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Kyla Graciel Bayron Caca

X St. Luke
A. Answer the following.
1. Distinguish catastrophism from uniformitarianism.
- A catastrophism is a geological doctrine that changes in
the earths crust have in the past been brought about suddenly by
physical forces operating in ways that cannot be observed today.
While the uniformitarianism is a geological doctrine that
processes acting in the same manner as at present and over long
spans of time are sufficient to account for all current geological
features and all past geological changes.
2. Which type of magma would cause more explosive eruption :
basaltic or rhyolitic magma? State your reason.
- Rhyolitic magma would cause more explosive eruption
than basaltic. Because this type of magma is formed by
differentiation of siliceous material, or by melting of portions of
the earths sialic layer.
3. Explain the relationship between rock cycle and plate
tectonics.
- Plate tectonic is responsible through plate collision for the
pressure and temperatures required to metamorphic rock.

4. Explain why is volcanic soil very fertile and good for


agricultural practice.
- It is because volcanic soils are very fertile when they
have had the chance to weather and start to break down and
release their nutrients. Apart from water and carbon dioxide,
plants need three essential nutrients to grow: nitrogen, potassium
and phosphorous. They also need some iron to create
chlorophyll, which primary function is to absorb sunlight for
photosynthesis to occur within the plant. A process which is
possible in the presence of radiant energy (light) where carbon
dioxide and water are converted into oxygen and organic
materials that can be used within the plant. Furthermore,
volcanic soil can also supply in small quantities a number of
trace elements that may be scarce, but are very important and
necessary to allow plants to make the right proteins and other
molecules necessary for life.
5. Explain the fundamental differences between the inner and
the outer cores.
- The inner and outer core of the earth both consist of
metallic iron and some nickel. The outer core is molten and the
inner core is solid. This is because of the pressure difference
between the two: The melting point of iron and nickel is a
function of pressure and temperature: The lower the pressure the
lower the melting temperature, so the outer core, which is closer
to the surface of the earth has a lower pressure than the inner
core, and this allows it to remain molten. The extreme pressures
of the inner core keep that part solid, even though it is at an even
higher temperature.

6. Research on the differences between Mt. Mayon and Mt.


Pinatubo. You can look up their eruption histories, structures,
and effects during eruptions.
- Mayon Volcano also known as Mount Mayon, is
an active volcano in the province of Albay, on the island
of Luzon in the Philippines. Renowned as the "perfect cone"
because of its almost symmetric conical shape. Mayon is the
most active volcano in the Philippines having erupted over 49
times in the past 400 years.[7] The first record of a major eruption
was witnessed in February 1616 by Dutch explorer Joris van
Spilbergen who
recorded
it
on
his
log
in
hiscircumnavigation trip around the world.[8] The first eruption
of which there is an extended account was the six-day event of
July
20,
1766. While
the
Mt.
Pinatubo
is
an active stratovolcano in the Cabusilan Mountains on the island
of Luzon, near the tripoint of the Philippine provinces of
Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga.[3][3][4] Before the volcanic
activities of 1991, its eruptive history was unknown to most
people