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Dr.BarbaraMathisisProfessorofMusicatLamarUniversitywheresheteaches
studiovoice,languagedictions,structure&functionofthevoice,andgraduate
vocalmethods.ShereceivedBM,MM,andPhDdegreesfromtheUniversityof
NorthTexasandhastaughtatotheruniversitiesandpublicschoolsinTexas,
Alaska,andFlorida.Dr.MathisstudiedvoicewithVirginiaBotkinandAlan
Lindquest,coachedwithRegineCrespin,JohnWustman,HaroldHeiberg,and
BertonCoffin,andservedinaresearchinternshipwithVanL.Lawrence,M.D.
Sheisanactivesopranosoloist,choralandvocalclinicianandspeaker.Dr.
Mathishaspresentedresearchpapersandlecturesforuniversities,nationaland
internationalmedicalconventions,andprofessionalmusicorganizations.Her
specialtiesincludevocalcoaching,vocalpedagogy,andvocalhealthand
rehabilitation.Inhersparetime,Barbaraenjoysseasonaldecorating,reading,
swimming,andlongwalkswithhusbandGeorgeanddogDusty.

Oneofthemostimportantdecisionsasingermustmakeinvolvesnotonly
findingasuitablevocaltechnique,butchoosingappropriatevocalisesandexercises
whichwilldevelopandtrainthevoiceaswellashelpmaintainittoensurealong
andhealthyvocallife.Eventually,theindividualsingermusttakeresponsibilityfor
hisorherownvocaldevelopment,maintenance,andhealth.Intheeventthat
misuse,overuse,orsomeotherfactorshouldcausevocalfatigueoramoresevere
problem,beneficialtherapeuticexercisebecomespriceless.
Therapeuticexerciseforthebodyisnotanewconcept,historianshavetraced
itsusefromancienttimestothepresent,1andgeneraltheoriesandbasicprinciples
fortherapeuticexerciseshavedevelopedforitsuse.Vocalexercisealsostemsfrom
earliercenturiesasabeneficialactivityforgeneralbodyhygieneandgood
health,2andhasdevelopedasatrainingandtherapytechniqueforthe
speaking/singingvoice.Singingexerciseastherapyforthevoiceisalsonotanew
conceptbuthasnotbeenwidelyusedforvariousvoicedisorders;nevertheless,
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sourcesdoattesttothebenefitsofsinginginrelationshiptovocalandgeneralbody
health.Forvoiceprofessionalsto
understandfullytheprinciplesandbenefitsofgoodvocalexercise,itisnecessary
forthemtohaveknowledgeofgeneralexercisetheories,thestructureandfunction
ofthevocalfoldsandotherpartsofthelarynx,thedevelopmentandcharacterof
variousexerciseroutines,andresultsfromtheexercisesonthephysiologicaland
functionalpropertiesofthevoice.
Thegoalofgoodvocalexercisemightwellfollowthedefinitionofgeneral
therapeuticexercisethatLichtpresents:"therapeuticexerciseismotionofthebody
oritspartstorelievesymptomsortoimprovefunction."3Kottkedefinestherapeutic
exerciseastheprescriptionofbodilymovementinordertocorrectimpairment,
improvemusculoskeletalfunction,ormaintainastateofwellbeing,andfurther
statesthatitmayvaryfromhighlyselectedactivitiesforspecificmusclestogeneral
activitiesforrestoringapatient'speakphysicalcondition.4Specificexercisesare
activemovementswhosedesignseekstorestorefunctionbystrengtheningparticular
musclegroups,mobilizingcertainjoints,orreeducatingneuromuscularcoordination.
ColsonandCollison,expertsinprogressiveexercisetherapy,believethatthistype
ofexerciseisofgreatvalueinthetreatmentofinjuriesanddisordersofthe
locomotorsystemwherecertainmusculargroupsandjointsareaffectedandtherest
arecomparativelynormal.Theystatethatalltypesofspecificexercisesmust
conformtothreebasicprinciples:
1.Theymustbeperformedinasmoothandrhythmicalmanner,sothatthey
donotsubjectmusclesandjointstosuddenunexpectedstressesand
strains.
2.Theymustbebasedonsoundstartingpositions.
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3.Theymustprovidesmoothprogressionfromthestageofextreme
weaknesstothestageoffulluseagainstthestressesofnormalworking
conditions.
Inaddition,allexercisesthataimtostrengthenweakmusclesshould
provideaswidearangeofmovementaspossible.5

Writingaboutsportsmedicine,Allmanagreesthateffectiveexercise
whichbuildsstrengthandflexibilitymustincludeaswidearangeofmovement
aspossible,andfurtherstatesthat,"Preventionofinjuryismostlikelywhen
themuscleshavebeenstrengthenedineverypositionandoverfullrangeof
possiblemovement."6Rehabilitativeexercises,ontheotherhand,should
beginwithlittleornomovementandprogresstowiderrangesofmovement,
justasthedurationandintensityoftherehabilitativeexerciseswillbeadjusted
totherelativeconditionofthemusclesandjointsinquestion.Allmanfurther
statesthatinthebeginningphasesofarehabilitationprogram,itisimportant
toteacheffortrelaxationcyclessothatthemuscledoesnotremaininastate
ofconstanttension.7Hebelievesthatmanyexercisesineachofthetwo
exerciseclassificationsinsportsmedicine,conditioningorrehabilitative,may
bethesamethebiggestdifferencebeingintheintensityofthe
exercise.8Knuttgenofferstheseprinciplesfortherapeuticandconditioning
exercise:
Physicalfitnessisnotageneralquality;specificcapacitiessetlimitson
specifictypesofphysicalactivity.Inordertoimproveaparticularphysical
performance,thespecificcapacitiesmustbeidentifiedandstressedwith
appropriateexercise.Thegreaterthelevelofappropriatestress,thegreater
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theimprovementoftheleveloffitnessforaparticularphysicalperformance.9

Hesummarizesthebenefitofappropriateexercisebystatingthat"...asimple
exercisesessionofanyintensityelicitsphysiologicalresponsesfrompeopleno
matterwhattheirlevelofphysicaltraining..."10
Thebenefitsoftherapeuticandconditioningexercisehavebeenwell
establishedinfieldssuchasmedicineandsportsand,toacertainextent,inthe
voiceprofessions;however,sourcesinvocalfieldsseemtodisagreeaboutthe
benefitsofvarioustechniquesandtheextenttowhichexerciseisbeneficialtothe
voice.Forexample,NormanPunt,aphysician,believesthatnosingingtechnique
canstrengthenthevoice;11yet,forcenturiessingingtechniquesandexerciseshave
soughttobuildastrongeraswellasmorebeautifulvoice;12andPerkinspointsout
thatWagneriantenorsandsopranos,whoarerequiredtoproducetonesofextreme
loudnessathighpitches,logicallyshouldbecomehoarsewithinminutes.Hesays:
Mostofusdonotachievesuchvolumesorpitcheswhenweyellatfootball
games,andyoucanobserveforyourselfhowlongyoucansurvivevocally
whenperformingatthetopofyourvoice.Yetprofessionalvocalists,whether
singersoractors,notonlysurvivebutmayconcludelongperformances
vocallyasstrongaswhentheystarted.13

Perhaps,then,thevoicecanbeconditioned,strengthened,andrehabilitatedinmuch
thesamewayasotherpartsofthebodythroughtechniqueandexercise.
Adiscussionofvocalfoldstructureandmusclefunctionwithinthelarynxlends
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credencetotheabovecontention.Thevocalfoldshavealayeredstructureandare
intricatelycontrolledbythelaryngealmuscles,thusenablinghumanstoproducevast
differencesinpitch,intensity,andquality.Hiranoclassifiesthefivelayersofthe
vocalfold(theepithelium,thethreelayersofthelaminapropria,andthevocalis
muscle)intothreemechanicalsections:thecover,consistingoftheepithliumand
thesuperficiallayerofthelaminapropria;thetransition,consistingofthe
intermediateanddeeplayersofthelaminapropria;andthebodyorvocalismuscle.
Hecontendsthatthislayeredstructureofthevocalfoldsisofgreatsignificance,in
thateachlayerhasadifferentmechanicalproperty,theouterfourlayersare
controlledpassively,theinnermostlayerisregulatedactivelyandpassively,and
almostallpathologiesofthevocalfoldsoriginatefromaspecificlayer.
Hiranoexplainsthecontrolofthevocalfoldsbydescribingthefunctionofthe
fivemajorintrinsiclaryngealmusclesthecricothyroidmuscle,thevocalismuscle,
thelateralandposteriorcricoarytenoidmuscles,andtheinterarytenoidmuscle.
Whenthecricothyroidmusclecontracts,thevocalfoldsarebroughtintoa
paramedianposition,thelevelofthevocalfoldwithinthelarynxislowered,the
entirevocalfoldisstretched,elongated,andthinned,andalllayersarepassively
stiffened.Whenthevocalismuscleisactivatedandstiffened,thevocalfoldsare
adducted(closed),lowered,shortened,andthickened,andtheoutercoverand
transitionlayersarepassivelyslackened.Theactionofthelateralcricoarytenoid
muscleadductsandlowersthetipofthevocalprocessofthearytenoidcartilage
therebyadducting,lowering,elongating,andthinningthevocalfold,whereasthe
posteriorcricoarytenoidmuscleabducts(opens)andelevatesthetipofthevocal
processtherebyabductingandelevatingthevocalfold.Theinterarytenoidmuscle
adductsthevocalfoldmainlyatthecartilaginousportion,therebycontrollingthe
positionofthevocalfoldbutnotaffectingsignificantlyitsmechanicalproperty.The
combinedactivityofallthesemusclescontrolsthevocalfoldduring
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phonation.14Theintricateandcomplicatedcoordinationnecessaryforsucha
processimpliestheneedforconditioningandpractice(andperhapseven
strengthening)whenthedemandsoftheprofessionalvoiceuserareplacedonthe
mechanism.Whenphysiologicaland/orfunctionaldisordersoccur,
electromyographicinvestigationsshowchangesinthemuscularactions,15thus
indicatinganeedformuscleretrainingorcompensationwherepossible.
Thevoiceprofessionsmustthendecidewhichexercisesandtechniqueswill
bestfittheintricatemuscularactionsofthelarynx.Mostofthereviewedsourcesin
athletic,medical,andtherapeuticfieldsadvocatewarmupexercises,andsome,
suchasTucker,feelthatthelackofproperwarmupproceduresmaycontributeto
vocaldysfunctioninsingers.16Sataloffalsolistslackofwarmupandlackof
exerciseaswaystoabusethevoiceandguaranteeasingerashort
career.17Sundbergstatesthatwhenmanysingersdonotwarmup,theirvoiceswill
notfunctionasreadilyasotherwise,andthatpoorlywarmedupvoicesareless
durablethantheappropriatelywarmedupvoice.Warmupproceduresdiffergreatly
and,asSundbergcontends,thewarmupisapoorlyunderstoodprocess:
Whathappenstothevocalfoldsduringthewarmup?Thevocalfolds
containmuscletissuesasamajorcomponent.Asisthecasewithother
muscles,thevocalfoldsdependonefficientbloodcirculationinordertoretain
goodfunctionandviscosity.Itseemslikelythatgoodcirculationisstimulated
byanappropriatewarmupprocedure.Otherpeoplewhodependonperfect
musclefunction,likeballetdancersandathletes,tendtowarmuptheir
musclesinadvance.Thiswarmingupisrealizedbymovementsormassage.
Itisdifficulttogivemassagedirectlytoone'svocalfolds,butperhapsthe
sameeffectisreachedifwecanusethemforagentlephonationinstead.Let
ushopethatresearchwillsoonstarttopayattentiontothisimportantbutvery
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poorlyunderstoodissue!18

Inadditiontowarmupexercises,singersandotherprofessionalvoiceusers
oftenemploymorevigorousexercisestotrainandconditionthevoice.Oneexample
ofvigoroustrainingandexerciseforsingersisfoundintheItalianschoolofsinging,
andasurveyofthehistoryofItaliantechniquesandexercisesbythis
author19revealsthatsomevoiceteachersfromtheseventeenthtothetwentieth
centurieshaveemployedafewofthesamebasicexercises.Earlierteacherssuch
asMancini(1777),Nava(1870?),Lamperti,F.(1875or1877),Lamperti,G.B.
(1893),Garcia(1894),andMarchesi(about1905)providedexercisestoaidthe
studentinblendingthedifferentvocalregisters,acquiringflexibilityandagility,
masteringintensitylevels,andimprovingbreathcontrol,articulation,andresonance.
Inthetwentiethcentury,singingteacherssuchasWitherspoon(1925),Wilcox
(1945),Vennard(1973),Lindquest(1971,1983),andCoffin(1987)have
developedand/orborrowedsimilarexercisestoaccomplishthesamegoals.

Becausehedevelopedaspecificlessondesignandpracticeroutine
whichincludesasetofexercises,Lindquestwarrantsfurtherdiscussion.Bornin
1891,KarlAlbertLindquestwaseducatedinthepublicschoolsofChicago,studied
violinasachild,andsanginchurchchoirs.HisvoiceteacherswereBoroff,William
C.Hall,TheodoreHarrison,HerbertWitherspoon,Vilonat,SidneyDietsch,WilliamS.
Brady,JosephHislop,andIngebjartIsene.Sometimeduringhiscareeras"a
successfulconcerttenorwithmanyorchestraandchoralsocieties,"20Lindquest
becameassociatedwithVaudevilleasAllanRogers,andeventuallychangedhis
professionalnametoAllanRogersLindquest.In1917and1918,Lindquestmade
someofthefirstrecordingsforEdison,andthelengthaloneofhislistingInEdison
ReCreationsshowsinparttheesteemandrespectpaidhimbyhis
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contemporaries:
LINDQUEST,ALBERT,Tenor,RECREATIONS
Thistenor,bybirthandbytrainingthoroughlyAmerican,hasanenviable
recordofachievement.DiscoveredwhileastudentattheUniversityof
Chicago,bythewellknownBonci,heassiduouslydevotedhimselftostudyof
voiceandmusicwhichhaswellequippedhimforbothconcertandrecital.A
merereferencetohisengagementstellshowappealingmustbehissinging
andhowfinehismusicianship.Assoloisthehasappearedwiththe
Philadelphia,NewYorkandMinneapolisSymphonyOrchestras.Withthelast
mentionedhisperformancestotalonehundredandseventyfive.TheNew
YorkOratorioSocietyhasthreetimesengagedhimforsuchworksas"Elijah"
andmanyoftheimportantchoralsocietiesoutsideofthatcityhaverecognized
hisprominenceandfeaturedhimastheirsoloist.Throughhisownsong
recitals,thewholecountryhasbecomeenamoredofhislovelyvoice,which
appealsnotonlytothenaturalloverofmusic,butalsotothetrainedand
watchfulartist.21

Inadditiontohavingasuccessfulsingingcareer,Lindquesttaughtsingingand
enjoyedateachingcareerwhichspannednearlysixdecades.Inapaperhe
presentedatameetingoftheAmericanAcademyofTeachersofSinging,Lindquest
setforthhisopinionsofsingingandteaching:
Iamremindedtodayofastatementmadebyafamoussingerofthelast
generation.Irefertothefabulousbaritone,Battistini,whoattheageof74,on
hisdeathbed,said,"HowIwishIhadanotherlifeinwhichtofurtherstudy
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thegloriousartofsinging.Thereissomuchmoretolearn."Thatisexactly
howIfeelatthesameageasthatmastersinger.
Wearegoingtosaythatsingingbasicallyisagentleathleticexercise
combinedwithanemotionalstateanexaltedfeelingbecauseofoururgeto
express.
Inmyownexperienceinteaching,Ihavefoundthatfineresultscomefrom
workingforfunctionalfreedomoftheentiresinginginstrument.The
fundamentallawsregardingsingingwithfunctionalfreedomarebasedonthe
correctposture,freedominbreathing,freedominprimaryvibrationofthevocal
cords,freedomfromtensionintherootofthetongue,freedominarticulation,
allresultingintechnicalproficiencyandvocalfreedom.
ThefamousItalianmaster,Lamperti,madeamostinterestingobservation.He
said,"Don'tsinguntilyou'ddieifyoudidn't."Thedevelopmentofthisdesire
tosingforthesheerjoyofsingingistheprimalmotivatingfactorandshould
beencouragedbyteacherandstudentalike.Thecontrolofthevoiceconsists
inthereleaseofthevoice.Thedevelopmentofthevoiceasaninstrument
dependsuponourwillingnesstocalltoouraidthespiritualandemotional
stimuliofinspiration,joy,enthusiasm,andlove.Thismentalandspiritual
attitudeisthewellspringfromwhichallgoodsingingstems.22

Technically,LindquestcombinedtheprinciplesoftheItalianschoolwith
thosegainedfromthestudioofaSwedishthroatsurgeon,professionalsinger,and
voiceteacher,G.W.Bratt,23whosestudioproducedJosephHislop,IngebjartIsene,
KirstenFlagstad,andJussiBjoerling.Lindquestconductedhisvoicelessonswith
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theseobjectivesgoverningthedesignandresultantexercises:separationand
developmentofthevocalregisters,coordinationandblendingoftheregisters,vowel
clarityandmodification,the"perfect"vocalattack,andflexibility.Studentsreceived
instructioninbodyandfacialposture,breathingtechniques,relaxation,andexercises
tohelpaccomplishthesegoals.Lindquestwasquicktosaythatnooneshould
attempttolearnatechniqueorexercisewithoutproperinstructioninitsexecution;
however,abriefdescriptionanddiscussionoftheexercisesareincludedbelow:
A.Thewarmup"massage"
1.Yawnsigh
2.Siren
B.Separationandblendingoftheregisters
1.Cuperto
2.Alleluia
C.Coordinatingvocalises(forBandD)
1.Nngah
2.Nierritumichianiabella
3.Ying,yang,yoong
4.Ehooeh[eue]
D.Vowelclarityandmodification,attack,andflexibility
1.Eh[e]withalterations[e,]

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2.Ee[i]plusfourvowels[e,Y,o,u]
3.Steamengine
4.Allvowelswithalterations
E.Advancedexercises
1.Flexibility
2.GreatScale
3.Messadivoce

Thegentlewarmupexercisespreparethevoicemuchaswarmupprocedures
aidathletes:themusclesgetagentlestretching.The"cuperto"exercise,through
useofthetwooctaveskipandvowelswhichencourageregisterchanges,enables
thesingeralmostimmediately(withproperinstruction)tousepureheavyregister
("chest")andlightregister("falsetto"or"whistle").Thisexerciseevidentlywas
devisedbyWilcox24forusewithmalevoicesandadaptedbyLindquesttousewith
allvoices.25The"alleluia"vocaliseencouragesablendingoftheregisters,
especiallyforthetopnote.
Someoftheexercisesaccomplishmorethanonegoalatatimeandactas
coordinatingunits.The"Nng"vocalisesetsgroundworkforagoodvocalattackand
encourages"tonefocus."ExerciseC4separatestheregisters,thenblendsthe
registers,andautomaticallyaidsthesingerinfindingthepropervowelalternations
(vowelsarealteredtoaidresonanceandcontroltimbreintheupperrange),a
techniquerecommendedbyGarcia,26Coffin,27andothersingingteachers.
Flexibility,propervowelresonance,andvocalattackmaybepracticedbyusingthe
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finalvocaliseslistedunderletterD.ExerciseD1isdonequickly,eventuallyaiding
flexibilityandthefeelingofvowelalterations.ExerciseD2encouragesvowelclarity
andstrength.ExerciseD3allowspracticeforagentlebutnonbreathyvocalattack.
VarioussingersandteachingstudioshaveusedExerciseD4foritsvaluein
teachingflexibilityandvowelformation.Lindquestalsotaughtmoreadvanced
exercises(ExercisesE1,E2,E3),suchasthe"messadivoce"andthe"Great
Scale"fromtheItalianschool.Ingeneral,Lindquestseemstohavecombineda
physiologicalbasis(perhapsinpartgainedfromtheSwedishthroatsurgeon),
successfulmethodsfromtheItalianschool(Garcia,Lamperti,Marchesi,
Witherspoon),andconceptsofcolleaguessuchasWilcoxwithhisowninnovative
ideas,explanations,andexercises.Nodoubtsixtyyearsteachingexperience
providedampletimefortrialandadjustment.28
Othervocalexpertshaveusedthesameorsimilarexercisestodevelop,train,
orrehabilitatethevoice.Theyawnsighexerciseappearsofteninmanyofthe
reviewedsources.Itseemstoenhancerelaxationwhilegentlymassagingthe
mechanismandproducingabettervoicequality.Speechtherapists,suchas
Boone29andCase,30usetheyawnsighwiththeirpatients,andsingingteachers
advocateitsuseaswell.Vennard31recommendedtheexerciseasoneofhistwo
keyvocalises,bothofwhichhediscussedwithandmayhaveborrowedfrom
Lindquest,32oneofVennard'steacher/colleagues.Currentlysingingteachers,such
asTavener,33areadvocatingtheuseoftheyawnsigh,althoughitsexecutionmay
differfromteachertoteacher.
Coffin,alsoastudentandcolleagueofLindquest,describesforfemalevoices
asingingexercisesimilartoLindquest'syawnsighandcupertoexercises:
...sing"littleoo"inWhistleRegisteronadownwardglidetoan/AH/on
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thelowestnote,whichmaybeeithertwooctavesoratwelfthbelow.The
"littleoo"isfirstgainedbyapencilsharpenersizedopeningofthelipsand
withathoughtofnasality.Laterthesoundcanbegainedbyacertainopening
inthebackofthethroatasheardbychildrenontheplayground.34

Theexerciseproceedstoincludesinginghalfstepsupthescaleonthe[u]vowel
andthus,accordingtoCoffin,establishesvocalcordactionforfemaleheadvoice.
Coffingivesformalevoicesasimilarexercisewhichbeginsonthe"littleoo"in
falsettoregisterandestablishesmalemixedvoiceor"coveredvoice,"atermused
byLindquesttodescribehis"cuperto"exercise.35Coffinrecommendsexercises
similartootherLindquestexercises,suchasthe"siren,"the"Nngah,"andvowel
andflexibilityvocalisesfromtheItalianschool.36
ProctoralsoadvocatesuseofexercisessimilartothosefromtheItalian
school.Exampleshegivesareanexercisetoaidsingersinbreathcontrol(a
prolongedcrescendoanddiminuendoonatonesustainedaslongaspossible),a
flexibilityscale,andscaleswhichworkoverthe"break"orregisterchangeinthe
voice.37Proctorrecommendsthatsingerspracticevowelexercisestoachieve
optimalvocalresonance,aprocesswhichconsistsoftheappropriateshapingofthe
supraglotticairway.Hestatesthatduringtheseexercisessomeemphasismaybe
placedonloweringtheentiremandibleandkeepingthelarynxlowinthe
neck.38Proctordoesnotseemtoagreewithsomeofthepreviouslymentioned
exerciseswhichgivepracticeinextendingtherangeandsingingnotesintheupper
range.Asheexplains:
Istressherethatthesescaleswhichwehavebeendiscussingneed
not,andindeedshouldnot,extendtothehighestnotesofthevoice....One
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ofthefirstquestionsIaskapatientwhoisintroublewiththevoiceiswhether
ornothepracticeshishightones.Ifhedoessoexcessivelythisisverylikely
thesourceoftrouble.39

McKinneyalsoadvocatesmoreconservativeexerciseswhichbeginin
midrangeandworkdownwardbyhalfsteps,orarpeggiatedexerciseswhichstart
fairlylowintherangeandextendupward,butfirstlimitedtoanintervalofafifth
andeventuallyextendingtoatwelfth.Herecommendsthateachwarmuproutine
includegeneralbendingandstretchingbodyexercisesandexercisesdesignedto
releasetensionintheshoulders,neck,andthroat.McKinneystatesthatalthough
singingdoesnotrequiregreatmusclestrength,itdoesrequiremusclecoordination,
andthatthemusclesneededforsingingmaybetrainedeffectivelythrougha
plannedexerciseprogram.40Further,Sataloffbelievesthatvocalpracticeisessential
tothesinger,justasphysicalexerciseistotheathlete,andthat"propervocal
practiceincorporatesscalesandspecificexercisesdesignedtomaintainanddevelop
thevocalapparatus."41
Allsingers(oranyotherprofessionalvoiceusers)shouldchoosetechniques
andanexerciseprogramwhichbestsuittheirownvoicesandchangingvocal
conditions.Theymaylimittheirchoiceoftechniquestothosetheyhavefound
successful,ortheymaywishtotryexercisesandvocalisesfromdifferentvoice
professionsanddifferentschoolsofthought.Inhisstudyofsingingtechniquesfrom
English,French,German,andItalianschools,Millerconcludesthatsomesystems
forproducingvocalsoundaremoreefficientfromthestandpointofphysicalfunction
thanareothers.Singers,aswellasthosefromothervocalprofessions,mightwish
toheedhisadvicetoyoungsingers:

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Theyoungsinger,European,NorthorSouthAmerican,orAsiatic,
shouldlookforatechniquewhichwillequiphimorhertosingexpressively
withoutviolatingphysicalfunction;suchatechniqueshouldavoidthe
overspecializedvocalproductionwhichoftenresultsfromtheaesthetic
demandsofregionalschoolsofsinging.Awisesingerwilllookforthat
internationalizationoftechniquewhichcloselycorrespondstothebest
elementsofthehistoricaltraditionoftheItalianSchool.42

IftheessentialsoftheItaliansystemarethepreferredtechnique,asingerwill
choose,accordingtoKlein,specificideasandexercisestomasterbreathing,
resonance,vowelformationandattack,thesostenuto,thelegato,theportamento,
the"messadivoce,"andagility.43
Thesesametechniquesandexercisescanbebeneficialnotonlytohealthy
singersbuttoothervoicesaswell,includingthosewithdisorders.Luchsingerand
Arnoldclaimthatsingingproducesincreasedventilationofthebloodinthelungs,
helpsbuildresistancetorespiratorydisease,andbenefitsthelarynxbyhelpingits
muscles,ligaments,andjointsretaintheirelasticityandstrengthforalonger
time.44Sataloffreportsthatsinginglessonsgreatlyhelpnonsingerswithvoice
problems,oftenexpeditetherapy,andappeartoimprovetheresultinsome
patients.45Inwritingaboutvoicetherapyforbenignlesionsofthevocalcords,
Brodnitzsaysthatvocalexerciseshavetobeplannedwithanunderstandingofthe
basicfactsofvoiceproduction,andthatanyimprovementofresonatorandactivator
controlwillimprovevocalcordfunction.46Speechtherapistsreportsuccesswith
singingexercisesfortheirpatientsandprovidesamplesofvarioustypesof
vocalises.47
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ExcercisefortheVoice

Generally,therapistsrecommendsingingexercisestoimprovelaryngeal
strengthratherthantorelievehyperfunctionormuscletensiondysphoniaandany
resultantpathologysuchaspolypsornodules.Sometimestherecommendationfor
thesevoicedisordersispartialvoicerestorreductionofvocaluseinconjunction
withothertherapytechniques.However,astudyusingLindquest=stechniqueand
exercisesproducedpositivetherapeuticresultsforsingerswithpathologysuchas
hyperfunction,nodules,paralyzedvocalfold,andiatrogeniccomplications.Evidently,
theexercisesdidnotputunduestrainonthealreadyhyperfunctionaland/or
physiologicallyabnormalvoice,butthebenefitsofexerciseforahealthylarynxheld
trueforthepathologicalvoice.TherapyusingtheLindquestexerciseroutinehas
continuedforoverfifteenyears,producingsimilarresults.Thus,appropriately
designedandexecutedexerciseshavethepotentialtotrainanddevelopthevoice
andtohelpmaintainandrestorevocalhealth.
DearSingers,
Choosecarefullyandchoosewell.Yourvocaltechniqueandcertainlytheexercises
youpracticeeachdayshouldgiveyouabeautifulsoundandhelpyoukeepa
healthyvoiceforalifetime.

Respectfullysubmitted,
BarbaraMathis,Ph.D.

1SidneyLicht,History,TherapeuticExercises,ed.JohnV.Basmajian,(Baltimore,
1978),p.1.

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