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RLA OF STEAM TURBINE & GENERATOR OF GHORASHAL UNIT #4

Condition assessment and


restricted Residual Life
Assessment (RLA)
Power Cell, Power Division Ministry of Power, Energy &
Mineral Resources

Report no.: 15-1414, deliverable 6


Date: 2015-06-05

Project name:
Report title:

RLA of Steam Turbine & Generator of Ghorashal

DNV GL - Energy

Unit #4

KEMA Nederland B.V.

Condition assessment and restricted Residual Life P.O. Box 9035


Assessment (RLA)

Customer:

6800 ET ARNHEM

Power Cell, Power Division Ministry of Power,


Energy & Mineral Resources, Bidyut Bhaban, I
Abdul Gani Road, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh

Tel: +31 26 356 9111

Contact person:

Mr Mohammad Hossain

Registered Arnhem 09080262

Date of issue:

2015-06-05

Project No.:

74107060

Organisation unit:

GTC/GTP

Report No.:

15-1414, deliverable 6

Prepared by:

Verified by:

Approved by:

K. Agema

A. Braam

R. Meijer

H. Bresser

J. Fricke
Unrestricted distribution (internal and external)
Unrestricted distribution within DNV GL
Limited distribution within DNV GL after 3 years
No distribution (confidential)
Secret
Reference to part of this report which may lead to misinterpretation is not permissible.
Rev. No. Date

Reason for Issue

Prepared by

Verified by

Approved by

First issue

K. Agema

A. Braam

R. Meijer

2015-06-05

H. Bresser
J. Fricke
2015

KEMA Nederland B.V.

Table of contents
1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..................................................................................................... 1

INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 3

CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF THE STEAM TURBINE ............................................................ 3

3.1

Overview of the results of the NDT inspection carried out by Power Machine

3.2

Evaluation of the reported results

3.3

Missing information

3.4

Relevance of NDT results to life extension of steam turbine

3.5

Results and conclusions of restricted RLA steam turbine

CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF THE GENERATOR .................................................................. 6

4.1

Findings and results of visual inspection generator

4.2

Review of the replacement works generator

4.3

Stator recommendations

4.4

Rotor recommendations

4.5

Results and conclusions RLA generator

CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF THE AUXILIARIES ................................................................. 8

5.1

Findings and results of visual inspection auxiliaries

5.2

Results and conclusions RLA auxiliaries

STEAM TURBINE FOUNDATION UNIT #4 .......................................................................... 10

6.1

Investigation of foundation drawings

10

6.2

Adaption of the foundation

10

6.3

Results and conclusions foundation

11

Appendix A

Overview results of the NDT inspection carried out by Power Machine

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Page i

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Condition Assessment versus restricted RLA


A condition assessment and restricted Residual Life Assessment (RLA) have been carried out on the
steam turbine, generator, auxiliaries and foundations of Unit #4. This condition assessment is supported
by NDT inspections, carried out by OJSC Power Machine, and witnessed and reviewed by DNV GL.
In this report the term restricted RLA or condition assessment will be used because of the following
reasons:

a complete RLA asks for extensive NDT tests and measurements, carried out by our own team. The
NDT inspections, carried out by Power Machine, are geared to operate the steam turbine for 50000
operation hours.

further, to determine if the steam turbine of Unit #4 is fit for repowering an estimation of remaining
life is required by carrying out finite element calculations on the rotor. These finite element
calculations required for RLA is not a part of the project.

This report gives the results of the condition assessment or restricted RLA of the steam turbine,
generator and auxiliaries of Unit #4.

Steam turbine
From the restricted RLA of the steam turbine can be concluded:

the maintenance work on the steam turbine was targeted to ensure that the machine operates
another 50,000 hours smoothly. As per the NDT Inspection by Power Machine, it is confirmed that
this Steam Turbine can operate for 50,000 running hours

after analysing the various tests reports and visual inspections of the inside condition of the machine,
it can be deemed that the Steam Turbine has a longer life and is fit for operation in the intended RePowering Project

however, in order to achieve that, periodic maintenance and major Overhauling as per manufacturer
guideline is required after every 50000 operating hours

as the turbine is aging it is strongly recommended to include life remaining related aspects in the
inspections carried out during the coming overhauls, such as replication of the micro structure of HP
and IP casing, steam cross over pipes and NDT inspection of the centre line bore of the HP and IP
rotors

for a decision if the technical condition of the steam cross over pipes and HP/IP turbine rotors allows
a life extension of an extra 100% in a new set-up the current condition of the relevant components,
the total expected life time and the effect of the foreseen life consumption rate in the new set up has
to be estimated for creep and fatigue by finite element modelling and calculations.

Generator
From the restricted RLA of the generator can be concluded:

end winding vibrations caused by broken bandaging and loose tangential filling blocks will further
increase and the insulation system will thereby further degrade. The water leakages at the stacks
are directly related to vibrations, it is to be expected that water leaks will remain an issue during
future operation

diagnostic measurements, as Partial Discharge, Capacitance & Tangens Delta were not performed.
Due to the absence of this information, input about the condition and ageing of the insulation

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materials is missing. As a consequence, it is not possible to determine the remaining life time of the
electrical windings

both visual inspections and assessment of the results of the limited performed High Voltage DC
measurements give a consistent view on the condition of the stator winding of the generator. The
condition of the windings can be classified as worse

the generator can only be used for repowering after a complete overhaul, including the stator and
rotor winding renewal and it is proved by adequate tests that the generator is fit for purpose.

Auxiliaries
A visual inspection has been carried out for the following auxiliaries: cooling water filter system; cooling
water pumps; condensate pumps; oil systems and rotor turning gear (RLA was not possible because
manuals, historical data, failure reports and maintenance reports were not present and the installations
were not open):

the cooling water filter system is robust but old. Some wear and tear was detected. This filter system
can be re-used after a refurbishment (a major overhaul with replacement of all wearing parts and
examination of tolerance) or a new filter system may be considered for the intended Re-Powering
Project

the cooling water pumps can be re-used after overhaul and replacement of the wear and tear parts,
if still available. Otherwise it will be necessary to order similar new pumps

depending on the new process situation it can be advisable to install new condensate pumps.
However, according to the process calculations it seems likely that these pumps can be used again
after major overhaul. Frequency control is a good option to install

after extensive cleaning and refurbishment the oil systems (lubrication oil system, seal oil system
and control oil) can be used after repowering. These systems are robust and have proven to be
reliable. To install an automatic detection and fire-fighting system is advisable

the condition of the turning gear is acceptable or even good. In case of re-use or refurbishment of
this steam turbine it is recommended that the rotor turning gear will be refurbished as well or a new
turning gear may be considered for the intended Re-Powering Project.

Foundation

From the investigation of the foundations can be concluded that re-use of the existing steam turbine
with slightly different load is acceptable. However, steam turbine efficiency will be not optimal

if adaption and optimisation is required for the steam turbine it is most probably possible to keep the
existing outer casings of the steam turbine as it is and the inner casings with vanes, vane carriers,
rotor and blades to be build new. In this case no alterations are necessary for the foundation.
Advantage: efficiency of the steam turbine can be optimized

re-use the foundation in case of a complete new steam turbine is expected to be realistic after
redesign and adaptations of the foundation. These adaptions of the foundation table will probably
result in a forced stop period of the adjacent machineries to prevent trips or damages during
operation. Therefore this option is not preferred.

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INTRODUCTION

The Government of Bangladesh has applied for financing from the World Bank toward the cost of
Repowering Ghorashal Unit #4, and intends to apply part of the proceeds for the following: Engineering
Procurement and Construction to convert the single cycle Unit #4 (210 MW Steam Turbine Unit) to
combined cycle power plant at Ghorashal Power Station, BPDB, Narsingdi on Turn-Key basis.
This report gives the results of the condition assessment or restricted RLA of the steam turbine,
generator and auxiliaries of Unit #4.
The report is divided in three parts. First part, the condition assessment and restricted RLA of the steam
turbine; containing an overview of the results of the NDT inspection carried out by Power Machine;
relevance of these NDT results to life extension of the steam turbine; and results and conclusions of
restricted RLA of the steam turbine.
The second part contains: the condition assessment and restricted RLA of the generator; findings and
results of the visual inspection of the generator; review of the replacement works of generator parts;
and results and conclusions of restricted RLA of the generator.
The third part contains: findings and results of the visual inspection of the auxiliaries; and results and
conclusions of restricted RLA of these auxiliaries.

CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF THE STEAM TURBINE

DNV GL was asked to carry out a remaining life assessment on the steam turbine of unit 4. Part of a
remaining life assessment is an assessment of the current condition of the turbine. Early 2015 Power
Machine carried out a standard overhaul of this turbine. During this overhaul DNV GL together with
company DEKRA did a visual inspection of the different turbine components while the turbine was
opened. Visual inspection can only provide a general impression, which in this case appeared to be quite
favourable (refer to report Visual inspection report steam turbine, 15-0672, date 2015-03-11). More
detailed inspections are required to obtain a reliable impression of the current condition of the capital
turbine components which are relevant for a life assessment.
As part of a standard overhaul Power Machine has carried out many NDT inspections. DNV GL was asked
to evaluate the results of the NDT inspections and the measures taken by Power Machine to correct any
unacceptable defects identified that are linked to the remaining life of the turbine. DNV GL likes to
underline that the overhaul of Power Machine was never intended to be part of a remaining life
assessment for another 20 years. The acceptance criteria used by Power Machine are intended to
guarantee the equipment for another 50,000 operating hours.
The evaluation is purely based on the English translations provided by Power Machine as part of their
NDT reports.

3.1 Overview of the results of the NDT inspection carried out by


Power Machine
A summary of the results of the inspection reports provided by Power Machine are listed in Appendix I
per component according their position in the steam path.

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3.2 Evaluation of the reported results


The reported amount of repairs and rejected components is low for a steam turbine which has not been
overhauled since 20 years. This is in line with the favourable results of the visual inspection. The
cracking noted at the casings of the HP and IP turbine and even the replacement of the first and second
stage rotor blades in the HP turbine can be seen as usual wear and tear for a steam turbine after 25
years. Similarly the erosion damage noted on the last stage rotor blades of the LP turbine is more or less
common to steam turbines.
The reason for the replacements according to contract (rotor blades stage 9-11, 13, 15-18, 27, 31) is
not provided in the NDT reports. According to information obtained from the power plant is the
replacement related to a previous accident of axial shift to the rotor which possible blade damage.
The reports on the hardness measurements on the turbine casing and valve casings show a slightly
lower hardness of the material located at the hot side of component compared to the outer surface. This
would suggest a limited decrease of hardness at the hot surface. How this relates to remaining life is not
specified in the provided NDT reports. 10-577-03 Standard manual control and extend the life of
main elements of boilers, turbines and pipelines of thermal power station for instance only specifies that
the hardness of P2MA should be more than 180 HB.

3.3 Missing information


Some relevant information which is listed in the work scope of Power Machine is still missing in the NDT
reports:

no information is provided on the results of dye penetrant NDT inspections carried out on the HP

in the reports no information is presented on the actions taken on the sets of rotor blades which

diaphragm segments, the IP diaphragm segments and the LP diaphragm segments


were not acceptable for service (stage 1 and 2 in HP turbine, stage 25 and rivets of stage 26 and 30
in LP turbine). Inquiries with plant operator revealed that the rivets of stage 26 and 30 are being
exchanged during the current overhaul.

3.4 Relevance of NDT results to life extension of steam turbine


The results of the inspection carried out during the overhaul revealed no indication which would limit the
turbine life to the current 200,000 hours. Based on the results Power Machine states an allowable
additional operating time of 50,000 hours after which the next overhaul must be performed to inspect
the components and to determine the condition of the turbine at that time.
For a decision if the technical condition of the turbine allows a life extension of 100% in a new set-up (as
part of combined cycle in combination with gas turbine for another 200,000 operating hours) the current
condition of the relevant components, the total expected life time and the effect of the foreseen life
consumption rate in the new set up has to be estimated. The most relevant components in terms of
remaining life assessment of the turbine are the HP and IP casings, the HP and IP rotor and the steam
cross over pipes. During service these components suffer from degradation due to creep and fatigue. The
final stage of creep and fatigue is crack initiation, crack growth and fracture. The fact that during the
recent overhaul inspection no relevant defect was noted in the casings and the rotors does not mean
that no degradation has occurred in the material. Some degradation has surely occurred but it is not
visible. Because both creep and fatigue are well investigated degradation phenomena, the level of creep

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and fatigue of used components can be predicted up to reasonable accuracy using general accepted
procedures.
To DEKRAs opinion an estimation of the consumed and remaining creep and fatigue life is required for
the steam cross over pipes and HP/IP rotors, and ideally also for the HP/IP casings. Such estimation
would require finite element modelling and calculation together with information on the standardized
material properties of the rotor material, the relevant dimensions of the rotors and details on the
temperature and load during the total history of the turbine and the expected temperature and load
(cycles) in the new set-up. For a large size turbine casing this procedure is not always carried out due to
the complexity of the design. Common practice is to determine the deformation of the casing (which
over time will become elliptical rather than circular), the level of cracking and the changes to the micro
structure and hardness during subsequent overhauls. For the rotors the estimation of consumed and
remaining life, although complicated, is possible.
Furthermore it is recommended to carry out NDT inspections of the surface of the bore of the HP and IP
rotors during each overhaul to check if any micro defect in the rotor is present and if so, if its size does
extend over time.
The inspections of the steam cross over pipes did not raise immediate concerns. Depending on the
material composition, the temperature and load during service creep is a possible life restricting
degradation mechanism. Regular checks of the hardness, diameter, radius, micro structure, ovality, wall
thickness are required to make sure that they remain healthy. Life consumption estimations of steam
pipes are based on general accepted rules and only if a problem is expected finite element modelling and
calculations are performed.
The rotor blades, diaphragm nozzles and bearings, although their replacement costs might be
considerable, are considered replaceable and remaining life assessments are normally not carried out.
Checking the condition during each overhaul is common practice. The results of the recent overhaul do
not raise concern for these components.

3.5 Results and conclusions of restricted RLA steam turbine


The maintenance work on the steam turbine of Unit 4, carried out by Power Machine, was targeted to
ensure that the machine operates another 50,000 hours smoothly. As per the NDT Inspection by Power
Machine, it is confirmed that this Steam Turbine can operate for 50,000 running hours without any
concern. After analysing the various tests reports and visual inspections of the inside condition of the
machine, it can be deemed that this Steam Turbine has a longer life and is fit for operation in the
intended Re-Powering Project.
However, in order to achieve that, periodic maintenance and major Overhauling as per manufacturer
guideline is required after every 50000 operating hours. The current unit has run for 25 years without
any maintenance in the last 15 years. Periodic maintenance from now on will improve the operability of
the machine.
Further, as the turbine is aging it is strongly recommended to include life remaining related aspects in
the inspections carried out during the coming overhauls, such as replication of the micro structure of HP
and IP casing, steam cross over pipes and NDT inspection of the centre line bore of the HP and IP rotors.

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For a decision if the technical condition of the steam cross over pipes and HP/IP turbine rotors allows a
life extension of an extra 100% in a new set-up the current condition of the relevant components, the
total expected life time and the effect of the foreseen life consumption rate in the new set up has to be
estimated for creep and fatigue by finite element modelling and calculations.

CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF THE GENERATOR

Part of the remaining life assessment is an assessment of the current condition of the Generator. Early
2015 BPDB experts carried out a major overhaul of the generator. During this overhaul DNV GL did a
visual inspection of the different generator components while the generator was opened.
As part of a scope of work several electrical measurements were carried out by BPDB experts. DNV GL
was asked to witness and evaluate the electrical measurements taken by BPDB. During the first High
Voltage DC measurement an earth fault was detected at phase A of the stator winding. The subsequent
measurements were cancelled. The results of the electrical measurements, after the repair of the stator
bars have not been made available by BPDB. Therefore, review of the diagnose measurements will be
carried out when they have been submitted to DNV GL.

4.1 Findings and results of visual inspection generator


The generator end windings are contaminated with brown residue. This brown residue is a mixture of
dust and oil. The dust is caused by the wear of the end winding insulation, blocking and bandage
material, due to end winding movement; the oil contamination originates from the seal rings that are
end cover (shield) mounted. At the bottom inside the stator housing, a pool of oil is visible. At driven end
(DE) 30% of the end winding bandages are damaged or broken and at the non-driven end (NDE) 20% of
the bandages are damaged. 50% of the tangential stator bar filling blocks of the DE end windings are
loose, and 25% of the filling bars at the NDE are loose. No traces of partial discharges between the bars
in the winding overhang region are visible. There are no indications found for local overheating (hot
spots) on the surface of the generator bars.
Access to the stator bars was limited to a boroscopic inspection through the ventilation ducts.
Approximately 30% of the core ventilation ducts have been inspected for dust, contamination and signs
of partial discharges. In some of the core ventilation ducts, black residue was visible. Further a small
amount of oil contamination was found.
The stator bars are directly water-cooled, by an insulated cooling system. The stator bars are connected
to the manifold rings by means of Teflon hoses. In the past water leaks at the water stacks frequently
occurred. These were repaired by BPDB experts by means of blocking the water ducts in the stator bars.
During the inspection all water stacks were covered by a plastic cover and insulation material, therefore
a detailed visual inspection was not possible.
All stator wedges tested by tapping, and visual inspection. Results of the tapping test: 6% are loose, and
25% are starting to loosen; visually no wedges are loose.
None of the six flexible copper connections between the end winding collection rings and the bushings
are visually damaged. A little amount of ambient dust is found in the connection box and the neutral
terminal box.

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The retaining rings were mounted on the rotor body, so only a limited access visual inspection with video
boroscope was carried out. The field windings are contaminated by dust and oil. Insulation resistance of
the rotor is 15 M / 500 V, which is as might be expected. The balancing weights are still at original
position, all fan blades were dismounted.
Both slip rings do not show visual damage. The journals do not show signs of sparking or flashover. All
brush holders and brush springs are visually in a good condition. The slip ring housing is contaminated
by carbon brush dust, the interior of the slip ring housing shows no damage.
Both water coolers were dismounted. No indications for leakage are found, the water inlets are slightly
contaminated, and the gas side cooling surface is clean and without indications.

4.2 Review of the replacement works generator


To reuse this generator for the repowering project, a complete overhaul is necessary, including:

stator rewind, either with reused stator bars after insulation replacement or new stator bars

rotor rewind, either with reuse of existing copper or using new bars, the complete insulation and
blocking shall be replaced

rotor overhaul; if proved that these are completely fit for purpose (non-destructive testing), the
retaining rings can be reused

up gradation or replace of excitation system, protection system and Hydrogen systems.

4.3 Stator recommendations


Rewind the complete stator, only components and subassemblies (e.g. stator core, stator bars) which
are in an appropriate condition can be reused.
Concise scope of work, please note that this is only an indication and not a complete list:

disconnect all electrical connection at the stator bars

remove all wedges, blocking, binding ropes and filling blocks

remove all the upper and lower stator bars

clean the stator core and ventilation ducts

visual inspection of the stator surface at the slot section and the overhang section

perform a full flux test on the stator core

perform electrical measurements of each individual stator bar

perform visual inspection and NDT of the water stacks and water-cooling system

reuse the stator bars when they are in a good condition (i.e. no blocked water ducts, no shorts
between conductors and acceptable results of dielectric measurements)

replace the stator bars which are rejected by new stator bars

rebuild the stator winding with new insulation and support materials

perform visual inspection and NDT of the water stacks and the water-cooling system

renew the Teflon tubes between the manifold rings and the stator bars

perform an adequate set of electrical DC and AC measurements during and after rewinding

perform a full flux test after rewinding

perform a bump test after completely finishing the rewind(incl. curing the insulation in end windings).

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4.4 Rotor recommendations


Rewinding of the rotor with new rotor windings or re-insulation of the existing windings is recommended.
Only components and subassemblies which are in an adequate condition shall be reused.
Concise scope of work, please note that this is only an indication and not a complete list:

verify bearing and seal ring journals for run out and hardness

remove the retaining rings

NDT check of the retaining rings and the retaining ring supports on the rotor core

remove the support blocks and retaining ring insulation

remove rotor copper for cleaning and visual inspection

NDT of the rotor wedges

rebuild the rotor winding with new insulation materials and the new filling blocks

reuse the retaining rings in case they are in a good condition

verify slip rings and polish or replace by new slip rings

perform an adequate set of electrical measurements during and after rewinding

high-speed balancing and over speed test, also electrical measurements must be performed during
balancing.

4.5 Results and conclusions RLA generator


The detected brown residue is a mixture of dust of insulation, blocking and bandaging material and oil.
The dust is caused by vibrations of the winding heads. The amount of residue masks any traces of
surface discharges in the end windings.
As a result of the broken bandaging and loose tangential filling blocks, both end winding fixations have
entirely lost their mechanical strength. Thus the end winding vibrations caused by the mechanical and
magnetic forces will further increase. The insulation system will thereby further degrade. Besides the
water leakages at the stacks are directly related to vibrations, therefore it is to be expected that water
leaks will remain an issue during future operation.
Diagnostic measurements, as Partial Discharge, Capacitance & Tangens Delta were not performed during
our visit, and have not been performed in the past. Due to the absence of this information, the input
about the condition and ageing of the insulation materials is missing. As a consequence, it is not possible
to determine the remaining life time of the electrical windings.
Both visual inspections and assessment of the results of the limited performed High Voltage DC
measurements give a consistent view on the condition of the stator winding of the generator. The
condition of the windings can be classified as worse.
The generator can only be used for repowering after a complete overhaul, including the stator and rotor
winding renewal and it is proved by adequate tests that the generator is fit for purpose.

CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF THE AUXILIARIES

This chapter shows the findings and results of the condition assessment / restricted RLA of several
auxiliaries of Ghorasal Power Plant Unit #4.

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5.1 Findings and results of visual inspection auxiliaries


An inspection has been carried out for the following auxiliaries:

cooling water filter system

cooling water pumps

condensate pumps

oil systems and

rotor turning gear.

These auxiliaries have been visually inspected by a DNV GL mechanical and electrical expert. A
Remaining Lifetime Assessment (RLA) was not possible because manuals, historical data, failure reports
and maintenance reports were not present.
For the inspection of the auxiliaries the following actions were required:

equipment opened, cleaned and all parts directly available around

handbooks and manuals as well as maintenance instructions present

maintenance records, maintenance costs and special events

process information available from at least last (two) years

responsible maintenance staff present, English speaking.

The mentioned equipment was out of operation but not opened. All auxiliaries were still completely
mounted except the turning gear. Handbooks and manuals were not available. No historical maintenance
reports were available. Due to the complete manual operation and control of the installation no data
acquisition system is available and there was only limited process information available. Responsible
maintenance staff was present and interviews were done in good cooperation.

5.2 Results and conclusions RLA auxiliaries


As already explained in the former paragraph a complete RLA was not possible. From the visual
inspection the following can be concluded:
The existing cooling water filter system is robust but old. It is not a very complicated system. Some wear
and tear was detected. DNV GL suggests re-using this filter system when Unit #4 will be repowered. A
refurbishment (a major overhaul with replacement of all wearing parts and examination of tolerance) is
necessary or a new setup may be considered for the intended Re-Powering Project.
The existing cooling water pumps can be re-used when Unit #4 will be repowered then it is
recommended to overhaul the cooling water pumps. If wear parts and other replacements are not
available anymore it is necessary to order similar new pumps.
Depending on the new process situation it can be advisable to install new condensate pumps. However,
according the process calculations made during the feasibility study it seems likely that these pumps can
be used again after major overhaul. One electric motor of the condensate pumps was renewed; one
already overhauled and the third one has to be overhauled. May be frequency control is a good option to
install, depending the progress during process calculations and refurbishment.
After extensive cleaning and refurbishment the existing oil systems (lubrication oil system, seal oil
system and control oil) can be used after repowering. These systems are robust and have proven to be
reliable. To install an automatic detection and fire-fighting system is advisable.
The condition of the turning gear is acceptable or even good. This part of the steam turbine installation
looks not pretty at the outside but that is just the painting layer with dirt. The main components on the

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inside looks very solid and in a good condition. In case of re-use or refurbishment of this steam turbine it
is recommended that the rotor turning gear will be refurbished as well or a new setup may be considered
for the intended Re-Powering Project.

STEAM TURBINE FOUNDATION UNIT #4

6.1 Investigation of foundation drawings


A search has been carried out to investigate if the current foundation of the steam turbine of unit #4 is
suited for re-use of the existing steam turbine with slightly different loads or suited for a new steam
turbine.
For this investigation DNV GL received 25 drawings of the existing steam turbine foundation of Unit #4.
The drawings are made available by jpg-files, number 5214 up to and included 5238 and a hard copy
has been received as well. Many of these drawings contain detail information which may be interesting
for the supplier of a new steam turbine. However, this package of drawings was without any overview
drawings or any description. For this search these detail drawings go far above the purpose as agreed
upon for this investigation.
With the received information it is about possible to build a model to do stationary and dynamic
calculations if necessary. Because it is a must to know the dimensions, weights and operation behaviour
of a possible new steam turbine it is now not recommended to do that kind of calculations.
As far as indicated the existing steam turbine will be re-used again and the foundation is built for this
turbine. It is a stiff foundation; no spring packs are detected to buff vibrations. After an inspection tour
during our visit in February 2015 DNV GL concluded that so far as the foundation could be inspected it
looked well. No (severe) cracks or other ruptures have been found. It must be noted that inspection was
quite difficult due to the major overhaul carried out by Power Machine and the inaccessibility caused by
piping and installed equipment around the foundation. Consultation with operators pointed out that no
trouble regarding the foundation occurred ever, no problems with vibrations et cetera.

6.2 Adaption of the foundation


From the visual inspection and the drawings it is obvious that the foundation is a very robust and rigid
design. Probably no or only static calculations are made during the design period. There shall be a lot of
reserve regarding the loads, torques and vibrations expected for this steam turbine. Re-use of the
existing steam turbine at this foundation is possible without hesitation. The foundation points do not
change and reinforcement is provided already during the original design. The weight and power in the
new situation shall not differ much so no problems are expected in this area.
Nowadays it is possible to update the inner parts (casings, blades, vanes etc.) of the existing steam
turbine (steam path) completely. The outer casings can be re-used just as the supporting points while
the steam turbine is adapted for the new situation. Recently this is done for a repowering project in the
Netherlands.
If another, new designed steam turbine will be used not only calculations have to be made to be sure
that this foundation after adaption is acceptable for that new turbine (i.e. own frequency analysis).
Adaptations are possibly needed which means demolishing of a smaller part of the foundation and/or

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filling up with concrete fixed with bars and rods. The steam turbine shall be a bit smaller (less power to
produce) so the weight shall not be the primarily problem. Some supports of the rotor shall have another
position and this has to be built in and anchored in the existing foundation table. How much and to what
extend can only be indicated when the new size and design of the steam turbine is known.
In the most extreme situation the table of the foundation has to be demolished and made according a
new design. Re-use of the supporting legs or piles is recommended.
The present foundation is very rigid and robust design and the piles, if not in the optimal position, can be
connected by the new turbine table. After the design a thorough check has to be done not only for the
static loads but certainly for the dynamic load situation.
All adaption work at the foundation can be carried out by heavy machines (mechanical pickaxes,
jackhammers or machine mounted breakers for instance). Demolishing can sometimes be done partly by
"guided" explosions but it is possible that the concrete is so hard with a lot of reinforcement that this is
not possible without damaging other parts.
It is not known how the situation in the ground is, if piling is used and / or a concrete rigid block but
during demolishing activities it will be very difficult to operate the other units due to vibrations. May be
the works can be done making use of high pressure water (1000-3000 bar). This blow out the concrete
and will leave the steel parts untouched and can be done relative quietly without disturbance of the units
in the neighbourhood.
If adaption needs to be done it is important to realize that in the foundation asbestos piping is
incorporated for several penetrations. If these are part of the changes the removal/adaption work should
be done with care!

6.3 Results and conclusions foundation


Foundation re-use for the existing steam turbine with slightly different (lower) load is acceptable and the
cheapest solution. However, steam turbine efficiency will be not optimal.
If adaption and optimisation is required for the steam turbine it is most probably possible to keep the
existing outer casings of the steam turbine as it is and the inner casings with vanes, vane carriers, rotor
and blades to be build new. In this case no alterations are necessary for the foundation only control
calculations are advisable. Efficiency of the steam turbine can be optimized.
Re-use the foundation in case of a complete new steam turbine is expected to be realistic after redesign
and adaptations of the foundation, but this is the most radical solution. Adaptions of the foundation table
will probably result in a forced stop period of the adjacent machineries to prevent trips or damages
during operation. Therefore this option is not preferred.

DNV GL - Energy Report No. 15-1414, deliverable 6 www.dnvgl.com/energy

Page 11

APPENDIX A
Overview results of the NDT inspection carried out by Power
Machine
Component: Stop valve HP turbine
Item:

stop valve casing

result inspection:
type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:
Item:

no indications
visual

report no. 17

no indications
dye penetrant

report no. 18

material condition stop valve body HPC

result inspection:
type inspection:

acceptable
hardness measurements

report no. 19

Component: Steam cross over pipes HP turbine


Item:

steam cross over pipes upper halve

result inspection:
type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:
Item:

no indications
visual

report no. 70

no indications
dye penetrant

report no. 70

no indications
ultrasonic

report no.70

welding steam pipes upper halve

result inspection:
type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:

no indications
visual

report no.72

no indications
ultrasonic

report no.72

acceptable
hardness measurements

report no. 72

Component: Control valve HP turbine


Item:

regulating valve casing

result inspection:

casting defects box 4

type inspection:

visual

action taken:

removed by grinding

result after:

no indications

result inspection:

no indications

type inspection:

report no. 20

report no. 21

dye penetrant

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A-1

Item:

material condition stop valve body HPC

result inspection:
type inspection:
Item:

report no. 22

acceptable; apparent limited decrease of hardness at inner surface


hardness measurements

studs and nuts

result inspection:
type of inspection:
result inspection:
type of inspection:
result inspection:
type of inspection:

acceptable
visual

report no. 35

acceptable
hardness measurements

report no. 36

acceptable
ultrasonic inspection of studs

report no. 37

Component: HP turbine casing


Item:

outer surface casing

result inspection:
type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:
Item:

visual

report no. 11

no indications
dye penetrant

report no.12

nozzle box

result inspection:
type inspection:
Item:

no indications

no indications
visual

report no. 76

inner surface casing

result inspection:

material missing up to 22 mm depth at 12 locations

type inspection:

visual

action taken:

repair by welding without additional heat treatment

result after:

no indications

result inspection

report no. 11

7 cracks up to 140 mm

type inspection:

dye penetrant

report no.12

action taken:

all crack removed by grinding; 5 welded (if depth>15% wall thickness)


without additional heat treatment

result after:
Item:

no indications

material condition casing

result inspection:
type inspection:

acceptable; apparent limited decrease of hardness at inner surface


hardness measurements

report no. 13

Component: HP rotor

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A-2

Item:

outer surface rotor

result inspection:

no relevant defects

type inspection:

visual

report no. 43

inspected parts:

seals, fillet, combs, blade discs discharge openings, holes for stud
bolts coupling

result inspection:

no defects

type inspection:

dye penetrant

report no. 44

inspected parts:

fillet discs, blade discs discharge openings, holes for stud bolts
coupling

result inspection:

no defects

type inspection:

ultrasonic

inspected parts:

rim, combs, discharge openings, fillets, holes for stud bolts, T-slots

result inspection:

report no. 45

accepted

type inspection:

hardness measurements

inspected parts:

ends of rotor, disc stage no. 1 both sides

report no. 46

Component: HP nozzle segments


result inspection:
type inspection:

accepted after removing limited impact damage


visual inspection

report no. 63

Component: HP rotor blades


result inspection:

stage 1&2 replace; stage 3-8 accepted; stage 9-11 replace according
to contract; stage 12 accepted

type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:

visual

report no. 47

stage 3-8 and 12 accepted


dye penetrant

report no. 48

Component: nuts and studs HP turbine


Item:

outer surface and thread

result inspection:
type inspection:

visual

action taken:

tears removed by mechanical means

result inspection:
type inspection:
Item:

tears in thread for 5 studs; 4 nuts replaced


report no 29

acceptable
ultrasonic inspection

report no. 31

material condition nuts and studs

result inspection:
type inspection:

acceptable
hardness measurements

report no. 30

Component: Stop valve IP turbine

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A-3

Item:

stop valve casing

result inspection:
type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:
Item:

visual

report no. 23

no indications
dye penetrant

report no. 24

material condition stop valve casing

result inspection:
type inspection:
Item:

no indications

acceptable
hardness measurements

report no. 41

studs and nuts

result inspection:
type of inspection:
result inspection:
type of inspection:
result inspection:
type of inspection:

acceptable
visual

report no. 38

acceptable
ultrasonic of studs

report no. 40

acceptable
hardness measurements

report no. 39

Component: Steam cross over pipes IP turbine


Item:

steam cross over pipes upper halve

result inspection:
type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:
Item:

no indications
visual

report no. 71

no indications
dye penetrant

report no. 71

no indications
ultrasonic

report no.71

welding steam pipes upper halve

result inspection:
type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:

no indications
visual

report no.73

no indications
ultrasonic

report no.73

acceptable
hardness measurements

report no. 73

Component: Control valve IP turbine


Item:

regulating valve casings

result inspection:

no indications

type inspection:

visual

action taken:

removed by grinding

DNV GL - Energy Report No. 15-1414, deliverable 6, www.dnvgl.com/energy

report no. 26

A-4

result after:
result inspection:

Item:

5 cracks up to 55 mm outer surface casing #1

type inspection:

dye penetrant

action taken:

removed by grinding, welded without additional heat treatment

result after:

no indications

material condition stop valve casing

result inspection:
type inspection:
Item:

no indications
report no. 27

report no. 28

acceptable
hardness measurements

studs and nuts of valve 1 & 21

result inspection:
type of inspection:
result inspection:
type of inspection:
result inspection:
type of inspection:

acceptable
visual

report no. 38

acceptable
ultrasonic of studs

report no. 40

acceptable
hardness measurements

report no. 39

Component: IP turbine
Item:

outer surface casing

result inspection:
type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:
Item:

no indications
visual

report no. 14

no indications
dye penetrant

report no. 15

inner surface casing

result inspection:

material missing up to 10 mm depth at 8 locations

type inspection:

visual

action taken:

repair by welding without additional heat treatment

result after:

no indications

result inspection

report no. 14

4 cracks up to 170 mm

type inspection:

dye penetrant

report no. 15

action taken:

all cracks removed by grinding; 3 welded (if depth>15% wall


thickness) without additional heat treatment

result after:
Item:

material condition casing

result inspection:
type inspection:

no indications

acceptable
hardness measurements

report no.16

studs and nuts of IP regulator valve 3 and 4 apparently not accessible during the overhaul.

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Component: IP rotor
Item:

outer surface rotor

result inspection:

no relevant defects

type inspection:

visual

report no. 50

inspected parts:

fillet, blade discs discharge openings, holes for stud bolts couplings,
rivet area

result inspection:

no defects

type inspection:

dye penetrant

report no. 51

inspected parts:

fillet discs, blade discs discharge openings, holes for stud bolts
couplings, rivet area

result inspection:

no defects

type inspection:

ultrasonic

report no. 52

inspected parts:

rim, combs, discharge openings, fillets, holes for stud bolts, T-slots,
rivet holes

result inspection:

acceptable

type inspection:

hardness measurements

inspected parts:

ends of rotor, disc stage no. 13 both sides

report no. 532

Component: IP nozzle segments


result inspection:
type inspection:

accepted
visual inspection

report no. 64

Component: IP rotor blades


result inspection:

stage 13 & 15-18 replace according to contract; stage 14 &19-23


accepted

type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:

visual

report no. 54

accepted
dye penetrant

report no. 553

Component: LP rotor
Item:

outer surface rotor

result inspection:
type inspection:

visual

inspected parts:

fillet, rim, combs, holes for stud bolts coupling, rivet area

result inspection:

report no. 57

no defects

type inspection:

dye penetrant

inspected parts:

fillet discs, holes for stud bolts couplings, rivet area

result inspection:
2

no defects

report no. 58

no defects

minor mistakes in calculation of average values were noted


another report no. 55 was delivered as results of visual inspection of IPR with similar results as report no. 54

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type inspection:

ultrasonic

report no. 59

inspected parts:

rim, combs, fillets, holes for stud bolts, rivet holes

Component: LP nozzle segments


result inspection:
type inspection:

accepted
visual inspection

report no. 64

Component: LP rotor blades


result inspection:

stage 27&31 replace according to contract; stage 24, 25, 26 & 28, 29,
30 accepted, rivets stage 26&30 not acceptable, stage 25 rejected due
to missing tips two opposite blades (cut off)

type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:

visual

report no. 61

stage 24, 26, 28-30 accepted


dye penetrant

report no. 62

Components: Bearings
result inspection:
type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:
result inspection:
type inspection:
action suggested:

scratches, worn out in single position


visual

report no. 25

detachments noted
dye penetrant

report no. 25

detachments noted
ultrasonic

report no. 25

maintenance required for 5 out of 7 bearings

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