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Real Numbers

Lesson 2.2

**Absolute Value Operation
**

**A number’s distance from 0 on the number
**

line is called the absolute value of the

number.

Example:

3 units

-4

-3

-2

-1

3 units

0

1

2

3

4

Therefore |3| = 3 and |-3| = 3.

9 June 2011

College Algebra - Asia Pacific College

2

9 June 2011 College Algebra .Opposites Two numbers located on opposite sides of the number line and with same absolute value are called opposites of each other.Asia Pacific College 3 . Example: 3 units -4 -3 -2 -1 3 units 0 1 2 3 4 The numbers 3 and -3 are opposite of each other.

Every number has a unique opposite.Asia Pacific College 4 . Note that the words “negative” and “opposite” are often used interchangeably Example: -(9) = -9 “the opposite of 9 is negative 9” 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Opposites The opposite of 0 is 0. The minus sign “-” which is used to signify “negative” is also used to signify “opposite”.

Asia Pacific College 5 .Opposite of an Opposite For any number a. -(-a) = a. Examples: -(-12) = 12 -(-0.5 -(-(-8)) = -8 9 June 2011 College Algebra .5) = 0.

since 7 is positive. 9 June 2011 College Algebra . then | 7 | = 7. then |-7| = -(-7) = 7. since -7 is negative.Asia Pacific College 6 . we can give a symbolic definition of absolute value a if a is positive or zero | a | a if a is negative Example: If a = 7. If a = -7.Absolute Value Operation Using opposites.

Examples: 9 June 2011 6 + 7 = 13 (-5) + (-9) = -14 College Algebra .Addition Operation Sum of Two Numbers with Like Signs To find the sum of two numbers with same sign: Add their absolute values.Asia Pacific College 7 . The sum has the same sign as the original number.

Asia Pacific College 8 . Examples: 9 June 2011 -7 + 10 = 3 -8 + 5 = -3 College Algebra . then the sum is negative. If the larger absolute value is positive. then the sum is positive. If the larger absolute value is negative.Addition Operation Sum of Two Numbers with Unlike Signs To find the sum of two numbers with unlike signs: Subtract their absolute values.

a and – a are called additive inverses of each other. a + (-a) = -a + a = 0 For this reason.Addition Operation Sum of Opposites For any number a. Examples: 9 June 2011 -5 + 5 = 0 8 + (-8) = 0 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 9 .

4 + 2.Asia Pacific College 10 .95 9 June 2011 College Algebra .05 = -6.Addition Operation Examples: -6 + 13 = 7 -9 + (-7) = -16 2 + (-2) = 0 -35.51 = -32.89 -7 + 0.

Asia Pacific College 11 .Addition Operation Example: a c ad bc Recall simple addition of fractions: b d bd 1 3 4 15 5 4 20 20 4 ( 15) 20 11 11 20 20 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Subtraction Operation For any real numbers a and b. subtracting b from a means a – b = a + (-b) Examples: 10 – 4 = 10 + (-4) = 6 10 – (-7) = 10 + 7 = 17 -7 – 3 = -7 + (-3) = -10 8 – (-5) = 8 + (-(-5)) = 8 + 5 = 13 48 – 99 = 48 + (-99) = -51 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 12 .

Multiplication Operation The result of multiplying two numbers is called the product of the numbers.Asia Pacific College 13 . The numbers multiplied are factors. The product of a and b may be written as a·b ab a(b) = (a)(b) = (a)b 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Asia Pacific College 14 .Multiplication Operation Multiplication is just a short way of repeated addition. 5·2 = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10 5 times 5·(-2) = (-2) + (-2) + (-2) +(-2) +(-2) = -10 5 times 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Asia Pacific College 15 . the product is positive. If numbers have the unlike signs.Multiplication Operation Product of Signed Numbers To find the product of two nonzero real numbers: Multiply their absolute values If numbers have the same sign. the product is negative. 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Multiplication Operation Examples: 2(8) = 16 (-3)(-6) = 18 -4(10) = -40 7(-3) = -21 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 16 .

Multiplication Operation Example: a c ac Recall multiplication of fractions: b d bd 4 1 (4)(1) 4 9 5 (9)(5) 45 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 17 .

Division Operation Every nonzero real number a has 1 multiplicative inverse or reciprocal a such that 1 1 a a 1.Asia Pacific College 18 . a a Examples: 1 2 1 2 9 June 2011 3 5 1 5 3 College Algebra .

Division Operation For any real numbers a and b with b ≠ 0.Asia Pacific College 19 . the division a by b means 1 a b a b 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Division Operation Examples: 1 60 60 (2) 60 30 2 2 48 3 2 24 24 16 3 2 3 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 20 .

Asia Pacific College 21 . Examples: 5 50 0 is undefined. 0 00 0 is undefined.Division by Zero Division by zero are said to be undefined. 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

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