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DR.

RAM MANOHAR LOHIYA


NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY

SUBJECT:
CRIMINAL LAW -I

PROJECT :
PUNISHMENT

Submitted to:

Compiled by:

Mr. K A Pandey
Senior Lecturer
Criminal Law

AVINASH RANJAN
B.A. LL.B. (Hons)
Roll no.39
III SEM

TABLE OF CONTENT
Introduction
Punishments In IPC
1) Death Penalty
(2) Life Imprisonment
(3) Imprisonment Both Rigorous And Simple.
(4) Forfeiture Of Property
(5) Fine

Punishments Not Part Of IPC


Public Censure
Community Service
Externment
Compensation
Disqualification from holding Public Office

Conclusion

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION
The Penal Law of India is the resource of definitions and descriptions of substantive
offences. It consists of 511 sections specifying different kinds of offences. This are
concerned because some other punishments may be imposed under some .Local and
special law. These punishments are applicable to offences under this code only. Generally
the code lays down the section is not exhaustive in so far as the kinds of punishments
For these massive number of offence. There are some exception to this. The punishments
in a particular case shall, within the maximum limits fixed by the code, be awarded in
type discretion of the court. But the discretion should exhibit that a reasonable proportion
has been maintained between the seriousness of the crime and the punishments imposed.
The sentence should neither be disproportionately severe nor should it be too lenient so as
to fail to serve its purpose in producing effect on the offender and as an eye opener to
others .
Considering various aspects of the case and the mitigation circumstances
present, if any, the court can reduce the quantum of punishments. In state of Punjab
v Mann Singh it was held that it was the duty of the court in every case to award a proper
sentence having regard to the nature of the offence, the manner in which it was
committed and to all the attendant circumstances.
While passing sentence the court has to consider the totality of factors bearing on the
offence and the offender and award a punishment which will promote effectively the
punitive objective of the law deterrence and habilitation. Sentencing is always a matter of
judicial discretion subject to any mandatory minimum prescribed by law.
The punishment prescribed are mainly 5 in numbers. Every offences describes the
punishment also. But in general the division is provided under Section 53 of IPC. They
are as follows:
The punishments to which offenders are liable under the provisions of this Code are1. Death;
2. Imprisonment for life
3. Imprisonment both rigorous and simple
4. Forfeiture of property
5. Fine

PUNISHMENTS IN IPC

1) Death Penalty
Capital punishment is generally resorted to in serious offences like murder. According to
one view it is morally excluded and according to other a moral necessity. But the central
question relates to the efficacy of death penalty in protesting human life. In the beginning
the death penalty rested primarily upon the effort to placate the gods. The complete
blotting out of the culprit was a practical demonstration of group disapproval of the
particular type of antisocial conduct. Later with the rise of the metaphysical theories of
human conduct, the individual came to be looked upon as a moral agent capable of free
choice in every aspect of his conduct, irrespective of biological the heredity or social
environment. On these assumption the criminal was inevitable regarded as a perverse
free moral agent, who refused to think right and who had wilfully wronged the social
group and the gods. This was revenge theory.
It serves as a unique deterrent to professional criminals who are aware of
the existence and horrors of the painful mode of treating criminals. Death penalty is far
more powerful and effective than any other punishments. It is a good way of retribution
also.
It was held in Kishori lal v State of Delhi that capital punishment can be imposed in the
rarest of the rare cases and if there are any aggravating circumstances such as the accused
having any criminal record in the past, the manner of the committing the crime, delay in
imposing the sentence and so on. In this case the riot brokeout in Delhi after assassination
of PM Indira Gandhi and her death appears to be the symbol or web around which the
violent emotions were released. Experts in criminology often express that when there is a
collective action, as in the case of mob, there is a diminished individual responsibility
unless there are special circumstances to indicate that a particular individual had acted
with any predetermination such as by use of a weapon not normally found.
In every case in which sentence of death shall be passed, the appropriate government
may, without the consent of the offender, commute the punishment for any other
punishment provided by this code.
It is the most grave penalty imposed by IPC. Many sections still prescribe the punishment
of death. Some of them are as follows:
(a) Offence under Section 194
(b) Offence of murder for which punishment of death or imprisonment of life is
prescribed under Section 302.
(c) Offence of murder committed by life convict as described in Section 303. Mithu v
State of Punjab
(d) Offence of abetting suicide of child or insane person as mentioned in Section 305 IPC
(e) In Section 307 when a life convict attempts to murder and hurt is caused Death
Sentence may be imposed.
(f) Kidnapping for ransom as described under Section 364A
(g) If any one of five or more persons who are conjointly committing dacoity, commits
murder in so committing dacoity, every one of those persons shall be punished with death
along with other alternative punishments.

In Bachan Singh v. State of Punjab[AIR 1980 SC 898] hon'ble Supreme Court of


India held that death sentence is to be given only in rarest of rare cases.

(2) Life Imprisonment


It is the most popular type of sentence after death penalty. In most serious offences this
type of punishment is prescribed. Wherever death penalty is prescribed, life
imprisonment also finds a place as an alternative punishment. It means imprisonment for
life means imprisonment for whole of the remaining period of the convicted persons
natural life. There is no fixed time decided because nobody can identify calculate and
manipulate ones life. It is a impossible work for an astrologers also. The sentence for
life imprisonment is the imprisonment for the indefinite period and duration
A life sentence does not automatically expire at the end of twenty years. The
state, the prisoner has been convicted and sentenced ,alone has power to remit the
sentence. In Bishon Singh v State of Punjab the court held that if the case can not be
termed as a rarest of the rarest that death sentence can be commuted to life imprisonment.
Where a person commits a heinous crime like murder because of very special
circumstances like poverty, he can not be given death sentence. Life imprisonment cant
be treated as the 14 years or 20 years. It is always given with rigours and hard labour. It
can be reckoned as of 20 years as purpose of remission of punishment .
As there is hue and cry regarding imposing of death penalty, in
appropriate cases Courts impose life imprisonment as a safe method. Some sections
which impose Life Imprisonment as a penalty are : Sections 194, 255, 304, 304(B), 305
and many more.
(3) Imprisonment both rigorous and simple.
Rigorous imprisonment is of such type where the convict will have to do hard labour. In
many offences the period of imprisonment varies. In simple imprisonment also the term
of imprisonment varies according to offences. Hard labour imposed on the proved
offenders will have a detterrant effect against others from committing crimes adn thus
society would, to that extent, be protected from perpetrating crimes by others.
Reformation is now the dominant objective of the punishment. Hence an assurance to a
prisoner that this hard work would eventually would help him to get stripped of the
moroseness and desperation in his mind while toiling with rigours labour during the
period of jail life.
Prisoner should be paid equitable wages for the work done by them. In
order to determine the quantum of equitable wages for the prisoners the state has fixed a
fixation body for making recommendations.

And under simple imprisonment there is no such hard and rigours labour. This is given to
those convicted criminals which are convicted for the crime of lower degree. In this in
place of that very simple works are given to the prisoners like cutting of vegetables ,
making of accounts ,other documentary and paper works.
(4) Forfeiture of Property
Imprisonment in default of fine does not liberate the offender from
his liability to pay the full amount of the fine imposed on him. The offender is not
permitted to choose whether he will suffer the sentence of imprisonment or pay the fine.
The only effect of his person shall cease to be answerable for the fine. But his property
shall not be absolved i.e. the fine can be satisfied from his property. The period of
limitation for realisation of fine shall ordinarily be six years.
The death of the offender does not extinguish any liability for fine. It can
be recovered from any property , which would after his death ,be legally liable for his
debts. To levy means to seize for the purpose of collecting the fine or to enforce
execution for a certain sum. It does not mean actual realisation.
Forfeiture of property is not very common in IPC. Section 61 which
specified sentence of forfeiture of property has been repealed by Indian Penal Code
(Amendment) Act, 1921. In the present IPC three sections viz 126, 127 and 129 describes
forfeiture of property.
(5) Fine
It is different from that of compensation as compensation goes to the plaintiff where as
fine goes to the sate as simple as that. Where no sum is expressed it should not be
excessive although there is no certain defined limit given but it should not be exceesive.
This is only permissive and not imperative in character.
IPC prescribes fine as a penalty both independent and
along with other penalties. The amount of fine varies with offences. Section 63 says that
where no sum is expressed to which a fine may extend, the amount of fine to which the
offender is liable is unlimited, but shall not be excessive. Sentence for non-payment of
fine is also dealt with in IPC[Sec.64].Thus there are various penalties as discussed above
which are imposed differently in different offences. The term, nature, amount etc varies
in each cases and offences and also according to Courts.

PUNISHMENTS NOT PART OF IPC


Although there are different different type of punishments under IPC but there are few
other type of punishment which were previously proposed but not accepted and not a part
of IPC. Some of them are as follows-:

Public Censure
It was prevalent in previous times. It was like defaming someone in front of
huge masses just to make ashame to the offender of the crime which he has committed. It
creates a fear of shame and blot spot on ones name and reputation. It is given to send a
message to others and create a fear so that nobody should dare to do it again.It is like a
creating and giving a lesson for others. For example balding of head in public, painting
the black colour on the face, making the ride on donkey etc.
Community Service
It was like reforming a person by involving the convicted person in social
activities which lead to reformation and recreation of that persons mind and soul.
Making him to work in orphanage, involving him in religious institution and activities.
Working in a reformatory. It provides a way to the convicted that he can show his feeling
of regret of the offence which has committed. Its an effort to restore a man to society as
a better and wiser man as a good citizen. It makes the criminals harmless. Work on the
criteria of that man is not born criminal.
Externment
It involves the practice of barring of convicted person from his place to very far so
that he can not be capable of commit crime as it wll not provide a favourable and
identified atmosphere for him. In common language it is known as tadipaar.
Compensation
It is a type compensatory punishments. It is aimed at providing helping aid, welfare and
relief to the plaintiff. Its like whatever loss you have suffered due to the offence
committed by the convicted should be recovered by or from the convicted himself.
Because sometimes just by giving punishment doesnt provide any comfort to the
plaintiff.
Disqualification from holding Public Office
Under this if any person holding any of the public office and committed any offence then
he is not allowed to hold that office since then only. Not only this he will also not allowed
to hold any of the public offices for the future also.

CONCLUSION
PUNISHMENT IS THE WAY OF CREATING THE FEELING OF GUILT IN THE
MIND OF THE ACCUSED PERSON. IT IS GIVEN TO CREATE FEAR IN THE
MIND OF CRIMINALS, SETTIN A LESSON FOR OTHERS, PROVIDING
PROTECTION TO SOCIETY AND HAVING A DETERRANT EFFECT ON THE
CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES.EACH OF THE TYPES OF THE PUNISHMENTS HAVE
THE IMPORTANCE OF THEIR OWN.DESPITE OF VARIOUS DIFFICULTIES IT IS
NOW ACCEPTED AND RECOGNISED AS THE THE PREVENTION OF CRIME
AND THE PROTECTION OF THE SOCIETY.
SOMETIMES GIVING THE PUNISHMENT IS NOT SO EFFECTIVE IN CREATION
OF GUILT.SOMETIMES NOT GIVING OF PUNISHMENT IS MUCH MORE
EFFECTIVE THAN GVING.BECAUSE IF YOU HAVE BEEN NOT PUNISHED OF
YOUR OFFENCES CREATES A INTERNAL BLEEDING OF REGRETS WHICH
LEADS TO CHANGE AND REFORMATIO OF THE PERSON ACCUSED.

WHATEVER PUNISHMENT MIGHT HAVE BEEN SUTABLE IN PAST


MAY NOT BE SO IN THE PRESENT OR WHATEVER MIGHT BE USEFUL IN ONE
COUNTRY MAY NOT BE SO IN ANOTHER.THEN AGAIN THE SAME KIND OF
PUNISHMENT MAY NOT BRING ABOUT THE DESIRED EFFECT UPON ALL THE
TYPES OF CRIMINALS ALIKE. IN SUM UNIVERSALISATION OF PUNISHMENT
IS IMPOSSIBLE.THEREFORE WE HAVE TO STUDY THE CRIMINAL BEFORE
PRESCRIBING THE PROPER FORM OF PUNISHMENT TO HIM ACCORDING TO
HIS PHYSICAL,SOCIAL,EDUCATONAL, OR CULTURAL MAKE-UP BECAUSE
THE SAME PUNISHMENT UPON THE INDIVIDUALISATION OF PUNISHMENT
ALTHOUGH THEY APPEAR TO BE FULLY AWARE WITH THE DIFFICULTIES IN
ITS IMPLEMENATATION.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Principles of Criminal Law by O P Srivastava

IPC by S N Mishra

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/abetment

http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/abetment