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Real Numbers

Lesson 2.2

**Absolute Value Operation
**

**A number’s distance from 0 on the number
**

line is called the absolute value of the

number.

Example:

3 units

-4

-3

-2

-1

3 units

0

1

2

3

4

Therefore |3| = 3 and |-3| = 3.

9 June 2011

College Algebra - Asia Pacific College

2

Example: 3 units -4 -3 -2 -1 3 units 0 1 2 3 4 The numbers 3 and -3 are opposite of each other.Opposites Two numbers located on opposite sides of the number line and with same absolute value are called opposites of each other.Asia Pacific College 3 . 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

The minus sign “-” which is used to signify “negative” is also used to signify “opposite”.Asia Pacific College 4 . Note that the words “negative” and “opposite” are often used interchangeably Example: -(9) = -9 “the opposite of 9 is negative 9” 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Opposites The opposite of 0 is 0. Every number has a unique opposite.

-(-a) = a.5 -(-(-8)) = -8 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 5 .Opposite of an Opposite For any number a. Examples: -(-12) = 12 -(-0.5) = 0.

Absolute Value Operation Using opposites. If a = -7. since 7 is positive. since -7 is negative. then |-7| = -(-7) = 7. then | 7 | = 7.Asia Pacific College 6 . we can give a symbolic definition of absolute value a if a is positive or zero | a | a if a is negative Example: If a = 7. 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Examples: 9 June 2011 6 + 7 = 13 (-5) + (-9) = -14 College Algebra .Addition Operation Sum of Two Numbers with Like Signs To find the sum of two numbers with same sign: Add their absolute values.Asia Pacific College 7 . The sum has the same sign as the original number.

then the sum is positive. Examples: 9 June 2011 -7 + 10 = 3 -8 + 5 = -3 College Algebra . If the larger absolute value is positive. If the larger absolute value is negative.Asia Pacific College 8 .Addition Operation Sum of Two Numbers with Unlike Signs To find the sum of two numbers with unlike signs: Subtract their absolute values. then the sum is negative.

a + (-a) = -a + a = 0 For this reason. Examples: 9 June 2011 -5 + 5 = 0 8 + (-8) = 0 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 9 . a and – a are called additive inverses of each other.Addition Operation Sum of Opposites For any number a.

05 = -6.95 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Addition Operation Examples: -6 + 13 = 7 -9 + (-7) = -16 2 + (-2) = 0 -35.4 + 2.Asia Pacific College 10 .51 = -32.89 -7 + 0.

Addition Operation Example: a c ad bc Recall simple addition of fractions: b d bd 1 3 4 15 5 4 20 20 4 ( 15) 20 11 11 20 20 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 11 .

subtracting b from a means a – b = a + (-b) Examples: 10 – 4 = 10 + (-4) = 6 10 – (-7) = 10 + 7 = 17 -7 – 3 = -7 + (-3) = -10 8 – (-5) = 8 + (-(-5)) = 8 + 5 = 13 48 – 99 = 48 + (-99) = -51 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Subtraction Operation For any real numbers a and b.Asia Pacific College 12 .

The product of a and b may be written as a·b ab a(b) = (a)(b) = (a)b 9 June 2011 College Algebra . The numbers multiplied are factors.Multiplication Operation The result of multiplying two numbers is called the product of the numbers.Asia Pacific College 13 .

5·2 = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10 5 times 5·(-2) = (-2) + (-2) + (-2) +(-2) +(-2) = -10 5 times 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 14 .Multiplication Operation Multiplication is just a short way of repeated addition.

the product is negative.Multiplication Operation Product of Signed Numbers To find the product of two nonzero real numbers: Multiply their absolute values If numbers have the same sign.Asia Pacific College 15 . If numbers have the unlike signs. 9 June 2011 College Algebra . the product is positive.

Asia Pacific College 16 .Multiplication Operation Examples: 2(8) = 16 (-3)(-6) = 18 -4(10) = -40 7(-3) = -21 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Multiplication Operation Example: a c ac Recall multiplication of fractions: b d bd 4 1 (4)(1) 4 9 5 (9)(5) 45 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 17 .

Asia Pacific College 18 . a a Examples: 1 2 1 2 9 June 2011 3 5 1 5 3 College Algebra .Division Operation Every nonzero real number a has 1 multiplicative inverse or reciprocal a such that 1 1 a a 1.

Division Operation For any real numbers a and b with b ≠ 0. the division a by b means 1 a b a b 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 19 .

Division Operation Examples: 1 60 60 (2) 60 30 2 2 48 3 2 24 24 16 3 2 3 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 20 .

0 00 0 is undefined.Division by Zero Division by zero are said to be undefined. Examples: 5 50 0 is undefined. 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 21 .

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