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cooling tower

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information will be useful in your analysis.

0

DISCLAIMER: The calculations in this WorkSheet provide accurate information on the use of Lakos

Filtration Systems. These Calculations also correspond to information provided by the U.S.

Department of Energy. However, the accuracy is limited to the data provided. These calculations are

intended as a guide for evaluation and justification.

GENERAL INFORMATION:

- As stated, this spreadsheet is to be used as a guide. Some data is simplified to make the data easier to use and

understand.

- The Gray cells are the only cells that require input. Some of these do not require input if the default values are used.

- Several of the locations for data input, already have default values. This is to enable reasonably accurate calculations.

Providing better individual information will improve this accuracy.

- Based on the individual application, the calculated Return on Investment can vary widely. This Spreadsheet provides

the ROI honestly, and may not return the values that you hope for.

- This is a 'Read-Only' File. In order to save this spreadsheet for the specific application, and for future reference, 'Saveas" must be used, and the spreadsheet given a new name.

- If you need to go to the worksheet, or back to the instruction sheet, use the buttons located on the respective pages.

Also Ctrl-w to go directly to the worksheet. Ctrl-q to go directly to the instruction page.

- If you receive an error statement referring to input of valid data, insure that the correct data for the cell is inserted. ex: A

year is no more than 52 weeks.

- To reset the worksheet to default values, click on the button on the top right corner, or press Ctrl r.

- This worksheet is to be considered an aid and supplement to the selection, application, and justification of LAKOS

Equipment. It will never replace individual knowledge and expertise related to the equipment and application.

INFORMATION SECTION(s):

- Name: Put your name or facility to be used a reference.

- Zip Code: The full address is not included to reduce size, but the Zip Code helps designate location.

- Date: Todays date is automatically inserted in this location when the spreadsheet is loaded.

- Project: Use this cell to record the Project Name, or if desired.

- Liquid: Water is the default. If different, record the actual liquid being filtered.

- Temperature: Use the pull down menu. This is mostly informational, but excessively high or low liquid temperatures

should be referred to the factory.

- Labor Cost / Hour: $25 per hour is the default. Input the more accurate labor rate for the specific application, if known.

Use only the labor rate. The calculations include an overhead charge to better address actual overall cost.

- KW/Hour: $.07 per KW Hour is the default. Input the more accurate electrical cost for the specific location. This value

can vary widely, and is best provided by the local personnel.

- Annual Estimated Inflation: 4% inflation is the default. Use the inflation value that you feel may be the most accurate.

- Type of Application: Use the pull down menu to show the type of filtration application. Basin Sweeping is the default

application.

- Cost of Water per 1000 Gallons: The default is $1.50 per 1000 gallons, and is the U.S. National average. Specific cost

of water in individual locations can vary.

CHILLERS:

- Quantity of Chillers: One chiller is the default. Input the actual number of chillers in the application, if other than one.

- Total Tonnage: Input the total tonnage of all chillers in the application.

- Time of Operation: 52 weeks is the default. Input the actual value if other than 52 Weeks.

- Fouling Factor: the factor of .0010 is the default. Dirtier water will likely increase the fouling factor of the Chiller

condensers. The fouling factor of the condensers will significantly affect heat transfer efficiency, and directly affects the

calculations. New equipment is designed to operate within the standard industry fouling factor of 0.00025. ASHRAE states

that for each 0.0001 increase in fouling above this number there is a 1.1% increase in power consumption. After one year

of operation it is expected the fouling factor will increase to approximately 0.001, or an 11% increase in power

requirements.

- Typical hours of Operation: 24 hours is the default. Input the actual value if other than 24.

-Design Efficiency: The default new chiller design efficiency is 65%. This efficiency is the design efficiency for a new

chiller. If other than 65%, use the pulldown menu for other efficiencies. This data is available from the Chiller

Manufacturer.

- Load Factor: The default chiller load factor is 70%. Input actual load factor if other than 70%.

COOLING TOWERS:

- Number of Cooling Towers: The Default is one. Input the actual number of cooling towers in the application, if other

than one.

- Total Tower Size: Input the total tonnage of the cooling towers in the application.

- Cycles: The default number of cycles is 3. Input the actual value if other than 3. The number of cycles is defined as the

number of times a gallon of water will cycle through the system before complete evaporation.

- Replacement Cost: Provide the replacement cost of the cooling tower(s), if known, or if an estimate is available.

- System Size: Provide the total system size in gallons. This includes all the water in the sump, water in the piping, and

the equipment.

- Pump Flow: Provide the flow rate of the operating pumps used for circulation from the cooling tower.

- Sump size: Provide the data on the cooling tower sump size, in feet.

HEAT EXCHANGERS: This applies to Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers only

- Number of Heat Exchangers: Provide the number of heat exchangers that are in the system, other than chiller

condensers. These would be aux equipment other than the chiller condensers in the system. Use the Pull Down Menu to

select the quantity.

- Overall Heat Transfer coefficient - Use the Pull Down Menu and select the closest coefficient value. The typical

coefficients for this type heat exchanger is 150-700. The value of 400 is the default.

- Est Mean Temp Differential: This refers to the average differential, not the temperature in and temperature out.

- Avg Heat Transfer Area: Provide the heat transfer surface area. If there is more than one heat exchanger calculate the

average area.

- Avg Number of Gaskets: Provide the value for the number of gaskets in the heat exchanger. If more than 1 Hx,

calculate an average number of gaskets.

- Avg Cost of Gaskets: Provide a cost per gasket. If more than one Hx, calculate the average cost per gasket. Do not

consider cost of gasket replacement as the worksheet includes a factor to cover an extimated cost of gasket replacement.

MAINTENANCE:

- Provide the number of times that the chillers are cleaned on an annual basis

- Provide the number of men used in the cleaning.

- Provide the number of manhours required in each cleaning, per man.

- Provide the cost of equipment used. This is to include parts, equipment rentals, etc.

- The same corresponding values that are used for the Chiller maintenance is used for the Cooling Tower maintenance.

Input different values if applicable.

- Cost of Chemicals: If the actual value of monthly chemical costs is known, use this value. If not, the value is calculated

based on typical chemical usage.

- Months of Chemical Usage: The value is the same as the time of chiller operation. Input actual value, if different.

FILTER SIZING:

- Filter Size: The filter size is determined by the data previously put into the various cells and is automatically shown.

Another filter size may also be put in the cell, but the recommended size would be the calculated size.

- Approx Pump HP: The pump efficiency will affect the HP Calculation. 70% is typical, and is the default. However,

smaller pumps tend to be less efficient, and larger pumps tend to be more efficient. This will let the calculation be

adjusted accordingly.

- Filter HP: The HP is calculated based on the filter size / flowrate. Ths calculation for the HP is the standard calculation

for pump BHP with a 70% efficient pump. The HP may not exactly correspond with the pump HP on the selected filter

unit, as the final HP for the filter pump can include considerations for the system that are not included in this calculation.

- Filter cost: Provide this value based on the information provided by the filter manufacturer.

- Install Cost: The installed cost is calculated as a percentage (80%) of the new filter cost. Of course, the actual installed

cost can vary widely based on numerous factors. Input the actual filter installation cost/estimate based on the application,

if known/available.

- Closed Loop Sizing: This is a calculated value for a closed loop system. The value is provided for information, and may

at times be useful, but is not included in any other calculations.

- Filter Model: Provide the filter model based on the filter sizing. This information is to complete the usefulness of the

spreadsheet, but not included in any additional calculations.

OPERATING RESULTS: The Operating Results is a summary of the system showing various values to help determine

the potential value of using a filter system and possible savings. These results are based on the data provided.

- Chiller Energy cost, Chiller and Tower costs, Chemical Costs: These are the initial annual costs of the equipment based

on the data provided, without the application of the filtration system.

- Estimated Savings, Chillers, Towers, Chemicals: This is the estimated annual savings during the first year of operation,

after the installation of a filtration system.

- Estimated HX Savings: It is very difficult to quantify the savings of auxilary equipment, and is not yet part of this

calculation.

- Annual filter operating cost: The operating cost of the filter system is actually the electrical cost of the electric filter

pump.

- Est Annual Water Savings: Use of a filtration system will typically save one cycle. This is the calculated value of the

water savings based on the savings provided by improvement by 1 cycle.

- Estimated Annual water savings: This is the cost savings of the water saved as a result of saving one cycle when using

a filter.

ROI CALCULATIONS:

- First year savings: This would be the first year savings without consideration of filter cost.

- First year savings with filter: This would be the first year savings with the cost of the filter considered. This value can

potentially be negative based on the initial cost of the filter system.

- Savings percentage: This value is the fractional difference in the operating cost of the cooling system after filter

installation.

- ROI, years: This value provides for return on investment based on the savings in the unfiltered system compared to the

filtered system. This value is based on ROI in years, and is provided as a fractional number. The ROI can vary widely

based on individual applications and the accuracy provided.

- 5 year cost: This is the total savings over a 5 year period both considering the effects of inflation and not considering the

effects of inflation.

NOT INCLUDED IN ROI CALCULATIONS:

- The information provided in this section, is inended to provide additional data for the justification of filtration systems,

but is not included in the ROI Calculations. These values can be very difficult to calculate and are typically based on

previous experience. This data can be useful in the overall justification of a filtration system.

CHARTS:

- The charts provided are intended to show savings with and without an inflation consideration for a period of 5 years. The first

year is typically much different and may actually show a negative value as the initial cost of the filter and installation is included in

the first year. The various savings are individually reflected on the charts. The savings from heat exchangers are included in the

chiller energy savings.

BASIS OF CALCULATIONS:

- This spreadsheet uses calculations that match the U.S. Dept of Energy calculations. However, this spreadsheet

includes other considerations such as fouling factor, and load factor for a more comprehensive result.

- ASHRAE Values are used as a basis for the pertinent calculations in this spreadsheet.

- Most values are rounded. This makes the spreadsheet easier to read and understand. Additionally, showing values to

several decimal points would serve no value to the intent of this spreadsheet.

- Filter Sizing: The calculation for filter sizing is based on several criteria. If system sump size is provided, the filter size is

calculated on the LAKOS standard calculation. If the sump size is not provided, the system size is used for the sizing.

Once per hour turnover rate to 100,000 gallon system volume, and 1000 gallons per 100,000 gallons in the system. If the

system volume is not available, the filter is sized to 10% of pump flow. These various calculations can vary widely, but are

all based on accepted filter sizing calculations. For Sidestream sizing, only the pump flow is considered in the calculation.

- Chiller Energy Cost: The annual energy cost is calculated using the cost of energy, chiller size, total operating time,

efficiency and load factor.

- Chiller and tower maintenance cost: The costs are based on costs of cleaning, manpower, and cost of parts.

- Cost of Chemicals: The calculation is based on the monthly cost of chemicals and total annual usage.

SAVINGS:

- Chiller Savings: The savings are based on the annual chiller operating cost and the savings as result of clean chiller

condensers which are the result of savings resulting from elimination of the fouling.

- Chiller, Tower, Chemical Savings: These calculations show the annual savings related to reduced maintenance requirements

on Chillers and Cooling Towers, and the Chemical usage. These savings are 50% for Chiller and Tower maintenance, and 30%

savings for chemical usage.

RESET

WORKSHEET

NAME :

ZIP CODE :

PROJECT :

GENERAL INFORMATION

Liquid :

Water

TYPE OF APPLICATION :

Temp : Ambient

BASIN SWEEPING

$25

Cost/Kwh :

$0.07

4.0%

$1.50

CHILLER DATA

1

Quantity of Chillers :

Fouling Factor :

24

65%

70%

52

Time of Operation,Weeks :

TOWER DATA

1

Quantity of Towers :

Total pump Flow(GPM) :

Cycles :

Time of Operation,Weeks :

52

SUMP DIMENSIONS(Feet) :

W

HEAT EXCHANGERS --- Note: This applies to Plate & Frame Heat Exchangers only

1

400

Overall Heat Transfer Coeff (OHTC) Btu/ft2 oF hr :

ANNUAL MAINTENANCE

Chillers

Cooling towers

$0

Chemicals

Cost of Chemicals / Month:

0.0

Months of Usage :

12.0

FILTER SIZING

FILTER SIZE (GPM) :

Approx Pump Efficiency :

Filter HP :

70%

0

3

Actual Filter would be Standard HP Sizes

Filter Cost :

Install Cost :

$0

***OPERATING RESULTS***

Current Total Operating

Cost / year (Unfiltered)

filtration system

$0

$0

Chillers / Maint :

$0

$0

$0

Total Savings

Towers / Maint :

$0

$0

$0

Cost Included

Chemicals :

Equivalent Heat Transfer Costs in Plate &

Frame Heat Exchangers :

$0

$0

#DIV/0!

Savings Percentage

$0

$0.00

#DIV/0!

ROI Years

$0

(Gallons) :

0 Gallons

$0

actually the electrical operating cost of the

Filter System / Pump) :

Estimated Annual Water Savings :

RETURN ON INVESTMENT

1st YEAR

5 YEARS,

TOTAL

$0

Without Inflation

$0

With Inflation

Savings in Maintenance of Cooling Tower Pumps from Reduced Wear

Savings in Electrical Operation of Cooling Tower Pumps

Savings in Extended Valve and Piping Life

Estimated 50%

Estimated 1%

Estimated 25%

Potential Savings Due to Reduced Potential of Legionella or other Water Borne Pathogens

Estimated Savings of Cooling Tower per Year, Expected 2X Life Increase, and Resulting Savings

No estimate

No estimate

No estimate

Unfiltere

Energy S

Filter Op

Net Energ

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

With Inflation Adjustment

$1

DOLLARS

$1

$1

$1

$1

$1

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

1

With Inflation Adjustment

$1

$1

DOLLARS

$1

$1

$1

$1

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

1

Chart Shows Chiller & Filter Energy costs Only, Includes Inflation

$1

$1

D $1

o

l $1

l

a $1

r

s $1

$0

$0

$0

Cooling System filtration calculation Sheet

$0

$0

1

Year

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

1

Year

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