OF

elsewhere
ailleurs,

autre
ceans

ga

et

PLACE:

en

arriere,behind

id, here

autoiir, around

alentour,

CLEAR

MADE

part, elsewhere

la, there

(archaic)within

loin, far

la, here

there

and

part, nowhere

nulle

dedans, within

oil, where?

dehors, outside

partout, everywhere

derriere,behind

par

dessus, above

pres,

dessous, below

quelque part,

d'ou, whence, where


D.

from

ADVERBS

OF

ainsi,so

which

autant, as,

MANNER:

on

(ne), in

beaucoup,

how

comme,

much?
! as,

how?

it were

as

quelque peu, somewhat


"

si, so,

.que,

surtout, above

(with

still,even

tant, so,

so

tellem,ent,so

fort,very

trh, very

(with w^), hardly

mal, mis
meme,

tout,

in

"

even

moins, less

"

un

"

however

as

comparative.)
ensemble, together
giiere

"

quelque,about
quelque-

likewise

encore,

un

"

presquc, almost

davantage,more
meme,

in

very,

pourquoiywhy?

how?

comment,

not

plutof,rather

very

combien, how

way

plus,more

much

bien, much,

no

pent plus, extremely

ne

peu,

much

as

somewhere

there.

peine,hardly
asses, sufficiently
aussi, (also) as

way?

near

nullement

de

y,

OH,

all,especially
much

quite,however

trop, too, too much


un
peu, somewhat,
extent

trop peu,

too

little

{que)

to

some

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

ainsi,

accordingly

so,

ausst,
car,

nonobstafit,notwiihsisind'mg

,.

I
.

CLAUSES:

CONNECTING

ADVERBS

E.

163

CLEAR

MADE

now

or,

for

consequent,

par

conse-

quently.

cependant,however, yet
besides
d'ailleurs,

partant, therefore, hence

done, then, therefore

pourtanf, still,
yet

du

the

reste, at

mais,

time

same

all the
toutefois,
tou jours,still

but

same

neanmoins, nevertheless
is the

7. What

of done?

meaning

reallymeans

DoNc
used

that

in

in this connection

and
ex.

so,

so,

IF

he

ici; it often

reste

is

is

therefore

ex.:

sense;

done, je

HERE,

and

therefore

frequently
will

means

so,

stay

so,

if

easilyreplacedby alors;
il est done fou or alors,
crazy,
is

il est

fou.
Finallyit is constantlyheard
in

just

done!

English;
hold

just

Allans

ing
expletiverecall-

an
come

just

the

here,

taisez-vous

tongue,

vencs

done!

done!

is the

done!

dites done!

your

ecoutes

listen,

JUST

ex.

as

equivalentof
equivalentof I say.

nonsense

is sounded

the

and

Note.

The

final

in

THEREFORE

the

8. What

word

Of

or

si, si,

less

"

SO

IS

mutc

little more

is there
mais

or

when
in other

between

si

are

used

sharply contradictinga
to oh

ill''

; it

becomes

difference

Si,'or

donc

'Vhy,

yes

yes,

''Si,il Vest; mais

!
he

or

why,

yes

than

si

cases,

because

exclamation.

an

and

ouil

in sentences
denial
! Ex.

and
:

''he

more

ponding
corresis

is'',''iln'est pas maladef

si,il Vest!

is

meaning

not
"

VII

PREPOSITIONS

1.

Give

a,

to,

list of

prepositions.

at

after

apres,

(time, order)

before

avant,

with

avec,

chejs, at,

house

the

to

or

des,

as

devant,

from

behind

early

except

outre,

besides
in

as

among

for

according

upon

towards

vers,

and

words

to

under

sur,

other

spite of

without

sous,

list of

among

by, through

selon,

before

Give

hors,

sans,

in, into

en,

towards

pour,

depuis, since,
derriere,

envers,

parmi,

of, from

de,

between,

par,

in, into

dans,

entre,

malgre,

of

against

contre,

2.

French

used

phrases

as

prepositions.
d

has

cause

coti

{an)

de, down

from

de,

beside

defaut de,

force de, by

moins

trovers,

au

of

de, because

travers

de,

dint

short
^

de, J

failing
of
of

en

arriere

en

avant

en

has

en

depit de,

en

rats

behind

de,
de,

de,

at

in

the
in

de,

on

excepts,

of

front

oF

bottom

spite

of

according

except

through

faute de,

across

hormis,

for

except

want

of

to

VIII

CONJUNCTIONS

1.

How

Conjunctions
clauses

BUT

connecting

IS

the

without
MIGHT

BE

But

is

in

these

Give

list of

coordinative

3.

Give

list of

the

real

only
que

other

coordinative,

2.

are

which

of
;

ex:

he

subordinativc,

b)

one

connecting

ex.

would
wrote

he

is

i.e,

be

complete
in-

that

informed.

conjunction

There

separate;

STUPID;

clauses

two

left

be

might
HE

i.e.

coordinative,

a)

are

which

RICH,

classified?

conjunctions

are

and

that

subordinativc

sentences.

conjunctions.

subordinative

four:
that

si

if

comme

as

quand

when

conjunctions.

4. Give

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

167

CLEAR

conjunctions including que,

list of the

a) Governing the indicative.


1.

Temporal

\ when
'"""^^f
'

or

quand,

after

apres que,
avant

before

que,

aussitot que,

the

1 from
,

as

soon

as

moment

des

que,
^

"

J when,

since

depuis que,
a
peine.
.

que,

tandis que,

pendant

tant

que,

attendant

en

ce

jusqua

scarcely.
.

when
.

long as

as

que,

as

soon

as

"'^'
que.

que,

until

Note.
En

and

que

attendant

jusqu'a

ce

que,

until,

subjunctive.

the

2. Causal

parce

puisque,
attendii
vu

since

que,

I seeing that

que,

comme,

3.

because

que,

as,

inasmuch

as

Comparative
a

mesure

)
y

que,
.

proportion

ainsi que,

as

que,

proportion

as

govern

selon

from

far

loin que,

que,

..

"

suivant
de

meme

as

que,

just as

as

Governing
1.

according

que,

comme,

h)

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

168

the

subjunctive.

Final

that

in order

aiin que,
de

crainte que,

de

peur

lest
lest

que,

in order

pour que,

that

2. Consecutive

de maniere
de

sorte

de

fagon

sans

so

que,

that

so

que,

that

so

que,

that

without

que,

3. Concessive.

"

I though
^'!''1"''
bien que,
encore

que,

malar

que
^

nonohsfant

soit que.

que,
.

sott
.

quand, quand
even

though

even

though

J
que,

meme,

though

.i.

even

whether.

...

or

(with conditional)

4.

169

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

Conditional.

si

or

if

si

que

subj

plup.

(takes

cru)
pourvu

provided

que,

suppose

que,

^^

admettont

que,]

moins

pour

unless

que,

peu

if..

que,

at
.

en

cas

que,

:}'
^

au

cas

que

case

all

ex.

s'il

m'eut

IX

EXCLAMATIONS

Most

exclamations

They

be

can

their

but

the

with

learned

be

not

can

greatest

by

ease

divined

is

use

literally.

translated

versation,
con-

rather

than

explained.
In

French,

become

obsolete

hleu!

heard

CALL

replaced by

are

but

they

are

constantly
others.

mordieu!

Mor-

etc.,

are

heard.

never

exclamations

the

are

frequently

most

SOMEBODY

Oh!

ho!

"

holloa!

ohe!

Eh!

alio!

(at the

Dites

To

exclamations

palsambleuf

following

The

English,

and

tudieu!

still read,

To

in

as

telephone)

sur!

Certes!

there!

over

you

certainly!

"

oui

certes

foi!

ma

parole

undoubtedly!

^-

upon

"

"

Naturellement!

"

Ecoutez!

of

"

(to one's

Dame!

yes,

"

indeed

faith
upon

"

!
word

my

it, absolutely !

mean

course!

self)
"

yes

my

d'honneur!

Parfaitementf

Tones

hello!

"

I say,

"

there!

over

certainly!

"
""

Assurement,

Ma

you

Surement,

Sur

holloa,

"

la has!

done,

AFFIRM

Bien

Id has!

"

Look

of

course!

here!

Listen!

of

honor!

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

To

hien, fort bien!

Soit!
A

la bonne

merveille!

heure!

Juste!

Ma
Va

pour

Je
Je

"

"

fullyagree
after all (you are
right.)
the theatre,
(le theatre,le cercle,etc.)
the club, by all means!
"

SATISFACTION:

sur!

of

"

crois bien!

CONTRADICT

I should

say

so!

rather!

"

of

"

course!

"

crois!

vous

course!

Pardon!

"

beg

tout, pas du

pas le moins

jamais!
Allons!

"

mum!

taises-vous!

silence

"

not

"

come,

"

"

never

"

all
in the

come!
in the

indeed!

no,

"

done!
"

at

nonsense!

la vie!

de

Pensez

not

never!

"

non!

certes

"

monde,

"

allons!

jamais

pardon

your

tout,

du

allons done!

chut!

right.

agreed, all right

WITH

Dame!

du

good

right.

"

fait!
foi!

all

I agree,

all

Convenu!

Pour

and

naturally

"

"

"

ADMIT

right! well

right!

"

Entendu!

Par

that's

"

quite right

"

doute!

Bon!

granted!

"

granted!

"

Sans

To

171

CLEAR

admit:

Tres

To

MADE

just think!
hush!
hold

silence!

your

tongue!

world

least

172

To

FRENCH

DENOTE

GRAMMAR

SURPRISE

MADE

CLEAR

:
.

Bah!

bah!

"

Vraiment!
Tiens!

really!

"

really!

"

Sapristi!

by Jove!
possible!
impossible,you
"

Pas

"

Quel

quellehisioire!

conte!

don't

so!

say

Tell it to the marines

"

Diantre !

Fichtre!

the

deuce!

Bigre!
To

DENOTE

embarrassment:

Diahle!

the

"

Mais!

why!.

"

d^uce!

Hum!...

H'm!

"

Voyons, voyons!
Attendez

When

wait

"

see!

me
a

minute!

shocked:

Mon

Dieu!

Que

dites-vous

C'eSi

Dear

"

me!

la?

don't

you

"

mean

it!

shocking!

"

affreux!

horrible!

"

warn:

Attention!
Gare!
To

Let

"

pen!

un

Horreur!

To

careful!

"

look

"

out!

encourage:

Va

(ex.: ga ira,va)

Vive.
.

Allons
Marche!

hurrah

"

it will be all

"

for.
.

y!
"

"

go

ahead!

go

ahead!

Long

right!you'llsee
live.

!
.

GALLICISMS

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

176

CLEAR

MADE

GALLICISMS
The

French

language
the

are

the

only way

to

is to

parts of
make

examine

imitate them

in short

He

his

broke

// s'est

the

ing
followin

arranged

speech.
familiar

oneself

with

these

examples carefully and


of one's own.
simple sentences
the

DEFINITE

1.

The

frequent Gallicisms

the

idioms

called Gallicisms.

are

most

of

order

The

speakingor phrasing peculiarto

of

ways

ARTICLE

arm,

le bras.

casse

Possessive

adjectivesare

article before

replace'd
by the
indicatingthe parts

nouns

definite
of

the

replaced by

the

body.
2.

He
//

has

small

la tete

The

head,

petite.

indefinite article is also

definite in the
3.

We

paid

ten

same

cents

case.

dozen

payait les oeufs dix

On

definite

in

from

come

J'arrive

replaced by
indicatingprices or

sentences

de

France,

of

the

going

am

should

say

an
:

to

in

the

quency
fre-

Canada,

Canada.

j'arrivede

definite article is left out

countries

the

jots la semaine).

deux

France, je vais

logicallywe
but

la douzaine

sous

(twice a week,
I

eggs,

indefinite article is also

The

4.

for

feminine.

la France,

before

names

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

Before
The

the

MADE

same

French

names

say:

CLEAR

is translated

in

Amerique,

en

177

by en.
Angleterre,

en

Amerique and Angleterre are feminine,


they say: aux Etats-Unis,au Japon, because

because
but

these

masculine.

are

names

INDEFINITE

1.

He

is

//

est

doctor,

medecin.

The

indefinite

attributes
2.

This

Ce

or

devil of
diable

The

Was

article a,
in

nouns

man,

suppression
denotes

noun

there

The

ever

the

takes
same

gargon
MORE

ne

there is

place

the first.

as

person

the

when

terrible war?

more

jamais guerre plus


same
suppression is

when

even

before

out

apposition.

eut-il

is left

an,

d'homme.

same

second
3.

ARTICLE

cruelle?
usual

after

interrogation
; ex.

no

fut plus heureux,

never

jamais,
*.

jamais
a

was

boy

DELIGHTED.

PARTITIVE

Robust
Des

children,

enfants rohustes*

The

partitiveshould

is after

the

noun;

adjectiveprecedes

rohusfes enfants.

de
be

des

it should
the

noun.

when
be

the
de

adjective
when

the

178

2.

drink

To

Boire

good coffee;

de

The

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

cafe;

bon

is
partitive

it becomes

bu

avons

the

when

de

the

du

drank

we

nous

CLEAR

moment

good coffee,
du

bon

meaning

cafe.

is

general;
action

individual

an

is recorded.
3.

tedious,

Nothing

more

Ricn

plus

ennuyeux.

is added

before

de

De

comparative.

NOUN

1.

Les

the

singular where

seeing the
little

You
Petit

Mr.

heads,

la tete.

the individual,often

English-speakingpeople,
the

use
collectivity,

plural.

silly!

sot!

You

3.

baisser

French, bearing in mind

use

their

lower

to

pries de

sont

voyageurs

The

2.

requested

Passengers are

preceding

Monsieur

est

Servants

vocative

this

is away;

X.

used

is left out

gentleman

of

their

by other people it

French.

says...

dit.

absent; monsieur

speak

in

master

is

more

as

monsieur

politethan

;
ce

monsieur.

ADJECTIVE

navy

Une

robe

blue

gown,

blcu-marine.

Compound

adjectivesindicatingcolory
(bleu

instead

of

bleue).

are

variable
in-

2.

scanty dinner,

maigre diner,

Un
In

3.

few

place of

the

//

d'lin

est

tl est

nouns

d'une

frequent.

tante.

voire

possessiveadjectiveby
to

of

person

he

more

il

Plus

softening the
title when
speak
you
of his family.

politenessstill insists

French

The

however

of

aunt.

Mademoiselle

5.

instead

frequentlyused

exclamations;

familiar

Your

varies

words

bete!

betise! is also
4.

easily,the
according to the

teaches

usage

adjective.

Adjectivesare
in

maigre.

remarkably stupid!

is

He

which

the

of

dinner,

diner

un

cases,

meaning

fish

179

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

member

the less I believe him,

says,

parle,moins

je

definite article

The

on

le crois.

in

is omitted

double

the

comparative.
6.

The

same

Les

memes

words, the

Ics mots

mots,

Meme

meaning

meaning

words,

very

memes.

always precedes the

same

it.

it follows

very

noun;

Note.

Meme,

an
an

MEME,

himself;

7.

Such
Un

ex.

MY

EVEN
ne

adjective, ought
adverb
meaning

me

DOG

reconnut

Meme
DID

ME;

very

my

ne

dog

confused
with

or

even,

KNOW

NOT

be

to

chien

mon

pas,

not

me

lui-meme,

reconnut

pas,

chieti mime

moit
did

with

not

know

me.

swimmer,

tel nageur.
Tel

in

French

takes

(comp. un
adjective

the
ban

place

of

nageur).

an

ordinary

Idiom

Tel

"

SHE,

quelle,I
8.

The

other

L'autre

IS

IT

only

jour

ete

Every

on

man,

Tout

homme,

The

whole

of

Rome

Tout

every

occasion.

When

every

Rome

last

in

(as

occasion.
all

or

other

like any

before

summer

year).

toute

en

tre
date, l'au-

recent

other

meaning

Tout

means

the

means

English EVERY
9.

is.

last,

before

summer

it

as

house

the

he,

telle

je prendrai la maison

take

the

as

means

quelle,

I'autre ete.

jour,

L'autre

; ex.

will

day,

telle

or

quel
or

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

180

take

can

the

inine
fem-

adjective.
there.

was

etait.

TOUT

the

means

of

whole

city it

is

invariable.
Elles

etaient toutes

They

were

honteuses,

quite ashamed.

Singularlyenough quite,
by tout, adjective,which

adverb, is translated

an

is variable.

PRONOUNS

a) Personal

pronouns.

1. I love
Je

and

Vaime
The

him,

revere

et

le

revere.

personal pronoun
verb

second

when

its

is not

repeated before

meaning

is somewhat

the

ilar
sim-

that of the first.

to

Note.
The

suppression is frequent in legal formulas;


and
je donne et Icgue, I will
bequeath.

same
ex.:

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

182

Your

He

his stick and

took

// te prend
Vous

of

Seeing
Voyani

Use

of

looks

1. He
//

re

me

The

lui

at

in
pleonastically
thinks

American

ing
noth-

trip).
it,

on

il s'assii dessus.

frequentlyleft

and

MOi

sat

tambour

un

is

It

mile

he

drum

it

use

s'en seri.

ei

(cf. your

thousand

to

frequentlyused

are

narrations

vivid

7.

TE

or

began

bdion

son

Highness;

Grace.

Your

Grandeur,

CLEAR

Altesse, Your

Voire

Majesty;

Voire
6.

MADE

untranslated

after

osition.
prep-

me,

look

at

me.

garde, regardez-moi.

English

is

me

pronoun

always

translated

by

preceding the verb, except in the imperative,


where
it is translated by moi
followingthe verb.

ME

Note.
in

Even

there

the
is

imperative me
negation ; ex.

is translated
:

do

not

by

look

at

me

me,

when
ne

me

regardes pas.

2.

He

//

speaks
me

To

is

to

speak

me,

to

me,

park, parlez-moi.
is translated

by me, except in the


unaccompanied by a negation,where
translated by moi
(not a moi).
me

perative
imit

Note.
To

ME

is translated

motion;

ex.:

he

by
came

moi
to

only after verbs


me^

il vint

moi.

denoting

3.

that book

Bring

lui

Apportez

4. Let

do

Laisses
Him

livre, reprenez-lelui.

ce

and

him

to

the
faire) when
completed by a clause.
him

saw

Je lui ai

Idioms

"

instead of

admiration

lui,

chez
des

idees

1.

to

the
Notre
2.

in

in

him.

in

in

French

ex.:

the

(better than

others) knew

Americans

donne

nous

le chemin.

the

nous

rightto

say.

Americains

le

droit

dire.
.

explanation; ex. :
War
had
impoverished both
La

of

PRONOUNS

qui,elle,connaissait

bonne

3.

own,

road,

qui
de

sentence

who

emphasis ; ex.
What
gives us
Ce

the

is wfong

frequently repeated

distinction;
maid

when

le

home,

lui, it

following cases

Our

followinghim

verb

lui, ideas of his

OF

are

show

his

at

REPETITION

the

(ex.;

contempt.

or

c'est mal

Pronouns

le,

fairedes merveilles,

im

denotes

of

wonders,

do

is also used

Lui

him.

from

he

as

laissez le

5. I

him,

from

pleases,
lui fairece qui lui plait.
instead
is translated by lui

him

is

183

him, take it away

to

translates both

Lui

CLEAR

MADE

GRAAIMAR

FRENCH

guerre

nous

avait

of

us.

appauvris,lui

ef

moi.

FRENCH

184

Le,

la,

les,

1. Are

GRAMMAR

the

"tes-vous

the

suis.

Yes,

are,

doctors?

used

Are

^tes-vous

reinef

Are

doctors?

you

"tes-vous

3.

Pleonastic

of

use

Jealous she
Jalouse
As

Autant

que

Le

in the

the

second

Idioms

can

je

le

Le

'

This

usage
THINK

TO

in the

sums

ceder,

answer.

will be,

sera.

repeats
aider

up
to

give
to

better

use

of

does

not

il n'en

TO,

and

jalouse

les

in

conquer

in which

IT

escape

rough

is also

najstic.

1. Rich
Richef
En

he

en:

seem

to

be,

pas Voir.

in this sentence

in

malheureux.

chapper belle,to have a narrow


disputer a, to vie with.
recalls Englishphrases like to
IT

Pleonastic

in

(do so"),T help the poor


puis, j'aideles malheureux.

Uemporter,
Ue

le

first sentence
it

Le

"

qualityis emphasized

she

and

was

as

sommes.

le:

elle I'etait et

much

le

nous

is used

le

number,

are,

Oui,

question,only

les

(one),

am

we

the contrary,

on

la,

le suis.

Oui, je
Yes

points more

qualityle,
gender and

the

to

sommes.

his

to

Yes, I

medecinsf

When,
the

than

queen?

les

nous

the sentence

of

according

you

we

Oui,

meaning

individual

an

are

2.

the

(she).

am

Out, je h

j^tes-vous les medecinsf


When

qiie^n? Yes,

la reinef

you

to

CLEAR

pronouns:

as

you

Are

MADE

stands

for

etre

riche.

it,

pleo-

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

2.

He

had

//

en

passe

Take

dreadful

Croyez

m'en.

I have

enough

J'en

asses.

ai

In these

in

have

Ou

phrases

pleonasticthan

English.

which

(of this)

idiomatic

very

less

nor

it

for

word

my

But

there

// s'en

of

far have

It
Ce

got?

it.

PRONOUNS

me

semble.

me

Ce

2.

to

seems

this

in French

you

it is from

Far

faut hien,

more

of

or

it,

others

many

How

DEMONSTRATIVE

1.

for

it,

are

is neither

en

equivalentin English,ex.

no

etes-vousf

en

it!

of

time

185

CLEAR

MADE

is sometimes

used

instead

of

il

neuter.

Seeing this, whereupon.


Ce

voyant^

Ce

is also used

sur

ce.

for

cela.

3.

It is
Ce

The

not

fCest pas
word

feat,

great

la

is

cela

parts

grand exploit.

un

decomposed
Id

ce

grand exploit. This


"

4.

admiration
He

is great

Celui-ld

In
but

or,

tlie
celui

est
same

on

who

to

becomes

celui

in

the

two

tuent
consti-

words

sentences

un

showing

contrary, contempt.
himself

conquers

grand qui
way

emphasize

is done

the

into its

se

vainc.
qui

celui-la.

can

be

splitin

two,

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

186

5.

What
Ce

his loss

caused

qui
Ce

le

in

perdit

is

beginning with
6.

That

class has

Cela

CLEAR

his avarice,

was

fut

ce

FUT

CE

MADE

avarice.

son

pleonastic
; frequent in
qui,

ce

ce

sentences

que.

respect for anybody

no

respecte personne.

ne

Cela

is often

people

one

in speaking
colloquially

used

where

even

scorns,

only

of

person

one

is meant.

PRONOUNS

RELATIVE

1. He

breaks

who

Qui

paie.

casse

Celui

2.

the

usual

what

is

worse.

They
the
Us

time

Voila

flocked

Le

when

was

this

...

into qui,

terse

usage.

qui est parler


is speaking
the North, others

from

in, some

from

South.

arriverent

The

into

speaking.

en

foule, qui

Nord, qui

du

of les
Qui.... qui mstead
imparts charming vivacity to

4.

shortened

est.

That
3.

at

is also abbreviated

qui

Idiom

of

way

qui pis
Ce

frequently found

proverbs coined

in

Et

is

qui

QUI

And

pays

tutor

of

that

precepteur

de

boy

who

uns

les autres
.

the

used

sentence.

bore

to

gargon,

of

qui

leaves

the

boy,

us.

ennuyait

lequel nous

ce

Midi.

du

souvent,

Lequel

boring
be

instead
person

ambiguous.

was

no

doubt

whereas

qui

that

the

would

which

difficulties with

5. The

on
difjicultes

Les

terse

of

instead

ou,

avec

debattions

alors.
.

lequel

the

is

lequel,

dans

or

frequent in

usage

struggled

then

we

nous

nous

187

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

writers.

best

PRONOUNS

INDEFINITE

On
What

1.

also be

clearlycan

conceive

you

expressed

clearly.
Ce

UoN

is

also used

2.

is

Once
On

On

salt pas

On

encore

sa

instead of

is used

could

for

know

don't

you

Nobody

4.

used
colloquially

more
ne

avoid

to

dignifiedthan on, and is


harsh hiatus, (ex.: on on).

va!

On
3.

more

Coming
On

shade

clairement.

bien s'enonce

concoit

Von

que

nous.

or

je

lesson, be careful !

your

legon, qu'on fasseattention


in

vous

reproach or

'

menace.

wittier

be

n'a pas

plus d' esprit.


of this kind
always

Idioms

admiration

bete,

one

or

irritation ;
not

could

ex.
more

be

denote
on

superlative

n'est pas

plus

stupid.

Tel:

Many

man

dull in

seems

Tel

brille

Tel

shines

in

au

second

in

subordinate

higher
rang

positionwho

one
au
qui s'eclipse

proverbialsentences
English would use he who,

is often
many

premier.

used
a

man,

where
etc.

FRENCH

188

Chacun

GRAMMAR

knows

Every body
Chacun

salt.

Chacun

AuTRUi

translates
It is

ONE.

both,

every

always used as
adjectivebeing

and

one,

the

pronoun,

each
responding
cor-

chaque.

We
//

CLEAR

MADE

think

must

faiitpenser

of

neighbor,

our

autrui.

(lat.alterum) is

AuTRUi

only found

is

and

used

never

in

general

as

ject
sub-

sentences.

VERB

Inversion
The

1.

French

language inverts
English in two cases :

do

in

In

indirect

MIGHT

BE

In

questions, ex.:

YOUR

SITUATION,

etre
pourretit

que
2.

of Subject:

seulement,

not

forte raison,even
when

these

hardly

were

we

hors

du

The

French

out

we

what

demandes-vous

ce

si.
.

peine, hardly;

vain,

en

with

HENCE_,

._,

situation

voire

only;

subject as

yourself

ask
IF.

beginningby

sentences

the

better

words
at

in

cause;

be^in
sea^

vain;

non
a

and

sentence,

plus
de

la,

ex.

peine fumes-nous

port.

language also
the following cases
where
English:

inverts
we

do

the
not

subject in
invert

it in

190

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

MANY,

ex.

part
4.

:" MOST

After

collective

action

of

soldafs

The

is in the

is in the

qui, ex.

ce

EPICS,

pees du
After

band

the

is

seen

une

singular,ex.
of

soldiers

rived.
ar-

the

singularalthough

qui

ce

the action

subject

following cases:
are

est

known

connu

as

le

sous

the

dieval
me-

d'cpo-

nom

Moyen-Age.
le peu

de,

ex.

le peu

htm,

Indicative:

If

he

de

The

two

were

the
but

makes

verbs

people

few

quHl

and

comes

if he

qu'ilvous

would

You
see

Vous

use

sees

TENSES

be

the introduction
the

he

voit Vennuient,

in

should

of

the

of

tell you,

dise.
the

indicative

used (s'il
vient
only preposition

the second

Conditional:

what

gens

OF

S'il vient et

with

wheu

what

USE

que

separately,ex.
of
nageaient, a band

arrwa,

plural in

the

seen

is in the

verb

troupe de

verb

is

SWIMMING;

the
collectively

dit) ;

plu-

singular when

the

nymphes

WERE

BORE

la

SURRENDERED,

in

nouns

de

troupe

1. After

THEM

individuals

the

NYMPHS

2.

OF

CLEAR

rcndirent.

se

une

MADE

if

sr

et s'il vous

meaning suppose
subjunctivea necessity
que

verb.

might look twenty times, you


nothing.
regarderiezvingt fois,vous

rie.z rien.

would

ne

ver-

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

Probabilities

Present
to

the

French
The

The

and

they

ex.

Many

it

Sur

much

as

ditional.
con-

they

as

English is, on

the

trary,
con-

frequently used.

feeling

sure

often

so

that

placed at

disappear i i

you

v^ould

ceed
suc-

reussiries farrivai.

vous

que

the

ponderous

very

English sentence

an

Feeling

I CAME^

seems

and
or

191

logically
by

avoid

in

convenient

beginning of

French,

2.

tense

being
participles

CLEAR

very

tense

same

very

the

marked

are

Participle:This

can.

1.

MADE

English present

translated
are
by
participles
in French
past participles
(lying,sitting,
standing,
mouth
the
kneeling,etc.),ex.: Lying at the
of

Loire, Saint
Situe

ought

Vemhouchure

devrait

Nazaire

etre

un

One

Infinitive:1.

to

la

de

be

large

port,

Loire, Saint-Nazaire

grand port.
the characteristics of the French

of

of the infinitive. In
use
language is the constant
the follow^ing
sentence
:
fcspere pouvoir venir ap-

porter

mon

concours

and

COME

there

give

my

three

are

votre

oeitvre,

ASSISTANCE

hope

YOUR

TO

can

W^ORK,

infinitives in succession, almost

an

in English,
impossibility

2.

On

other

the

from

hand

the

Latin

SAILOR"*'

is

and

translation

the

no

the
:

longer

English
''he

in

runs

w^ anted

use

in

me

to

modern

il voulait

tated
imi-

construction

que

be

French,

je

sois

marin.
3.

In

the

instances

numerous

follows

TO

see

and

in which
to

hear

in

present participle

English the

substitutes

French
ex.

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

192

the

infinitive for

an

HIM

HEARD

CLEAR

participle,
je Vefitendis siffler.

WHISTLING,

Note.
When

je le voyais

Id sautillant.

infinitives

hopes

3. He

asks
shall

4. I

to

for

Venez

will try to

You

// demande

best

Je

to

the

in

is not

venir

(d)

possiblepour
ferai mon
venir (pour)

Now

in

second

the

verb

(de)

left out,

translated

by

sentences

by

a^

pour,

any

tences
sen-

preposition,

3, 4, and

5,

for

when
and

the

de.

corresponding English sentences


is almost
always preceded by to,

questionis
know,

preceded by

French

infinitive is preceded

be

(no prep.)

will find that the infinitive in the French

whereas

to

(no prep.)

'// essaiera de venir

come,

1 and

the

raconter

// espere venir

come,

my

INFINITIVE

following sentences:

come,

5. He

son

condensation,

AN

BEFORE

come,

do

round,

Ic talent d'OT-

ORGANIZATION,

carefullythe

to

participle

hopping

frequentlyreplace English nouns,

tell me,

and

present

condemer.

PREPOSITIONS

Examine

the
him

see

could

capacity

his

aptitudea

2. He

FOR

TALENT

: THE

ganiser;

1. Come

ex.

4. French
ex.

graphic effect is intended

is retained,

the
and

English-speakingperson how
the French
prepositionought to
2: in what
to
case
ought to be

a, de,

an

pour.

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

left

prepositionis

The

a)

1. after
TO

COME

also

courir,to

cases:

like aller,to

motion

of

verbs

in two

out

193

CLEAR

MADE

run

after

conduire, to

COME

AND

HAVE

DONE,

retourner,
and

lead^

venir,

go;
to

back

go

;
to

envoyer,

SEND,
ex.

Venez

TELL

raconter

voire

WHAT

FATHER

YOUR

pere

ce

YOU

vous

que

fait.

avez

Note.
that

il

GONE,

HE

Remember
HAS

HE

Idiom

Je

2. After

By

by any
voir, I

de

to

alter,

of

THOUGHT

in which

Cases

reallybelonging
preposition.
have
just seen.

ex.
thinking,hoping and stating,
croyaispartiraujourd'hui,

verbs
Je

b)

viens

and

WENT

followed

not

are

ete, il s'en fut, frequently meaning

SHOULD

the verb

is

LEAVE

TO-DAY.

preceded by

a,

pour,

de.

A:
To

is translated

by

the verb

1. When

in the

begins

followingcases
sentence

indicatingan

inference.
To

hear

entendre

vous

2. When

the

sentence

before
WHAT.?

Ex.

Americans;

what?)
Les

would

one

you

the

on

can

verb

diately
interruptedimmeby the question: to do
be

have
to

grown

help

Americains

se

aider

tout

faire?) a

imagine
s'imaginerait.

every
sont

accustomed

(to

do

body
habitues

le. monde.

(a quoi

FRENCH

194

ready (to

am

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

do

what?)

their

follow

to

example.
Je

suis
ex

3. After

IN,

followed

by

dire que
that.

tell you

to

in

which

nouns

English

are

ex.

I take

J'ai

By

ex.

vous

I have

4. After

leiir

pie.

em

avoir,

J'ai

suivre

(a quoi faire?) a

pret

pleasure

plaisira

in

informing

you

ap prendre.

vous

Pour:
The

infinitive is

1. When

the

contain
He

for,

He

ex.

puni pour
for

passes

// passe pour

2. When

is indicated,

Ouvrez

3. After
Too

English

ex.

and

proud

Trop

Her

tie trop sage.


man

sentence
a

in

means

der
or-

definite purpose

to

cool

the

room

fenetre pour rafraichirla chambre.

la

trop

wise

too

sava"nt.

the window

Open

avoir

generallywhen

and

TO,

being

for

learned

in the

to

would

punished

ete

pour:

correspondingEnglish sentence

was

//

preceded by

assez,
to

ex.

fight

pour

se

battre.

ByDe:
The

French

preceded by

infinitive is, nine


de

which

in most

times
cases

is

out
a

of
mere

ten,
link

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

has

and

it is advisable

However,

chieflyin

found

1. Wherever
noun

of

or

The

devoir

Le
I

the

following

would

be used

of

duty

Je

d'instruire

of

suis pas

ne

in

EngHsh.

that

de

will be

cases

in

English after

educating the nation,

doubtful

am

has

to

state

to

adjective,ex.

an

195

CLEAR

than

meaning

more

no

MADE

la nation.

succeeding.
.

reussir.

de

siir

Note.

There

few

great

there
of

but

-are

are

are

many

adjectives governing of,


in English which
nouns
in French.

more

even

ending by de,. ex. :


faute de,

afin de,

UNLESS,
THE

EXTENT

2. When

OF,

and

(decompose:
//

He

and

noun

mains

de,

point de,

to

into

be

decomposed

on

can

ex.

live

to

the

me

gave

conseilla de

me

3. After

me

number

to,
au

of,

and

so

CtC.

noun,

advised

He

from

order

default

first verb

the

verb

in

in

the

Hence,

prepositions derived

compound

there

but
do

vivre

impersonal verbs

ranch,

advice)

dans

ferme.

une

beginning by

il, neuter,

ex.:

//

importe

de

comprendre

It is

important

// est

dur

It is
4. De

understand.

d'etre exile

It is hard
C'est

to

to

live in exile.

heaucoup de savoir
a fine thing to know

is

frequentlyused instead
precede de musiciens,preceded
amuse

de

ses

re

amused
parties,

metier

un
a

trade.
of

par
by

by

his

ex.

musicians;
repartees.

196

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

MADE

CLEAR

Note.
In

numerous

cases

the

use

the

student

be

but

de;

place
KIND

WERE

can

is

soon

instinct

an

is the

de

was

when

for

given

developed in

Vous
to

wrong

be

would

pour

or

Ex.:

right preposition.

ME,

WRITE

TO

m'ecrire; I

definite rule

feels that

who

of

out

You
de

of

no

ttvcs

J'at

stay,

etc
eu

Gtmable
tort

de

rester.

FEW

VERBS

REMARKS

ON

is the most

frequent French
(to make
make,

Faire.

1. Faire

only to

not
un

discours) and

faire) but
to

order,

to

bid,

TO

let,

also the
ex.

ex.

ex.

do

him

he ordered
me

to run,

repeat, il

shall let you

it translates

me

faire

speech,

nothing,

following verbs

he bade

(to

do

to

verb:

rien

ne

it Ic fit courir,
fit repeter,

know, je

vous

feral

savoir,
to

cause,

ex.

he

him

caused

to

be

removed,

il lo

fiteloigner,
TO

GET,

TO

HAVE,

ex.

:
ex.

he got him
:

he

damner,

had

appointed,il le fitnommer,
him

sentenced, il le fit

coiw

5.

going

am

Je

vais

combination

follows

TO

HAVE_,

the

takes

place

AM

GOING

verbs

faire is

ex:
participle,

je vais

CUT,

me

placed
re-

fairc

les cheveuX'

couper

1. //

Idioms.

second

that

HAIR

MY

HAVE

TO

made

participle

if another

the

made,

infinitive of

the

by

of

of the

one

so

CAUSE.

saying that

without

It goes

when

is constant

ears

TO

GET,

sounds

which

object governed by

an

for me,

pardessus.

autre

faire faire

EngHsh

to

strange

made

coat

faire faire un

me

The

TO

another

have

to

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

198

faitque

ne

2. Je

only just arrived.

3. Vous

beau

avez

what

Do

4. A^^
Do

you

faitespas
le

faire,

will.
le modestc"

the modest

act

not

5. Fais

smoke.

d'arrivcr,

fats que

ne

have

nothing except

does

He

ftimer,

man.

beau, toutou,

Doggie.

Beg,

Aller.
1.

I will
Je

on

you,

vais bicntot aller


Aller

2.

call

soon

is

I have

J'y at

Aller
suis

there

fy

or

has
alle

voir-

frequentlyused

been
ete

vous

to

(note

the

future.

twice,

suis alle deux

two

denote

compound
the

different

fois.
pasts : j'aieie
auxiliary).

and

/-."

3,

You

MADE

GRAATMAR

FRENCH

round

go

saying.
.

199

disant

allcz partout

Vous

CLEAR

in

charmingly vivacious construction


both
colloquialand literary.

4.

wood

The

allait

hois

Le

thicker,

and

s'epaississant.

en

Progress is
the

thicker

became

French,

often

marked

by

followed

allf.r,

by

present participle.

VOULOIR.
1.

VouLOiR

only

NOT

WILL

What

do

live abroad,

to

vivre

// vent

wish

lez-vo us?

intends

He

mean,

intend,

want,

wish,

not

pas y allcr.
you

"jou

He

it translates

as

there,

go

veux

ne

Que

French

ex.

Je

also

but

wiLL^

TRY,

frequent in

is

to

tried

// vouhit

Vetrangcr.
his escape,

make

s'echapper.

Note.
The

phrase je
and

French
as

of

best

WISH.

WANT

the
YOU

Je

translated

future,

Please
Vcuillez

be

deux

remember
mc

heures,

me

mppeler

even

to
au

your

BE

TO

desire

by
speaking
simply by the imperative: Soyez
which
is perfectly polite.
ici

2.

or

will

to

not

translation

mere

WANT
-

careful

be

must

unpleasantly dictatorial in
people. So we
by well-bred
acquire the habit of using it

sounds

veux

is avoided

or

vous

que
an

ici

AT

HERE

to

of

even

TWO,
soyez

inferior,or
deux
heures,

father,

souvenir

dc

votre

pere.

the

at

like you

I should

SHOULD

Je

the

4.

WISH

Will

is also the

have

Voiiles-vous

[itveut
Proverb

translation

for

would

you

wish

or

de

tasse

camomillef

frequentlyused
V argent, il veut

Vouloir

c'est

Where

tea?

of camomile

cup

une

de
"

phrases as

is

VouLOiR

proper

WERE.

YOU

you

voiis

by je voudrais.

is translated

in such

/"/

comprenies.

vous

LIKE

voiidrais

WISH

by
principalverb.)
or

(placed

understand,

to

Je voiidrais que

veuillez

by

the sentence)

beginning of

plait (placed after


3.

either

is translated

Please

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

200

transitive verb

as

du

plaisir].

pouvoir.

there's

will there's

way.

ADVERB

SI

PEINE

He

is

no

scholar,he is hardly educated,

peine s'ila quelque instruction.


c'est a peine si has the meaning of

// n'est pas savant,

peine si

or

HARDLY.

is tout

after which

au

plus,at

most,

the subject is inverted

{tout au

plus a-t-il quelque

synonym

instruction).
COMBIEN

CoMBiEN
1. How

much?

translates
Ex.:

several
How

much

Combien

English
is it?
est-ce?

words:

2.

How

Ex.:

many?

How

3.

How

Ex.

WELL

How

have

many

Combien

you?

avez-vous?

en

I realised !

well

Combien

201

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

j'aicompris!

D'ou?
1. Where

do

venez-vousf

D'oii

Where.

2.

D'oii

je

2.

I infer

whence

or

conclus

que.

"

by
literally

d'ou?

that

"

d'ou correspondsto
metaphorically,

Used

1.

is translated

-FROM

..

which

From

Encore

from?

come

you

whence.

Encore

means

there,

il est

encore

revenu.

It also

means

du

cafe?

la;

encore

more,
.

yet"

still,

again,

is

again,

coffee?...,

: more

ex.

come

has

he

: he

ex.

stilt,

il

est

encor-:

Pas:
Pas

is left

1. After
stir;

Ex.

oser,

in the

out

dare;

to

savoir^to
:

I did

After
Ex.

qui
:

//

cesser,

to

stop;

bouger, to

know.

dare

not

Je n'osais
2.

followingcases

stir,

to

bouger.

ne.

n'y

awiit

Nobody

who

personne
did

not

que

ne

le crut,

believe him.

202

FRENCH

3.

After

GRAMMAR

que

Ex.:

m'appelait-il!

fie

did he

Why

CLEAR

in exclamations.

ne,

Que

MADE

call

not

me

Note.
After

pas

Ex.

the

davantage, neither,
ne
davantage
pas

NEITHER

DID

THINK

HE

subject

songea-t-il

OF

CALLING

is inverted.

m'appeler,

ME.

Peu:
Peu,

adverb,

an

Peu

hardly

means

prepare

officier,

etre

Hardly qualifiedto
Par

be

officer.

an

ou?
Par

ou?

Which

Ex.:

way?

which

means

did

way

he

out?

go

oil cst-il sorti?

Par

Pres:
Pres
a

means

heaucoup'
,

tant

or

near_,

pas

mean

far

from

not

nearly.

it,

faiit j
heacoup pres means

s
a

pres

en

PREPOSITIONS

preposition(Lat. ad, Eng. at)


but is also
of places,
prefixedto names

This

of

names

A
1.

and

before
at

at

generally

is

found

before

time.

exactlycorrespond in

names

Marseilles,

of

towns,
a

ex.:

Marseille:

at

the

followingcases

Exeter,

Exeter;

FRENCH

2.

before
or

GRAMMAR

of

places,not
ex.
:
habitually,

names

goes

school,

at

MADE

at

church,

at

the

Vecole,

CLEAR

203

where

towns,

stay^

one

college,

au

Veglise,

office,

bureau.

au

Note.

is also used
in

before

English

we

of

say

IN

THE

of

because

writer:
THE

In

4.

generally preceded by in
suggested : for instance,

works

: at

the

writer

work,

at

attention,au

before

names

hours,

and

temps,

SPRING

of

garde

occasion

or

{ete,summer,

at

night, au

at

ten

working

works

dentally
acci-

or

state,

dc,

voiis.

automne,

other

before
festivals,
and

autumn,
and

prin-

hiver, winter,

are

Ex.:

preceded by en).

in the

la pensee

church

before

Easter,

is

he

only

but

travail,

an

at

works

he

habitually;

wood.

thought of, a

at

hois,

au

there
le hois,

dans
the

phrases statingan

many
ex.

he

because

WOOD,

is

il travaille

il travaille

in the

3.

nouns

habit

forester:

wooD^

IN

when

Paqiies,
soir,

o'clock,

dix

heures,

fall,a Vautomne.

Note.
Names

of

Names

of

all feminine, with


European countries
are
two
and Portugal.
exceptions, Danemark
(Denmark)
All of them, including these
masculine
two
nouns,
are
preceded by en, ex. : in Russia, en Russie ; in
Portugal,
en
Portugal.

countries

Avhen

they are
Californie; they

en

masculine,
we

should

ex.

say,

outside

Europe are
preceded by
feminine, ex. : in California, en
are
preceded by au when
they are
in
Canada.
Canada, au
However,

dans

le Connecticut,

dans

le Massachusetts.

Dans,

En

obtains

transient,
to

drive, alley

to

go

in
I

Je Vai
I met

2.

the

For

this

Parliament

Within

In

meaning

Dans
uses

is
OUT

That
Ce

in

1898,

of

1898.

sa

trots

the

defined, ex.

well

are

within

translated

play

pibceen

robin

ex.

of

is translated

by

to

trois

jours.

where

the

eat

out

en,

ex

:.

days,

Englishlanguage

used

rouge-gorge

jours.

in three

used
frequently
OF,

days,

space

the

his

wrote

// ecrivit

4.

de

in three

partiraidans

He

place are

time

every

ex.:

I shall leave

Je

meaning

in

or

by dans,

is used

assembly.

the

In

that

assemblee,

le Parlement

Dans

3.

people in

cette

shows

these sentences-

dans

reasons

same

Dans
In

of

accidental.

was

the

fer,

train,

le

dans

meaning

place or

de

chemin

en

train,

rencontre

action

the

voiture,

une

in the

the

because

ex.

carriage,

dans

him

Vai

Je

in

vu

suggests

Paradis,

en

him

saw

dans

voiture,

en

by rail, aller

Heaven,

action,

and

dans

en:

permanent

en

and

dans

between

between

above

distinction made

1. The

but

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

204

of

mangeait dans

my

hand,

ma

main.

5.

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

206

CLEAR

indicatinga passive state

De

sometimes

from

by

or

ex.

long marches,
fatigue (i.e.having enough)
tired from
long marches,
fatigue (worn out)
in many

is used

De
BY

ex.

tongues

cases

longucs marches.
marches.

where

English employs

by everybody,

Estime

de

Taller

by

Plus

tous.

foot,

grand d'un

sometimes

De

de

de

Esteemed

7.

of,

of

tired

6.

sometimes

means

pied.

appliesto time,

ex.

nuit,

De

By night (cf. o'nights).


De
In

huit

For

is

De

frequent where

English uses

ex.

with,

tranquilair,
air tranquille.
a

D*un

Jusqu'a
AS

jours,

week.

With

Jusqu'a

life time.

my

De

8.

invant,

moil

FAR

Till

jusque corresponds

or

ex.

AS,

Easter,

Jusqu'a Paques.
As

far

as

Irvington,

Jusqu'a Irvington.

to

both

till

and

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

207

CLEAR

Par
The

meaning

usual

Painted

also

par

shall

In

such

Par

in,

ex.

Orleans,

par

through Orleans;

back

come

sometimes

and

through,

means

rcviendrons

Nous

We

ex.

by me,
par moi;

Peint
but

of par is by^

ex.

weather,
temps pareil.

un

CONJUNCTIONS

Ne:
is

Ne

frequentlymet

which

it has

mean

DOES

the

Ne

no

reverse

unless

is thus

2.

After

de

Avant
Before

without

peur

and

stance,
in-

exactly

means

is there

Ic

de

ex

negative sense

peur

que_,

vienne,

come.

Congres ne
Congress meets.

only

its presence.

qu'ilne

should

que,

que

A^^

comes.

demands

que

lest he

avant

realityit

MOINS

Restez

que

used

following cases

Stay

he

moins

in

but

COME,

lead
mis-

at first sight
qu'ilne vienne seems
moins
he
qu'ilne vienne pas, unless

NOT

1. After

in

moins
a

because

sentences

is apt to
and
negative sense
English-speakingreader entirely.For

the

to

in French

with

se

reunisse.

ex.:

in the

208

3.

After

meaning

que

CLEAR

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

ex.:

since,

days since I saw


trois jours que je ne

It is three
Voila
4.

After

5. After

indicatingfear, doubt, despair,denial,

verbs

hindering, ex.
I

afraid

am

Je

crains

After
nit

imagine.

you

n'imaginiez.

vous

que

the second

ex.

...

in

ni

sentence

includingni.

.,

He
//

mi.

comparative,ex. :
is taller than I thought,
est plus grand que
je ne croyais.

//

6.

ai

vous

the

He

or

you,

neither
ne

spoke

parla ni

smiled,

nor

sourit.

ne

Que:
Let

it be

HOW

HOW

MUCH,

How

also

bruit!

de

it

language
Come
The
the
1.

Que

que

what

means

How

Que

how

gens!
handed

down

in

old

ex.:

que,

may.

meanings
following:
the

people!

many

pourra,

chief

at

means

proverbs
ce

means

AdiAenne

de

que

in French

that

how

sometimes

que

CX.

MANY,

noise!

much

Que

that

remembered

of

beginning of
!

ex.

beautiful
c'est beau!

it is!

que,

an

conjunction,arc

exclamative

sentence

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

2.

Que

why.

means

Que

Re

pond ez

4.

dites que

say

without

it :

the

ex.

is clear

come,

beginning by si, though


English after if" ex. :

sentences

used

sky

leave

we

viendriez.

in

Si le ciel s'assomhrit
If the

of the sentence

would

vous

in

is not

THAT

in which

croyais que
appears

oui,

cases

meaning

thought (that) you

Que

yes;

in numberless

because

like

sentences

non;

no;

that out

Je

call me?

not

que

is used

ex.

pleonasticin

Answer
and

not,

"

sentence
interrogative

an

wi'appelies-vous?

ne

is

Que

"
.

did you

Why

3.

beginning of

the

at

209

CLEAR

MADE

should

(ind.)et qu'ilpleuve (subj.),


darken

it rained.

and

Note.

Que

(lat.quod
si) begins a supposition. Ex.
vous
tell
somebody
dit, suppose
should

si

si I'on

5.

Que is also pleonasticin exclamative


Quel homme
What
Voila

ce

That's

6.

que

what

Malheur
You

man

eux

means

C^est que cet


It is because

que
you.

ex.

Washington!
Washington was!

que

c'est que

que

it

de

of

comes

tu

unfortunate

C*est que

sentences,

faineanterf

loafing!

es!

man!

is

because,

homme
that

the

or

m'ennuie,
man

bores

me.

fact

is,

ex.

7.

Que

after

THAT,

ex.

Venez

Que.

QUELQUE
1.

dise,

je vous

tell you.

that I may
whether.

means

.ou

Whether

Que

afiii que,

here

CLEAR

imperativefrequentlymeans

an

que

Come
8.

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

210

approuviez

vous

.or,

ex.

disapprove,

or

approve

you

ou

que

bldmiez.

vous

Quelque generallymeans
wise

However

Quelque

you

sage

think

may
vous

que

ex.:

however,

yourself,
croyiez (subj.).

vous

Note.

a)

Si

pour

or

sage

or

tout

be

accurate

followed

sage

CLAIMS

WHATEVER

in which

twenty

MAY

YOU

droits

vous

que

Quelque, before a number


Quelque vingt ans,
Some

would

indefinite adjective,means

an

Quelques
2.

subjunctive
also

translations.

b) Quelques,
ex.:

followed
by the
by the indicative

sage

also

whatever,

HAVE,
ayez.

means

ex.:

about:

years,

it is invariable.

case

Note.

It is of

highest importance to observe that the


French
junctions
conlanguage has a tendency to suppress
is
the meaning
of the sentence
whenever
It is this habit that imparts to
them.
clear without
French
a
great deal of its lightness and vivacity as
with
its parent,
compared
Latin, or with English.
Ex. : Though
he
tired
he
was
went
Fatigue,
on.
the

il continua
AND
EITHER
nous

YOU

Even

pourtant.

SHOVED

HIM,
I

OR

devrons.
...

WILL

though

people

insulted

tl

IflSUltS,hoUSCuU,

HE

HAVE

TO

VoUS

OU

mOt,

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

TO

MISTAKES

FREQUENT

211

CLEAR

CAREFULLY

BE

AVOIDED

say:

say:

NOT

DO

Angleterre est

pays

iin

riche
Nous

lis softt
Deux

du

grandes forets

la

chevals

beaux

un

vieiix maison

tin

sage

un

ho

Je

lait

de

hiivons

suis

plus

que

beaucoup admiree

est

J'ai travaille
II

vendre

va

Descender

J'ai

President

americain

sage

fois

plus de

dix

tres

fort

sa

or

admiree

peu

maison

quelques marches
J*ai cent francs

Madison

Le

Madison

President

Georges Cinq

venir,fmtes

cela

Moil

un

maison

francs ici

pouvez

voiis

ev3iU^

vieille maison

enfant

un

Georges cinquieme
Si

ch

beaux

un

petit

son

grandes forets

ches
plusieurs mar-

cent

un

un

de

a.

dix

fois
Elle

II y

une

americain

venu

lait

deux

enfant

mine

Angleterre

le

Faites

faire telle

chose!

Faire

Je pensais de cela

telle chose!

une

J'irai la, j'allais


\a

pensaisa cela
J'irai,
fy allais

Paries

Paries

encore

Je lui ai

vu

J'ai ecrit

elle

est

cette

De

qui

Elle

est

Je

eux

hier

celle du

maison
maire

leur

encore

Je

Vai

Je

lui ai ecrit

qui

.C'est

vu

au

,f

est.
.

maire

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

212

Vun

say:

NOT

DO

fat

que

(book")

lis crient dans

Id, il m'a

est

dit

qu'ildisait
alle* j'allerai
rien

cru

Je n'ai rien

J'ai

II envoira

vous

//

Je

piinir

Je

deteste

Cest.moi
J'ai

qui

ecrit

de

le mois

pleuvaittout

Avertissez-moi

Si

acheter

de la laine

tout

monter

voiidriez

vous

de suite
venir

est

vous

Je

plu.

le

frangais

trop tard

pour

trop tard

pour

content

que

guerira

il arrivera

Je vais acheter
II

monter

va

vouliez

vous

Pour

que

/'apprenne

Pour

que

/'apprenne

Pour

que

vous

que

appreniez

vous

Que

venez

Il n*est pas

que

apprenne

serai

lettre de lui

une

moi

j'apprends
II est

II

Si

trop tard pour

apprendre
II

regu

je

resterais
II est

qui ai
d'apprendre

J'ai

Quand

veux

II veut

moi

il

quand

arrive
Je

qu'il

punir

deteste

a.

ce

enverra

vous

Je viens

lux

de

cru

He, /'irai

Cest

juste entendu

J'ai entendu
II

dit

elle m'a

n'ai

J'ai

crie

On

cour

aiiquel

disiez-vous?

Que

la

per Sonne

j'ailu

monsieur

Le

Quoi disiez-vous?

Je

celui que

quel je par-

lais

Une

CLEAR

say:

In

monsieur

Le

MADE

vous

veniez

possiblequ'il
Qu'il guerisse

FRENCH

214

NOT

DO

lui

Tachcz

venir

Tachez

pour

suis

J'ai

MADE

say:

partir

pour
de

de

venir

Tdches

de

venir

partir

J'ai

plaisir

relies

livres

deux

a
.

J'ai

or

eu

chanter

Tdchez

ap prendre

vous

Vcntendais

Je

cJuintant

venir

pret

plaisir

J'ai

CLEAR

say:

rentendais

Je

GRAMMAR

J*ai

le

fait

plaisir

relier.
.

Je

fcrai

Je

veux

regretter
ici

etes

vous

que

en

Paris

chante

rossignol

Estime
dit

Elle
Nous

en

hois

hrulait

par

tout

le monde

avec

une

sommes

vers

dam*)

coimne

voix

venus

calme

Albany

feu

de

tout

une

oui

Je

retourner

monde

Albany

pense

encore

le

par

Je

faiidra

bois

calme

tra-

par

II

de

voix

d'une

tempete

vient

dame

un

telle

qu'il

soyes.

printemps

en

en

Attendee

vous

que

Paris

au

feu

un

prin-

en

temps

n'agit pas

ferai

desire

Je

etions

Elle

lui

heures

A^ous
Le

lui

Je

de

pense

Attendee
//

faudra

telle

tempete
oui

que

qu'il
encore

vienne.
reveiiir

(come

again

CURRENT

CENTURY

TWENTIETH

PHRASES

216

FRENCH

CURRENT

GRAMMAR

TWENTIETH

1. The

World

2. The

final drive

3.

5. At
6.

repulsed with

was

face

8. Shell-shock

put

9. He

was

gfassed and

10. He

was

kept

11. He

was

adored

12. He

rose

from

13. He

took

14. His

16. He

became

17. He

was

18. The

They

20. He
21. His

by the

for

as

was

26.

He

flier.

its base

nose

after

the

dive.

the air-raid.

aces-

loop.

his

high-powered

he

was

went

by

into

roadster.

blowout.

high.

fined for

speeding.

suddenly recalled by wireless.


him

rang
was

other
into

went

hour

an

23.

25. She

ability.

ditch.

spin in

pleaded guiltyand

24. I sent

to

any

looping

22. He
He

than

into the

stalled

motor

sheer

of the leading^allied

one

delayed for

was

file.

through

returned

skidded

went

firing--line.
and

rank

the ranks
chances

home.

the

on

killed while

car

of action.

out

invalided

all week

squadron

land.

man's

no

men

and
plane side-slipped

15. The

19.

in

top.

in dispatches.

many

more

the

over

face

mentioned

was

hour.

zero

went

to

heavy loss.

bombing-planespassed overhead

the

as

they

came

PHRASES

sailles.
by the Treaty of Ver-

concluded

chill of the

cockcrow

CLEAR

CENTURY

was

cover

felt the

They

7. He

War

took

They

4. He

MADE

wire

him

unable

up
to

declining the offer.


but

was

cut

off

put through the

while
call.

talking.

217

PHRASES

par le Traite

s'est terminee

mondiale

guerre

CLEAR

CENTURY

TWENTIETH

CURRENT

1. La

MADE

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

sailles.
de Ver-

de grosses pertes.
avec
poussee finale fut repoussee
3. lis se mirent a I'abri quand les avions de bombarde-

2. La

arriverent.

ment

5. Au

chant

6. Ils

du

7. II fut porte

face

la

dans

face

le billard.

sur

neutre.

zone

I'ordre du

jour.
mqttait beaucoup

commotion

8. La

glaciale.

ils sauterent

coq

trouverent

se

I'heure

de

4. II sentit le frisson

hors

d'hommea

de

combat.
9. II fut

pris des

gaz

la semaine

10. Toute

mis

et

en

le tint

on

conge.

lignede

la

sur

feu.

simples soldats I'adoraient.


II ne dut ses galons qu'a son
intelligence.
aviateur.
II s'exposaitplus qu'aucun autre
I'aile et piqua du nez.
Son avion glissasur

11. Les

12.
13.
14.

15. Apres le raid I'escadrille revint


16. H
17. II

devint
se

I'un des

tua

18. L'auto

20.

Une

bouclant

en

dierapaet

19. Ils firent

tour

un

crevaison

21. Comme

il

premiers

as

base.

sa

allies.

la boucle.

tomba
dans

dans
sa

le retarda

montait, son

le fosse-

puissanteauto
d'une

moteur

de tourisme.

heure.
eut

une

panne

momen-

tanee.

22. II
23.
24.

25.

et

avoua

II fut tout

paya

I'amende

pour

exces

de vitesse.

coup^rappelepar sans-fil.
Je lui envoyai un telegramme pour refuser
Elle Tappela a I'appareil
mais
fut coupee.

26. II

ne

put obtenir la communication.

son

off

re.

GRAiAlMAR

FRENCH

218

CENTURY

TWENTIETH

CURRENT

MADE

(Continued)

PHRASES

Answer"

**Don't

CLEAR

the invariable

reply.

27.

"Busy"

28.

He

29.

They foug^htfor

the

30.

The

31.

They

at stakepeoples was
covenants
openly arrived at.
open
League of Nations a supergovernment.

or

hung^

34. The

mandates

35. The

balance

36. The

divine

buffer

state

the world

43. A

without

in
the

determine

to

the

longs for
to

agreement

an
an

increased

fluctuated

45.

Currency inflation

had

European bond
exchange rates.
States.

of

hinged

area

on

the

indemnity.

rivalryleads

balance

ences.
prefer-

safeguard.

devastated

Foreign exchange

47. The

the discard.

on

trade

issues

was

now

favors

enormously

reached

are

disarmament.

budget.

high protectivetariff apparently

Many

macy.
diplo-

protectiveguarantees.

44.

46.

Powers.

the old

their national

points.

the Great

keynote of

as
su^jg^ested

was

disarm

size of

42. Trade

the

was

held

40. Reconstruction

All

fourteen

famous

right of kings passed into

38. A

4L

the

of power

was
plebiscite

cannot

seas.

apportionedamong

were

37. A

We

the

of

of

treaty embodied

33. The

39.

in
the

considered

32. He

freedom

self-determination
believed

booth.

left the

and

up

was

home

after the

dustries.
in-

istice.
arm-

maximum.

ajgoodbuy
in favor

of

at

presenlM^^^

the United

*J

GRAMMAR

FRENCEI

CENTURY

TWENTIETH

CURRENT

27. ''Pas libre"

"on

ou

CLEAR

MADE

PHRASES

(Continued)
fut

repond pas"

ne

2i9

in

la reponse

variable.
28. II raccrocha
29. lis
30.

se

les recepteurs et

battirent pour

cabine.

quittala
des

la liberte

mers.

peuplesa disposerd'eux-memes
croyaienta la diplomaticouverteLigue des Nations lui paraissaitun

etait

Le droit des

31. lis
32. La

en

jc..

sur-gouverne-

ment.

33. Le

Traite

engloba

34. Les mandats


35.

les fameux

f itrent partages entre

L'equilibredes puissancesetait
cienne

36. Le

droit

divin des

etat-tampon fut suggere

40. La

4L

de

I'an-

des

protection.

comme

garanties.

sans

devastes

pays

dependait du

mon-

de Tindemnite-

Le monde

42. La

desarmer

pouvons

reconstitution
tant

d'ordre

rejete.
leurs preferencesnationales.

38.

ne

le mot

rois fut

determina
plebiscite

39. Nous

les

diplomatic.

37. Un

Un

points.
grandes puissances.

quatorze

entier souhaite

rivalite commerciale

un

accord

conduit

le desarmement.

pour

grossissementdes

au

budgets.
43. Un

fort tarif

semble
protectionniste

favoriser

les industries

du pays.
44.

Apres I'armistice les changes etrangers

varierent

extra-

ordinairement.
45. L'inflation fiduciaire avait atteint le maximum.
A6.

Beaucoup
avec

47. La

balance
Unis-

de

valeurs

Europeennes

sont

un

bon

achat

des

Etats

le change actuel.
commerciale

etait alors

en

faveur

220

TWENTIETH

CURRENT

48.

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

world

CLEAR

(Continued)

PHRASES

CENTURY

in

Supremacy

MADE

trade

depends

shipping

upon

power.
49.

Many

vessels

50.

Light

cruisers

51.

Fast

farmers

Ragtime

airs

55.

He

56.

It

57.

Woman

58.

Prohibition

was

constant

suffrage

60-

Many

61.

Capital

of

The

unions

the

drys

to

movies.
of

season.

enraged

the

direct

action.

economically dependent

are

wets.

strike.

on

advocated

the

victorious-

and

go

time.

that

at

photoplay

voted

workers
labor

and

of

the

camouflage.

daylight saving.

to

everywhere

was

delighted

the

upon

other.

each

63.

best

of

way

fashion

patron
the

probably

was

59. Nearly all the

He

all the

were

defence.

coast

by

opposed

were

54.

62.

smoke-screens

employed

53. The

replace capital ships.


for

needed

are

oil-burners.

into

over

to

come

may

destroyers

52. They

being made

are

made

his

labor

appeal

party

the

to

radical

extreme

definitelyin

was

favor

of

wing.
government

control.
64.

The

65.

The

66.

High

67.

Unemployment

surtax
tax

on

on

large

incomes

necessaries

prices brought

was

increased
about

forced

many

especiallyheavy.
the high cost of living.

large

reduction

deserving

men

in
onto

streets.

68-

Government

69.

Several

works

were

ex-kings sought

started
domicile

as

relief

measure.

in Switzerland.

sales.
the

APPENDICES

APPENDIX

IV

Weights, Coins

Measures,

The

Measures

decimal

"

French

system

measures

standard

The

of

subdivided

"

hectare
acres

centimetres

grammes
"

1,000

kilos

The
The

sou

but

half-kilo

kilogramme

ton

sou

half

since

the

gramme

pound
kilo

or

19

100

centimes.

American

cents,

money.

centimes.

50

gold
war

them.

centimes.

silver

be

to

for

or

franc

the
=

10

and

frs.

water=l

centimes.

franc

used

is

franc
5

gros

There
and

the

distilled

unit

monetary

(quart)

stcre

hectogramme

"

Normally

is

divided
sub-

each

hectares

litre
or

of

centimetre

500

The

cube

metre

cubic

1,000

It

decilitre

"

litres

The

"="

100

"

"

"

one

or

earth.

carre

are

"

cubic

100

inches),
the

themselves

metre

"

1000

Coins..

and
based

"

counting;

1000

3
of

centimetres,

metre

"

Roughly

Weights

France

naturally

millimetres.

"

10,000

ft.

(3

metre

100

10

square

100

measures

in

are

circumference

the

into
into

measures

the

is

milHonth

ten

Cubic

weights

it.

upon

Square

invented

was

and

coins

coins

paper

or

worth

worth

aluminum

10

frs.
have

fr., 2
and

20
been

frs.,
frs.,
stituted
sub-

APPENDIX

Polite Formulas
The

French

the

use

married

(to

dame
unmarried

of

and

where

clientele

the

call

employed

are

Monsieur

French

The
It

Mademoiselle

voire

of

rants
restau-

waitress

the

Mademoiselle

pere,

often
used
le Docteur,
aile. Monsieur
are
simply say "your father", "your daughter",

we

or

and

Madame;

women

Mademoiselle.

is

not
to

name

and

So

their

attract

unless

tor."
"Doc-

Madame

never

has

one

add

to

the

family

Mademoiselle
to

do

so

in

in

dressing
ad-

order

to

attention.

added

not

are

in

princessess, who
; also, they are

except
Madame

mari,

mon

ire
vo-

where

so.

form
in French
good
Monsieur,
Madame,
or

people
Titles

femme,

ma

say

Monsieur

Ma-

(to men),

(to
with
is done
freely than
the
in English.
For
instance
terms
call the concierge
(janitor) and his

house

Monsieur

wife

Monsieur

words

more

corresponding

the

Writing

women),

women)

tenants

Letter

speaking
be

can

titled

to

called

women,

"princesse" or
added
in speaking

generally
simply called Monsieur
except
is addressed
duke
by their inferiors.
However,
as
a
Priests
Monsieur
and
le Due
"Prince."
prince as
a
called
called MonMonsieur
are
I'Ahhe, Bishops
are
to

titled

seigneur,
Officers
when

nuns

called

does

not

chore

ma

their

it

sceur

without

Monsieur

know
well

men

army

not

are

called

are

be

can

one

knows

who

men,

is

ma

or

any

When

rank.

to

customary

sceur.

offence
one

address

capitaine, colonel, general, etc., although their


subordinates
colonel, etc.
capitaine. mon
mon
say,
them

as

*
*

Letter-writing
in

Full

French
titles

Monsieur

is, generally

than
are

in
used

le

Monsieur

le

Monsieur

le

speaking,

English.
superscriptions:
on

Docteur

Marquis
General

Recamier

d'Argentan
de

Castelnau,

more

formal

GRAMMAR

FRENCH

MADE

do

Professors

like

not

which

Professeur,
Monsieur.
called

being

sounds

German:

So

Professeur

Monsieur

called

they

professors

However,

239

CLEAR

and

So

called

are

medicine

of

le

often

are

cher

maitre

letters

with

or

in

conversation.
is

There

coldness

no

Monsieur

and

Madame,

or

beginning

in

it

requires

just

intimacy

to

say

Madame.

chere

following

The

will

safely

be

in

used

signing

one's

self.
To

people

regards

one

Veuillez

respect,

with

or

equals:

one's

To

friends

Bien
a

inferiors

person,

ex.

les

or,

sentiments

mes

tueux
respec-

tion
considera-

ma

Monsieur,

I'assurance

high,
mes

letters.

affectueusement

vous,

often

are

prie

qu'il
whose

etc..

exceptionally

Monsieur,

Lebrun

M.

papier

officials,

business

respectueux,

vous,

vous.

to

Monsieur,

pro-

mon

sentiments.

Letters

To

Receves,

or

cordialement

voyer

sentiments

mes

Croyez,

meilleurs

mes

devoues.

distinguee,
de

superiors:
Madame,

or

affection,

of

nuance

et

To

Monsieur

croire,

fond

one's

as

civilites.

M.

Durand

laisses

lundi.

position

is

convenient

This

in

written

de

known

not

formula
form

is

is

thircj

the

also

lui

ren-

to

be

Receve^:,
used

in

APPENDIX

VI

Advice
In

English

translating from
Do

write

not

are

sure

Do

not

single word

re-reading

and

reading

French:

into

of

the

write

meaning

mentally
dictionary only
word

is

Read

the

to

the

are

for

ted
transla-

having
referring
that

sure

carefully,
which

the

to

French

the

confining
likely to

not

seem

sense", but
reading
legibly, leaving plenty

"making

you

you.

two

or

before

passage,

you

to

dictionary

line

Write
lines

when

wnknown

till

word.

every

word

whole

before

copy-book
text
English

of

single

the

in your
the

of

article.

whole

the

yourself
help in

between

space

your

corrections.

neat

Re-read.
In

translating

French

from
Read

and

into

English:
five

re-read

six

or

times

before

dictionary.
write
before
single word
a
viva
voce
correctly and

sulting
con-

even

the
Do

not

translate

Avoid

literalness

translate

pushed

{/

mis

fut

into

it

of

the

is

Do

not

was
by "he
"he
was
by
corresponding

mur

wall",

to

elegantly.

even

barbarous.
du

which

corner",

is

pied

au

foot

the

to

driven

when

feeling ready

but
the

idiom.

Always

think

of

harmony,

especially when

late
trans-

you

poetry.
In

composing

essays:

Do

not

thought

write

treat

it

your

whole

English
the

To

sum

viva

only

When

voce.

at

essay

the

words

up,

write

never

teach

has

before

correctly,
conscienciousness

teach
in

has

that

have

when

your

anything
made
of

you

to

blank

look

sure.

coiilcl

done,

in

sult
Conis

which
This

writing coherently
foresight in planning
you
seeking after truth.
art

write
or

up.

first draft

about

having

you

been

stretch, leaving

not

the

you

it will

this

would

you

dictionary only

preparation
not

line, save
notes,
subject so
carefully

one

the

out

plete.
com-

tal
men-

will
and

and