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Network Analyzer

y Basics

Duplexers
Diplexers
Filters
Couplers
Bridges
Splitters, dividers
Combiners
Isolators
Circulators
Attenuators
Adapters
Opens, shorts, loads
Delay lines
Cables
Transmission lines
Waveguide
Resonators
Dielectrics
R, L, C's

Lo
ow

Integgration

High

What types of devices are tested?

Passive

RFICs
MMICs
T/R modules
Transceivers
Receivers
Tuners
Converters

Antennas
Switches
Multiplexers
Mixers
Samplers
Multipliers
Diodes

Device type

VCAs
Amplifiers
VCOs
VTFs
Oscillators
Modulators
VCAtten's

Transistors

Active

E
Example
l Wh
Where M
Match
t h iis IImportant
t t

KPW
R

FM
97

Wire and bad antenna (poor


match at 97 MHz) results in
150 W radiated power

KPW
R

FM
97

Proper transmission line and antenna


results in 1500 W radiated power signal is received about three times
further!

Good match between antenna and RF amplifier is extremely


important to radio stations to get maximum radiated power

Th Need
The
N d ffor Both
B th Magnitude
M it d andd Phase
Ph
S

1. Complete characterization of
linear networks

21

S 11
S

S 22

4.

12

Time Domain
Characterization

Mag

2. Complex impedance needed to


d i matching
design
t hi circuits
i it

Time
High Frequency
Transistor Model

5. Vector Accuracy Enhancement


E
Error

Base

3. Complex values needed for


device modeling

Collector

Measured
Actual

Emitter

Hi h F
High-Frequency
D
Device
i Ch
Characterization
t i ti

Lightwave Analogy

Incident

Transmittedd
Reflected

Smith Chart Review


+jX

90

Polar plane

1.0
.8
.6

R
+R

.4

+ 180
-

-jX

.2

Rectilinear impedance
p
pplane

-90
90 o
Constant X
Z L = Zo

Smith Chart maps


p rectilinear impedance
p
plane onto polar plane

Constant R

( h t)
Z L = 0 (short)

= 1

180

Z L=

=1

(
(open)
)
0

Smith Chart

Power Transfer
RS
RL

Load
d Power (normalized))

For complex impedances, maximum power


transfer occurs when ZL = ZS* (conjugate match)
1,2
1

Zs = R + jX

0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0,
0
0

RL / RS

10

ZL = Zs* = R - jX

Maximum power is transferred when RL = RS


7

Transmission Line Review


Low
ow frequencies
eque c es

Wavelength >> wire length


Current (I) travels down wires easily
y for efficient power
p
transmission
Voltage and current not dependent on position

Hi h ffrequencies
High
i

Wavelength or << wire (transmission line) length


Need transmission
transmission-line
line structures for efficient power transmission
Matching to characteristic impedance (Z0) is very important for low reflection
Voltage dependent on position along line

T
Transmission
i i Line
Li Terminated
T i t d with
ith Zo
Z
Zs = Zo

Zo = characteristic impedance of transmission line

Zo

V inc
Vrefl = 0! (all the incident power is absorbed in
the load)
For reflection, a transmission line terminated in Zo behaves like an infinitely long transmission
9
line

T
Transmission
i i Line
Li Terminated
T i t d with
ith Short,
Sh t O
Open
Zs = Zo

V inc
Vrefl

In phase (0 ) for oopen


o
Out of phase (180 ) for short

For reflection, a transmission line terminated in a short or open reflects all power back to source
10

T
Transmission
i i Line
Li Terminated
T i d with
i h 25
Zs = Zo
ZL = 25

V inc
Vrefl
Standing wave pattern does not go to zero as with short or open

11

Hi h F
High-Frequency
D
Device
i Ch
Characterization
t i ti
Incident

Transmitted

Reflected

TRANSMISSION

REFLECTION
Reflected
Incident

SWR
S-Parameters
S11,S22

Reflection
Coefficient

Transmitted

Incident
c de t

Return
Loss
Impedance,
Admittance
R+jX,
G+jB

B
R

Group
Delay

Gain / Loss
S-Parameters
Transmission
S21 S12
S21,S12
Coefficient

Insertion
Phase
12

Reflection Parameters
Reflection
Coefficient

Vreflected
Vincident

Return loss = -20 log(),

ZO

ZL

ZO

Emax
Emin

No reflection
(ZL = Zo)

ZL

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

Emax
VSWR =
Emin

1+
1-

Full reflection
(ZL = open, short)

dB

RL

0 dB

VSWR

13

Transmission Parameters
V Incident

V Transmitted

DUT

Transmission Coefficient =

VTransmitted
V Incident
V

Insertion Loss (dB) = - 20 Log

V
V
Gain (dB) = 20 Log

Trans
Inc

Trans

= - 20 log

Inc

= 20 log

14

L F
Low-Frequency
N
Network
t k Ch
Characterization
t i ti
H-parameters
H
parameters

V1 = h11I1 + h12V2
V2 = h21I1 + h22V2

YY-parameters
parameters

I1 = y11V1 + y12V2
I2 = y21V1 + y22V2

ZZ-parameters
parameters

V1 = z11I1 + z12I2
V2 = z21I1 + z22I2

h11 =

V1
I1

V2=0

( i short
(requires
h t circuit)
i it)

h12 =

V1
V2

I1=0

(requires open circuit)

All of these parameters require measuring voltage and current (as a function of frequency)

15

Limitations of H,
H Y,
Y Z Parameters
((Whyy use S-parameters?)
p
)
H,Y, Z parameters

Hardd to measure totall voltage


l andd current at ddevice ports at hhighh
frequencies
Active
A ti devices
d i may oscillate
ill t or self-destruct
lf d t t with
ith shorts
h t / opens

S-parameters

Relate to familiar measurements(gain,


measurements(gain loss,
loss reflection coefficient ...))
Relatively easy to measure
S 21
Incident
Transmitted
a1
Ca
Can cascade S-parameters
S pa a ete s of
o multiple
utpe
b2
S11
DUT
Reflected
devices to predict system performance
S22
Port 2 Reflected
Port 1
Analytically
y y convenient
a2
b

CAD programs
Flow-graph analysis

Can compute H, Y,or Z parameters


from S-parameters if desired

Transmitted

S12

Incident

b1 = S11 a 1 + S 12 a 2
b 2 = S21 a 1 + S22 a 2
16

ScatteringParameters
Athighfrequencies,Z,Y,h &ABCDparametersaredifficult
(ifnotimpossible)tomeasure.
o V andI arenotuniquelydefined
o Evenifdefined,V andI areextremelydifficult
to measure (particularly I)
tomeasure(particularlyI).
o Requiredopenandshortcircuitconditionsare
oftendifficulttoachieve.
Scattering(S)parametersareoftenthebest
representationformultiportnetworksathighfrequency.

17

ScatteringParameters(cont.)
Sparametersaredefined
g
p
assumingtransmissionlinesareconnectedtoeachport.
a1
b1

Z 01 , 1

Z 02 , 2

z1

a2

b2

z2
Localcoordinates

O
Oneachtransmissionline:
ht
i i li

Vi zi Vi 0 e i zi Vi 0 e i zi Vi zi Vi zi
Vi zi Vi zi

I i zi
Z 0i
Z 0i
Incoming wave function ai zi Vi

i 1, 2

zi

Outgoing wave function bi zi Vi zi

Z 0i
Z 0i

18

ForaOne
ForaOnePortNetwork
L

V1 0

V1 0

b1 0

a1 0

Z 01
Z 01

a1

Z 01

b1

l1

b1 0 L a1 0

Foraoneportnetwork,
S11 isdefinedtobethe
same as L.
sameas

S11 a1 0

S11
Incoming wave function ai zi Vi

zi

Outgoing wave function bi zi Vi zi

Z 0i
Z 0i
19

ForaTwo
ForaTwoPortNetwork
a1

Z 01 , 1

Z 02 , 2

b1
z1

b2

z2

b1 0 S11a1 0 S12a2 0
b2 0 S21a1 0 S22a2 0
b1 0 S11

b2 0 S21

a2

Scattering
matrix

S12 a1 0

b S a

S22 a2 0

20

ScatteringParameters
b1 0 S11a1 0 S12a2 0
b2 0 S21a1 0 S22 a2 0
b1 0
S11
a1 0 a 0

Outputis
matched

b1 0
S12
a2 0 a 0

Inputis
matched

b2 0
S21
a1 0 a 0

Outputis
matched

b2 0
S22
a2 0 a 0

Inputis
matched

inputreflectioncoef.
p
w/outputmatched
reversetransmissioncoef.
t
i i
f
w/inputmatched
forwardtransmissioncoef.
w/outputmatched
outputreflectioncoef.
w/inputmatched
/ p
21

ScatteringParameters(cont.)
Whyarethewavefunctions(a andb)definedastheyare?
a1

Z 01 , 1

Z 02 , 2

b1
z1

b2

z2

V
*
1
1
i 0

Pi 0 Re Vi 0 I i 0

2 Z
2
0i

Note:

a2

ai 0 Vi 0

((assuminglosslesslines)
g
)

Z0i

2
1
Pi 0 ai 0
2

22

ScatteringParameters(cont.)
Similarly,
2
1 Vi 0
1
Pi 0
bi 0
2 Z 0i0i
2

Also,

Vi li Vi 0 e i li
Vi li Vi 0 e i li
2
1
Pi li ai li
2
2
1

Pi li bi li
2

2 2 l
1
ai 0 e i i
2
2 2 l
1
bi 0 e i i
2

23

Measuringg S-Parameters
a1

Forward

S 21 =

Transmitted
Incident

b1
= a
1
b

a2 = 0

a2 = 0

S 22 =

Reflected
Incident

b2
= a
2

= a
1

a2 = 0

S 12 =

a1 = 0
Z0

Incident

S 12

a1 = 0

= a
2

a1 = 0

b2

R
Reverse

Reflected

Load
Transmitted

Transmitted

S 22

DUT

b1

Load

DUT

Reflected

Reflected
Incident

b2

Transmitted

21

Z0

S 11
b1

S 11 =

Incident

a2
Incident
24

SParameterMeasurements
S parametersaretypicallymeasured,atmicrowavefrequencies,
Sparameters
are typically measured, at microwave frequencies,
withanetworkanalyzer(NA).
Theseinstrumentshavefoundwide,almostuniversal,application
sincethemidtolate1970s.
Vectornetworkanalyzer:MagnitudesandphasesoftheS
parametersaremeasured.
Scalarnetworkanalyzer:OnlythemagnitudesoftheS
parametersismeasured.

25

VectorNetworkAnalyzer(VNA)

Port1

a1
b1

DUT
HewlettPackard8510

DUT

b2

a2

26

NetworkAnalysisofVNAMeasurement
Network Analysis of VNA Measurement

a1

b1

a2

b2

27

SParameterMeasurements
a2m

m
a
Port 1 1
b1m

m
2

Port 2

Meas. plane 1

Ref. plane

Ref. plane

Meas. plane 2

Errorboxescontaineffects
of test cables connectors couplers
oftestcables,connectors,couplers,

28

SParameterMeasurements(cont.)
m
1

A
S21

S11A

b1m
S12A

S21

S12

b2m

S11B

B
S22

S22

S11

A
22

S12B

B
S21

a2m

Assume error boxes are reciprocal


A
B
S21
S12A and S21
S12B

We need to "calibrate" to find S A and S B .

If S A and
d S B are known we can extract S from measurements
measurements.
This is called deembedding
Thisiscalled
deembedding.
29

Calibration
Short,open,matchcalibrationprocedure

S21

a1m

S22

S11

SC
-1

Connect

OC
+1

Z0
0

b1m

S12

short
h t

open

A, B

Calibrationloads
S

m
11SC

S11

1 S 22

S11

m
11 match

21

m
11 OC

match
t h

S11

21

1 S 22

3 measurements :
m

( S 11 , S 11 , S11
SC

OC

match

S21S12 L
in S11
1 L S22

3 unknowns for each port :

,
S
,
S
11
21
22

30

Generalized Network Analyzer Block Diagram


Incident

Transmitted

DUT
SOURCE

Reflected

SIGNAL
SEPARATION
INCIDENT
(R)

REFLECTED
(A)

TRANSMITTED
(B)

RECEIVER / DETECTOR

PROCESSOR / DISPLAY

31

Traditional Scalar Analyzer


Traditional scalar system consists of processor/display and
source

Example: HP 8757D
requires external detectors, couplers, bridges, splitters
good for low-cost microwave scalar applications

RF

R A

B
RF

Detector

R A

Detector
Detector

B id
Bridge

Reflection

DUT

DUT

Termination

Transmission

32

M d SScalar
Modern
l AAnalyzer
l
E thi necessary ffor ttransmission
Everything
i i andd reflection
fl ti measurementst iis

internal!

One-port (reflection) and response (transmission) calibrations


Narrowband and broadband
detectors

Large display

Synthesized source

Transmission/reflection test set


33

Spectrum Analyzer / Tracking Generator


RF in

IF
8563A

SPECTRUM ANALYZER

9 kHz - 26.5 GHz

LO
DUT

Spectrum analyzer
TG out

DUT

f = IF

Tracking generator

Key differences from network analyzer:

one channel -- no ratioed or phase measurements


More expensive than scalar NA
Only error correction available is normalization
Poorer accuracy
Small incremental cost if SA is already needed

34

Modern Vector Analyzer


Features:

Synthesizer
15 MHz to 60 MHz

integrated source
sampler-based front end
tuned receiver
magnitude and phase
vector-error correction
T/R or S-parameter test sets

996 kHz

MUX
RF

Reference

Test
Set

detector
300 kHz
to
3 GHz

Phase
Lock

4 kHz

4 kHz

4 kHz

DU
T

ADC

CPU

Display

Digital
Control
Source

Test
Set

Receiver

Note:
N
t modern
d scalar
l analyzers
l
lik
like HP 8711/13C look
l k jjustt lik
like vector
t analyzers,
l
but they don't display phase

35

T/R Versus S-Parameter Test Sets


Transmission/Reflection Test Set

S-Parameter Test Set

Source

Source

Transfer switch

R
B

Port 1

Port 2

Fwd

Port 2

Port 1

Fwd

DUT

RF always comes out port 1


port 2 is always receiver
response, one-port cal available

DUT

Rev

RF comes out port 1 or port 2


forward and reverse measurements
two-port calibration possible

36

Processor / Display
Incident

Transmitted

DUT
SOURCE

Reflected

50 MHz-20GHz
NETWORK ANALYZER
ACTIVE CHANNEL

ENTRY

RESPONSE

SIGNAL
SEPARATION
INCIDENT
(R)

REFLECTED
(A)

STIMULUS

TRANSMITTED
(B)

R CHANNEL

INSTRUMENT STATE

R L

HP-IB STATUS

RECEIVER / DETECTOR
PORT 1

PORT 2

PROCESSOR / DISPLAY

markers
limit lines
pass/fail indicators
linear/log formats
grid/polar/Smith charts

37

M
Measurement
t EError M
Modeling
d li

Systematic errors

due to imperfections in the analyzer and test setup


are assumed to be time invariant (predictable)
can be characterized (during calibration process) and mathematically
removed during measurements

Random errors

vary with time in random fashion (unpredictable)


cannot be removed by calibration
main contributors:
instrument noise (source
phase noise, IF noise floor, etc.)
switch repeatability
Measured
Data
connector repeatability

Drift errors

are due to instrument or test-system performance


changing after a calibration has been done
are primarily caused by temperature variation
can be removed by further calibration(s)

Errors:

SYSTEMATIC
RANDOM

Unknown
Device

DRIFT

38

S t ti M
Systematic
Measurementt EErrors
R

Directivity

Crosstalk

DUT
Frequency response

reflection tracking (A/R)


transmission tracking (B/R)

Source
Mismatch

Six forward and six reverse error terms yields 12 error terms for
two-port devices

Load
Mismatch

39

Types of Error Correction

Two main types of error correction:


response
p
((normalization))
simple to perform
only
y corrects for trackingg errors
stores reference trace in memory,
then does data divided byy memoryy
vector
requires
q
more standards
requires an analyzer that can measure phase
accounts for all major sources of systematic error

thru

SHORT

thru

OPEN

S11

LOAD

S11

40

Wh t iis VVector-Error
What
t E CCorrection?
ti ?

Process of characterizing systematic error terms


measure known standards
remove effects from subsequent measurements.
measurements
1-port calibration (reflection measurements)
only 3 systematic error terms measured
directivity, source match, and reflection tracking
Full 2-port calibration

( fl
(reflection
andd transmission measurements))

12 systematic error terms measured


usua
usuallyy requires
equ es 12 measurements
easu e e ts on
o four
ou known
ow standards
sta da ds (SOLT)
(SO )
Some standards can be measured multiple times(e.g., THRU is usually measured four times)
Standards defined in cal kit definition file
network analyzer contains standard cal kit definitions
CAL KIT DEFINITION MUST MATCH ACTUAL CAL KIT USED!

41

Reflection: One-Port Model


If you know the systematic error terms, you can solve
for the actual SS-parameter
parameter
Assumes good termination at port two if testing two-port devices
If port 2 is connected to the network analyzer and DUT reverse
isolation is low (e.g., filter passband):
assumption of good termination is not valid
two-port error correction yields better results

Ideal
RF in
S11M

S11A

Error
o Adapter
dap e
ED = Directivity

1
RF in

ERT = Reflection tracking


S11M

ES

ED

S11A

ES = Source Match
S11M = Measured

ERT
S11M = ED + ERT

S11A
1 - ES S11A

S11A = Actual

To solve for S11A, we have 3 equations


and 3 unknowns

42

B f andd After
Before
Aft One-Port
O P t Calibration
C lib ti
0
2.0

Data Before
E
Error
C
Correction
ti
Return L
R
Loss (dB
B)

20

40
1.01

Data After
Error Correction

60

6000

VSW
WR

11
1.1

1.001
12000

43

Adapter Considerations
reflection from adapter
leakage signal
Coupler directivity = 40 dB

desired signal

total = adapter +

Adapter

DUT

Termination

DUT

DUT has SMA (f) connectors

APC-7 calibration done here


Worst-case
System
Directivity

28 dB

17 dB

14 dB

Ad ti ffrom APC-7
Adapting
APC 7 tto SMA ((m))

APC-7
APC
7 to SMA (m)
SWR:1.06

APC-7 to N (f) + N (m) to SMA (m)


SWR:1.05
SWR:1.25
APC-7 to N (m) + N (f) to SMA (f) + SMA (m) to (m)
SWR:1.05
SWR:1.25
SWR:1.15

44

T P t EError CCorrection
Two-Port
ti
Port 1

a1

ED

EX
S21A

ES
A

ER
T

ED = Directivity
ES = Source Match
ER = Reflection Tracking

ET

b2

Forward model

S11

b1

Port 2

S22A

EL

a2

S12

EL = Load Match
ET = Transmission Tracking
EXT = Isolation

Notice that each actual S-parameter is a


function of all four measured S-parameters
Analyzer must make forward and reverse
sweep to update any one S-parameter
Luckily, you don't need to know these
equations to use network analyzers!!!
45

Crosstalk (Isolation)
Crosstalk definition: signal
g leakage
g between pports
Can be a problem with:
High-isolation devices (e.g., switch in open position)
High-dynamic range devices (some filter stopbands)
Isolation calibration
Adds noise to error model (measuring noise floor of system)
Only perform if really needed (use averaging)
if crosstalk
t lk isi independent
i d d t off DUT match,
t h use ttwo tterminations
i ti
if dependent on DUT match, use DUT with termination on output

DUT

Isolation cal when crosstalk is dependent on match of DUT

LOAD

DUT

DUT

LOAD

46

Errors and Calibration Standards


UNCORRECTED

RESPONSE

1-PORT
SHORT

DUT

OPEN

FULL 2-PORT
SHORT

SHORT

OPEN

OPEN

LOAD

LOAD

thru
LOAD

Convenient
Generally not accurate
No errors removed

DUT
Easy to perform
Use when highest
accuracy is not required
Removes frequency
response error

DUT

thru

Other errors:

Random (Noise, Repeatability)


Drift

For reflection measurements


Need
N d goodd termination ffor high
h h
accuracy with two-port devices
Removes these errors:
Di ti it
Directivity
Source match
Reflection tracking

DUT
Highest accuracy
Removes these errors:
Directivity
Source, load match
Reflection tracking
Transmission tracking
Crosstalk

47

C lib ti Summary
Calibration
S
Reflection

T/R

(one-port)
(one
port)

Test Set (cal type)


S-parameter

SHORT

(two-port)
(two
port)

Reflection tracking
Directivity
Source match
Load
L d match
th

OPEN

LOAD

T
Transmission
i i
error can be corrected
error cannot be corrected
*

HP 8711C enhanced response cal can correct for source


match during transmission measurements

T/R
(response,

Test Set (cal type)

S parameter
S-parameter
(two-port)

isolation)

TTransmission
i i Tracking
T ki
Crosstalk
(
Source
S
match
th
Load match

*)
48