0 Votos favoráveis0 Votos desfavoráveis

615 visualizações19 páginasOhio State Engineering Lab Report about measuring the speed of traffic flow to determine the safety of the given area.

Oct 21, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

DOCX, PDF, TXT ou leia online no Scribd

Ohio State Engineering Lab Report about measuring the speed of traffic flow to determine the safety of the given area.

© All Rights Reserved

615 visualizações

Ohio State Engineering Lab Report about measuring the speed of traffic flow to determine the safety of the given area.

© All Rights Reserved

- Manhattan Beach: A Novel
- Grave Descend: An Early Thriller
- The Day the World Came to Town: 9/11 in Gander, Newfoundland
- Life of Pi
- The Law of Empowerment: Lesson 12 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- The Clifton Chronicles
- Island of the Lost: An Extraordinary Story of Survival at the Edge of the World
- The Sins of the Father
- The Other Miss Bridgerton: A Bridgertons Prequel
- A Jazzi Zanders Mystery
- Indianapolis: The True Story of the Worst Sea Disaster in U.S. Naval History and the Fifty-Year Fight to Exonerate an Innocent Man
- Pirate Latitudes: A Novel
- Havana Storm: A Dirk Pitt Novel
- Dark Star Safari: Overland from Cairo to Capetown
- Over the Edge of the World
- Incredible Victory: The Battle of Midway
- Hornet Flight
- The Moscow Offensive: A Novel

Você está na página 1de 19

Engineering 1281H

Autumn, 2015

Sam Rankin, Seat 17

Casey Schomer, Seat 7

Zarius Shroff, Seat 11

B. Rice

Thursday 8:00 AM

Date of Submission: 09/24/15

1. Introduction

Any university must address the inherent issue of traffic flow. It is necessary for every

university to provide routes for students, staff, and guests that is not only both efficient and safe, but

also cost-effective. According to the Spot Speed Study Write-Up, The Ohio State University [had]

received complaints from several pedestrians walking on stretches of Woody Hayes Drive and

Olentangy River Road [concerning] the speed of traffic in these areas [2]. Therefore, the purpose of

this experiment was to use a spot speed study to measure the speed of traffic flowing through these

areas, then make a recommendation on whether or not additional safety precautions are necessary.

Section 2 of this report covers the methods used to carry out the experiment. This includes the

equipment used, the setup down prior to testing, and actual procedure of the experiment. Section 3

provides all of the data gathered during the experiment and statistical analyses and representations of it.

Section 4 discusses the significance of this data in the context of this spot speed study. Finally, Section

5 summarizes the results of the experiment and provides conclusive statements to address the problem

presented above.

2. Experimental Methodology

2.1.

Equipment

To measure the speed of the cars, only a stopwatch and pre-marked lines of orange paint spaced

176 ft. apart on Olentangy River Road were used. The data were then recorded on the Spot Speed

Study Field Sheet, shown in Appendix A.

2.2.

Setup

D2

Prior to the experiment, a 176 ft. interval was marked with orange paint at Location I as shown

in Figure 1 below. As indicated by the figure, the speed limit at Location I is 35 mph. As additional

precautions, all data were taken from a safe distance away from the road, all traffic laws concerning

pedestrians were obeyed, and the experiment was designed so as to not disrupt the drivers of the cars

going past.

Also, each team member was assigned a role for the experiment, as described in Table 1 on the

following page. Once roles were assigned, the group decided on a hand signal that the Flagger could

use to indicate to the timer when a car entered the measurement range (described in Section 2.3

Experimental Processes, on next page).

D2

Member Role

Description

Recorder

corresponds to the time determined by the timer.

Flagger

marker.

Timer

from the flagger and stop the stopwatch when the

vehicle passes the second marker.

Safety Engineer

road.

2.3.

Exp

e

ri

m

ental Processes

Upon arriving at the location, the weather and road conditions, location, time, and posted speed

limit were all documented on the field sheet. At location I, the Flagger stood at the beginning of the

speed trap (on the South side of Figure 1), while the Timer and Recorder stood at the end of the speed

trap (on the North side of Figure 1). The Safety Engineer moved between these two positions, often

staying in the middle between them.

As per the agreed-upon signal, as a car approached the speed trap, the Flagger raised one arm

straight into the air, signaling the Timer to be ready to start the stopwatch. Then, precisely when the car

front edge passed the first orange line, the Flaggers arm was brought swiftly back down to their side.

When this happened, the Timer started the stopwatch. If there was a group of cars close together, the

signal always referred to the car that was leading as it passed the Flagger. When the car passed the

second orange line, 176 ft. down the road, the Timer stopped the stopwatch. The reading on the stop

watch was told to the Recorder, then documented in the appropriate bin of the field sheet. This process

was repeated as often as possible for roughly 30 minutes.

D2

Testing began at 8:45 AM on September 3, 2015 with sunny weather and dry road conditions. A

total of 64 cars were measured during the time interval. The speed each was travelling (shown below in

Table 2) was determined by the time it took for each to pass through the speed trap and the conversions

listed on the Spot Speed Study Field Sheet (Appendix B). Also shown is the frequency of each speed

group as a percentage of all the cars measured, as well as the cumulative percent frequency, which

represents the sum of all cars up to and including that speed group. Because the data produced a

bimodal distribution that was not representative of the situation, the size of the speed groups was

extended to span 4 mph, rather than the original 2 mile-per-hour bins.

Speed

(mph)

28-32

32-36

36-40

40-44

44-48

48-52

52-56

Total

Frequen

cy

2

6

27

15

10

2

2

64

Percent

Frequency

3.13%

9.38%

42.19%

23.44%

15.63%

3.13%

3.13%

100.00%

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

3.13%

12.50%

54.69%

78.13%

93.75%

96.88%

100.00%

100.00%

D2

These data were then plotted on two graphs with same x-axis; one shows the percent frequency

of cars travelling at a particular speed (a), while the other shows the cumulative percent frequency of

these same cars (b) (See Appendix B). On graph (a), where frequencies represent a single value for

speed, data was plotted according to the middle value of each speed range because this was the point

that best represented each range (e.g. the 28-32 mph range was plotted as 30 mph). Meanwhile, graph

(b) represents data up to and including each speed group, and so its values were plotted according to

the top value of each speed range (e.g. the 28-32 mph range was plotted as 32 mph).

Using these graphs, 6 significant values about the data were approximated. This information, as

well as the average speed of the cars and the calculated and estimated standard deviation is summarized

in Table 3, printed below.

Graphical Approximations

Calculations

Data Point

Value

Data Point

Value

Mode

39 mph

Average Speed

40.44 mph

34.5-44.5 mph

Estimated

Standard

Deviation

4.00 mph

15th Percentile

Speed

37 mph

Calculated

Standard

Deviation

4.88 mph

85th Percentile

Speed

45 mph

---

---

50th Percentile

Speed

40 mph

---

---

Percent of

vehicles in Pace

73%

---

---

10 mph Pace

D2

From graph (a) the modal speed of traffic can be seen, as it was the point which corresponded

to the highest percent frequency. Also determined from graph (a) was the overall pace of the cars, i.e.

the 10 mph range at which the most cars were driving. To find this, 10 mph (as per the x-axis of the

graph) were marked on a straight edge, which was then moved down from the top of the curve to find

the point where the left and right sides of the curve were 10 mph apart. To signify pace on the graphs,

these points were marked, and vertical lines drawn through across the entire figurebecause the two

graphs use the same x-axis, the pace can be marked the same on both of them.

Using graph (b), the 15th and 85th percentiles were determined by finding the speed value that

reached 15% and 85% on the cumulative frequency curve, respectively (shown by solid lines at these

values. Similarly, the 50th percentile (which was also the median) corresponded to the speed value that

reached 50% on the curve. Finally, graph (b) was used to find the percent of cars travelling within the

pace. To find this value, we subtracted the value where the lower bound of the pace meets the

cumulative curve (9%) from the value where the upper bound of the pace meets the cumulative curve

(82%).

D2

Illustrated by Equation 1 below, the average speed was found by dividing the sum of all of the

cars speeds by the total number of cars. The standard deviation was first estimated by dividing the

difference between the 85th percentile and the 15th percentile by 2 (Equation 2 on next page), and then

calculated using the accepted standard deviation equation for a sample of a population, shown in

Equation 3 on the next page. Sample calculations for each of these equations can be found in Appendix

C.

(ns)

c

P85P 15

S est =

2

x=

( x ix )

S=

c1

(1)

(2)

(3)

4. Discussion

Central tendency is the tendency of samples of a given measurement to cluster around some

central value [3]. By observing the percent frequency curve, it can be noted that the data was clustered

around the modal value of 39 miles per hour. By definition, this meant the data exhibited central

tendency [3]. Meanwhile, the dispersion around this central point was fairly small. This was because

the standard deviation of 4.88 mph was only 20% of the entire range (24 mph). If there standard

deviation were higher, it would suggest the data were further spread out from the mean, and therefore

that the dispersion was higher. The low dispersion was further evidenced by the fact that the percent of

vehicles in the pace was 73%, i.e. the majority of the cars were travelling around the same speed.

These data, focused around 39 mph, suggested that the general flow of traffic exceeded the

posted speed limit of 35 mph. However, according to the Ohio Department of Public Safety Motor

Vehicle Laws, in 35 mph zones, travelling at less than 5 mph over the speed limit is considered a

D2

minor speed infraction [4]. Therefore, with 40 mph being both 5 mph over the speed limit and the

median of the data, 50% of measured drivers were either obeying the posted speed limit or only

committing a minor speed infraction. It follows that 50% of measured drivers were committing a major

speed infraction. This data agreed with studies done by the National Highway Traffic Safety

Administration, which found that 40% of drivers admitted to sometimes speeding, while 30% of drivers

admitted to regularly speeding [5].

The measured data referred specifically to traffic flow at this particular location, at this

particular time of day and day of the week, and at this time of year. If any of these factors were

changed, the results could be affected. For example, a study done in the middle of the night, when there

are many fewer cars on the road, might find that cars travel much faster than measured here. Or, a study

done at midday on an autumn Saturday in Columbus could find that cars move well below the speed

limit due to the sheer number of cars on the road. Meanwhile, there were several sources of error

inherent in our experimental design. For instance, the use of the Flagger-to-Timer hand signals caused a

delay in timing due to response time that systematically lowered all values for time, increasing all

values for speed. Also, due to the close proximity of the cars (and an inability to time more than one car

at a time) it was impossible to record the speed of every single car. This created random variance in our

data, potentially skewing it in one direction or another, or changing the dispersion, as some of the cars

that went past without being measured were travelling at any of the various speeds represented.

The experiment aimed to measure the follow of traffic on a particular section of Olentangy

River Road, then recommend whether or not the area needed more safety precautions. It found that

drivers on Olentangy River Road around 8:30 AM on a sunny and dry weekday tend to drive from

D2

about 34.4 mph to 44.4 mph where the speed limit is 35 mph. More drivers travelled at 39 mph than

any other speed, though the average speed of all of the cars was 40.44 mph. Furthermore, roughly half

of the measured drivers in these conditions drive significantly faster than the posted speed limit. In

finding these results, the experiment succeeded in measuring the speed of traffic flow in this area.

Given the data, the complaints from pedestrians seem justifiedmany drivers are, in fact, driving well

above the speed limit.

If the experiment were repeated, it could be improved in several ways to increase the overall

accuracy of the data. In order to outweigh the effects of reaction time on the Timers actions, the length

of the speed trap should be increased. Using a larger distance would create larger values for time,

which would then be less susceptible to error due to reaction time, but doing so increases the chance

that cars might change speed within this range. In order to measure more of the cars going past, the

experiment could be done with two Flagger-Timer pairs, perhaps measuring the speed of cars in

different lanes, or simply measuring the first and second cars within every cluster of cars going past,

rather than just the first. Doing so would increase the accuracy of the results by excluding fewer data

points. Also, while it is impossible to remove human error from this experiment, if the experiment were

performed for a longer period of time (e.g. if cars were measured for 60 minutes or more rather than

just 30 minutes) and therefore if a larger number of data points was obtained, the random errors would

become less significant, increasing the experiments accuracy.

If the university provided $300 in funding, it is recommended that that money be spent on radar

guns (an individual radar gun suitable for this experiment can cost around $95, therefore 3 radar guns

could be purchased) [6]. These radar guns could entirely eliminate the need for a separate Flagger and

Timer, thereby reducing the possibility for human error significantly. They would also increase the

possibility of measuring more of the cars within a given time frame as we would no longer be restricted

to measuring only the first car within a group of cars. Moving forward, it is recommended that a study

D2

be done to determine what safety precautions would be most effective and cost-efficient at protecting

pedestrians in this area.

D2

References

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

http://publicsafety.ohio.gov/links/hsy7607.pdf.

[5]

http://www.nhtsa.gov/About+NHTSA/Press+Releases/NHTSA+Finds+Nearly+Half+of+All+D

rivers+Believe+Speeding+is+a+Problem+on+U.S.+Roads.

[6]

APPENDIX A

Spot Speed Study Field Sheet

D2

Figure A1: Field Sheet for the Spot Speed Study documents the frequency of vehicles moving at particular speeds as well

as conditions of the road being sampled [1].

D2

APPENDIX B

Spot Speed Study Frequency Distribution Curves

D2

Figure B2: Percent Frequency and Cumulative Percent Frequency graphs for the Spot Speed Study show the relative

frequency of vehicles moving at particular speeds.

D2

APPENDIX C

Sample Calculations

D2

x=

=

=

=38.33

c

3+2+1

6

S est =

=

=

=4 mph

2

2

2

2019

2019

1919

1719

1619

( x i x )2

S=

=

c1

1+1+0+ 4+ 9

15

=

=1.94

4

4

D2

APPENDIX D

Symbols

D2

Px

S est

xi

Mean speed value (mph)

D2

- Spot Speed lab reportEnviado porwanfaiz123
- Lab Report Spot Speed StudyEnviado porazrulamri1980yahoocom
- Lab Spot SpeedEnviado porhasan
- Spot Speed StudyEnviado porEngr. Ikhwan Z.
- Spot Speed StudyEnviado porGeniuskuga Kugas
- Traffic Volume StudyEnviado porTugau Gates
- Traffic Junction -Highway lab ReportEnviado porMuzhafar Akmal NorAzlan
- Discussion SignalisedEnviado porNinie Azrin
- space mean speedEnviado porAfrinaMokhtar
- Spot SpeedEnviado porVKone Kay
- CBR test uthmEnviado porMohd Zairul Shafiq Zakaria
- Spot Speed StudyEnviado porFaeez Zain
- CC503 – TRAFFIC ENGINEERING SPOT SPEED STUDYEnviado porKamarul Nizam
- Lab 2 Level 1 Space Mean SpeedEnviado porMohd Syafiq Akmal
- California Bearing Ratio Test (Cbr)Enviado porMind Rip
- highway Report IntersectionEnviado poridham115
- Spot SpeedEnviado porfildzah105
- Speed Spot Study Lab ReportEnviado porXamen
- Cbr Lab ReportEnviado poreidalin
- CBR TestEnviado porshree_iit
- Speed Spot StudiesEnviado porLuqman Yusof
- California Bearing TestEnviado porLuqman Yusof
- CBR TestEnviado porSyafiq Latif
- Portal FrameEnviado porMuhammad Hasrul Hasnan
- Spot Speed Report by Matt InnigerEnviado porinniger7
- Elongation and Flakiness TestEnviado porMind Rip
- Cbr ReportEnviado porMaitrayee Aditya
- U4 Spot Speed StudyEnviado porsyah123
- CBR testEnviado porFaeez Zain
- Spot Speed ManualEnviado porAdib Aje

- OSU CSE 2331 (Foundations II) SyllabusEnviado porZachary-Leo Steinkerchner
- Rick and Morty Munchkin RulesEnviado porZachary-Leo Steinkerchner
- Syllabus AU 2017Enviado porZachary-Leo Steinkerchner
- Unit 04 Component Client View MethodsEnviado porZachary-Leo Steinkerchner
- Realistic Fiction (Children's Literature)Enviado porZachary-Leo Steinkerchner
- Materials Memo (College Assignment)Enviado porZachary-Leo Steinkerchner
- The Horn of the RingsEnviado porZachary-Leo Steinkerchner

- b.ingrs JurdingEnviado porIndah Sahana
- Clegg StatisticsEnviado porBrian Kim
- Solutions - Sec 2 Challenging Maths Lesson 29Enviado porlaipinglum
- 0033-2909.83.6.1026Enviado porClaudia Gamboa
- 133Enviado porPraveen Krishna
- qualitative methods lesson planEnviado porapi-309763212
- A Comparative Study of Various Size DistributionEnviado porRicardo Costa
- jurnal nutrisi 2Enviado porDefranky Theodorus
- Stat Homework 2Enviado porfuturedivision
- Dossche.pdfEnviado porhari prakash
- PAPER [ENG] - Determinants of Tracheostomy Decannulation an International SurveyEnviado porAldo Nicholas Hip Naranjo
- Lecture 1Enviado porYenling Yong
- Mohanram on Winners in GrowthEnviado porRoshan Raman
- Engr 0020 Exam 1 EquationsEnviado porZoe
- Corporate Governance and Analyst Behavior: Evidence from an Emerging MarketEnviado porAbeerAlgebali
- Solutions - Sec 2 Challenging Maths Lesson 30Enviado porlaipinglum
- Section 3 - Basic Tabulation ElementsEnviado porNagajyothi Kodali
- Statistics ProjectEnviado poribrar kaif
- Oscar Lewis Culture of Poverty DebateEnviado porBoris Fry
- 6th - line plot qsEnviado porapi-358681464
- Use of structural equation modeling in operations management research: Looking back and forwardEnviado porDireshan Pillay
- 4mat mms math spreadsheetEnviado porapi-239847174
- Maths Made Easy by Ashish PandeyEnviado porAshish Pandey
- mine_size_philip_crowson.pdfEnviado porjoseivanvelas
- Descriptive Statistics 2015Enviado porRae Ray
- HSBC--How to Create a Surprise IndexEnviado porzpmella
- Measures of Ct-hEnviado porDeepak
- Understanding individual mobility patterns from urban sensing data A mobile phone trace example.pdfEnviado porCordos Nicolae
- S GemsEnviado porPatriciaVillaHerrera
- BSBA.docxEnviado porCasey Maureen Arreza Correos

## Muito mais do que documentos

Descubra tudo o que o Scribd tem a oferecer, incluindo livros e audiolivros de grandes editoras.

Cancele quando quiser.