Torque Control in Harmonic Drives with Nonlinear Dynamic

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Torque Control in Harmonic Drives with Nonlinear Dynamic

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Paper:

Friction Compensation

Rached Dhaouadi

Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering

American University of Sharjah

P.O. Box 26666, Sharjah, UAE

E-mail: rdhaouadi@ausharjah.edu

[Received December 27, 2003; accepted July 13, 2004]

This paper proposes a nonlinear observer-based controller designed to compensate for friction in harmonic

drives with hysteresis. Hysteresis in a harmonic drive

is described by a nonlinear differential equation representing the combination of nonlinear stiffness and

nonlinear friction. Nonmeasurable friction is derived

using a nonlinear observer to provide asymptotic stability and position tracking. The performance of the

proposed system is confirmed by computer simulation.

1. Introduction

The design of high-performance motion control requires accurate knowledge of electromechanical dynamics, including linear and nonlinear transmission attributes

of the system. Friction is inevitable in mechanical systems and found undesirable by control system designers because it is often responsible for deteriorating performance and restricting closed-loop bandwidth. Combining friction and gear compliance makes it difficult to

achieve high-precision speed, position, and torque control

in pointing and tracking servomechanisms.

Friction modeling and compensation have been treated

from many different points of view, including static and

dynamic friction models with feedback and feed-forward

compensation [13], most of which rely on a single-mass

model, i.e., a model in which the actuator and load are

rigidly coupled and friction depends only on the relative

velocity of the contacting objects. These models may not

be sufficiently accurate for systems in which relative velocity is almost always extremely small, such as in multimass systems with nonlinear friction coupled to the stiffness of the link and sandwiched between the motor and

load. A two-mass model is thus required. Schafer U. and

Branderburg considered the system model for such a case

[4]. Friedland and Mentzelopoulou [5, 6] contributed an

adaptive method based on a nonlinear reduced-order observer for calculating Coulomb friction assumed to lin388

early combine sign functions of relative velocities of contacting masses. Only the friction estimation is reported

and was not used for complete control system design.

We studied basic issues in modeling and analysis of

compliance and nonlinear friction effects in two-mass

model servomechanisms applied to harmonic drives. We

propose a methodology to estimate nonlinear friction, and

design a stable observer-based controller for torque/speed

control with optimum tracking.

Mathematical models for a two-mass system have been

formulated for a harmonic drive based on an effective

model of nonlinear friction and hysteresis of the harmonic

drive gear [79]. Nonlinear model properties were analyzed for different load-to-motor inertia ratio r ml , and different types of reference input. When torque is plotted

against angular displacement, the curves obtained show

hysteresis for large rml . For sinusoidal input and a very

high payload, the system response shows large hysteresis and results in poor position tracking. For a step input,

a highly under-damped response is obtained mainly due

to the flexibility of the harmonic gear. Steady-state angular displacement is not zero due to combined nonlinear

flexibility and nonlinear friction. Results showed that the

response exhibits limit cycle oscillations in steady state,

which agrees with what has been observed in nonlinear

servosystems with integral control. It was also observed

that as inertia ratio increases, the limit cycle amplitude

increases and its frequency decreases.

We designed an exact model-based torque controller to

compensate for nonlinear friction and hysteresis. The proposed control law uses general feedback control and estimation of dynamic friction leading to nonlinear stabilization and compensation that ensure optimal tracking.

A mathematical model was developed [7, 9] for a harmonic drive based on the heredity concept in mechanical

systems. The modeling approach used experimental data

and led to a better understanding of hysteresis and its description by well-posed nonlinear differential equations.

The relationship between torsional torque h and

corresponding angular displacement across the flexsJournal of Robotics and Mechatronics Vol.16 No.4, 2004

Friction Compensation

controller is assumed to be very fast compared to mechanical dynamics and therefore the torque developed by the

motor equals the torque reference. the torque measured by

the torque sensor on the output shaft represents the torque

transmitted across the flexspline. The load-to-motor inertia ratio is defined as

J

rml 2 l . . . . . . . . . . . . . (8)

N Jm

pline of the harmonic drive gear is defined by the following nonlinear equations:

h f z . . . . . . . . . (1)

dz

d

d

z

0 . . . . . . . (2)

dt

dt

dt

m

l . . . . . . . . . . . . . (3)

N

where m and l represent motor and load position and N

is the gear reduction ratio. f is the stiffness curve depending on the characteristics of the flexspline. and are

heredity function parameters.

This model very accurately represents the dynamic behavior of the harmonic drive gear, where torque across

the flexspline is subdivided into stiffness torque f and

friction torque z taking into account the entire torque

history up to time t (Fig.1).

The complete mechanical system with the harmonic

drive gear and load is described by the following differential equations:

f z

Jm m Bm m

m . . . . .

N

N

Jl l Bl l L f z 0 . . . . .

z z . . . . . . . . . . .

(5)

(6)

For position control, the motor position is measured

and a conventional PID controller is used (Fig.2). The

motor torque reference re f is given by

Kp

re f

t

Ki

m Kd re f

re f

m dt

To improve the performance of the position tracking

controller and cancel the effect of the nonlinear friction,

we use model-based control. Since internal friction is described by a dynamic state in the hysteresis model, a nonlinear observer is used to estimate friction and provide

compensation.

To simplify the nonlinear observer development, we

rewrite the dynamic equations (4)-(6) in terms of the displacement angle as follows:

J B a b f z u . . . . (9)

l

z

z . . . . . . . . . . . (10)

where J N Jm , B N Bm , a N

Bm

Jm

Bl

Jl

b

Jm

Jm

u N m cl c N 2 . The load torque l

Jl

Jl

is assumed to be zero in the analysis below.

The design used to construct a stable controller and observer is based on Lyapunov stability analysis [12]. The

nonlinear friction observer is given by

z z K e . . . . . . . . . (11)

1 N2

gain. Signal e is a correction term used to compensate for

modeling errors.

Friction observation error is defined as

z z z. Observation error dynamics are then obtained by taking the

time-derivative of

z and substituting expressions (10) and

(11) to result in

z

z K e . . . . . . . . . . (12)

0

m

. . . . . .

(4)

and Bl are damping on the motor and load. h f z

represents torque transmitted across the flexspline. L is

load torque on output. All nonlinear friction and flexibility of the harmonic drive gear are represented by the

torque function h.

re f

and tracking performance of such a control system and

leads to various continuous limit cycles [8]. The objective

is therefore to avoid or reduce these failures through linear

or nonlinear control.

(7)

system accurately follows the reference waveform.

This control was also used for system identification and

Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics Vol.16 No.4, 2004

for measurement, so both and are known. We assume

also for analysis that stiffness function f is linear

f K . . . . . . . . . . . . . (13)

Our first objective is to design a torque control loop using

389

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