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# Operations on

Real Numbers

Lesson 2.2

**Absolute Value Operation
**

**A number’s distance from 0 on the number
**

line is called the absolute value of the

number.

Example:

3 units

-4

-3

-2

-1

3 units

0

1

2

3

4

Therefore |3| = 3 and |-3| = 3.

9 June 2011

College Algebra - Asia Pacific College

2

Opposites Two numbers located on opposite sides of the number line and with same absolute value are called opposites of each other.Asia Pacific College 3 . 9 June 2011 College Algebra . Example: 3 units -4 -3 -2 -1 3 units 0 1 2 3 4 The numbers 3 and -3 are opposite of each other.

The minus sign “-” which is used to signify “negative” is also used to signify “opposite”.Asia Pacific College 4 . Every number has a unique opposite.Opposites The opposite of 0 is 0. Note that the words “negative” and “opposite” are often used interchangeably Example: -(9) = -9 “the opposite of 9 is negative 9” 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Examples: -(-12) = 12 -(-0.Opposite of an Opposite For any number a.5) = 0. -(-a) = a.Asia Pacific College 5 .5 -(-(-8)) = -8 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

If a = -7. 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 6 . since -7 is negative. then | 7 | = 7.Absolute Value Operation Using opposites. since 7 is positive. we can give a symbolic definition of absolute value a if a is positive or zero | a | a if a is negative Example: If a = 7. then |-7| = -(-7) = 7.

Addition Operation Sum of Two Numbers with Like Signs To find the sum of two numbers with same sign: Add their absolute values.Asia Pacific College 7 . Examples: 9 June 2011 6 + 7 = 13 (-5) + (-9) = -14 College Algebra . The sum has the same sign as the original number.

If the larger absolute value is negative. then the sum is negative.Addition Operation Sum of Two Numbers with Unlike Signs To find the sum of two numbers with unlike signs: Subtract their absolute values.Asia Pacific College 8 . If the larger absolute value is positive. then the sum is positive. Examples: 9 June 2011 -7 + 10 = 3 -8 + 5 = -3 College Algebra .

a and – a are called additive inverses of each other.Asia Pacific College 9 . Examples: 9 June 2011 -5 + 5 = 0 8 + (-8) = 0 College Algebra . a + (-a) = -a + a = 0 For this reason.Addition Operation Sum of Opposites For any number a.

89 -7 + 0.Addition Operation Examples: -6 + 13 = 7 -9 + (-7) = -16 2 + (-2) = 0 -35.4 + 2.Asia Pacific College 10 .51 = -32.95 9 June 2011 College Algebra .05 = -6.

Asia Pacific College 11 .Addition Operation Example: a c ad bc Recall simple addition of fractions: b d bd 1 3 4 15 5 4 20 20 4 ( 15) 20 11 11 20 20 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Subtraction Operation For any real numbers a and b.Asia Pacific College 12 . subtracting b from a means a – b = a + (-b) Examples: 10 – 4 = 10 + (-4) = 6 10 – (-7) = 10 + 7 = 17 -7 – 3 = -7 + (-3) = -10 8 – (-5) = 8 + (-(-5)) = 8 + 5 = 13 48 – 99 = 48 + (-99) = -51 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

The numbers multiplied are factors.Multiplication Operation The result of multiplying two numbers is called the product of the numbers. The product of a and b may be written as a·b ab a(b) = (a)(b) = (a)b 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 13 .

Asia Pacific College 14 . 5·2 = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10 5 times 5·(-2) = (-2) + (-2) + (-2) +(-2) +(-2) = -10 5 times 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Multiplication Operation Multiplication is just a short way of repeated addition.

9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 15 . If numbers have the unlike signs.Multiplication Operation Product of Signed Numbers To find the product of two nonzero real numbers: Multiply their absolute values If numbers have the same sign. the product is positive. the product is negative.

Multiplication Operation Examples: 2(8) = 16 (-3)(-6) = 18 -4(10) = -40 7(-3) = -21 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 16 .

Multiplication Operation Example: a c ac Recall multiplication of fractions: b d bd 4 1 (4)(1) 4 9 5 (9)(5) 45 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 17 .

a a Examples: 1 2 1 2 9 June 2011 3 5 1 5 3 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 18 .Division Operation Every nonzero real number a has 1 multiplicative inverse or reciprocal a such that 1 1 a a 1.

the division a by b means 1 a b a b 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Division Operation For any real numbers a and b with b ≠ 0.Asia Pacific College 19 .

Asia Pacific College 20 .Division Operation Examples: 1 60 60 (2) 60 30 2 2 48 3 2 24 24 16 3 2 3 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

0 00 0 is undefined.Asia Pacific College 21 .Division by Zero Division by zero are said to be undefined. 9 June 2011 College Algebra . Examples: 5 50 0 is undefined.