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Real Numbers

Lesson 2.2

**Absolute Value Operation
**

**A number’s distance from 0 on the number
**

line is called the absolute value of the

number.

Example:

3 units

-4

-3

-2

-1

3 units

0

1

2

3

4

Therefore |3| = 3 and |-3| = 3.

9 June 2011

College Algebra - Asia Pacific College

2

Opposites Two numbers located on opposite sides of the number line and with same absolute value are called opposites of each other.Asia Pacific College 3 . Example: 3 units -4 -3 -2 -1 3 units 0 1 2 3 4 The numbers 3 and -3 are opposite of each other. 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Asia Pacific College 4 .Opposites The opposite of 0 is 0. Every number has a unique opposite. The minus sign “-” which is used to signify “negative” is also used to signify “opposite”. Note that the words “negative” and “opposite” are often used interchangeably Example: -(9) = -9 “the opposite of 9 is negative 9” 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Asia Pacific College 5 . -(-a) = a. Examples: -(-12) = 12 -(-0.Opposite of an Opposite For any number a.5 -(-(-8)) = -8 9 June 2011 College Algebra .5) = 0.

then | 7 | = 7. If a = -7. since -7 is negative. since 7 is positive. 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 6 . then |-7| = -(-7) = 7.Absolute Value Operation Using opposites. we can give a symbolic definition of absolute value a if a is positive or zero | a | a if a is negative Example: If a = 7.

Examples: 9 June 2011 6 + 7 = 13 (-5) + (-9) = -14 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 7 .Addition Operation Sum of Two Numbers with Like Signs To find the sum of two numbers with same sign: Add their absolute values. The sum has the same sign as the original number.

If the larger absolute value is positive. then the sum is negative. If the larger absolute value is negative.Asia Pacific College 8 . then the sum is positive. Examples: 9 June 2011 -7 + 10 = 3 -8 + 5 = -3 College Algebra .Addition Operation Sum of Two Numbers with Unlike Signs To find the sum of two numbers with unlike signs: Subtract their absolute values.

a + (-a) = -a + a = 0 For this reason. a and – a are called additive inverses of each other.Addition Operation Sum of Opposites For any number a.Asia Pacific College 9 . Examples: 9 June 2011 -5 + 5 = 0 8 + (-8) = 0 College Algebra .

Addition Operation Examples: -6 + 13 = 7 -9 + (-7) = -16 2 + (-2) = 0 -35.Asia Pacific College 10 .95 9 June 2011 College Algebra .89 -7 + 0.4 + 2.05 = -6.51 = -32.

Asia Pacific College 11 .Addition Operation Example: a c ad bc Recall simple addition of fractions: b d bd 1 3 4 15 5 4 20 20 4 ( 15) 20 11 11 20 20 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Asia Pacific College 12 .Subtraction Operation For any real numbers a and b. subtracting b from a means a – b = a + (-b) Examples: 10 – 4 = 10 + (-4) = 6 10 – (-7) = 10 + 7 = 17 -7 – 3 = -7 + (-3) = -10 8 – (-5) = 8 + (-(-5)) = 8 + 5 = 13 48 – 99 = 48 + (-99) = -51 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Asia Pacific College 13 . The product of a and b may be written as a·b ab a(b) = (a)(b) = (a)b 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Multiplication Operation The result of multiplying two numbers is called the product of the numbers. The numbers multiplied are factors.

Multiplication Operation Multiplication is just a short way of repeated addition.Asia Pacific College 14 . 5·2 = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10 5 times 5·(-2) = (-2) + (-2) + (-2) +(-2) +(-2) = -10 5 times 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Multiplication Operation Product of Signed Numbers To find the product of two nonzero real numbers: Multiply their absolute values If numbers have the same sign. If numbers have the unlike signs.Asia Pacific College 15 . the product is positive. the product is negative. 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Multiplication Operation Examples: 2(8) = 16 (-3)(-6) = 18 -4(10) = -40 7(-3) = -21 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 16 .

Asia Pacific College 17 .Multiplication Operation Example: a c ac Recall multiplication of fractions: b d bd 4 1 (4)(1) 4 9 5 (9)(5) 45 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Division Operation Every nonzero real number a has 1 multiplicative inverse or reciprocal a such that 1 1 a a 1.Asia Pacific College 18 . a a Examples: 1 2 1 2 9 June 2011 3 5 1 5 3 College Algebra .

Asia Pacific College 19 .Division Operation For any real numbers a and b with b ≠ 0. the division a by b means 1 a b a b 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Asia Pacific College 20 .Division Operation Examples: 1 60 60 (2) 60 30 2 2 48 3 2 24 24 16 3 2 3 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Examples: 5 50 0 is undefined.Asia Pacific College 21 .Division by Zero Division by zero are said to be undefined. 9 June 2011 College Algebra . 0 00 0 is undefined.

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