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# Operations on

Real Numbers

Lesson 2.2

**Absolute Value Operation
**

**A number’s distance from 0 on the number
**

line is called the absolute value of the

number.

Example:

3 units

-4

-3

-2

-1

3 units

0

1

2

3

4

Therefore |3| = 3 and |-3| = 3.

9 June 2011

College Algebra - Asia Pacific College

2

Example: 3 units -4 -3 -2 -1 3 units 0 1 2 3 4 The numbers 3 and -3 are opposite of each other.Asia Pacific College 3 .Opposites Two numbers located on opposite sides of the number line and with same absolute value are called opposites of each other. 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

The minus sign “-” which is used to signify “negative” is also used to signify “opposite”.Opposites The opposite of 0 is 0. Every number has a unique opposite.Asia Pacific College 4 . Note that the words “negative” and “opposite” are often used interchangeably Example: -(9) = -9 “the opposite of 9 is negative 9” 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Opposite of an Opposite For any number a.Asia Pacific College 5 .5 -(-(-8)) = -8 9 June 2011 College Algebra . -(-a) = a. Examples: -(-12) = 12 -(-0.5) = 0.

we can give a symbolic definition of absolute value a if a is positive or zero | a | a if a is negative Example: If a = 7. then |-7| = -(-7) = 7.Asia Pacific College 6 . If a = -7. since 7 is positive. then | 7 | = 7.Absolute Value Operation Using opposites. since -7 is negative. 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Examples: 9 June 2011 6 + 7 = 13 (-5) + (-9) = -14 College Algebra .Addition Operation Sum of Two Numbers with Like Signs To find the sum of two numbers with same sign: Add their absolute values.Asia Pacific College 7 . The sum has the same sign as the original number.

then the sum is negative. If the larger absolute value is negative. If the larger absolute value is positive. then the sum is positive.Asia Pacific College 8 .Addition Operation Sum of Two Numbers with Unlike Signs To find the sum of two numbers with unlike signs: Subtract their absolute values. Examples: 9 June 2011 -7 + 10 = 3 -8 + 5 = -3 College Algebra .

Addition Operation Sum of Opposites For any number a.Asia Pacific College 9 . a + (-a) = -a + a = 0 For this reason. Examples: 9 June 2011 -5 + 5 = 0 8 + (-8) = 0 College Algebra . a and – a are called additive inverses of each other.

Asia Pacific College 10 .89 -7 + 0.4 + 2.51 = -32.Addition Operation Examples: -6 + 13 = 7 -9 + (-7) = -16 2 + (-2) = 0 -35.05 = -6.95 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Addition Operation Example: a c ad bc Recall simple addition of fractions: b d bd 1 3 4 15 5 4 20 20 4 ( 15) 20 11 11 20 20 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 11 .

Asia Pacific College 12 .Subtraction Operation For any real numbers a and b. subtracting b from a means a – b = a + (-b) Examples: 10 – 4 = 10 + (-4) = 6 10 – (-7) = 10 + 7 = 17 -7 – 3 = -7 + (-3) = -10 8 – (-5) = 8 + (-(-5)) = 8 + 5 = 13 48 – 99 = 48 + (-99) = -51 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

The product of a and b may be written as a·b ab a(b) = (a)(b) = (a)b 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Multiplication Operation The result of multiplying two numbers is called the product of the numbers.Asia Pacific College 13 . The numbers multiplied are factors.

5·2 = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10 5 times 5·(-2) = (-2) + (-2) + (-2) +(-2) +(-2) = -10 5 times 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Multiplication Operation Multiplication is just a short way of repeated addition.Asia Pacific College 14 .

9 June 2011 College Algebra . If numbers have the unlike signs.Multiplication Operation Product of Signed Numbers To find the product of two nonzero real numbers: Multiply their absolute values If numbers have the same sign.Asia Pacific College 15 . the product is positive. the product is negative.

Asia Pacific College 16 .Multiplication Operation Examples: 2(8) = 16 (-3)(-6) = 18 -4(10) = -40 7(-3) = -21 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Multiplication Operation Example: a c ac Recall multiplication of fractions: b d bd 4 1 (4)(1) 4 9 5 (9)(5) 45 9 June 2011 College Algebra .Asia Pacific College 17 .

Asia Pacific College 18 .Division Operation Every nonzero real number a has 1 multiplicative inverse or reciprocal a such that 1 1 a a 1. a a Examples: 1 2 1 2 9 June 2011 3 5 1 5 3 College Algebra .

Asia Pacific College 19 .Division Operation For any real numbers a and b with b ≠ 0. the division a by b means 1 a b a b 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

Asia Pacific College 20 .Division Operation Examples: 1 60 60 (2) 60 30 2 2 48 3 2 24 24 16 3 2 3 9 June 2011 College Algebra .

9 June 2011 College Algebra .Division by Zero Division by zero are said to be undefined.Asia Pacific College 21 . Examples: 5 50 0 is undefined. 0 00 0 is undefined.