Operations on

Real Numbers
Lesson 2.2

Absolute Value Operation

A number’s distance from 0 on the number
line is called the absolute value of the
number.
Example:
3 units

-4

-3

-2

-1

3 units

0

1

2

3

4

Therefore |3| = 3 and |-3| = 3.
9 June 2011

College Algebra - Asia Pacific College

2

Opposites  Two numbers located on opposite sides of the number line and with same absolute value are called opposites of each other.Asia Pacific College 3 . 9 June 2011 College Algebra . Example: 3 units -4 -3 -2 -1 3 units 0 1 2 3 4 The numbers 3 and -3 are opposite of each other.

The minus sign “-” which is used to signify “negative” is also used to signify “opposite”.Asia Pacific College 4 . Every number has a unique opposite.Opposites     The opposite of 0 is 0. Note that the words “negative” and “opposite” are often used interchangeably Example: -(9) = -9 “the opposite of 9 is negative 9” 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Examples:  -(-12) = 12  -(-0.Opposite of an Opposite  For any number a.5) = 0. -(-a) = a.Asia Pacific College 5 .5  -(-(-8)) = -8 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

If a = -7. 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 6 . since -7 is negative. then | 7 | = 7.Absolute Value Operation  Using opposites. since 7 is positive. we can give a symbolic definition of absolute value a if a is positive or zero | a |   a if a is negative Example: If a = 7. then |-7| = -(-7) = 7.

Addition Operation  Sum of Two Numbers with Like Signs To find the sum of two numbers with same sign:  Add their absolute values.Asia Pacific College 7 . Examples:   9 June 2011 6 + 7 = 13 (-5) + (-9) = -14 College Algebra .  The sum has the same sign as the original number.

 If the larger absolute value is negative. then the sum is negative.Addition Operation  Sum of Two Numbers with Unlike Signs To find the sum of two numbers with unlike signs:  Subtract their absolute values.Asia Pacific College 8 .  If the larger absolute value is positive. then the sum is positive. Examples:   9 June 2011 -7 + 10 = 3 -8 + 5 = -3 College Algebra .

a and – a are called additive inverses of each other.Asia Pacific College 9 . Examples:    9 June 2011 -5 + 5 = 0 8 + (-8) = 0 College Algebra . a + (-a) = -a + a = 0  For this reason.Addition Operation  Sum of Opposites For any number a.

89 -7 + 0.Addition Operation Examples:      -6 + 13 = 7 -9 + (-7) = -16 2 + (-2) = 0 -35.4 + 2.Asia Pacific College 10 .51 = -32.95 9 June 2011 College Algebra .05 = -6.

Asia Pacific College 11 .Addition Operation Example:  a c ad  bc   Recall simple addition of fractions: b d bd 1  3  4  15         5  4  20  20  4  ( 15)  20 11 11   20 20 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Subtraction Operation  For any real numbers a and b.Asia Pacific College 12 . subtracting b from a means a – b = a + (-b) Examples:  10 – 4 = 10 + (-4) = 6  10 – (-7) = 10 + 7 = 17  -7 – 3 = -7 + (-3) = -10  8 – (-5) = 8 + (-(-5)) = 8 + 5 = 13  48 – 99 = 48 + (-99) = -51 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

The numbers multiplied are factors.Multiplication Operation    The result of multiplying two numbers is called the product of the numbers. The product of a and b may be written as    a·b ab a(b) = (a)(b) = (a)b 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 13 .

Asia Pacific College 14 .  5·2 = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10 5 times  5·(-2) = (-2) + (-2) + (-2) +(-2) +(-2) = -10 5 times 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Multiplication Operation  Multiplication is just a short way of repeated addition.

9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 15 .  If numbers have the unlike signs.Multiplication Operation  Product of Signed Numbers To find the product of two nonzero real numbers:  Multiply their absolute values  If numbers have the same sign. the product is positive. the product is negative.

Multiplication Operation Examples:     2(8) = 16 (-3)(-6) = 18 -4(10) = -40 7(-3) = -21 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 16 .

Multiplication Operation Example:  a c ac   Recall multiplication of fractions: b d bd 4  1 (4)(1) 4      9  5 (9)(5) 45 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 17 .

a a Examples:  1  2   1 2  9 June 2011 3 5    1 5 3 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 18 .Division Operation  Every nonzero real number a has 1 multiplicative inverse or reciprocal a such that 1 1 a    a  1.

the division a by b means 1 a b  a b 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Division Operation  For any real numbers a and b with b ≠ 0.Asia Pacific College 19 .

Asia Pacific College 20 .Division Operation Examples:   1  60 60  (2)  60     30 2 2  48 3 2 24     24       16 3 2 3 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

 0 00  0 is undefined.Asia Pacific College 21 .Division by Zero  Division by zero are said to be undefined. 9 June 2011 College Algebra . Examples:  5 50  0 is undefined.

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